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1.
Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz ; 115: e200207, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33027419

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Since the World Health Organization (WHO) declared Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) to be a pandemic infection, important severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) non-structural proteins (nsp) have been analysed as promising targets in virtual screening approaches. Among these proteins, 3-chymotrypsin-like cysteine protease (3CLpro), also named main protease, and the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), have been identified as fundamental targets due to its importance in the viral replication stages. OBJECTIVES: To investigate, in silico, two of the most abundant flavonoid glycosides from Dysphania ambrosioides; a medicinal plant found in many regions of the world, along with some of the putative derivatives of these flavonoid glycosides in the human organism as potential inhibitors of the SARS-CoV-2 3CLpro and RdRp. METHODS: Using a molecular docking approach, the interactions and the binding affinity with SARS-CoV-2 3CLpro and RdRp were predicted for quercetin-3-O-rutinoside (rutin), kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside (nicotiflorin) and some of their glucuronide and sulfate derivatives. FINDINGS: Docking analysis, based on the crystal structure of 3CLpro and RdRp, indicated rutin, nicotiflorin, and their glucuronide and sulfate derivatives as potential inhibitors for both proteins. Also, the importance of the hydrogen bond and π-based interactions was evidenced for the presumed active sites. MAIN CONCLUSIONS: Overall, these results suggest that both flavonoid glycosides and their putative human metabolites can play a key role as inhibitors of the SARS-CoV-2 3CLpro and RdRp. Obviously, further researches, mainly in vitro and in vivo experiments, are necessary to certify the docking results reported here, as well as the adequate application of these substances. Furthermore, it is necessary to investigate the risks of D. ambrosioides as a phytomedicine for use against COVID-19.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Glicosídeos/farmacologia , RNA Replicase/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/antagonistas & inibidores , Infecções por Coronavirus , Cisteína Endopeptidases , Humanos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral
2.
Anticancer Res ; 40(9): 5201-5210, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32878808

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Persimmon (Diospyros kaki L.) leaves are popular as a tea infusion in Asia and their main active ingredients are flavonoids. The present study aimed to explore the anticancer properties of flavonoids isolated from persimmon leaves (PLF). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We investigated the in vitro anti-proliferative activity of PLF against several human cancer cell lines. Apoptosis and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced by PLF were accessed using high-content analysis with florescent staining. The ability of PLF to scavenge free radicals was evaluated by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. RESULTS: PLF demonstrated significant inhibition of proliferation of liver, breast, and colorectal cancer cells in vitro. PLF induced apoptosis and increased intracellular ROS levels in HCT116 (colorectal cancer) and HepG2 (liver cancer) cells. In addition, PLF showed strong free radical scavenging ability. CONCLUSION: The anti-proliferation activity of PLF against cancer cells was related to the induction of apoptosis and oxidative stress.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Diospyros/química , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta/química , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/química , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/isolamento & purificação , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Flavonoides/química , Flavonoides/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
3.
Molecules ; 25(17)2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32882868

RESUMO

Over the years, coronaviruses (CoV) have posed a severe public health threat, causing an increase in mortality and morbidity rates throughout the world. The recent outbreak of a novel coronavirus, named severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) caused the current Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic that affected more than 215 countries with over 23 million cases and 800,000 deaths as of today. The situation is critical, especially with the absence of specific medicines or vaccines; hence, efforts toward the development of anti-COVID-19 medicines are being intensively undertaken. One of the potential therapeutic targets of anti-COVID-19 drugs is the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). ACE2 was identified as a key functional receptor for CoV associated with COVID-19. ACE2, which is located on the surface of the host cells, binds effectively to the spike protein of CoV, thus enabling the virus to infect the epithelial cells of the host. Previous studies showed that certain flavonoids exhibit angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition activity, which plays a crucial role in the regulation of arterial blood pressure. Thus, it is being postulated that these flavonoids might also interact with ACE2. This postulation might be of interest because these compounds also show antiviral activity in vitro. This article summarizes the natural flavonoids with potential efficacy against COVID-19 through ACE2 receptor inhibition.


