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1.
Molecules ; 26(15)2021 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361835

RESUMO

The present study compared the effects of natural senescence and methyl jasmonate (JA-Me) treatment on the levels of terpene trilactones (TTLs; ginkgolides and bilobalide), phenolic acids, and flavonoids in the primary organs of Ginkgo biloba leaves, leaf blades, and petioles. Levels of the major TTLs, ginkgolides B and C, were significantly higher in the leaf blades of naturally senesced yellow leaves harvested on 20 October compared with green leaves harvested on 9 September. In petioles, a similar effect was found, although the levels of these compounds were almost half as high. These facts indicate the importance of the senescence process on TTL accumulation. Some flavonoids and phenolic acids also showed changes in content related to maturation or senescence. Generally, the application of JA-Me slightly but substantially increased the levels of TTLs in leaf blades irrespective of the difference in its application side on the leaves. Of the flavonoids analyzed, levels of quercetin, rutin, quercetin-4-glucoside, apigenin, and luteolin were dependent on the JA-Me application site, whereas levels of (+) catechin and (-) epicatechin were not. Application of JA-Me increased ferulic acid and p-coumaric acid esters in the petiole but decreased the levels of these compounds in the leaf blade. The content of p-coumaric acid glycosides and caffeic acid esters was only slightly modified by JA-Me. In general, JA-Me application affected leaf senescence by modifying the accumulation of ginkogolides, flavonoids, and phenolic acids. These effects were also found to be different in leaf blades and petioles. Based on JA-Me- and aging-related metabolic changes in endogenous levels of the secondary metabolites in G. biloba leaves, we discussed the results of study in the context of basic research and possible practical application.


Assuntos
Senescência Celular , Ciclopentanos/farmacologia , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Ginkgo biloba/metabolismo , Hidroxibenzoatos/metabolismo , Lactonas/metabolismo , Oxilipinas/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Flavonoides/análise , Ginkgo biloba/efeitos dos fármacos , Ginkgo biloba/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Hidroxibenzoatos/análise , Lactonas/análise , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Terpenos/análise , Terpenos/metabolismo
2.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(32): 9407-9418, 2021 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34369753

RESUMO

The profiles of soluble and insoluble phenolic compounds in 11 commercial red sorghums (B11, B12, B13, B14, J124, J127, J138, J140, J142, J152, and J158) were investigated using ultraperformance liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC/Q-TOF-MS) analysis. A total of 48 phenolic compounds including 35 phenolic acids and their derivatives, 12 flavonoids, and 1 proanthocyanidin were identified, and 8 phenolic compounds were reported for the first time in sorghums. Four major 3-deoxyanthocyanidins were also quantified, with their soluble forms accounting for 99.75-99.87% of the total contents. Pearson's correlation analyses indicated that 3-deoxyanthocyanidins significantly contributed to the antioxidant capacities of the red sorghums and that 5-methoxy-luteolinidin showed the strongest correlation. Besides, the soluble phenolic fraction of B13 dose-dependently inhibited the proliferation of Caco-2 cells and the secretion of IL-1ß and NO in RAW264.7 macrophages, which might be attributed to its relatively high total phenolic (TPC), flavonoid (TFC), and proanthocyanidin content (TPAC) values and radical scavenging capacities.


Assuntos
Sorghum , Antioxidantes , Células CACO-2 , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Flavonoides/análise , Humanos , Fenóis , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia
3.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 397, 2021 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34433413

