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1.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237844, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32834013

RESUMO

The feasibility of the production of germinated rice extracts using indigenous rice from Southern Thailand, including Khemtong (KHT) and Khai Mod Rin (KMR) from a single location at the Pak Phanang River Basin in Nakhon Si Thammarat, was investigated. The nutritional composition and bioactivity of the germinated rice extracts from both cultivars were evaluated. Optimum germination time for both rices was 96 h, leading to the highest GABA, thiamine, free amino acid, total sugar, and α-amylase activity (p<0.05). Germinated KHT had a higher α-amylase activity than germinated KMR at all germination times. Mashing at 60°C/pH 5.5 rendered the extract with the highest GABA content (p<0.05) and desirable contents of other nutrients. In comparison with germinated Sungyod (local colored rice) and Jasmine (commercial Thai rice) extracts, KHT and KMR showed a higher scavenging activity against DPPH•, OH•, and H2O2 (p<0.05) with a comparable ABTS•+ inhibition. For metal chelation, reducing power and ACE inhibitory activity, the germinated Sungyod extract was greater than KHT/KMR. The results demonstrated the potential use of germinated local Thai rice for the production of functional beverages.


Assuntos
Germinação , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição , Oryza/química , Oryza/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Aminoácidos/análise , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Compostos de Bifenilo/química , Estudos de Viabilidade , Flavonoides/análise , Depuradores de Radicais Livres/química , Minerais/análise , Fenóis/análise , Ácido Fítico/análise , Picratos/química , Açúcares/análise , Tiamina/análise , Fatores de Tempo , alfa-Amilases/metabolismo , Ácido gama-Aminobutírico/análise
2.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237583, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32804936

RESUMO

Identification and quantification of plant flavonoids are critical to pharmacokinetic study and pharmaceutical quality control due to their distinct pharmacological functions. Here we report on a novel plant flavonoid electrochemical sensor for sensitive and selective detection of dihydromyricetin (DMY) based on double- layered membranes consisting of gold nanoparticles (Au) anchored on reduced graphene oxide (rGO) and molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE). Both rGO-Au and MIPs membranes were directly formed on GCE via in-situ electrochemical reduction and polymerization processes step by step. The compositions, morphologies, and electrochemical properties of membranes were investigated with X-ray powder diffractometry (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectrum (FTIR), Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) combined with various electrochemical methods. The fabricated electrochemical sensor labeled as GCE│rGO-Au/MIPs exhibited excellent performance in determining of DMY under optimal experimental conditions. A wide linear detection range (LDR) ranges from 2.0×10-8 to 1.0×10-4 M together with a low limit of detection (LOD) of 1.2×10-8 M (S/N = 3) were achieved. Moreover, the electrochemical sensor was employed to determine DMY in real samples with satisfactory results.


Assuntos
Carbono/química , Técnicas Eletroquímicas/instrumentação , Flavonoides/análise , Flavonóis/análise , Grafite/química , Técnicas Biossensoriais/métodos , Eletrodos , Ouro , Limite de Detecção , Nanopartículas Metálicas , Impressão Molecular , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Polímeros/síntese química , Polímeros/química , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Difração de Raios X
3.
Food Chem ; 332: 127412, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32623128

RESUMO

In this study, metabolomics and proteomics were employed to investigate the change mechanism of nonvolatile compounds during white tea processing. A total of 99 nonvolatile compounds were identified, among which the contents of 13 free amino acids, caffeine, theaflavins, 7 nucleosides and nucleotides, and 5 flavone glycosides increased significantly, while the contents of theanine, catechins, theasinesins, 3 proanthocyanidins, and phenolic acids decreased significantly during the withering period. The results of proteomics indicated that the degradation of proteins accounted for the increase in free amino acid levels; the weakened biosynthesis, in addition to oxidation, also contributed to the decrease in flavonoid levels; the degradation of ribonucleic acids contributed to the increase in nucleoside and nucleotide levels during the withering period. In addition, the drying process was found to slightly promote the formation of white tea taste. Our study provides a novel characterization of white tea taste formation during processing.