Assuntos
Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/farmacologia , Antivirais/farmacologia , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Produtos Biológicos/farmacologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/química , Antivirais/química , Produtos Biológicos/química , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Flavonoides/química , Humanos , Estágios do Ciclo de Vida , Modelos Moleculares , Pandemias , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/química , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/metabolismo , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Vigilância da População , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
4.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 170: 104701, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32980054

RESUMO

Fifteen flavonoids isolated from the Eupatorium adenophorum showed inhibitory activities against acetylcholinesterase (AChE) isolated from Caenorhabditis elegans and Spodoptera litura. Their IC50 values ranged from 12.54 to 89.06µg/mL and 12.08 to 86.01µg/mL, respectively against the AChE isolated from the nematode and insect species. AChE was inhibited in a dose-dependent manner by all tested flavonoids, The isolated compound quercetagetin-7-O-(6-O-caffeoyl-ß-D-glucopyranoside) displayed the highest inhibitory effect against AChE from C. elegans and S. litura, with IC50 values of 12.54 µg/mL and 12.58 µg/mL, respectively. The structure-activity relationship of flavonoids on the inhibitory activities indicated that additional phenolic hydroxyl groups in the glucose were favorable for their inhibitory effects and the degree of increase in inhibitory activity also depended on the number of phenolic hydroxyl groups. The Lineweaver-Burk and Dixon plots indicated that quercetagetin-7-O-(6-O-caffeoyl-ß-d-glucopyranoside) is a reversible inhibitor against AChE. Quercetagetin-7-O-(6-O-caffeoyl-ß-d-glucopyranoside), 5,4'-Dihydroxytlavone and quercetin-3-O-ß-d-glucopyranoside inhibited AChE in a mixed-type competitive manner and these compounds might be the dual binding site AChE inhibitors. Further, nine compounds showed poisonous effects against C. elegans and inhibitory effects on the growth and development of S. litura.


Assuntos
Acetilcolinesterase , Ageratina , Animais , Caenorhabditis elegans , Inibidores da Colinesterase/farmacologia , Flavonoides/farmacologia
5.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237076, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32750082

RESUMO

Drug resistant Salmonella species and shortcomings related to current drugs stress the urgent need to search for new antimicrobial agents to control salmonellosis. This study investigated the antisalmonellal and antioxidant potentials of methanolic and hydro-ethanolic extracts of Garcinia kola and Alchornea cordifolia as potential sources of drugs to control Salmonella species and to reduce related oxidative stress. The antisalmonellal activity was assessed using the broth microdilution, membrane destabilization and time-kill kinetic assays. While, the DPPH, ABTS and FRAP assays were used for the determination of the antioxidant activities. The minimum inhibitory concentrations ranged from 125 to 1000 µg/mL, with the methanolic root extract of G. kola being the most active. The time kill kinetic assay revealed a concentration-dependent bacteriostatic activity for promising extracts. Potent extracts from G. kola showed the ability to destabilize S. typhi outer membrane, with the methanolic root extract presenting the highest activity; two-fold higher than those of polymyxin B tested as reference. In addition, this methanolic root extract of G. kola also provoked nucleotide leakage in a concentration-dependent manner. From the antioxidant assays, the hydro-ethanolic extract from the stem bark of A. cordifolia presented significant activities comparable to that of Vitamin C. The methanolic root extract of G. kola also presented appreciable antioxidant activities, though less than that of A. cordifolia. Overall, the phytochemical screening of active extracts revealed the presence of anthocyanins, flavonoids, glycosides, phenols, tannins, triterpenoids and steroids. These results provide evidence of the antibacterial potential of G. kola and offer great perspectives in a possible standardisation of an antisalmonellal phytomedicine.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Euphorbiaceae/química , Garcinia kola/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Antocianinas/farmacologia , Camarões , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Glicosídeos/farmacologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Extratos Vegetais/química , Salmonella/efeitos dos fármacos , Taninos/farmacologia , Triterpenos/farmacologia
6.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0231612, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32810139