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mandarin 'Shatangju' is susceptible to Huanglongbing (HLB) and the HLB-infected fruits are small, off-flavor, and stay-green at the maturity period. To understand the relationship between pericarp color and HLB pathogen and the effect mechanism of HLB on fruit pericarp coloration, quantitative analyses of HLB bacterial pathogens and carotenoids and also the integrative analysis of metabolome and transcriptome profiles were performed in the mandarin 'Shatangju' variety with four different color fruits, whole green fruits (WGF), top-yellow and base-green fruits (TYBGF), whole light-yellow fruits (WLYF), and whole dark-yellow fruits (WDYF) that were infected with HLB. RESULTS: the HLB bacterial population followed the order WGF > TYBGF > WLYF > WDYF. And there were significant differences between each group of samples. Regarding the accumulation of chlorophyll and carotenoid, the chlorophyll-a content in WGF was the highest and in WDYF was the lowest. The content of chlorophyll-b in WGF was significantly higher than that in other three pericarps. There were significant differences in the total content of carotenoid between each group. WGF and TYBGF pericarps were low in phytoene, γ-carotene, ß-cryptoxanthin and apocarotenal, while other kinds of carotenoids were significantly higher than those in WDYF. And WLYF was only short of apocarotenal. We comprehensively compared the transcriptome and metabolite profiles of abnormal (WGF, TYBGF and WLYF) and normal (WDYF, control) pericarps. In total, 2,880, 2,782 and 1,053 differentially expressed genes (DEGs), including 121, 117 and 43 transcription factors were identified in the three comparisons, respectively. The qRT-PCR confirmed the expression levels of genes selected from transcriptome. Additionally, a total of 77 flavonoids and other phenylpropanoid-derived metabolites were identified in the three comparisons. Most (76.65 %) showed markedly lower abundances in the three comparisons. The phenylpropanoid biosynthesis pathway was the major enrichment pathway in the integrative analysis of metabolome and transcriptome profiles. CONCLUSIONS: Synthesizing the above analytical results, this study indicated that different color pericarps were associated with the reduced levels of some carotenoids and phenylpropanoids derivatives products and the down-regulation of proteins in flavonoids, phenylpropanoids derivatives biosynthesis pathway and the photosynthesis-antenna proteins.


Assuntos
Clorofila/análise , Citrus/genética , Citrus/microbiologia , Flavonoides/análise , Frutas/microbiologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Liberibacter/patogenicidade , Pigmentos Biológicos , Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Produtos Agrícolas/microbiologia , Produtos Agrícolas/fisiologia , Frutas/genética , Frutas/fisiologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genes de Plantas , Metaboloma , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Transcriptoma
4.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 396, 2021 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34433422

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bagging can improve the appearance of fruits and increase the food safety and commodification, it also has effects on intrinsic quality of the fruits, which was commonly reported negative changes. Fig can be regarded as a new model fruit with its relatively small genome size and long fruit season. RESULTS: In this study, widely targeted metabolomics based on HPLC MS/MS and RNA-seq of the fruit tissue of the 'Zibao' fig before and after bagging were analyzed to reveal the metabolites changes of the edible part of figs and the underneath gene expression network changes. A total of 771 metabolites were identified in the metabolome analysis using fig female flower tissue. Of these, 88 metabolites (including one carbohydrate, eight organic acids, seven amino acids, and two vitamins) showed significant differences in fruit tissue before and after bagging. Changes in 16 structural genes, 13 MYB transcription factors, and endogenous hormone (ABA, IAA, and GA) metabolism and signal transduction-related genes in the biosynthesis pathway of flavonoids after bagging were analyzed by transcriptome analysis. KEGG enrichment analysis also determined significant differences in flavonoid biosynthesis pathways in female flower tissue before and after bagging. CONCLUSIONS: This work provided comprehensive information on the composition and abundance of metabolites in the female flower tissue of fig. The results showed that the differences in flavor components of the fruit before and after bagging could be explained by changes in the composition and abundance of carbohydrates, organic acids, amino acids, and phenolic compounds. This study provides new insights into the effects of bagging on changes in the intrinsic and appearance quality of fruits.


Assuntos
Ficus/genética , Ficus/metabolismo , Flavonoides/análise , Flavonoides/biossíntese , Flavonoides/genética , Frutas/genética , Frutas/metabolismo , China , Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Produtos Agrícolas/metabolismo , Flores/genética , Flores/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Variação Genética , Genótipo , Metaboloma
5.
J Pharm Biomed Anal ; 204: 114271, 2021 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34325249

RESUMO

Houttuynia cordata Thunb. ("Yu-Xing-Cao"), a traditional Chinese medicinal herb, has long been used to treat various diseases. However, detailed information regarding the chemical constituents of H. cordata aqueous extract is lacking, and the molecular basis of its beneficial effects on muscle is unknown. To investigate these points, in this study, we used ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole-time-of-flight-mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF-MS) in positive and negative ion modes to profile and identify the major constituents of H. cordata water extract. A total of 63 peaks were identified based on mass and fragmentation characteristics, including 29 organic acids and their glycosides, 17 flavonoids, 7 volatiles, 4 pyrimidine and purine derivatives, 2 alkaloids, 2 amino acids, 1 isovanillin, and 1 coumarin. The total flavonoid and polyphenol contents of the extract were 4.77 and 139.15 mg/mL, respectively, by ultraviolet spectrophotometry. The cytoprotective activity of H. cordata aqueous extract was evaluated using C2C12 cells treated with tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α to induce oxidative challenge. The TNF-α induced decrease in cell viability was reversed by treatment for 48 h with the extract; moreover, superoxide dismutase activity was increased while reactive oxygen species level was decreased. These results provide molecular-level evidence for the antioxidant effect of H. cordata extract and highlight its therapeutic potential for the treatment of muscle injury or diseases caused by oxidative stress.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Houttuynia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Flavonoides/análise , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Polifenóis
6.
Molecules ; 26(13)2021 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34279391

