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1.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 18(5): 444-458, sept. 2019. ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1008263

RESUMO

This review work focuses on how the secondary chemistry could help in the survival of plants in high mountain habitats under extreme environmental conditions. The elevated levels of stress in high areas of the tropic and subtropic change dramatically not only by following the annual cycles of winter and summer but they also change in a single day. Some species, however, are able to successfully grow at heights more than 3000 m in the tropical mountains due, in part, to highly specialized physiological processes that affect their physical and chemical responses. In this study, it describes some strategies of how the secondary metabolites could help the plants to stand the high levels of stress in the high mountain ecosystems.


Este trabajo de revisión se centra en cómo la química secundaria podría ayudar en la supervivencia de plantas en hábitats de alta montaña en condiciones ambientales extremas. Los altos niveles de estrés en las zonas altas del trópico y subtrópico cambian dramáticamente no solo al seguir los ciclos anuales de invierno y verano, sino que también cambian en un solo día. Sin embargo, algunas especies pueden crecer con éxito a alturas superiores a 3000 m en las montañas tropicales debido, en parte, a procesos fisiológicos altamente especializados que afectan sus respuestas físicas y químicas. En esta revisión, se describen algunas estrategias de cómo los metabolitos secundarios podrían ayudan a las plantas a soportar los altos niveles de estrés en los ecosistemas de alta montaña.


Assuntos
Plantas/química , Estresse Fisiológico , Óleos Voláteis/química , Altitude , Floroglucinol/análise , Floroglucinol/química , Terpenos/análise , Terpenos/química , Flavonoides/análise , Flavonoides/química
2.
Plant Foods Hum Nutr ; 74(3): 399-404, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31273641

RESUMO

A simple and efficient ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE) technique was developed in order to find optimal conditions for the extraction of total phenolic compounds, flavonoids and anthocyanins in wild raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) fruits. Several extraction variables, including methanol composition (v/v, %), solid-solvent ratio (g/mL), time (min) and extraction temperature (°C) were optimized using response surface methodology (RSM). Under optimal conditions for extraction, the total phenolics were found in the concentration of 383 mg GAE/100 g of fresh fruit weight, while HPLC-PDA analysis of the optimized extract showed the presence of cyanidin-3-glucoside, cyanidin-3-sophoroside, catechin, gallic and ellagic acid. The experimental values of DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activities were 29.0 and 39.5 µmol Trolox/g of fresh fruit weight, respectively. In vitro simulated gastrointestinal digestion showed great raspberry phenolics stability. Our study assessed the bioaccessible phenolics in wild raspberry fruits and showed optimal conditions for the effective extraction of bioactive compounds for their analysis.


Assuntos
Flavonoides/análise , Frutas/química , Fenóis/isolamento & purificação , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação , Rubus/química , Antocianinas/análise , Antocianinas/isolamento & purificação , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Flavonoides/isolamento & purificação , Fenóis/análise , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Sonicação
3.
Chem Biodivers ; 16(8): e1900218, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31282123

RESUMO

Croatian wines made from native (Plavac mali and Teran) and non-native grape varieties (Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot), all grown in Croatian coastal regions, were investigated. Analyses included measurements of antioxidant activities, total phenolic contents and concentrations of non-colored phenolic compounds, chosen based on their known nutraceutical properties. Plavac mali wines were distinguished by higher antioxidant activity, total phenolic content and catechin concentrations but lower flavonol concentrations. Teran wines had higher hydroxytyrosol, myricetin and resveratrol concentrations. Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon wines had higher flavonol concentrations (except myricetin). Canonical analysis was successful in discriminating Plavac mali from Teran wines, and both varieties were separated from non-native varieties. The results indicate distinct genetic potentials of studied varieties and enable wine authentication based on the investigated bioactive compounds.


