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1.
Molecules ; 26(16)2021 Aug 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34443305

RESUMO

The local botanical Imperata cylindrica in Cameroon was investigated for its antibacterial potency. The methanol extract afforded a total of seven compounds, including five hitherto unreported compounds comprising three flavonoids (1-3) and two C-15 isoprenoid analogues (4 and 5) together with known derivatives (6 and 7). The novelty of the flavonoids was related to the presence of both methyl and prenyl groups. The potential origin of the methyl in the flavonoids is discussed, as well as the chemophenetic significance of our findings. Isolation was performed over repeated silica gel and Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography and the structures were elucidated by (NMR and MS). The crude methanol extract and isolated compounds showed considerable antibacterial potency against a panel of multi-drug resistant (MDR) bacterial strains. The best MIC values were obtained with compound (2) against S. aureus ATCC 25923 (32 µg/mL) and MRSA1 (16 µg/mL).


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Poaceae/química , Prenilação , Terpenos/farmacologia , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética Nuclear de Carbono-13 , Flavonoides/química , Flavonoides/isolamento & purificação , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Espectroscopia de Prótons por Ressonância Magnética , Terpenos/química , Terpenos/isolamento & purificação
2.
Molecules ; 26(16)2021 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34443495

RESUMO

Phytochemical investigation and chromatographic separation of extracts from the actinobacteria strain Saccharomonospora piscinae that was isolated from dried fishpond sediment of Kouhu township, in the south of Taiwan, led to the isolation of three new compounds, saccharpiscinols A-C (1-3, respectively), and three new natural products, namely (2S)-5,7,3',4'-tetrahydroxy-6,8-dimethylflavanone (4), methyl-4-hydroxy-2-methoxy-6-methylbenzoate (5), and (±)-7-acetyl-4,8-dihydroxy-6-methyl-1-tetralone (6). Compounds 4-6 were reported before as synthesized products, herein, they are reported from nature for the first time. The structures of the new compounds were unambiguously elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic data analysis (1D- and 2D-NMR, MS, and UV) and comparison with literature data. The effect of some isolates on the inhibition of NO production in lipopolysaccharide-activated RAW 264.7 murine macrophages was evaluated. Saccharpiscinol A showed inhibitory activities against LPS-induced NO production.


Assuntos
Actinobacteria/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Misturas Complexas , Flavonoides/química , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Camundongos , Óxido Nítrico/biossíntese , Células RAW 264.7
3.
Molecules ; 26(15)2021 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361853

RESUMO

Phenolic compounds and thiamine may serve as therapies against oxidative stress-related neurodegenerative diseases. However, it is important to note that these components show high instability under changing conditions. The study's aim was to determine the impact of the thiamine concentration (hydrochloride-TH and pyrophosphate-TP; in the range 0.02 to 20 mg/100 g on the indices of the chelating properties and reducing power, and free radicals scavenging indices of EGCG, EGC, ECG and caffeine added from 0.04 to 6.0 mg/100 g. Our research confirmed that higher concentrations of TH and TP can exhibit significant activity against the test antioxidant indices of all components. When above 5.0 mg/100 g of thiamine was used, the radical scavenging abilities of the compound decreased in the following order: EGCG > ECG > EGC > caffeine. The highest correlation was found for the concentration of thiamine pyrophosphate to 20.0 mg/100 g and EGCG. Knowledge of the impact of factors associated with the concentration of both EGCG, EGC, ECG or caffeine and thiamine on their activity could carry weight in regulating the quality supplemented foods, especially of nutrition support for people of all ages were oral, enteral tube feeding and parenteral nutrition).


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/química , Cafeína/química , Composição de Medicamentos , Flavonoides/química , Tiamina/química
4.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 187: 976-987, 2021 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34333006