Assuntos
Camellia sinensis/química , Metabolômica/métodos , Chá/química , Alcaloides/análise , Alcaloides/metabolismo , Camellia sinensis/metabolismo , Catecóis/análise , Catecóis/metabolismo , Flavonoides/análise , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/química , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Análise de Componente Principal , Proteômica , Chá/metabolismo
4.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(13): 3035-3044, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32726009

RESUMO

UHPLC-LTQ-Orbitrap-MS was developed for the identification of chemical constituents in Qingfei Paidu Decoction, which will clarify its material basis. ACQUITY UHPLC HSS T3 chromatography column(2.1 mm×100 mm, 1.8 µm) was used with 0.1% formic acid(B)-acetonitrile(A) as the mobile phase in gradient elution. The decoction was detected by high-resolution liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry equipped with an ESI ion source in positive and negative mode. Based on the accurate mass measurements, retention time, mass fragmentation patterns combined with comparison of reference and literature reports, a total of 87 major compounds including 43 flavonoids, 9 alkaloids, 4 triterpenoid saponins, 1 sesquiterpene, 2 coumarins, 10 phenolic acids and 18 other compounds were tentatively screened and characterized. UHPLC-LTQ-Orbitrap-MS was employed to comprehensively elucidate the chemical components in Qingfei Paidu Decoction, which basically covered 20 Chinese medicines except gypsum in Qingfei Paidu Decoction. These collective results provide a scientific basis for further research on the quality control standard of Qingfei Paidu Decoction.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Cumarínicos/análise , Flavonoides/análise , Espectrometria de Massas
5.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(13): 3144-3154, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32726023

RESUMO

To reveal the processing mechanism of Chrysanthemi Flos from the changes of chemical compositions after frying and its effect on the efficacy of liver protection. Ultra performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time of flight-mass spectrometry(UPLC-Q-TOF-MS) and ultra high performance liquid chromatography(HPLC) were used for the qualitative and quantitative researches of chemical compositions before and after Chrysanthemi Flos frying. Progenesis QI and SPSS software were used for principal component analysis(PCA), partial least squares discriminant analysis(PLS-DA), variable importance projection(VIP) analysis and t-test to identify the compositions with significant changes. Pharmacodynamics experiment was used to investigate the protective effect of crude and fried Chrysanthemi Flos on CCl_4-induced acute liver injury in mice. According to mass spectrometry data, there were 28 chemical compositions in crude and fried Chrysanthemi Flos, mainly including flavonoids and organic acids. 13 compositions such as luteolin, apigenin and luteolin glycoside were increased significantly after frying, while 7 compositions such as chlorogenic acid, luteolin-7-O-glucuronide and apigenin-7-O-glucuronide were decreased significantly after frying. Through principal component analysis, crude and fried Chrysanthemi Flos products were divided into two categories, indicating that there were internal differences in quality. The results of liver injury protection experiment in mice showed that the AST, ALT and MDA contents were significantly decreased and SOD level was increased in mice with liver injury in both the high and medium dose groups. Histopathological examination showed that crude and fried Chrysanthemi Flos can protect the liver by reducing inflammatory cell infiltration, reducing steatosis, and repairing damaged liver cells. The results of this study showed that the chemical compositions had obvious changes after frying, and both crude and fried Chrysanthemis Flos had protective effects on CCl_4-induced acute liver injury in mice. In addition, in the range of high, medium and low doses, the liver protection effect of crude and fried Chrysanthemi Flos increased with the increase of dose. The experiment results provided reference for the mechanism of fried Chrysanthemi Flos and clinical selection of processed products.


Assuntos
Chrysanthemum , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Flavonoides/análise , Flores/química , Fígado/química , Camundongos
6.
Food Chem ; 331: 127361, 2020 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32650229

RESUMO

A low cost hand-held spectral analytical system was developed for in situ screening of phenolics and flavonoids in puff dried Ziziphus jujuba (Z. Jujuba) samples. Standards of gallic acid, caffeic acid, l-epicatechin, phloridzin and cianidanol were used to quantify the individual phenolics and flavonoids using high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector (HPLC-DAD). The synergy interval partial least square with ant colony optimization (Si-ACO-PLS) was attempted to optimize and capture informative variables for the prediction of target compounds. The model performance was evaluated using correlation coefficients of prediction (Rp); root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) and residual predictive deviation (RPD). The Si-ACO-PLS yielded optimal performance, 0.8540 ≤ Rc ≤ 0.9250, 0.8360 ≤ Rp ≤ 0.9056, 0.84 ≤ RMSEP ≤ 16.30 and 2.03 ≤ RPD ≤ 2.26. The hand-held spectral analytical system coupled with Si-ACO-PLS proved to the reliable, rapid and cost-effective method to quantify the phenolics and flavonoids in Z. Jujuba.