Assuntos
Fenóis/análise , Vitis/química , Vinho/análise , Antioxidantes/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Croácia , Análise Discriminante , Flavonoides/análise , Resveratrol/análise , Vitis/metabolismo
4.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 44(10): 2051-2058, 2019 May.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31355560

RESUMO

To establish ultra performance liquid chromatography( UPLC) fingerprint of Puerariae Lobatae Radix from different habitats and simultaneously determine the contents of six isoflavonoids. The UPLC fingerprint analysis and content determination were performed on a Waters ACQUITY UPLC BEH C_(18)( 2. 1 mm×50 mm,1. 7 µm) chromatographic column,with acetonitrile-0. 05% formic acid as mobile phase for gradient elution. The detection wavelength was set at 250 nm; the flow rate was 0. 2 mL·min~(-1); the column temperature was 30 ℃ and the injection volume was 2 µL. Similarity evaluation system for chromatographic fingerprint of traditional Chinese medicine( TCM) was adopted; principal component analysis( PCA) and discriminant analysis by partial least square method( PLS-DA) in Simca-P software were used to identify the differential components in samples from three habitats. The similarity was over 0. 90 in 29 batches of samples,indicating good consistency of the samples. The samples were clustered into 3 categories by PCA and PLS-DA,and six differential components such as puerarin apioside,daidzin,and isoflavoues aglycone were found. The determination results of 6 isoflavones,including 3'-hydroxy puerarin,puerarin,3'-methoxy puerarin,puerarin apioside,daidzin,and isoflavoues aglycone,showed that the content of the same component and the fluctuation range between different components were all different among different habitats. The total content of 6 isoflavones from different regions was Anhui 11. 21% >Henan 10. 97% >Shannxi 9. 38%. The establishment of UPLC fingerprint combined with simultaneous determination of 6 active components provides a more comprehensive reference for quality control and quality evaluation of Puerariae Lobatae Radix.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Ecossistema , Flavonoides/análise , Pueraria/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Raízes de Plantas/química
5.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 44(9): 1767-1773, 2019 May.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31342700

RESUMO

Sea buckthorn berries and leaves are two medicinal parts derived from the same primitive plant,mostly used as ethnic medicine,which have a long history in Mongolian and Tibetan. This paper reviews the studies on the chemical composition and differences between sea buckthorn berries and leaves. They have the same or similar composition and content of flavonoids,triterpenes,steroids,organic acids and volatile oils,also have some differences. The main differences are as follows: the flavonoids content in the sea buckthorn leaves is greater than that of the sea buckthorn berries,but the species of flavonoids in the berries are higher than leaves. The species and content of steroids and organic acids in the berries are higher than that of the leaves. The berries contain abundant volatile oil,and the leaves contain many phenolic compounds. Finally,the main problems and the prospect of the next research are put forward.


Assuntos
Frutas/química , Hippophae/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Flavonoides/análise , Óleos Voláteis/análise , Fenóis/análise , Plantas Medicinais/química
6.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 44(9): 1774-1780, 2019 May.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31342701

RESUMO

To compare the polysaccharides( LBLP),total flavonoids( LBLTF) and total phenols( LBLTP) of Lycium barbarum leaves from 14 production areas from Ningxia,Qinghai and Gansu at different harvesting time. Our results showed that there were significant difference of LBLP,LBLTF and LBLTP among different production areas. The LBLP collected from Xiangride township production area,Dulan,Qinghai was as high as 15. 02%. The LBLTF collected from Dagele township production area,Geermu,Qinghai was as high as28. 63%. The LBLTP collected from Keluke township production area,Delingha,Qinghai was as high as 16. 7%. There were also significant difference of these 3 components between different harvest periods. The average LBLP in May( 10. 20%) was significantly higher than that in June( 8. 49%). However,the average LBLTF( 17. 71%) and LBLTP( 12. 77%) in June was significantly higher than that in May( 14. 15%,11. 19%). The LBLTF and LBLTP have a positive correlation with the altitude of production areas,but there was no significant association between LBLP and altitude. The LBLP,LBLTF and LBLTP in different production areas and harvesting time was significant difference,the results provide some references for furthermore development and utilization of L. barbarum leaves.