RESUMO

Coronavirus 3C-like protease (3CLpro) is a crucial target for treating coronavirus diseases including COVID-19. Our preliminary screening showed that Ampelopsis grossedentata extract (AGE) displayed potent SARS-CoV-2-3CLpro inhibitory activity, but the key constituents with SARS-CoV-2-3CLpro inhibitory effect and their mechanisms were unrevealed. Herein, a practical strategy via integrating bioactivity-guided fractionation and purification, mass spectrometry-based peptide profiling and time-dependent biochemical assay, was applied to identify the crucial constituents in AGE and to uncover their inhibitory mechanisms. The results demonstrated that the flavonoid-rich fractions (10-17.5 min) displayed strong SARS-CoV-2-3CLpro inhibitory activities, while the constituents in these fractions were isolated and their SARS-CoV-2-3CLpro inhibitory activities were investigated. Among all isolated flavonoids, dihydromyricetin, isodihydromyricetin and myricetin strongly inhibited SARS-CoV-2 3CLpro in a time-dependent manner. Further investigations demonstrated that myricetin could covalently bind on SARS-CoV-2 3CLpro at Cys300 and Cys44, while dihydromyricetin and isodihydromyricetin covalently bound at Cys300. Covalent docking coupling with molecular dynamics simulations showed the detailed interactions between the orthoquinone form of myricetin and two covalent binding sites (surrounding Cys300 and Cys44) of SARS-CoV-2 3CLpro. Collectively, the flavonoids in AGE strongly and time-dependently inhibit SARS-CoV-2 3CLpro, while the newly identified SARS-CoV-2 3CLpro inhibitors in AGE offer promising lead compounds for developing novel antiviral agents.


Assuntos
Proteases Virais 3C/química , Proteases Virais 3C/metabolismo , Ampelopsis/química , Antivirais/farmacologia , Flavonoides/farmacologia , SARS-CoV-2/enzimologia , Antivirais/química , Sítios de Ligação/efeitos dos fármacos , Cisteína/metabolismo , Flavonoides/química , Flavonóis/química , Flavonóis/farmacologia , Espectrometria de Massas , Modelos Moleculares , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Inibidores de Proteases/química , Inibidores de Proteases/farmacologia , Ligação Proteica/efeitos dos fármacos , Conformação Proteica/efeitos dos fármacos , SARS-CoV-2/efeitos dos fármacos
5.
Biomolecules ; 11(8)2021 08 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34439920

RESUMO

In 2019, COVID-19 emerged as a severe respiratory disease that is caused by the novel coronavirus, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). The disease has been associated with high mortality rate, especially in patients with comorbidities such as diabetes, cardiovascular and kidney diseases. This could be attributed to dysregulated immune responses and severe systemic inflammation in COVID-19 patients. The use of effective antiviral drugs against SARS-CoV-2 and modulation of the immune responses could be a potential therapeutic strategy for COVID-19. Studies have shown that natural phenolic compounds have several pharmacological properties, including anticoronavirus and immunomodulatory activities. Therefore, this review discusses the dual action of these natural products from the perspective of applicability at COVID-19.


Assuntos
Antivirais/uso terapêutico , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Flavonoides/uso terapêutico , Fatores Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Compostos Fitoquímicos/uso terapêutico , Inibidores de Proteases/uso terapêutico , Animais , Antivirais/química , Antivirais/farmacologia , Coronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Flavonoides/química , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Humanos , Fatores Imunológicos/química , Fatores Imunológicos/farmacologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Inibidores de Proteases/química , Inibidores de Proteases/farmacologia
6.
Molecules ; 26(16)2021 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34443365

RESUMO

(±)-Anastatins A and B are flavonoids isolated from Anastatica hierochuntica. In a previous study, twenty-four di- and tri-substituted novel derivatives of anastatins were designed and their preliminary antioxidant activities were evaluated. In the present study, the protective effect of myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) and the systematic antioxidant capacity of 24 derivatives were further studied. Compound 13 was the most potent among all the compounds studied, which increased the survival of H9c2 cells to 80.82%. The antioxidant capability of compound 13 was evaluated in ferric reducing antioxidant power, 2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radical scavenging, and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl assays. It was observed that compound 13 significantly reduced infarcted areas and improved histopathological and electrocardiogram changes in rats with myocardial I/R injury. Moreover, compound 13 decreased the leakage rates of serum lactate dehydrogenase, creatine kinase, and malonyldialdehyde from rat myocardial tissues and increased the level of glutathione and superoxide dismutase activities following myocardial I/R injury in rats. Taken together, we concluded that compound 13 had potent cardioprotective effects against myocardial I/R injury both in vitro and in vivo owing to its extensive antioxidant activities.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Flavonoides/química , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Traumatismo por Reperfusão Miocárdica/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Flavonoides/uso terapêutico , Glutationa/metabolismo , Masculino , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Traumatismo por Reperfusão Miocárdica/metabolismo , Traumatismo por Reperfusão Miocárdica/patologia , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos
7.
Molecules ; 26(15)2021 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361776