RESUMO

Alternative technologies, which have been developed in order to meet the consumers' demand for nourishing and healthy meat and meat products, are followed by the food industry. In the present study, it was determined, using the HPLC method, that green tea contains a high level of epicatechin (EP) under optimal conditions and that pomegranate peel contains a high level of punicalagin (PN). Green tea, pomegranate peel, EP and PN were added to meatballs at different concentrations in eight groups. The antioxidant capacities of extracts were measured. The antimicrobial activity was examined for 72 h using three different food pathogens. The highest level of antimicrobial activity was achieved in the 1% punicalagin group, whereas the minimum inhibition concentration (L. monocytogenes, S. typhimurium) was found to be 1.87 mg/mL. A statistically significant decrease was found in FFA, POV and TBARS levels of meatballs on different days of storage (p < 0.05). When compared to the control group, the bioactive compounds preserved the microbiological and chemical properties of meatballs during storage at +4 °C (14 days). It was concluded that the extracts with high EP and PN concentrations can be used as bio-preservative agents for meat and meat products.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/química , Antioxidantes/química , Catequina/química , Aditivos Alimentares/química , Taninos Hidrolisáveis/química , Produtos da Carne/normas , Extratos Vegetais/química , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Camellia sinensis/química , Catequina/farmacologia , Flavonoides/análise , Aditivos Alimentares/farmacologia , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Taninos Hidrolisáveis/farmacologia , Listeria monocytogenes/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Romã (Fruta)/química , Carne Vermelha/normas , Salmonella typhimurium/efeitos dos fármacos
7.
Molecules ; 26(13)2021 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34279398

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to compare the influence of the extraction method, chemical composition, antimicrobial effects, antioxidant activity, and cytotoxicity on human cells of the non-polar extracts of grape (Vitis labrusca) and blackberry (Rubus fruticosus) seeds. The Soxhlet (Sox), Bligh-Dyer (BD), and ultrasound (US) methods were used for extractions. For blackberry non-polar seed extract, extraction via the BD method showed the highest mean values of total phenolic content (TPC), expressed in milligrams of gallic acid equivalent per 100 mL of non-polar seed extracts (102.37 mg GAE/100 mL), and higher antioxidant activity in relation to the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical, expressed in milligrams of gallic acid equivalent per 100 mL of non-polar seed extracts (11.50 mg AAE/100 mL), if compared with the Sox and US extractions. Similar results were obtained for the non-polar grape seed extracts, where BD extraction obtained the highest values for TPC (28.61 mg GAE/100 mL) and DPPH (35.36 mg AAE/100 mL). The type of extraction method had an impact on the composition of fatty acids. Only the non-polar blackberry and grape seed extracts obtained via the Sox method showed some in vitro inhibitory effect against Escherichia coli (IAL 2064) and Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 13565). Regardless of the extraction method used, the non-polar blackberry and grape seed extracts did not decrease the cell viability (IC50 >1000 µg/mL) of cancer and normal cell lines, thus indicating the relative safety of the extracts. All the seed extracts decreased the generation of reactive oxygen species in the cell lines. Blackberry and grape seed lipid fractions can be utilized as antioxidants, and the extraction methods used cause significant changes in relation to their bioactivity and chemical composition.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/química , Antioxidantes/química , Extrato de Sementes de Uva/química , Rubus/química , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Anti-Infecciosos/toxicidade , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/toxicidade , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Flavonoides/análise , Extrato de Sementes de Uva/farmacologia , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos
8.
Molecules ; 26(13)2021 Jun 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34201792