Assuntos
Flavonoides/análise , Análise de Alimentos/instrumentação , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Fenóis/análise , Ziziphus/química , Algoritmos , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Dessecação/métodos , Análise de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Análise Espectral/instrumentação , Análise Espectral/métodos
7.
Food Chem ; 333: 127506, 2020 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32679417

RESUMO

Artichoke floral stems (AFS) food waste by-products were examined for their phytochemical constituents and their in vitro and in vivo biological activities. Although that the highest total phenol content and total flavonoid content were found in ethyl acetate extract, methanol extract possessed the strongest DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activity, and showed the highest reducing ferric antioxidant power (FRAP). The anti-acetylcholinesterase activity was higher in butanol extract, whereas the ethyl acetate extract had the highest inhibitory effect on heat-induced protein denaturation. In alloxan-induced diabetic mice, the AFS methanol extract (AFSE) rich in caffeoylquinic acids and flavones reduced blood glucose, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase, creatinine, and improved liver, and renal antioxidative status. Administration of AFSE to diabetic mice reduced total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL-cholesterol, and the atherogenic index of plasma (AIP) suggesting its hypolipidemic action. Overall, AFS could be considered as attractive source of health-promoting ingredients.


Assuntos
Cynara scolymus/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Extratos Vegetais/química , Alanina Transaminase , Animais , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Glicemia/análise , Candida albicans/efeitos dos fármacos , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Cynara scolymus/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/induzido quimicamente , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/patologia , Flavonoides/análise , Flores/química , Flores/metabolismo , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Fenóis/análise , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/uso terapêutico , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Caules de Planta/química , Caules de Planta/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray
8.
Food Chem ; 333: 127527, 2020 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32683263

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to develop a novel fermented soybean food (FSF) using selected Bacillus subtilis GD1, Bacillus subtilis N4, Bacillus velezensis GZ1, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Hansenula anomala, as well as to assess its antioxidant and anti-fatigue activity. These Bacillus strains had excellent enzyme producing and soybean transformation capacity. FSF showed the highest peptide, total phenol, total flavonoid content, antioxidant activity, and suitable organic acid and biological amine content. In intense exercise mice, FSF treatment markedly increased hepatic glycogen level, decreased metabolite accumulation, improved the activities of antioxidant enzymes and decreased malondialdehyde (MDA) level in serum and liver, respectively. Furthermore, FSF treatment increased nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and antioxidant response element (ARE)-dependent gene expression. Together, the selection of microbial starter culture and mixed culture fermentation are essential for the effective enrichment of bioactive compounds, and FSF has stronger antioxidant and anti-fatigue activity.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Bacillus/metabolismo , Alimentos e Bebidas Fermentados/análise , Lactobacillus/metabolismo , Pichia/metabolismo , Soja/metabolismo , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Bacillus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Nitrogênio da Ureia Sanguínea , Fadiga/metabolismo , Fadiga/patologia , Flavonoides/análise , Glicogênio/metabolismo , Lactobacillus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Malondialdeído/sangue , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenóis/análise , Condicionamento Físico Animal , Pichia/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Soja/química
9.
J Environ Sci Health B ; 55(9): 813-819, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32602767

RESUMO

The use of vegetable waste and its screening for potential cytotoxicity is of utmost importance to ensure its safe use in the feed industry for fish and other animals. We evaluated aqueous and ethanolic extracts of cooked Araucaria angustifolia seed coats. The Stiasny index for the aqueous and ethanolic extracts was 2.87% ± 0.03% and 60.53% ± 4.79%, respectively. Condensed tannins were 11-fold higher in the ethanolic extract than the aqueous extract. The flavonoid and polyphenol contents were 1.7- and 1.8-fold higher in the ethanolic extract than in the aqueous extract, respectively. The 36 h EC50 for brine shrimp hatchability was 300.32 µg/mL for the aqueous extract, and 76.60 µg/mL for the ethanolic extract. The 24 h LC50 was 1405.96 µg/mL for the aqueous extract, and it was 356.32 µg/mL for the ethanolic extract. The aqueous extract was nontoxic to A. salina nauplii, and therefore, it can be used as a possible food additive in fish feed. The results also demonstrated that the different solvents used in the extraction affected the yield and the total phenolic, total flavonoid, and condensed tannin content. Further in vivo and cell line cytotoxicity testing is recommended to substantiate these findings.