RESUMO

In this study, we examined aqueous extracts of the edible mushrooms Pleurotus ostreatus (oyster mushroom) and Lentinula edodes (shiitake mushroom). Proteome analysis was conducted using LC-Triple TOF-MS and showed the expression of 753 proteins by Pleurotus ostreatus, and 432 proteins by Lentinula edodes. Bioactive peptides: Rab GDP dissociation inhibitor, superoxide dismutase, thioredoxin reductase, serine proteinase and lectin, were identified in both mushrooms. The extracts also included promising bioactive compounds including phenolics, flavonoids, vitamins and amino acids. The extracts showed promising antiviral activities, with a selectivity index (SI) of 4.5 for Pleurotus ostreatus against adenovirus (Ad7), and a slight activity for Lentinula edodes against herpes simplex-II (HSV-2). The extracts were not cytotoxic to normal human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). On the contrary, they showed moderate cytotoxicity against various cancer cell lines. Additionally, antioxidant activity was assessed using DPPH radical scavenging, ABTS radical cation scavenging and ORAC assays. The two extracts showed potential antioxidant activities, with the maximum activity seen for Pleurotus ostreatus (IC50 µg/mL) = 39.46 ± 1.27 for DPPH; 11.22 ± 1.81 for ABTS; and 21.40 ± 2.20 for ORAC assays. This study encourages the use of these mushrooms in medicine in the light of their low cytotoxicity on normal PBMCs vis à vis their antiviral, antitumor and antioxidant capabilities.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/química , Antioxidantes/química , Antivirais/química , Proteínas Fúngicas/química , Pleurotus/química , Proteoma/química , Cogumelos Shiitake/química , Aminoácidos/química , Aminoácidos/isolamento & purificação , Antineoplásicos/isolamento & purificação , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Antivirais/isolamento & purificação , Antivirais/farmacologia , Benzotiazóis/antagonistas & inibidores , Compostos de Bifenilo/antagonistas & inibidores , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Misturas Complexas/química , Flavonoides/química , Flavonoides/isolamento & purificação , Proteínas Fúngicas/classificação , Proteínas Fúngicas/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Lectinas/química , Lectinas/isolamento & purificação , Leucócitos Mononucleares/citologia , Leucócitos Mononucleares/efeitos dos fármacos , Especificidade de Órgãos , Fenóis/química , Fenóis/isolamento & purificação , Picratos/antagonistas & inibidores , Pleurotus/metabolismo , Cultura Primária de Células , Proteoma/classificação , Proteoma/isolamento & purificação , Serina Proteases/química , Serina Proteases/isolamento & purificação , Cogumelos Shiitake/metabolismo , Ácidos Sulfônicos/antagonistas & inibidores , Superóxido Dismutase/química , Superóxido Dismutase/isolamento & purificação , Tiorredoxina Dissulfeto Redutase/química , Tiorredoxina Dissulfeto Redutase/isolamento & purificação , Vitaminas/química , Vitaminas/isolamento & purificação , Água/química
8.
Molecules ; 26(15)2021 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361788

RESUMO

This research investigated a UPLC-QTOF/ESI-MS-based phytochemical profiling of Combretum indicum leaf extract (CILEx), and explored its in vitro antioxidant and in vivo antidiabetic effects in a Long-Evans rat model. After a one-week intervention, the animals' blood glucose, lipid profile, and pancreatic architectures were evaluated. UPLC-QTOF/ESI-MS fragmentation of CILEx and its eight docking-guided compounds were further dissected to evaluate their roles using bioinformatics-based network pharmacological tools. Results showed a very promising antioxidative effect of CILEx. Both doses of CILEx were found to significantly (p < 0.05) reduce blood glucose, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and total cholesterol (TC), and increase high-density lipoprotein (HDL). Pancreatic tissue architectures were much improved compared to the diabetic control group. A computational approach revealed that schizonepetoside E, melianol, leucodelphinidin, and arbutin were highly suitable for further therapeutic assessment. Arbutin, in a Gene Ontology and PPI network study, evolved as the most prospective constituent for 203 target proteins of 48 KEGG pathways regulating immune modulation and insulin secretion to control diabetes. The fragmentation mechanisms of the compounds are consistent with the obtained effects for CILEx. Results show that the natural compounds from CILEx could exert potential antidiabetic effects through in vivo and computational study.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Combretum/química , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Arbutina/química , Arbutina/isolamento & purificação , Sítios de Ligação , Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , HDL-Colesterol/agonistas , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , LDL-Colesterol/antagonistas & inibidores , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/patologia , Flavonoides/química , Flavonoides/isolamento & purificação , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Hipoglicemiantes/química , Hipoglicemiantes/isolamento & purificação , Insulina/agonistas , Insulina/metabolismo , Masculino , Modelos Moleculares , Pâncreas/efeitos dos fármacos , Pâncreas/metabolismo , Pâncreas/patologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Ligação Proteica , Conformação Proteica , Ratos , Ratos Long-Evans , Triterpenos/química , Triterpenos/isolamento & purificação
9.
Molecules ; 26(15)2021 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361795