RESUMO

Pulse crop seed coats are a sustainable source of antioxidant polyphenols, but are typically treated as low-value products, partly because some polyphenols reduce iron bioavailability in humans. This study correlates antioxidant/iron chelation capabilities of diverse seed coat types from five major pulse crops (common bean, lentil, pea, chickpea and faba bean) with polyphenol composition using mass spectrometry. Untargeted metabolomics was used to identify key differences and a hierarchical analysis revealed that common beans had the most diverse polyphenol profiles among these pulse crops. The highest antioxidant capacities were found in seed coats of black bean and all tannin lentils, followed by maple pea, however, tannin lentils showed much lower iron chelation among these seed coats. Thus, tannin lentils are more desirable sources as natural antioxidants in food applications, whereas black bean and maple pea are more suitable sources for industrial applications. Regardless of pulse crop, proanthocyanidins were primary contributors to antioxidant capacity, and to a lesser extent, anthocyanins and flavan-3-ols, whereas glycosylated flavonols contributed minimally. Higher iron chelation was primarily attributed to proanthocyanidin composition, and also myricetin 3-O-glucoside in black bean. Seed coats having proanthocyanidins that are primarily prodelphinidins show higher iron chelation compared with those containing procyanidins and/or propelargonidins.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/análise , Cicer/química , Quelantes de Ferro/química , Lens (Planta)/química , Metabolômica/métodos , Polifenóis/análise , Sementes/química , Vicia faba/química , Antioxidantes/química , Biflavonoides/análise , Disponibilidade Biológica , Catequina/análise , Correlação de Dados , Flavonoides/análise , Flavonóis/análise , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Espectrometria de Massas , Fenóis/análise , Proantocianidinas/análise , Taninos/análise
9.
Molecules ; 26(13)2021 Jun 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34201870

RESUMO

Flavonoids in Rosa sterilis were studied. The flavonoids in Rosa sterilis were extracted by ultrasonic method, and the extraction conditions were modeled and optimized by response the surface methodology and the artificial intelligence method. The results show that the ultrasonic method can effectively extract total flavonoids, and the extraction rate is close to the prediction value of ANN-GA algorithm, which proves the rationality of the model. The order of the effects of the parameters on the experiment was material liquid ratio > extraction power > extraction time > ethanol concentration. In addition, the scavenging effects of flavonoids on DPPH, O2-· and ·OH were also determined, and these indicated that flavonoids have strong antioxidant activities. The kinetics of the extraction process was studied by using the data of the extraction process, and it was found that the extraction process conformed to Fick's first law.


Assuntos
Inteligência Artificial , Flavonoides/análise , Flavonoides/isolamento & purificação , Sequestradores de Radicais Livres/química , Rosa/química , Ultrassom/métodos , Algoritmos , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Compostos de Bifenilo/química , Etanol/química , Flavonoides/química , Cinética , Redes Neurais de Computação , Picratos/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Ondas Ultrassônicas , Ultrassom/instrumentação
10.
Plant Mol Biol ; 106(6): 533-554, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34263437

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: The role of central carbon metabolism in the synthesis and emission of scent volatiles in tuberose flowers was revealed through measurement of changes in transcripts and metabolites levels. Tuberose or Agave amica (Medikus) Thiede & Govaerts is a widely cultivated ornamental plant in several subtropical countries. Little is known about metabolite networking involved in biosynthesis of specialized metabolites utilizing primary metabolites. In this study, metabolite profiling and gene expression analyses were carried out from six stages of maturation throughout floral lifespan. Multivariate analysis indicated distinction between early and late maturation stages. Further, the roles of sugars viz. sucrose, glucose and fructose in synthesis, glycosylation and emission of floral scent volatiles were studied. Transcript levels of an ABC G family transporter (picked up from the floral transcriptome) was in synchronization with terpene volatiles emission during the anthesis stage. A diversion from phenylpropanoid/benzenoid to flavonoid metabolism was observed as flowers mature. Further, it was suggested that this metabolic shift could be mediated by isoforms of 4-Coumarate-CoA ligase along with Myb308 transcription factor. Maximum glycosylation of floral scent volatiles was shown to occur at the late mature stage when emission declined, facilitating both storage and export from the floral tissues. Thus, this study provides an insight into floral scent volatiles synthesis, storage and emission by measuring changes at transcripts and metabolites levels in tuberose throughout floral lifespan.