Assuntos
Flavonoides/análise , Lycium/química , Fenóis/análise , Polissacarídeos/análise , Análise de Variância , China , Geografia , Folhas de Planta/química , Estações do Ano
7.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 44(9): 1857-1861, 2019 May.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31342713

RESUMO

The change of icariin( ICA) content in thirty-three samples of five Epimedium species listed in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia( 2015 edition),including E. brevicornu,E. sagittatum,E. pubescens,E. koreanum,and E. wushanense has been investigated in this study. The results indicated that the optimized process procedure was baking at 150 ℃ for 30 min,and 3'''-carbonyl-2″-ß-L-quinovosyl icariin( CQICA) could not be translated into ICA and ICA could be converted under this heating process condition. ICA increased remarkably after the heating process by 1-3 times in E. brevicornu,E. wushanense and E. koreanum,and increased lightly in E. brevicornum and E. pubescens,while ICA slightly increased or decreased in E. sagittatum and E. wushanense.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Epimedium/química , Flavonoides/análise , Temperatura Alta , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Manejo de Espécimes
8.
J Photochem Photobiol B ; 197: 111550, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31330424

RESUMO

The plant species of the genus Epimedium L. are well-known traditional Chinese medicinal herbs with special therapeutic effects on human beings and animals in invigorating sexuality and strengthening muscles and bones. In large-scale cultivating Epimedium that is a typical shade plant species, they are arbitrarily covered with black colored shade nets. However, their optimal growth conditions, especially light, are still less understood. During the investigation of different light qualities on the growth of Epimedium pseudowushanense, it was found that, all the values of plant growth characteristics (except shoot number) and photosynthetic characteristics were lower under red, yellow, or blue light treatment than under white light treatment. However, yellow light treatment had beneficial effects on shoot number, dry biomass (per plant) as well as net photosynthesis rate (Pn) and maximal apparent quantum efficiency (AQY) in E. pseudowushanense when compared with red or blue light treatment. More importantly, we found that E. pseudowushanense accumulated higher levels of bioactive flavonoids under yellow light treatment than under white, red, or blue light treatment. Furthermore, both RNAseq and qPCR analyses revealed that yellow light could highly up-regulate the expression levels of flavonoid biosynthetic genes, in particular CHS1, F3H1, PT_5, and raGT_5 that possibly contributed to the enhanced accumulation of bioactive flavonoids in E. pseudowushanense. Taken together, our study revealed that yellow light is the optimal light for the growth of E. pseudowushanense. Our results provided key information on how to improve the cultivation condition and concurrently enhance the accumulation of bioactive flavonoids in E. pseudowushanense.


Assuntos
Epimedium/metabolismo , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Luz , Biomassa , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Epimedium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Epimedium/efeitos da radiação , Flavonoides/análise , Fotossíntese/efeitos da radiação , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/efeitos da radiação , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Brotos de Planta/metabolismo , Brotos de Planta/efeitos da radiação , RNA de Plantas/genética , RNA de Plantas/metabolismo , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Transcriptoma/efeitos da radiação
9.
Plant Foods Hum Nutr ; 74(3): 421-429, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31280417

RESUMO

Açai (Euterpe oleracea) is a palm plant that is native to South America and produces deep purple berry fruits. Despite açai's popularity as a dietary supplement, little is known about the phenolic composition and antioxidant properties of commercially available açai berry products. Therefore, twenty açai supplements in a variety of forms (e.g., capsule, powder, frozen pulp, and liquid) were analyzed for their total phenolic and anthocyanin contents, individual anthocyanin and other flavonoid concentrations, and antioxidant capacities. Hierarchical cluster analysis was then used to group açai supplements into categories based on similarities in their chemical profiles and antioxidant properties. Results showed that over half of the supplements contained little or no açai fruit or had sufficient amounts of water to substantially lower the concentration of açai chemical components. Additionally, two açai supplements contained unlisted ingredients that greatly altered the products' chemical properties. Chromatographic analysis of individual anthocyanins and other flavonoids was useful in identifying the presence of açai fruit within the dietary supplements while complimentary in vitro spectroscopic assays aided in detection of adulterants. This study highlights the complexity of the dietary supplement market while also showing the importance of collectively analyzing data from multiple complimentary techniques when evaluating açai berry products.