RESUMO

Although Australia is the largest exporter of faba bean globally, there is limited information available on the levels of bioactive compounds found in current commercial faba bean varieties grown in this country. This study profiled the phenolic acid and flavonoid composition of 10 Australian faba bean varieties, grown at two different locations. Phenolic profiling by HPLC-DAD revealed the most abundant flavonoid to be catechin, followed by rutin. For the phenolic acids, syringic acid was found in high concentrations (72.4-122.5 mg/kg), while protocatechuic, vanillic, p-hydroxybenzoic, chlorogenic, p-coumaric, and trans-ferulic acid were all found in low concentrations. The content of most individual phenolics varied significantly with the variety, while some effect of the growing location was also observed. This information could be used by food processors and plant breeders to maximise the potential health benefits of Australian-grown faba bean.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/química , Produtos Agrícolas/química , Flavonoides/química , Vicia faba/química , Antioxidantes/classificação , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Austrália , Catequina/química , Catequina/isolamento & purificação , Ácido Clorogênico/química , Ácido Clorogênico/isolamento & purificação , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Ácidos Cumáricos/química , Ácidos Cumáricos/isolamento & purificação , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Produtos Agrícolas/metabolismo , Flavonoides/classificação , Flavonoides/isolamento & purificação , Ácido Gálico/análogos & derivados , Ácido Gálico/química , Ácido Gálico/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Hidroxibenzoatos/química , Hidroxibenzoatos/isolamento & purificação , Parabenos/química , Parabenos/isolamento & purificação , Rutina/química , Rutina/isolamento & purificação , Ácido Vanílico/química , Ácido Vanílico/isolamento & purificação , Vicia faba/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Vicia faba/metabolismo
10.
Molecules ; 26(16)2021 Aug 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34443698

RESUMO

There are tens of thousands of scientific papers about flavonoids and their impacts on human health. However, despite the vast amount of energy that has been put toward studying these compounds, a unified molecular mechanism that explains their bioactivity remains elusive. One contributing factor to the absence of a general mechanistic explanation of their bioactivity is the complexity of flavonoid chemistry in aqueous solutions at neutral pH. Flavonoids have acidic protons, are redox active, and frequently auto-oxidize to produce an array of degradation products including electrophilic quinones. Flavonoids are also known to interact with specificity and high affinity with a variety of proteins, and there is evidence that some of these interactions may be covalent. This review summarizes the mechanisms of flavonoid oxidation in aqueous solutions at neutral pH and proposes the formation of protein-flavonoid adducts or flavonoid-induced protein oxidation as putative mechanisms of flavonoid bioactivity in cells. Nucleophilic residues in proteins may be able to form covalent bonds with flavonoid quinones; alternatively, specific amino acid residues such as cysteine, methionine, or tyrosine in proteins could be oxidized by flavonoids. In either case, these protein-flavonoid interactions would likely occur at specific binding sites and the formation of these types of products could effectively explain how flavonoids modify proteins in cells to induce downstream biochemical and cellular changes.


Assuntos
Flavonoides/farmacologia , Proteínas/metabolismo , Animais , Flavonoides/química , Humanos , Modelos Moleculares , Oxirredução , Soluções
11.
Molecules ; 26(15)2021 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361741