RESUMO

The recent focus is on the analysis of biological activities of extracts from thirteen folk medicinal plants from arid and semi-arid zones of Balochistan, Pakistan. Only a small proportion of them have been scientifically analyzed. Therefore the present investigation explores the biochemical and bioactive potential of different plant parts. Superoxide dismutase was detected maximum in Fagonia indica, (184.7±5.17 units/g), ascorbate peroxidase in Tribulus pentandrus (947.5±12.5 units/g), catalase and peroxidase were higher in Peganum harmala (555.0±5.0 and 2597.8±0.4 units/g, respectively). Maximum esterase and α-amylase activity was found in Zygophyllum fabago (14.3±0.44 and 140±18.8 mg/g, respectively). Flavonoid content was high in T. pentandrus (666.1±49 µg/ml). The highest total phenolic content and tannin was revealed in F. olivieri (72125±425 and 37050±1900 µM/g, respectively). The highest value of ascorbic acid was depicted in F. bruguieri (F.b.N) (448±1.5 µg/g). Total soluble proteins and reducing sugars were detected higher in P. harmala (372.3±54 and 5.9±0.1 mg/g, respectively). The maximum total antioxidant capacity was depicted in Tetraena simplex (16.9±0.01 µM/g). The highest value of lycopene and total carotenoids exhibited in T. terrestris (7.44±0.2 and 35.5±0.0 mg/g, respectively). Chlorophyll contents were found maximum in T. pentandrus var. pterophorus (549.1±9.9, 154.3±10, and 703.4±20.2 ug/g, respectively). All taxa exhibited anti-inflammatory activity and anti-diabetic potential. Z. eurypterum seeds exhibited the highest anti-inflammatory potential (96%), along with other taxa indicated (96-76%) activity when compared with the standard drug diclofenac sodium (79%). Seeds of T. pentandrus (85%) exhibited the highest anti-diabetic activity. The other taxa also exhibited inhibitory activity of α-amylase ranging from (85-69%) compared with Metformin (67%) standard drug. Phytochemical screening revealed that selected taxa proved to be the potential source of natural antioxidants and could further be explored for in-vivo studies and utilized in pharmaceutical industries as potent therapeutic agents validating their ethno-pharmacological uses.


Assuntos
Medicina Tradicional/métodos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Paquistão , Fenóis/farmacologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos , Plantas Medicinais/química
7.
Life Sci ; 259: 118173, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32750437

RESUMO

The prevalence of various hepatic diseases increases dramatically worldwide and regarded as a serious health problem. Sirtuins are one of the main strategic controllers of different cellular processes, including cell cycle, mitochondrial biogenesis, insulin secretion, redox balance, inflammation, and apoptosis. SIRT1 is the most prominent and broadly studied member of sirtuins that implicated in health status and longevity. Therefore, targeting the SIRT1 signaling pathways may be a reasonable therapeutic approach to treat different diseases, including hepatic disorders. Flavonoids are polyphenolic compounds widely present in different plants and possess beneficial effects against diverse diseases. In this review, we focused on the flavonoids, (-)-epicatechin, ampelopsin, baicalin, delphinidin, fisetin, epigallocatechin-3-gallate, luteolin, pinocembrin, quercetin, silibinin, trans-chalcone and xanthohumol, to verify whether their potential promising hepatoprotective effects are related to activation of SIRT1. Additionally, molecular modeling simulations were applied to explore the potential binding mode of these flavonoids to SIRT1. The complied information and molecular docking simulations suggested that SIRT1 signaling is involved in the beneficial pharmacologic activities of flavonoids in different hepatic diseases.


Assuntos
Flavonoides/uso terapêutico , Hepatopatias/tratamento farmacológico , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Sirtuína 1/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Humanos , Hepatopatias/fisiopatologia , Plantas/química
8.
Eur J Pharmacol ; 886: 173448, 2020 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32768503

RESUMO

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is distinctly infective and there is an ongoing effort to find a cure for this pandemic. Flavonoids exist in many diets as well as in traditional medicine, and their modern subset, indole-chalcones, are effective in fighting various diseases. Hence, these flavonoids and structurally similar indole chalcones derivatives were studied in silico for their pharmacokinetic properties including absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion, toxicity (ADMET) and anti-SARS-CoV-2 properties against their proteins, namely, RNA dependent RNA polymerase (rdrp), main protease (Mpro) and Spike (S) protein via homology modelling and docking. Interactions were studied with respect to biology and function of SARS-CoV-2 proteins for activity. Functional/structural roles of amino acid residues of SARS-CoV-2 proteins and, the effect of flavonoid and indole chalcone interactions which may cause disease suppression are discussed. The results reveal that out of 23 natural flavonoids and 25 synthetic indole chalcones, 30 compounds are capable of Mpro deactivation as well as potentially lowering the efficiency of Mpro function. Cyanidin may inhibit RNA polymerase function and, Quercetin is found to block interaction sites on the viral spike. These results suggest flavonoids and their modern pharmaceutical cousins, indole chalcones are capable of fighting SARS-CoV-2. The in vitro anti-SARS-CoV-2 activity of these 30 compounds needs to be studied further for complete understanding and confirmation of their inhibitory potential.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Chalconas/química , Chalconas/farmacologia , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Indóis/química , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Proteínas Virais/metabolismo , Betacoronavirus/metabolismo , Chalconas/metabolismo , Chalconas/farmacocinética , Simulação por Computador , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Flavonoides/farmacocinética , Conformação Proteica , Segurança , Distribuição Tecidual , Proteínas Virais/química
9.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237025, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32797057