Assuntos
Agave/genética , Flores/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Odorantes/análise , Transcriptoma , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/metabolismo , Agave/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Agave/metabolismo , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Flavonoides/análise , Flores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Flores/metabolismo , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Hidroxibenzoatos/análise , RNA-Seq/métodos
11.
Molecules ; 26(12)2021 Jun 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34199320

RESUMO

Cucurbita moschata Duchesne (Cucurbitaceae) is a plant food highly appreciated for the content of nutrients and bioactive compounds, including polyphenols and carotenoids, which contribute to its antioxidant and antimicrobial capacities. The purpose of this study was to identify phenolic acids and flavonoids of Cucurbita moschata Duchesne using high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS) at different ripening stages (young, mature, ripened) and determine its antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. According to the results, phenolic acids and flavonoids were dependent on the maturity stage. The mature fruits contain the highest total phenolic and flavonoids contents (97.4 mg GAE. 100 g-1 and 28.6 mg QE. 100 g-1).A total of 33 compounds were identified. Syringic acid was the most abundant compound (37%), followed by cinnamic acid (12%) and protocatechuic acid (11%). Polyphenol extract of the mature fruits showed the highest antioxidant activity when measured by DPPH (0.065 µmol TE/g) and ABTS (0.074 µmol TE/g) assays. In the antimicrobial assay, the second stage of ripening had the highest antibacterial activity. Staphylococcus aureus was the most sensitive strain with an inhibition zone of 12 mm and a MIC of 0.75 mg L-1. The lowest inhibition zone was obtained with Salmonella typhimurium (5 mm), and the MIC value was 10 mg L-1.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Cucurbita/química , Frutas/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Polifenóis/metabolismo , Anti-Infecciosos/química , Antioxidantes/química , Cucurbita/metabolismo , Flavonoides/análise , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Frutas/metabolismo , Polifenóis/análise
12.
Molecules ; 26(12)2021 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34208409

RESUMO

Spider plant (Cleome gynandra L.) is an important leafy vegetable that grows naturally in many parts of the world. The leaves are highly nutritious and are used mainly for human consumption. The mineral content and phenolic compounds of 17 genotypes (local and exotic) of spider plant and four standards (swiss chard, jute mallow, cowpea, and pumpkin) were investigated. Leaf samples were harvested from plants raised at Thohoyandou, South Africa. Exotic genotypes were superior to local genotypes for most of the minerals. Swiss chard possessed significantly high levels of some minerals such as iron and manganese in comparison with exotic spider plant genotypes. The calcium content in the local ('MP-B-3-CG') and exotic ('GPS') genotypes was >30.0% and >60.0% higher than in swiss chard, respectively. Total phenolics among spider plant genotypes ranged from 9.86 to 12.21 mg GAE/g DW and were superior to pumpkin. In addition, the spider plant genotypes varied significantly in the antioxidant capacity as estimated by the 2,2 diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl method and ferric-reducing antioxidant power. The main flavonoid in the leaves of spider plant genotypes was quercetin-3-rutinoside. Crotonoside (glycoside) was detected in all the spider plant genotypes and swiss chard. A positive correlation was observed between total phenolic content and each of the three flavonoids. The PCA biplot associated exotic genotypes ('ML-SF-29', 'PS', 'TZ-1', and 'GPS') and local genotypes ('ML-3-KK', 'ML-13-SDM', and 'ML-12-TMP') with high Al, Fe, Zn, N, and TPC. Cluster analysis indicated high "distant groups" between exotic and local genotypes of spider plant. These results indicated that some of the local germplasm of spider plant was largely inferior to the exotic germplasm in terms of their mineral composition but contained considerable quantities of quercetin-3-rutinoside, particularly in the local genotypes 'MP-B-2-CG' and 'MP-B-1-CG'. There is a need for genetic improvement of the local germplasm in some of the minerals particularly to benefit the end-users.