Assuntos
Araucaria/química , Artemia , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade , Sementes/química , Ração Animal , Animais , Antioxidantes/análise , Artemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Artemia/fisiologia , Culinária , Flavonoides/análise , Dose Letal Mediana , Fenóis/análise , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Extratos Vegetais/química , Polifenóis/análise , Solventes/química , Taninos/análise , Testes de Toxicidade
10.
Food Chem ; 331: 127354, 2020 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32569973

RESUMO

Polyphenols (flavonoids and anthraquinones) are one of the most important phytochemicals in Fagopyrum tataricum L. Gaertn. (tartary buckwheat). However, the relationship between the polyphenols of tartary buckwheat seeds and their morphological variations is unclear. We developed a liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry-based targeted metabolomics method to study the chemical profiles of 60 flavonoids and 11 anthraquinones in 40 seed cultivars (groats and hulls). Both flavonoids and anthraquinones were related to variations in seed color; the fold change from yellowish-brown to black seeds was 1.24-1.55 in groats and 0.26-0.76 in hulls. Only flavonoids contributed to significant differences in seed shape; the fold change from long to short seeds was 1.29-1.78 in groats and 1.39-1.44 in hulls. Some differential metabolites were identified at higher concentrations in hulls than in groats. This study provides new insights into differences in polyphenols among tartary buckwheat seeds with different color and shape.


Assuntos
Antraquinonas/análise , Fagopyrum/metabolismo , Flavonoides/análise , Metabolômica/métodos , Sementes/fisiologia , Antraquinonas/metabolismo , Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Fagopyrum/química , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Pigmentação , Metabolismo Secundário , Sementes/química , Sementes/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
11.
Food Chem ; 329: 127191, 2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32505985

RESUMO

The awareness of the functional and nutraceutical properties of olives and olive oil bioactive constituents contributed to oliviculture recent increase. Olives' metabolism and nutritional quality are determined by how the olive-tree is coping to climate change-related episodes, which increasingly occur in the Mediterranean. We characterize the most relevant lipophilic and phenolic compounds of olives from Olea europaea cultivars [Cobrançosa, Cordovil de Castelo Branco and Cordovil de Serpa (C.Serpa)] exposed to drought + heat. Olives from the three cultivars presented a similar qualitative profile but differed in their relative richness. Cobrançosa olives are richer in organic acids, esters and carbohydrates, while C.Serpa olives have higher levels of phenolic compounds, particularly under control conditions. Drought + heat changed the quantitative profile of olives, in a way dependent on the cultivar, and C.Serpa olives showed the highest stress susceptibility. Climate change-related conditions stimulate the accumulation of relevant bioactive compounds in olives, contributing to increasing its nutritional value.


Assuntos
Secas , Lipídeos/análise , Olea/química , Azeite de Oliva/análise , Fenóis/análise , Mudança Climática , Flavonoides/análise , Frutas/química , Frutas/metabolismo , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Iridoides/análise , Limite de Detecção , Olea/metabolismo , Fenóis/metabolismo , Análise de Componente Principal , Temperatura
12.
Food Chem ; 330: 127266, 2020 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32540528

RESUMO

The present study aimed to characterize the nutritional value and potential use of elderberries as a source of antioxidant compounds. The chemical composition, fatty acids and phenolic compounds were determined for elderberries. The optimization of extraction parameters was designed with a Box-Behnken design coupled with response surface methodology (RSM) and desirability function analysis. The process parameters tested included extraction temperature, % of ethanol and pH, while response variables were global extraction yield, total phenolic and anthocyanins content (TAC), carotenoids and antioxidant activity. Analyses revealed that elderberry was a rich source of total soluble solids, proteins and polyunsaturated fatty acids (omega-3: 38.12 g/100 g and omega-6: 39.54 g/100 g fatty acids). Regarding phenolic compounds, elderberries were found abundant in flavonoids (rutin and quercetin), and phenolic acids (i.e. gallic acid and gentisic acid). Finally, numerical optimization indicated that the best extraction parameters were the following: temperature 60 °C, 50% of ethanol and pH 2.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/análise , Antioxidantes/química , Sambucus nigra/química , Antocianinas/análise , Carotenoides/análise , Fracionamento Químico , Etanol/química , Flavonoides/análise , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Ácido Gálico/análise , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Hidroxibenzoatos/análise , Valor Nutritivo , Fenóis/análise , Extratos Vegetais/química , Quercetina/análise , Solventes , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Temperatura
13.
Food Chem ; 328: 126930, 2020 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32485581