RESUMO

Troxerutin (TRX) is a water-soluble flavonoid which occurs commonly in the edible plants. Recent studies state that TRX improves the functionality of the nervous system and neutralizes Amyloid-ß induced neuronal toxicity. In this study, an in vitro assay based upon Neural stem cell (NSCs) isolated from the subventricular zone of the postnatal balb/c mice was established to explore the impact of TRX on individual neurogenesis processes in general and neuroprotective effect against ß-amyloid 1-42 (Aß42) induced inhibition in differentiation in particular. NSCs were identified exploiting immunostaining of the NSCs markers. Neurosphere clonogenic assay and BrdU/Ki67 immunostaining were employed to unravel the impact of TRX on proliferation. Differentiation experiments were carried out for a time span lasting from 48 h to 7 days utilizing ß-tubulin III and GFAP as neuronal and astrocyte marker respectively. Protective effects of TRX on Aß42 induced depression of NSCs differentiation were determined after 48 h of application. A neurosphere migration assay was carried out for 24 h in the presence and absence of TRX. Interestingly, TRX enhanced neuronal differentiation of NSCs in a dose-dependent manner after 48 h and 7 days of incubation and significantly enhanced neurite growth. A higher concentration of TRX also neutralized the inhibitory effects of Aß42 on neurite outgrowth and length after 48 h of incubation. TRX significantly stimulated cell migration. Overall, TRX not only promoted NSCs differentiation and migration but also neutralized the inhibitory effects of Aß42 on NSCs. TRX, therefore, offers an interesting lead structure from the perspective of drug design especially to promote neurogenesis in neurological disorders i.e. Alzheimer's disease.


Assuntos
Hidroxietilrutosídeo/análogos & derivados , Neuritos/efeitos dos fármacos , Crescimento Neuronal/fisiologia , Precursor de Proteína beta-Amiloide/farmacologia , Animais , Astrócitos/metabolismo , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Hidroxietilrutosídeo/metabolismo , Hidroxietilrutosídeo/farmacologia , Ventrículos Laterais/efeitos dos fármacos , Ventrículos Laterais/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Células-Tronco Neurais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células-Tronco Neurais/metabolismo , Neurogênese , Neurônios/metabolismo , Neuroproteção , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/metabolismo , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia
10.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235717, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32658905

RESUMO

Vernonia amygdalina (VA) has been reported to have antioxidant potential; however, its DNA protection and anti-inflammatory properties remain unclear. We aimed to investigate whether aqueous (WEVAL) and alcoholic (EEVAL) VA extracts exert similar antioxidant, DNA protection and anti-inflammatory effects and attempted to explore the mechanism underlying the anti-inflammatory effects. These results demonstrated that WEVAL had greater polyphenolic and flavonoid contents, as well as a stronger reducing power, DPPH radical scavenging and DNA protective activity. Moreover, both extracts reduced lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced expression of COX-II, iNOS, pro-inflammatory factors, including NO, TNF-α, IL-1ß, and IL-10. Compared with WEVAL, EEVAL was a more potent inflammatory inhibitor. Both extracts similarly inhibited LPS-induced MAPK (p38) and NF-κB expression. Our findings indicate that WEVAL and EEVAL have diverse antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. WEVAL had a stronger antioxidant and DNA protection activity; contrastingly, EEVAL had a stronger anti-inflammatory ability. The anti-inflammatory activity involves reduced pro-inflammatory cytokines through NF-κB down-regulation and MAPK inhibition. These results demonstrated that production of WEVAL and EEVAL from VA leaves may provide a safe and efficacious source of pharmaceutical applications, with antioxidant, DNA protective and anti-inflammation activities.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta/química , Vernonia/química , Proliferação de Células , Células Cultivadas , Citocinas/genética , Citocinas/metabolismo , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Humanos , Inflamação/imunologia , Inflamação/metabolismo , Macrófagos/citologia , Macrófagos/imunologia , Macrófagos/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/genética , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais
11.
Mol Immunol ; 125: 162-171, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32688118