Assuntos
Cleome/química , Flavonoides/análise , Minerais/análise , Fenóis/análise , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Antioxidantes/análise , Folhas de Planta/química , Sementes/química , África do Sul
13.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(14)2021 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34299238

RESUMO

This study focused on the biological evaluation and chemical characterization of Geranium pyrenaicum Burm. f. Different solvent extracts (hexane, ethyl acetate, methanol, and water extracts) were prepared. The phytochemical profile, antioxidant, and enzyme inhibitory activity were investigated. Cytotoxicity was assessed using VERO, FaDu, HeLa and RKO cells. The antiviral activity was carried out against HSV-1 (Herpes simplex virus 1) propagated in VERO cell line. The aqueous extract, possessing high phenolic content (170.50 mg gallic acid equivalent/g extract), showed the highest reducing capacity (613.27 and 364.10 mg Trolox equivalent/g extract, for cupric reducing antioxidant capacity and ferric reducing antioxidant power, respectively), radical scavenging potential (469.82 mg Trolox equivalent/g extract, against 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)), metal chelating ability (52.39 mg ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid equivalent/g extract) and total antioxidant capacity (3.15 mmol Trolox equivalent/g extract). Liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-quadrupole time-of-flight-mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-QTOF-MS/MS) alloved to tentatively identify a total of 56 compounds in the extracts, including ellagitannins, gallic acid and galloyl derivatives amongst others. The ethyl acetate extracts substantially depressed cholinesterase enzymes (4.49 and 12.26 mg galantamine equivalent/g extract against AChE and BChE, respectively) and α-amylase enzyme (1.04 mmol acarbose equivalent/g extract). On the other hand, the methanolic extract inhibited tyrosinase (121.42 mg kojic acid equivalent/g extract) and α-glucosidase (2.39 mmol acarbose equivalent/g extract) activities. The highest selectivity towards all cancer cell lines (SI 4.5-10.8) was observed with aqueous extract with the FaDu cells being the most sensitive (CC50 40.22 µg/mL). It can be concluded that the presence of certain bioactive antiviral molecules may be related to the high anti HSV-1 activity of the methanolic extract. This work has generated vital scientific data on this medicinal plant, which is a prospective candidate for the creation of innovative phyto-pharmaceuticals.


Assuntos
Geranium/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/química , Animais , Antioxidantes , Antivirais , Linhagem Celular , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Flavonoides/análise , Humanos , Fenóis/análise , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Plantas Medicinais/química , Estudos Prospectivos , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray/métodos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos
14.
Molecules ; 26(13)2021 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34209531

RESUMO

Sorghum is a major cereal food worldwide, and is considered a potential source of minerals and bioactive compounds. Its wide adaptive range may cause variations in its agronomic traits, antioxidant properties, and phytochemical content. This extensive study investigated variations in seed characteristics, antioxidant properties, and total phenolic (TPC) and flavonoid contents (TFC) of sorghum collected from different ecological regions of 15 countries. The antioxidant potential of the seed extracts of various sorghum accessions was determined using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azinobis 3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate (ABTS) radical scavenging assays. Significant variations in TPC were observed among the sorghum accessions. All 78 sorghum accessions used in this study exhibited significant variations in TFC, with the lowest and highest amount observed in accessions C465 and J542, respectively. DPPH scavenging potential of the seed extracts for all the accessions ranged from 11.91 ± 4.83 to 1343.90 ± 81.02 µg mL-1. The ABTS assay results were similar to those of DPPH but showed some differences in the accessions. Pearson's correlation analysis revealed a wide variation range in the correlation between antioxidant activity and TPC, as well as TFC, among the sorghum accessions. A wide diversity range was also recorded for the seed characteristics (1000-seed weight and seed germination rate). A dendrogram generated from UPGMA clustering, based on seed traits, antioxidant activity, TPC, and TFC was highly dispersed for these accessions. Variations among the accessions may provide useful information regarding the phytoconstituents, antioxidant properties, and phytochemical contents of sorghum and aid in designing breeding programs to obtain sorghum with improved agronomic traits and bioactive properties.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Flavonoides , Fenóis , Sementes/química , Sorghum/química , Antioxidantes/análise , Antioxidantes/química , Flavonoides/análise , Flavonoides/química , Fenóis/análise , Fenóis/química
15.
J Chromatogr A ; 1651: 462312, 2021 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34171771

RESUMO

A HPLC method coupled with diode array detector was developed and validated for the quantitation of alizarin, apigenin, carminic acid, curcumin, ellagic acid, emodin, fisetin, kaempferide, kaempferol, kermesic acid, morin, purpurin, quercetin and sulfuretin which are components of several natural dyes. 1- Hydroxyanthraquinone was selected as internal standard. The compounds were separated under gradient elution on a RP-column (Altima C18, 250 mm x 3.0 mm i.d., 5 µm) with a mobile phase consisting of solvent A: H2O + 0.1% (v/v) trifluoroacetic acid and solvent B: acetonitrile + 0.1% (v/v) trifluoroacetic acid. The method was validated in terms of linearity, limits of detection and quantitation, accuracy, precision, ruggedness and robustness and applied to the analysis of silk dyed with buckthorn (Rhamnus trees), cochineal (Dactylopius coccus Costa), madder (Rubia tinctorum L.), turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) and young fustic (Cotinus coggygria Scop). Furthermore, dyed silk samples were subjected to artificially accelerated ageing conditions induced by UV radiation. The effect of the latter on the quantities of the aforementioned compounds was monitored, except for apigenin, kermesic acid and morin.