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to quantify the phenolic compounds and to evaluate and compare the biological activities of the ethyl acetate (EtOAc), methanolic (MeOH) and aqueous extracts from the Micromeria nervosa aerial parts, based on their antioxidant activity and enzymatic inhibition. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents were calculated and individual compo3unds were detected using LC-ESI-MS/MS. The antioxidant activity was determined using six different assays while enzymatic activity was determined by α-amylase and tyrosinase enzyme inhibition. The main phenolic constituents detected in the extracts were rosmarinic acid. In the antioxidant assays the aqueous extract was shown to be more efficient than the others. The EtOAc and MeOH extracts presented higher inhibitory activity with respect to α-amylase and tyrosinase. Regardless of the solvent, the results suggest M. nervosa aerial extracts present a biological potential due to their antioxidant activity and enzymatic inhibition.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/química , Inibidores Enzimáticos/análise , Lamiaceae/química , Fenóis/análise , Extratos Vegetais/química , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Cinamatos/análise , Depsídeos/análise , Flavonoides/análise , Lamiaceae/metabolismo , Monofenol Mono-Oxigenase/antagonistas & inibidores , Monofenol Mono-Oxigenase/metabolismo , Componentes Aéreos da Planta/química , Componentes Aéreos da Planta/metabolismo , alfa-Amilases/antagonistas & inibidores , alfa-Amilases/metabolismo
14.
Food Chem ; 331: 127259, 2020 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32562977

RESUMO

Production of high-quality healthy foods through sustainable methodologies is an urgent necessity. High pressure homogenization (HPH) is an interesting alternative to obtain premium citrus juices, but its effects on bioactive compounds are unclear. There was studied the influence of HPH (150 MPa) and pasteurization (92 °C for 30 s and 85 °C for 15 s) processing on physicochemical properties and in vitro bioaccessibility of carotenoids and flavonoids in orange juices. Regarding fresh juice, physicochemical properties of samples remained unchanged although cloudiness was improved by homogenization. Pasteurization did not affect total carotenoids content and retinol activity equivalents (RAE) of juices whereas homogenization yielded a significant reduction (1.37 and 1.35-fold, respectively). Interestingly, particle size reduction from homogenization drastically enhanced (about 5-fold) bioaccessibility of carotenoids including hardly bioaccessible epoxycarotenoids, finding unaltered rates in pasteurized samples. Bioaccessibility of flavonoids was constant in all cases. Results can promote HPH as an efficient option to obtain health-enhanced foods.


Assuntos
Carotenoides/química , Citrus sinensis/química , Flavonoides/química , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais/análise , Carotenoides/análise , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Citrus sinensis/metabolismo , Flavonoides/análise , Tamanho da Partícula , Pasteurização , Pressão
15.
Food Chem ; 331: 127240, 2020 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32585546

RESUMO

The present study focused on the phytochemical profiling along with evaluation of in vitro antioxidant, α-glucosidase and α-amylase inhibitory activities of various crudes and fractions obtained from Lepisanthes fruticosa (Roxb) Leenh fruit. Ethanolic seed crude extract exhibited the strongest radical scavenging, ß-carotene bleaching activity, α-glucosidase inhibition and the highest total phenolic content (TPC). Column chromatography afforded various fractions with fraction M4 being the most potent due to the strongest radical scavenging, ß-carotene bleaching, α-glucosidase inhibition and greatest amount of TPC. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis of ethanolic seed crude extract and fraction M4 showed the presence of various phytochemicals with antioxidant and antidiabetic properties, which include mostly flavonoids and tannins. The results may suggest that the ethanolic crude seed extract and its fraction could be an excellent source of bioactive phytochemicals with antioxidant and antidiabetic potential.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/química , Inibidores Enzimáticos/análise , Fenóis/análise , Extratos Vegetais/química , Sapindaceae/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Inibidores Enzimáticos/química , Flavonoides/análise , Flavonoides/química , Frutas/química , Frutas/metabolismo , Fenóis/química , Sapindaceae/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , alfa-Amilases/antagonistas & inibidores , alfa-Amilases/metabolismo , alfa-Glucosidases/química , alfa-Glucosidases/metabolismo
16.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 19(3): 247-288, mayo 2020. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1116290