Assuntos
Antocianinas/análise , Antioxidantes/análise , Suplementos Nutricionais , Euterpe/química , Flavonoides/análise , Fenóis/análise , Frutas/química
10.
Se Pu ; 37(7): 742-749, 2019 Jul 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31271014

RESUMO

A two-dimensional separation and analysis method, based on liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-ion mobility spectrometry (LC-ESI-IMS), is developed for the determination of seven indicative ingredients (danshensu, glycyrrhizic acid, gastrodin, chlorogenic acid, puerarin, baicalin, and rutin) in oral liquids of Chinese medicine. The sample was first separated on an ACQUITY UPLC BEH C18 column (50 mm×1 mm, 1.7 µm). The post-column effluent was directed to an adjustable flow splitter with a split ratio of 50:1. The low-flow and high-flow outlets were connected to an ion mobility spectrometer and a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer, respectively. The experimental conditions for LC, spray voltage, drift tube temperature, gas pre-heating temperature, and drift gas velocity were systematically optimized. The limits of detection (LODs) and quantitation (LOQs) for the seven analytes were 2-10 µg/mL and 5-25 µg/mL, respectively. The proposed method was applied for the analysis of real oral liquids of Chinese medicine samples. By coupling LC and IMS, two-dimensional separation could be achieved based on hydrophobicity difference and ionic mobility disparity, thus providing more comprehensive measurement information than LC or IMS used alone.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/análise , Espectrometria de Mobilidade Iônica , Álcoois Benzílicos/análise , Ácido Clorogênico/análise , Cromatografia Líquida , Flavonoides/análise , Glucosídeos/análise , Ácido Glicirrízico/análise , Isoflavonas/análise , Lactatos/análise , Limite de Detecção , Espectrometria de Massas , Rutina/análise , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray
11.
Food Chem ; 298: 125098, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31276942

RESUMO

This work aimed to optimize an aqueous extract rich in phenolic compounds and potential functional properties made of Ilex paraguariensis, Melissa officinalis, and Cymbopogon citratus. The lyophilized extract was used for the development of an ice cream. Total phenolics, FRAP, DPPH, Folin-Ciocalteu's reducing capacity, and total reducing capacity of different combinations of herbal extracts were tested and modeled using response surface methodology. Simultaneous optimisation was employed to maximize the bioactive compounds in the extract and the lyophilized optimum combination was added to ice cream. The lyophilized extract contained quercetin-3-rutinoside, hesperidin, isoquercetin, caffeic acid, and 5,7-dihydroxyflavone. The optimised extract, which showed antihypertensive, antidiabetic, and antioxidant activity using in vitro protocols, increased total phenolics and antioxidant activity in comparison to the control ice cream. The ice cream presented a sensory acceptance index of 83%. After 72 days of storage (-18 °C), total phenolics and antioxidant activity significantly decreased.


Assuntos
Indústria de Processamento de Alimentos/métodos , Sorvetes , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Anti-Hipertensivos/química , Anti-Hipertensivos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular , Cymbopogon/química , Feminino , Flavonoides/análise , Flavonoides/química , Armazenamento de Alimentos , Humanos , Sorvetes/análise , Ilex paraguariensis/química , Masculino , Melissa/química , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Oligossacarídeos/química , Fenóis/química , Paladar
12.
Food Chem ; 299: 125108, 2019 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31310914

RESUMO

Macroporous resins have been employed in the effective recovery of flavonoids from plants. In this study, S8 polar resins were used to recover flavonoids and procyanidins from lotus seedpods. Adsorption kinetics, isotherms, and thermodynamics studies revealed that the adsorption process involved physico-chemical interactions, including flavonoid-resin and flavonoid-flavonoid electrostatic interactions, π-π aromatic stacking, moderate and strong hydrogen bonding, and repulsive forces. These forces worked complementarily in adsorption, except for the repulsive force, which opposed the adsorption. Further, adsorption temperature determined the adsorption behavior, with multilayer adsorption enhancing adsorption capacity. In dynamic desorption tests, an acetone/water/acetic acid mixture (58.77: 39.34: 1.89) designed by the D-optimal design method was able to desorb 95.57% and 89.85% of total flavonoids and procyanidins, respectively, using less than two bed volumes of solvent. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography triple-time of flight/mass spectrometry (UPLC-TOF/MS) analysis showed that 26 flavonoids, including 5 procyanidins, were detected after the recovery.