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Baicalin has many biological properties such as anti-oxidation and anti-allergy. The current study aimed to explore the effect of Baicalin on allergic rhinitis (AR) and its potential mechanism of action. METHODS: Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were isolated by density gradient centrifugation. Expression levels of Th17 and Treg cells-related proteins in nasal mucosa and peripheral blood cells were detected by real-time quantitative PCR, flow cytometry and Western blot. The mice were randomly divided into Control, ovalbumin (OVA), l-Baicalin, H-Baicalin, DSGC, 3-MA, and H-Baicalin + Rapa groups. Changes of allergic rhinitis conditions and eosinophil infiltration of the mice were detected and scored by Diff-Quik staining, and histological changes were observed by Hematoxylin & Eosin (H&E) staining and Periodate Schiff (PAS) staining. Serological changes, expression levels of interleukin-17A (IL-17A), interleukin-10 (IL-10), eosinophilic cationic protein (ECP) and anti-OVA-specific antibodies were detected by Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). RESULTS: Clinical case analysis found that AR patients had a Th17/Treg imbalance and activated autophagy, however, Baicalin restored Th17/Treg cell balance and inhibited autophagy in vitro. in vivo experiments demonstrated that Baicalin inhibited OVA-induced allergic nasal symptoms and the activation of autophagy pathway, which was the same as the regulation of 3-MA, while Rapa could weaken the effects of H-baicalin. Moreover, Baicalin reduced the infiltration of different inflammatory cells of the nasal lavage fluid, prevented the damages to epithelial cells, and improved nasal mucosal thickness and mucus secretion. In addition, Baicalin regulated the balance of mouse anti-OVA-specific antibody levels and expressions of Th17/Treg-associated cytokines. CONCLUSION: Our study revealed that Baicalin can be used to treat AR, and the effect is realized through inhibiting autophagy to regulate Th17/Treg cell differentiation.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/farmacologia , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Rinite Alérgica/imunologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Th17/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Autofagia/imunologia , Humanos , Camundongos , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia , Células Th17/imunologia
12.
Arch Biochem Biophys ; 690: 108505, 2020 09 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32679195

RESUMO

Obesity has major adverse consequences on human health contributing to the development of, among others, insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, altered behavior and cognition, and cancer. Changes in dietary habits and lifestyle could contribute to mitigate the development and/or progression of these pathologies. This review will discuss current evidence on the beneficial actions of the flavan-3-ol (-)-epicatechin (EC) on obesity-associated comorbidities. These benefits can be in part explained through EC's capacity to mitigate several common events underlying the development of these pathologies, including: i) high circulating levels of glucose, lipids and endotoxins; ii) chronic systemic inflammation; iii) tissue endoplasmic reticulum and oxidative stress; iv) insulin resistance; v) mitochondria dysfunction and vi) dysbiosis. The currently known underlying mechanisms and cellular targets of EC's beneficial effects are discussed. While, there is limited evidence from human studies supplementing with pure EC, other studies involving cocoa supplementation in humans, pure EC in rodents and in vitro studies, support a potential beneficial action of EC on obesity-associated comorbidities. This evidence also stresses the need of further research in the field, which would contribute to the development of human dietary strategies to mitigate the adverse consequences of obesity.


Assuntos
Catequina/farmacologia , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/complicações , Doenças Cardiovasculares/tratamento farmacológico , Comorbidade , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Disbiose/metabolismo , Dislipidemias/metabolismo , Retículo Endoplasmático/metabolismo , Endotoxinas/metabolismo , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Humanos , Inflamação/metabolismo , Resistência à Insulina , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Transtornos Mentais/complicações , Transtornos Mentais/tratamento farmacológico , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/complicações , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/tratamento farmacológico , Estresse Oxidativo
13.
Anticancer Res ; 40(8): 4547-4556, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32727785