RESUMO

Selaginella is the only genus from Selaginellaceae, and it is considered a key factor in studying evolution. The family managed to survive the many biotic and abiotic pressures during the last 400 million years. The purpose of this review is to provide an up-to-date overview of Selaginella in order to recognize their potential and evaluate future research opportunities. Carbohydrates, pigments, steroids, phenolic derivatives, mainly flavonoids, and alkaloids are the main natural products in Selaginella. A wide spectrum of in vitro and in vivo pharmacological activities, some of them pointed out by folk medicine, has been reported. Future studies should afford valuable new data on better explore the biological potential of the flavonoid amentoflavone and their derivatives as chemical bioactive entities; develop studies about toxicity and, finally, concentrate efforts on elucidate mechanisms of action for biological properties already reported.


Selaginella es el único género de Selaginellaceae, y se considera un factor clave en el estudio de la evolución. La familia logró sobrevivir a las muchas presiones bióticas y abióticas durante los últimos 400 millones de años. El propósito de esta revisión es proporcionar un resumen actualizado de Selaginella para reconocer su potencial y evaluar futuras oportunidades de investigación. Los hidratos de carbono, pigmentos, esteroides, derivados fenólicos, principalmente flavonoides, y alcaloides son los principales productos naturales en Selaginella. Se ha informado un amplio espectro de actividades farmacológicas in vitro e in vivo, algunas de ellas señaladas por la medicina popular. Los estudios futuros deberían proporcionar datos nuevos y valiosos para explorar mejor el potencial biológico de la amentoflavona flavonoide y sus derivados como entidades bioactivas químicas; desarrollar estudios sobre la toxicidad y, finalmente, concentrar los esfuerzos en dilucidar los mecanismos de acción para las propiedades biológicas ya informadas.


Assuntos
Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Selaginellaceae/química , Flavonoides/análise , Alcaloides/análise , Medicina Tradicional
17.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(22): 12017-12028, 2020 06 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32434917

RESUMO

Synthetic chemical elicitors, so called plant strengtheners, can protect plants from pests and pathogens. Most plant strengtheners act by modifying defense signaling pathways, and little is known about other mechanisms by which they may increase plant resistance. Moreover, whether plant strengtheners that enhance insect resistance actually enhance crop yields is often unclear. Here, we uncover how a mechanism by which 4-fluorophenoxyacetic acid (4-FPA) protects cereals from piercing-sucking insects and thereby increases rice yield in the field. Four-FPA does not stimulate hormonal signaling, but modulates the production of peroxidases, H2O2, and flavonoids and directly triggers the formation of flavonoid polymers. The increased deposition of phenolic polymers in rice parenchyma cells of 4-FPA-treated plants is associated with a decreased capacity of the white-backed planthopper (WBPH) Sogatella furcifera to reach the plant phloem. We demonstrate that application of 4-PFA in the field enhances rice yield by reducing the abundance of, and damage caused by, insect pests. We demonstrate that 4-FPA also increases the resistance of other major cereals such as wheat and barley to piercing-sucking insect pests. This study unravels a mode of action by which plant strengtheners can suppress herbivores and increase crop yield. We postulate that this represents a conserved defense mechanism of plants against piercing-sucking insect pests, at least in cereals.