Assuntos
Flavonoides/isolamento & purificação , Nelumbo/química , Resinas Sintéticas/química , Sementes/química , Adsorção , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Flavonoides/análise , Flavonoides/química , Ligações de Hidrogênio , Espectrometria de Massas , Proantocianidinas/análise , Proantocianidinas/química , Proantocianidinas/isolamento & purificação , Eletricidade Estática
13.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 44(12): 2467-2471, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31359712

RESUMO

Three different origins of Anoectochilus roburghii were used as experimental materials to study the effect of three different substrate( peat soil-river sand-peanut shell) radio on survival rate,plant height,stem diameter,plant fresh weight,root number,the longest root length,root diameter,and the contents of polysaccharide,flavonoids,and polyphenol. The results showed that when the substrate ratio was 4 ∶2 ∶2,the survival rate of A. roburghii from different origins was the highest,and the plant height,stem diameter,plant fresh weight,the longest root length and root diameter were also the largest. The cultivation substrate had no significant effect on the polysaccharide content of A. roxburghii and A. formosanus. When the substrate ratio was 4 ∶ 2 ∶ 2,the polysaccharide content of A.chapaensis was significantly lower than that of the other two combinations. When the substrate ratio was 4 ∶2 ∶1,the flavonoid content of A. formosanus was higher than that of the other two combinations. When the substrate ratio was 4 ∶2 ∶2,A. formosanus and A. chapaensis had higher polyphenol content.


Assuntos
Flavonoides/análise , Orchidaceae/química , Orchidaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Polifenóis/análise , Polissacarídeos/análise
14.
Plant Foods Hum Nutr ; 74(3): 350-357, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31209702

RESUMO

Thirteen fruits, eight legumes and three tubers consumed in the Andean regions of Ecuador were studied to determine their bioactive compounds, organic acids, sugars content, total antioxidant capacity, as well as to determine which among them showed the greatest contribution in terms of antioxidant activity and which compounds contributed to it. Among fruits, taxo fruits (Passiflora mollissima (Kunth) L.H. Bailey) presented the highest values of total phenolic, carotene content, and total antioxidant capacity. The ají ratón (Capsicum chinense Jacq) showed the highest content of vitamin C. Taxo showed the highest content of ß carotene, whilst lycopene was identified only in guayaba fruits (Psidium guajava L.) and ají ratón was the principal source of lutein. In legumes, chocho perla (Lupinus mutabilis Sweet) showed the highest values for both total phenolic and flavonoid content, whilst frejol negro (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and frejol canario (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp) showed the highest values for FRAP and DPPH assay, respectively. Between tubers, the jícama (Smallanthus sonchifolius (Poepp.) H. Rob.) had the majors values in terms of total phenolic, flavonoid content, and total antioxidant capacity. In terms of total antioxidant capacity, taxo fruits have the highest contribution in terms of total antioxidant capacity, whilst the dendogram shown the occurrence of five distinct groups in which taxo was located in the first largest group. Our data contributing towards gaining better knowledge about the Andean Ecuadorian diet and the composition of Andean food in order to estimate dietary intakes of health-promoting components.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/análise , Asteraceae/química , Capsicum/química , Fabaceae/química , Promoção da Saúde , Passiflora/química , Ácido Ascórbico/análise , Carotenoides/análise , Equador , Flavonoides/análise , Frutas/química , Fenóis/análise , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Tubérculos/química , beta Caroteno/análise
15.
Plant Foods Hum Nutr ; 74(3): 358-363, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31209703