Assuntos
Antraquinonas/análise , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Corantes/análise , Flavonoides/análise , Seda/química , Antraquinonas/química , Limite de Detecção , Padrões de Referência , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Soluções
16.
Food Chem ; 362: 130223, 2021 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34091161

RESUMO

Naringenin, a flavonoid compound found in pummelo, is a key biological active compound in some traditional Chinese medicines, including Citri reticulatae pericarpium, Citri reticulatae pericarpium viride, Aurantii fructus immaturus, and Aurantii fructus. These Chinese medicinal preparations are the peels or immature fruits of certain citrus species. Aiming at detecting naringenin in complex matrices such as pummelo and traditional Chinese medicines, we put forward a sensitive and practical indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (icELISA) based on anti-naringenin monoclonal antibodies (anti-Nar-mAbs). The median inhibitory concentration (IC50) was 4.43 ng/mL, and the working range was 1.15-15.81 ng/mL. The findings of the icELISA for the analysis of naringenin in pummelo and herb samples had a good correlation with the ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) methodology and showed good accuracy and reproducibility. These data demonstrated that the developed icELISA is reliable, accurate, and suitable for detecting naringenin in pummelo and traditional Chinese medicines.


Assuntos
Citrus/química , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/análise , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/métodos , Flavanonas/análise , Animais , Anticorpos Monoclonais , Feminino , Flavanonas/imunologia , Flavonoides/análise , Frutas/química , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
17.
Food Chem ; 362: 130224, 2021 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34098439

RESUMO

This study evaluated the feasibility of curcumin based photodynamic sterilization technology (PDT) applied to fresh-cut potato slices. Potato samples with 30 µmol L-1 curcumin solution were exposed to 420 nm light emitting diodes (LED) at a total dose of 0.7 kJ cm-2. Results showed that PDT inactivated 2.43 log CFU mL-1 of Escherichia coli (BL 21) and 3.18 log CFU mL-1 of Staphylococcus aureus and maintained the color, texture, weight as well as total solid content of treated potatoes. Additionally, loss of phenols and flavonoids was significantly prevented, increasing the total antioxidant capacity. This was attributed to changes in enzyme activity that PDT decreased the activity of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POD) by 59.7% and 47.8% and increased the activity of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL). Therefore, curcumin-based PDT has the potential to maintain the commercial quality of producing and achieving microbiological safety.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/química , Curcumina/farmacologia , Conservação de Alimentos/métodos , Solanum tuberosum/química , Solanum tuberosum/microbiologia , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Catecol Oxidase/metabolismo , Cor , Escherichia coli , Flavonoides/análise , Flavonoides/química , Conservação de Alimentos/instrumentação , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Peroxidase/química , Peroxidase/metabolismo , Fenóis/análise , Fenóis/química , Fenilalanina Amônia-Liase/metabolismo , Solanum tuberosum/efeitos dos fármacos , Solanum tuberosum/metabolismo , Staphylococcus aureus
18.
J Pharm Biomed Anal ; 203: 114196, 2021 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34119836