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Phosphatidyl-inositol-3-kinase (PI3K), a cancer therapeutic target, has been exploited for cancer therapy. The natural compounds flavonoids have increasingly been shown to possess anticancer activity. The current study aimed to explore all known flavonoids for their ability to inhibit PI3Kγ. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Virtual screening of flavonoids using molecular docking to the ATP binding site of PI3Kγ was performed. The top 10 scoring flavonoids were selected for pose analysis and binding strength scores. RESULTS: Molecular docking revealed that the 10 selected flavonoids might inhibit PI3Kγ kinase activity. Literature search did not identify studies reporting a bioassay activity for any of these compounds. CONCLUSION: All 10 selected flavonoids are potential PI3Kγ kinase inhibitors and anticancer agents. Interestingly, one of the 10 least scoring flavonoids has been reported to be inactive, as expected, and thus validating the accuracy of the results.


Assuntos
Classe Ib de Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinase/química , Classe Ib de Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinase/metabolismo , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Neoplasias/enzimologia , Sítios de Ligação , Simulação por Computador , Regulação para Baixo , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Flavonoides/química , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Modelos Moleculares , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Estrutura Molecular , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico
14.
Molecules ; 25(11)2020 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-593255

RESUMO

Flavonoids are widely used as phytomedicines. Here, we report on flavonoid phytomedicines with potential for development into prophylactics or therapeutics against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). These flavonoid-based phytomedicines include: caflanone, Equivir, hesperetin, myricetin, and Linebacker. Our in silico studies show that these flavonoid-based molecules can bind with high affinity to the spike protein, helicase, and protease sites on the ACE2 receptor used by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 to infect cells and cause COVID-19. Meanwhile, in vitro studies show potential of caflanone to inhibit virus entry factors including, ABL-2, cathepsin L, cytokines (IL-1ß, IL-6, IL-8, Mip-1α, TNF-α), and PI4Kiiiß as well as AXL-2, which facilitates mother-to-fetus transmission of coronavirus. The potential for the use of smart drug delivery technologies like nanoparticle drones loaded with these phytomedicines to overcome bioavailability limitations and improve therapeutic efficacy are discussed.


Assuntos
Antivirais/farmacologia , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Coronavirus Humano OC43/efeitos dos fármacos , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/química , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/química , Animais , Antivirais/química , Betacoronavirus/química , Betacoronavirus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sítios de Ligação , Cloroquina/química , Cloroquina/farmacologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/genética , Coronavirus Humano OC43/química , Coronavirus Humano OC43/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Portadores de Fármacos/administração & dosagem , Portadores de Fármacos/química , Flavonoides/química , Humanos , Interleucinas/antagonistas & inibidores , Interleucinas/química , Interleucinas/genética , Interleucinas/metabolismo , Leucócitos Mononucleares/efeitos dos fármacos , Leucócitos Mononucleares/virologia , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Pulmão/patologia , Pulmão/virologia , Camundongos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Nanopartículas/administração & dosagem , Nanopartículas/química , Pandemias , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/genética , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/metabolismo , Fitoterapia/métodos , Pneumonia Viral/genética , Cultura Primária de Células , Ligação Proteica , Domínios e Motivos de Interação entre Proteínas , Proteínas Tirosina Quinases/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas Tirosina Quinases/química , Proteínas Tirosina Quinases/genética , Proteínas Tirosina Quinases/metabolismo , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/antagonistas & inibidores , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/metabolismo , Termodinâmica , Internalização do Vírus/efeitos dos fármacos
15.
Gen Physiol Biophys ; 39(3): 249-258, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32525818

RESUMO

Nitric oxide is known as relaxing factor because it acts as a vasodilator, increases blood flow, and inhibits platelet aggregation and adhesion, on the other hand nitric oxide can modulate cellular and physiological processes to limit oxidative injury, limiting processes such as leukocyte adhesion. As the complete mechanism of myricetin and its cardiovascular benefits is not completely understood, the aim of this study was to investigate the antihypertensive activity of myricetin in human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC). Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) activity, nitric oxide production, reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger activity, cellular calcium concentration, and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activity and protein expression was investigated in HUVEC treated with different concentration of myricetin (1-60 µM). Myricetin increased nitric oxide production in HUVEC through decreased ROS levels and increased nitric oxide production and eNOS activation. Activation of eNOS enzyme was achieved by an increase of cellular calcium concentration. At the same examined concentration of myricetin, the activity of ACE was significantly inhibited. These findings indicate that myricetin may be helpful for lowering blood pressure; this could be achieved through dietary intervention or by the production of new antihypertensive treatments from a natural product.