RESUMO

The aim of the present study was to identify volatile organic compounds (VOCs) by SPME-GC and quantify the bioactive compounds (ascorbic acid, total flavonoids and total phenolic content), antioxidant capacity (DPPH and ORAC) and physicochemical characteristics of ocorocillo, cambucá, murici da praia and murici do campo, four native South American fruits. A total of 41 volatile compounds were identified in ocorocillo, of which 17 were terpenes. Cambuca's volatile profile contained aldehydes, aromatic hydrocarbons and alcohols. Murici da praia and murici do campo contained high levels of fatty acid volatiles and esters, that contribute to their remarkable aroma. Ocorocillo contained high levels of ascorbic acid and total flavonoids, while cambucá presented lower ascorbic acid, flavonoid and phenolic levels. Murici da praia and murici do campo contained high amounts of phenolic compounds and high free-radical scavenging capacity (DPPH and ORAC). In addition, this fruit was sweeter and less acid compared to the other assessed fruits. The results suggest that these native fruits constitute a good source of volatile compounds and bioactive compounds, which may aid in their preservation interest and potential use in the food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/análise , Eugenia/química , Frutas/química , Malpighiaceae/química , Myrtaceae/química , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Álcoois/química , Fenômenos Químicos , Cromatografia Gasosa , Flavonoides/análise , Depuradores de Radicais Livres/análise , Fenóis/análise , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Microextração em Fase Sólida , Terpenos/análise
16.
Food Chem ; 295: 289-299, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31174761

RESUMO

A method combining solid-liquid extraction based on ethanolic aqueous solution, cLC-DAD and chemometrics, was performed to extract and quantify polyphenols from citrus peels. LC-MS/MS was also employed for chemical profiling. The effect of extraction variables on the recovery was examined by experimental factorial design. Data were evaluated using multifactorial-ANOVA, response surface analysis and Principal Component Analysis. trans-Ferulic and p-coumaric antioxidants were found in lower quantities (<1.4 mg·g-1) in all peel extracts. Narangin flavonoid was also identified in all samples, while rutin flavonol was determined in the concentration range of 3.3-4.7 mg·g-1. The most abundant polyphenol in the extracts obtained from all evaluated citrus samples was the flavanone hesperidin (280-673 mg·g-1). Furthermore, peel extracts were evaluated in terms of total polyphenol and flavonoid content, total antioxidant activity and DPPH free radical scavenging. The obtained results suggested that evaluated citrus peel by-products could be reused as a source of polyphenols and transformed into value-added products.


Assuntos
Citrus/química , Polifenóis/análise , Polifenóis/isolamento & purificação , Resíduos/análise , Análise de Variância , Antioxidantes/análise , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Cromatografia Líquida , Flavonoides/análise , Flavonoides/isolamento & purificação , Hesperidina/análise , Hesperidina/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Extratos Vegetais/química , Análise de Componente Principal , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
17.
Food Chem ; 295: 341-349, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31174767

RESUMO

The inclusion of edible wild plants in human diet has been receiving an increasing attention, as they represent an easily accessible source of nutrients, vitamins and antioxidants. In this work, the leaves of Umbelicus rupestris (Salisb.) Dandy, an edible species for which only scarce data is available in literature, were thoroughly evaluated for its nutritional profile, chemical characterization and bioactive properties. Being considered a succulent plant, the leaves revealed a very high content of moisture, with several beneficial compounds, including omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, tocopherols and different polyphenols. A total of twelve flavonoids, three phenolic acids and one phenylpropanoid glucoside were identified in the decoction and/or hydroethanolic extracts, with most of them being described for the first time in this plant. Both extracts showed antioxidant activity and potential to inhibit some of the assayed bacteria, while not presenting cytotoxic effects on a non-tumour primary cell culture.