RESUMO

Propolis shows a great variation in its chemical content depending on the vegetation around the beehive. Determination of its botanical origin and the chemical characterization are the most important issues for the standardization and the quality evaluation for propolis samples that are intended to be used in the pharmaceutical industry. This study has focused on the identification of the botanical origin of 47 propolis samples collected from different locations in the Black Sea Region of Turkey. Firstly, palynological and chromatographic analyses were carried out. Then, the major distinguishing components were identified by high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC), or by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, and mass spectrometry (MS) after isolation of the components. Based on the results, the samples were categorized into three main groups as black poplar-type, Euroasian aspen-type, and non-phenolic-type. Key markers of black poplar-type were assigned as phenolic acids and flavonoids, whereas lasiocarpin B and C (phenolic glycerides) were determined as markers for Euroasian aspen-type propolis. The total phenolics and flavonoid contents (TPC and TFC) and antioxidant capacities of the samples were comparatively assessed by free radical-scavenging activity (DPPH) and metal-reducing activity (CUPRAC and FRAP) methods. Additionally, HPTLC-direct bioautography was applied to determine the contribution of components to antioxidant activity. Hierarchical clustering analysis revealed similarities in TFC, TPC values, and antioxidant activity related to the sample origins' geographic proximity. The anti-inflammatory activities of the black poplar sub-type and Euroasian aspen-type propolis samples were comparatively investigated on RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. The black poplar-type propolis extract dominated by caffeic acid, caffeic acid phenethyl ester, apigenin, quercetin, kaempferol, pinocembrin, and galangin exhibited the highest anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. Therefore, chemically characterized black poplar-type propolis may be suggested as a good candidate to develop pharmaceutical products.


Assuntos
Preparações Farmacêuticas , Própole , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Flavonoides/análise , Turquia
19.
Plant Cell Rep ; 40(8): 1415-1427, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34109470

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: Foliar application of SA cross-talks and induce endogenous nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species to improve innate immunity and vigor of tomato plant against Fusarium oxysporum stress. The present investigation was aimed to demonstrate the efficacy of salicylic acid (SA), as a powerful elicitor or plant growth regulator (PGR) and its cross-talk with nitric oxide (NO) in tomato against the biotic stress caused by wilt pathogen, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici. Different defense-related enzymes and gene expression, phenol, flavonoid, and phenolic acid content along with NO generation and other physiological characters have been estimated after foliar application of SA. Total chlorophyll content was steadily maintained and the amount of death of cells was negligible after 72 h of SA treatment. Significant reduction of disease incidence was also recorded in SA treated sets. Simultaneously, NO generation was drastically improved at this stage, which has been justified by both spectrophotometrically and microscopically. A direct correlation between reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and NO has been established. Production of defense enzymes, gene expressions, different phenolic acids was positively influenced by SA treatment. However, tomato plants treated with SA along with NO synthase (NOS) inhibitor or NO scavenger significantly reduce all those parameters tested. On the other hand, NO donor-treated plants showed the same inductive effect like SA. Furthermore, SA treated seeds of tomato also showed improved physiological parameters like higher seedling vigor index, shoot and root length, mean trichome density, etc. It is speculated that the cross-talk between SA and endogenous NO have tremendous ability to improve defense responses and growth of the tomato plant. It can be utilized in future sustainable agriculture for bimodal action.


Assuntos
Fusarium/patogenicidade , Lycopersicon esculentum/imunologia , Lycopersicon esculentum/microbiologia , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Ácido Salicílico/metabolismo , Morte Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Enzimas/metabolismo , Flavonoides/análise , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/fisiologia , Lignina/metabolismo , Lycopersicon esculentum/metabolismo , NG-Nitroarginina Metil Éster/farmacologia , Fenóis/análise , Fenóis/metabolismo , Células Vegetais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Vegetais/microbiologia , Doenças das Plantas/imunologia , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Imunidade Vegetal , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Ácido Salicílico/farmacologia , Plântula/efeitos dos fármacos , Plântula/imunologia , Plântula/microbiologia
20.
Molecules ; 26(10)2021 May 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34069333

RESUMO

Husk and pellicle as the agri-food waste in the walnut-product industry are in soaring demand because of their rich polyphenol content. This study investigated the differential compounds related to walnut polyphenol between husk and pellicle during fruit development stage. By using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole-orbitrap (UHPLC-Q-Orbitrap), a total of 110 bioactive components, including hydrolysable tannins, flavonoids, phenolic acids and quinones, were tentatively identified, 33 of which were different between husk and pellicle. The trend of dynamic content of 16 polyphenols was clarified during walnut development stage by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). This is the first time to comprehensive identification of phenolic compounds in walnut husk and pellicle, and our results indicated that the pellicle is a rich resource of polyphenols. The dynamic trend of some polyphenols was consistent with total phenols. The comprehensive characterization of walnut polyphenol and quantification of main phenolic compounds will be beneficial for understanding the potential application value of walnut and for exploiting its metabolism pathway.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Juglans/química , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Fenóis/análise , Flavonoides/análise , Quinonas/análise , Taninos/análise
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