Assuntos
Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/farmacologia , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/efeitos dos fármacos , Óxido Nítrico/biossíntese , Células Cultivadas , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/metabolismo , Humanos , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo III , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/metabolismo
16.
Life Sci ; 257: 118010, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32598932

RESUMO

Podocyte injury is an early event and core in the development of focal segmental glomerular sclerosis (FSGS) that induces poor prognosis. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) as a response of podocyte to injury leads to podocyte depletion and proteinuria. The abnormally reactivated NOTCH pathway may be involved in podocyte EMT. Baicalin, as a natural flavonoid compound, had significant inhibitory activity on tissue fibrosis and tumor cell invasion. However, its potential role and molecular mechanisms to injured podocyte in FSGS are little known. Here we found that baicalin could inhibit podocyte EMT markers expression and cell migration induced by TGF-ß1, accompanied by the up-regulated expression of slit diaphragm (SD) proteins and cell-cell adhesion molecule. Further investigation revealed that EMT inhibition of baicalin on injured podocyte is mainly mediated by the reduction of notch1 activation and its downstream Snail expression. Using the adriamycin-induced FSGS model, we determined that baicalin suppresses the Notch1-Snail axis activation in podocytes, relieves glomerulus structural disruption and dysfunction, and reduces proteinuria. Altogether, these findings suggest that baicalin is a novel renoprotective agent against podocyte EMT in FSGS and indicate its underlying mechanism that involves in negative regulation of the Notch1-Snail axis.


Assuntos
Flavonoides/farmacologia , Glomerulosclerose Segmentar e Focal/tratamento farmacológico , Proteinúria/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Doxorrubicina/metabolismo , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Glomerulosclerose Segmentar e Focal/metabolismo , Glomérulos Renais/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Podócitos/metabolismo , Proteinúria/metabolismo , Receptor Notch1/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição da Família Snail/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/metabolismo
17.
Chem Biol Interact ; 327: 109186, 2020 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32590071

RESUMO

In this study, we scrutinized the anticancer effects of FB-15 on human gastric carcinoma MGC-803 cells in vitro and vivo, and its preliminary effect on tubulin and HIF-1α. We confirmed that FB-15 not only inhibited the proliferation of a large number of cells in a concentration and time-dependent manner but also inhibited proliferation of a single cell to form clones. FB-15 manifested little cytotoxicity for normal stomach cells GES-1. The flow cytometry analysis displayed that FB-15 induced apoptosis MGC-803 cells and mainly arrested cells in the S phase in a concentration-dependent manner. The results of the wound healing assay indicated that FB-15 suppressed cell migration. Furthermore, the western blotting showed that FB-15 down-regulated the expression of ß3-tubulin and HIF-1α, consistent with Immunohistochemical assay. The binding modes of FB-15 with tubulin were clarified by molecular docking. FB-15 significantly suppressed the growth of MGC-803 gastric cancer tumors. The inhibitory effect of FB-15 on tumor growth was superior to 5-Fu. Taken together, these results provided evidence for FB-15 to be used as an effective anticancer drug candidate for gastric cancer.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Benzimidazóis/uso terapêutico , Metabolismo Energético/efeitos dos fármacos , Flavonoides/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Gástricas/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Antineoplásicos/metabolismo , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Benzimidazóis/metabolismo , Benzimidazóis/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Humanos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Nus , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Ligação Proteica , Pontos de Checagem da Fase S do Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias Gástricas/patologia , Tubulina (Proteína)/metabolismo , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
18.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(25): e20628, 2020 Jun 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32569193