Assuntos
Acetatos/farmacologia , Comportamento Alimentar/efeitos dos fármacos , Flavonoides , Hemípteros , Imunidade Vegetal/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Bioensaio , Produtos Agrícolas/efeitos dos fármacos , Flavonoides/análise , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Herbivoria , Hordeum/efeitos dos fármacos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/análise , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Oryza/efeitos dos fármacos , Peroxidases/análise , Peroxidases/metabolismo , Controle de Pragas/métodos , Folhas de Planta/química , Triticum/efeitos dos fármacos
18.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0232185, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32396536

RESUMO

Isoetes sinensis Palmer is a critically endangered, first-class protected plant in China. Until now, researchers have primarily focused on the ultrastructure, phylogeny, and transcriptomes of the plant. However, flavonoid profiles and bioactivity of I. sinensis have not been extensively investigated. To develop the endangered I. sinensis for edible and medicinal purposes, flavonoid content, chemical constitution, and antioxidant activities were investigated in this study. Results revealed the following. 1) The total flavonoid content was determined as 10.74 ± 0.25 mg/g., 2) Antioxidant activities were stronger than most ferns, especially ABTS free radical scavenging activities. 3) Four flavones, containing apigenin, apigenin-7-glucuronide, acacetin-7-O-glcopyranoside, and homoplantageninisoetin; four flavonols, namely, isoetin, kaempferol-3-O-glucoside, quercetin-3-O-[6"-O-(3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl)-ß-D-glucopyranoside], and limocitrin-Neo; one prodelphinidin (procyanidins;) and one nothofagin (dihydrochalcone) were tentatively identified in the mass spectrometry-DAD (254nm) chromatograms. This study was the first to report on flavonoid content and antioxidant activities of I. sinensis. Stronger antioxidant activity and flavonoid content suggests that the endangered I. sinensis is an important and potentially edible and medicinal plant.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/análise , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Espécies em Perigo de Extinção , Gleiquênias/química , Flavonoides/análise , Flavonoides/farmacologia
19.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0232599, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32428000

RESUMO

Ziziphus lotus L. (Lam.) and Z. mauritiana Lam., as a widespread species in Tunisia, are well known for their medicinal and food uses. The aim of the present study was to screen the content of total polyphenols, flavonoids, and condensed tannins together with the radical scavenging capacity and the antimicrobial activity of leaves, fruits and seeds extracts of Z. lotus and Z. mauritiana from different localities. Results showed that leaves extracts presented the highest phenolic compounds content for both species. Furthermore, LC-ESI-MS analysis allowed the identification of 28 bioactive compounds regardless of species and organs, with the predominance of quinic acid and rutin. Leaves extract of Z. mauritiana possessed the highest total antioxidant capacity. The antimicrobial tests showed that leaves extracts of Z. mauritiana and Z. lotus from Oued Esseder exhibited the highest activity against four bacterial strains (Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli). The main results showed that the studied species of Ziziphus genus are an excellent source of natural bioactive molecules that could be an interesting material for industrial and food purposes.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/análise , Antioxidantes/análise , Extratos Vegetais/química , Ziziphus/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções Bacterianas/tratamento farmacológico , Flavonoides/análise , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Humanos , Fenóis/análise , Fenóis/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta/química , Polifenóis/análise , Polifenóis/farmacologia , Proantocianidinas/análise , Proantocianidinas/farmacologia
20.
Food Chem ; 326: 126993, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32408002

RESUMO

Food industries are yielding annually plentiful by-products worldwide, these concomitants could be an excellent source of natural functional ingredients. Hence, the antimicrobial and cytotoxic effects of pomegranate husk were examined and chromatographic analyzes were applied for isolation of the bioactive compounds. Lignans; isohydroxymatairesinol, punicatannin C, flavonoids; phloretin, quercetin glycoside, indolamine; punigratane, and phenolic acid; coutaric acid were identified for the first time from pomegranate pericarp, and their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic analysis. Compared to isolated compounds, which showed a weak cytotoxic effects, punicatannin C induced a moderate cytotoxic activity against HepG2 and MCF-7 cell lines. Phloretin and coutaric acid exhibited potent antimicrobial activity againstStaphylococcus epidermidis,while punigratane possesses the most substantial antimicrobial effect onMicrococcus kristinae. In conclusion, pomegranate agrifood by-product; phloretin, punigratane, and coutaric acid display remarkablemicrobicideeffects and could be used in medical, cosmetic, and food industries purposes as a safe, and economical alternative to synthetic agents.


Assuntos
Bioensaio , Romã (Fruta)/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Flavonoides/análise , Frutas/química , Humanos , Taninos Hidrolisáveis/análise , Lignanas/análise , Fenóis/análise
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