Assuntos
Magnoliopsida/química , Valor Nutritivo , Plantas Comestíveis/química , Antioxidantes/análise , Flavonoides/análise , Hidroxibenzoatos/análise , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Extratos Vegetais/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Polifenóis/análise , Portugal , Tocoferóis/análise
18.
Plant Foods Hum Nutr ; 74(3): 383-390, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31228035

RESUMO

Orange juice is an important source of flavanones in the Western diet. However, little is known of the variation in flavanone content of shop-bought orange juice with pulp (OJP) or without pulp (OJ), nor the impact of pulp on the fate of flavanones in the gut. Total phenols, total flavonoids, antioxidant capacity, hesperidin and narirutin, and dietary fibre were measured in six orange juice brands sold as OJP and OJ. The inclusion of pulp had little impact on fibre content. Apart from total phenols (OJ: 208.4 ± 10.7 µg gallic acid equivalents (GAE) ml-1; OJP: 225.9 ± 16.7 µg GAE ml-1, P < 0.05), there were no differences between OJ and OJP. The fate of flavanones in OJ and OJP (Tropicana) were further compared using in vitro gastrointestinal (GI) models. After in vitro upper GI digestion, recovery of hesperidin was higher in OJ compared with OJP (89 ± 6 vs. 68 ± 3%, P = 0.033). After 2 h colonic fermentation, hesperidin was 1.2 fold higher in OJP than OJ. However, after 24 h colonic fermentation there was no significant difference between juices in terms of hesperidin, hesperetin, narirutin, naringenin and catabolites. In conclusion, the amount of pulp included in these shop-bought orange juices had little impact on flavanone metabolism in models of the GI tract. The effects of greater amounts of orange pulp remain to be determined.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/análise , Citrus sinensis/química , Flavanonas/análise , Flavonoides/análise , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais/análise , Fenóis/análise , Bactérias/metabolismo , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Digestão , Dissacarídeos/análise , Fermentação , Flavanonas/metabolismo , Trato Gastrointestinal/metabolismo , Trato Gastrointestinal/microbiologia , Hesperidina/análise , Humanos
19.
J Chromatogr Sci ; 57(6): 565-574, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31209500

RESUMO

Eucalyptus barks contain complex biomass of constituents with considerable chemical and structural diversity. Reports about Eucalyptus sideroxylon Cunn. ex Woolls bark composition and biological activities are limited. Non-targeted metabolomic analysis via ultra-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time-of-flight-photodiode array-mass spectrometry (UPLC-qTOF-PDA-MS) enabled first-time detection of 41 secondary metabolites of which 31 were identified including; 6 flavonoids, 4 ellagic acid derivatives, 8 triterpenes, 10 fatty acids and 3 miscellaneous. The isolation and structure elucidation of methyl morolate, ß-sitosterol, syringaldeyhde and 7'-deoxyguajavadial A were reported. The bark methylene chloride: methanol (8:2) extract demonstrated significant (P < 0.01) in vitro anti-inflammatory activity through membrane stabilization, protein denaturation inhibition, anti-lipoxygenase, and proteinase inhibition assays. The strongest anti-inflammatory activity was via membrane stabilization (34.4%) as compared to diclofenac sodium (26%) at the same concentration (125 µg/mL). Our study represents the sole complete map for E. sideroxylon bark components and represents it as new anti-inflammatory drug.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/análise , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Eucalyptus/química , Floroglucinol/análise , Extratos Vegetais/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Membrana Eritrocítica/efeitos dos fármacos , Flavonoides/análise , Humanos , Floroglucinol/química , Floroglucinol/farmacologia , Casca de Planta/química , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray/métodos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Triterpenos/análise
20.
Food Chem ; 297: 124896, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31253254

RESUMO

We report here the results of the study of the chemical composition of Cyperus esculentus rhizomes. Ethanolic extracts have been separated by column chromatography and analyzed by magnetic resonance spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. Quercetin, stigmasterol, and linoleic and oleic acid glycerol esters, together with 4-chlorobutyl oleate, oleamide, myricetin, tyramine and N-feruloyltyramine, found for the first time in Cyperus esculentus rhizomes, have been isolated and quantified in the extracts. Alkaloids have not been detected, and the presence of flavonoids and sterols is moderate.


Assuntos
Cyperus/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Cyperus/metabolismo , Flavonoides/análise , Flavonoides/isolamento & purificação , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Espectrometria de Massas , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Quercetina/análise , Quercetina/isolamento & purificação , Rizoma/química , Rizoma/metabolismo
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