RESUMO

Traditional Chinese medicines are used in promotion of fractured bone healing and bone diseases. Some studies reported total flavonoids from plant can be used as an auxiliary source of exogenous.Use different methods to identify and verify effects of total flavonoids from Arachniodes exilis (TFAE) on human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (HUCMSCs) in vitro.Concentrations of 1 and 5 µg/mL TFAE significantly increased ALPase activity in HUCMSCs compared to the other concentrations at days 3 and 7 (P < .05). RT-PCR showed that expression levels of osteogenic genes (Col1a1, OPN, Runx2 and Osx) were remarkably enhanced in HUCMSCs following treatment with different concentrations of TFAE for 9 days compared with 0 µg/mL TFAE group (control). The results showed that concentration < 5 µg/mL of TFAE induced osteogenic differentiation in HUCMSCs Alizarin red staining assays revealed that both TFAE and S1191 was significantly decreased (7.80 ±â€Š0.66) compared with the TFAE group (16.00 ±â€Š0.97) (P < .01). ALPase activity on days 3 and 7 was relatively lower in HUCMSCs grown in media supplemented with both S1191 and TFAE than that of in TFAE group only. The results indicated that osteogenic markers (Col1a1, OPN, Runx2 and Osx) were significantly downregulated in the TFAE + S1191 group in comparison to the control group. The expressions of Col1a and OPN in the TFAE + S1191 group decreased significantly (P < .01) by Western blotting.TFAE promotes the odonto/osteogenic differentiation of human UCMSCs via activation of ER.


Assuntos
Flavonoides/farmacologia , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/efeitos dos fármacos , Osteogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Plantas Medicinais/química , Cordão Umbilical/citologia , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Humanos , Técnicas In Vitro , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa
19.
Clin Sci (Lond) ; 134(12): 1403-1432, 2020 06 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32556180

RESUMO

Flavonoids are polyphenolic compounds naturally occurring in fruits and vegetables, in addition to beverages such as tea and coffee. Flavonoids are emerging as potent therapeutic agents for cardiovascular as well as metabolic diseases. Several studies corroborated an inverse relationship between flavonoid consumption and cardiovascular disease (CVD) or adipose tissue inflammation (ATI). Flavonoids exert their anti-atherogenic effects by increasing nitric oxide (NO), reducing reactive oxygen species (ROS), and decreasing pro-inflammatory cytokines. In addition, flavonoids alleviate ATI by decreasing triglyceride and cholesterol levels, as well as by attenuating inflammatory mediators. Furthermore, flavonoids inhibit synthesis of fatty acids and promote their oxidation. In this review, we discuss the effect of the main classes of flavonoids, namely flavones, flavonols, flavanols, flavanones, anthocyanins, and isoflavones, on atherosclerosis and ATI. In addition, we dissect the underlying molecular and cellular mechanisms of action for these flavonoids. We conclude by supporting the potential benefit for flavonoids in the management or treatment of CVD; yet, we call for more robust clinical studies for safety and pharmacokinetic values.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/patologia , Aterosclerose/tratamento farmacológico , Flavonoides/uso terapêutico , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Aterosclerose/complicações , Flavonoides/química , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Humanos , Inflamação/complicações , Modelos Biológicos
20.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234468, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32530958

RESUMO

Flavonoids are plant-derived compounds that occur abundantly in fruits and vegetables and have been shown to possess potent anti-cancer, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory properties. However, their direct targets and molecular mechanism of action are not well characterized, hampering exploitation of the beneficial properties of flavonoids for drug development. Small ubiquitin-related modifier 1 (SUMO1) is attached to target proteins as part of a post-translational modification system implicated in a myriad of cellular processes from nuclear trafficking to transcriptional regulation. Using a combination of surface plasmon resonance, differential scanning fluorimetry and fluorescence quenching studies, we provide evidence for direct binding of the dietary flavonoid fisetin to human SUMO1. Our NMR chemical shift perturbation analyses reveal that binding to fisetin involves four conserved amino acid residues (L65, F66, E67, M82) previously shown to be important for conjugation of SUMO1 to target proteins. In vitro sumoylation experiments indicate that fisetin blocks sumoylation of tumor suppressor p53, consistent with fisetin negatively affecting post-translational modification and thus the biological activity of p53. A series of differential scanning fluorimetry experiments suggest that high concentrations of fisetin result in destabilization and unfolding of SUMO1, presenting a molecular mechanism by which flavonoid binding affects its activity. Overall, our data establish a novel direct interaction between fisetin and SUMO1, providing a mechanistic explanation for the ability of fisetin to modulate multiple key signaling pathways inside cells.


Assuntos
Flavonoides/metabolismo , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Proteína SUMO-1/metabolismo , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/metabolismo , Dieta , Humanos , Ligação Proteica , Saccharomyces cerevisiae , Sumoilação/efeitos dos fármacos
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