RESUMO

Due to their richness of bioactive substances, rose hips are a valuable raw material for obtaining extracts with potential antimicrobial activity. The aim of the study was to determine the antagonistic potential of whole pseudo-fruit and flesh extracts of three Rosa sp. varieties against Staphylococcus spp. bacteria isolated as food contaminants. The biological material in this study consisted of seven strains of bacteria from the genus Staphylococcus. Two strains-Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 and Staphylococcus epidermidis DSMZ 3270-were used as reference strains. The other five strains were food-derived isolates-S. epidermidis A5, S. xylosus M5, S. haemolyticus M6, S. capitis KR6, and S. warneri KR2A. The material was the pseudo-fruits of Rosa canina, Rosa pomifera Karpatia, and Rosa rugosa. The polyphenols were extracted from the fleshy part and the whole pseudo-fruit for all rose varieties. The tested preparations differed significantly in their polyphenol composition. The sum of polyphenols ranged from 28 862 to 35 358 mg/100 g of lyophilisate. The main groups of polyphenols found in the preparations were flavanols and ellagitannins. All of the tested extracts inhibited the growth of staphylococci at a concentration of 500 mg/mL. Rosa rugosa fruit extract showed the strongest antimicrobial properties among the studied extracts. For all the strains, the growth inhibition had a diameter of 20.3-29.0 mm. Moreover, six out of the seven tested strains showed the highest inhibition with the use of this extract. The MIC of rose extracts was in the range of 3.125-500 mg/mL and was strictly dependent on the bacterial species, the species of the rose, and the part of the fruit from which the extract was obtained. Correlations were assessed between the main groups of polyphenols in the extracts and their inhibition of bacterial growth. In the case of pseudo-fruit extracts, the inhibitory effect on bacterial growth positively correlated with the content of ellagitannins, and this effect was observed for almost all the tested strains. The results presented herein follow the current trend of minimising the use of chemical preservatives in food; from this point of view, rose extracts are very promising.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/química , Flavonoides/química , Taninos Hidrolisáveis/química , Polifenóis/química , Rosa/química , Antibacterianos/isolamento & purificação , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Flavonoides/isolamento & purificação , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Contaminação de Alimentos/prevenção & controle , Microbiologia de Alimentos/métodos , Frutas/química , Humanos , Taninos Hidrolisáveis/isolamento & purificação , Taninos Hidrolisáveis/farmacologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Extratos Vegetais/química , Polifenóis/isolamento & purificação , Polifenóis/farmacologia , Staphylococcus/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Staphylococcus capitis/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus capitis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Staphylococcus epidermidis/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus epidermidis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Staphylococcus haemolyticus/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus haemolyticus/crescimento & desenvolvimento
12.
Molecules ; 26(15)2021 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361744

RESUMO

Korean red pine (Pinus densiflora) belongs to the Genus Pinus, and its bark contains a great amount of naturally occurring phenolic compounds. Until now, few studies have been conducted to assess the neuroprotective effects of Pinus densiflora bark extract against brain ischemic injury. The aim of this study was to investigate the neuroprotective effects of pre-treatment with the extract in the hippocampus following 5-min transient forebrain ischemia in gerbils. Furthermore, this study examined the anti-inflammatory effect as a neuroprotective mechanism of the extract. Pinus densiflora bark was extracted by pure water (100 °C), and this extract was quantitatively analyzed and contained abundant polyphenols, flavonoids, and proanthocyanidins. The extract (25, 50, and 100 mg/kg) was orally administered once a day for seven days before the ischemia. In the gerbil hippocampus, death of the pyramidal neurons was found in the subfield cornu ammonis 1 (CA1) five days after the ischemia. This death was significantly attenuated by pre-treatment with 100 mg/kg, not 25 or 50 mg/kg, of the extract. The treatment with 100 mg/kg of the extract markedly inhibited the activation of microglia (microgliosis) and significantly decreased the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (interleukin 1ß and tumor necrosis factor α). In addition, the treatment significantly increased anti-inflammatory cytokines (interleukin 4 and interleukin 13). Taken together, this study clearly indicates that pre-treatment with 100 mg/kg of Pinus densiflora bark extract in gerbils can exert neuroprotection against brain ischemic injury by the attenuation of neuroinflammatory responses.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Isquemia Encefálica/tratamento farmacológico , Hipocampo/efeitos dos fármacos , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Pinus/química , Prosencéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Isquemia Encefálica/genética , Isquemia Encefálica/metabolismo , Isquemia Encefálica/patologia , Flavonoides/química , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Gerbillinae , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Hipocampo/patologia , Inflamação , Interleucina-13/agonistas , Interleucina-13/genética , Interleucina-13/metabolismo , Interleucina-1beta/antagonistas & inibidores , Interleucina-1beta/genética , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , Interleucina-4/agonistas , Interleucina-4/genética , Interleucina-4/metabolismo , Masculino , Microglia/efeitos dos fármacos , Microglia/metabolismo , Microglia/patologia , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/química , Casca de Planta/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Polifenóis/química , Polifenóis/farmacologia , Proantocianidinas/química , Proantocianidinas/farmacologia , Prosencéfalo/metabolismo , Prosencéfalo/patologia , Células Piramidais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Piramidais/metabolismo , Células Piramidais/patologia , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/antagonistas & inibidores , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/genética , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
13.
Molecules ; 26(15)2021 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361745

RESUMO

The edible parts of the plants Camellia sinensis, Vitis vinifera and Withania somnifera were extensively used in ancient practices such as Ayurveda, owing to their potent biomedical significance. They are very rich in secondary metabolites such as polyphenols, which are very good antioxidants and exhibit anti-carcinogenic properties. This study aims to evaluate the anti-cancerous properties of these plant crude extracts on human liver cancer HepG2 cells. The leaves of Camellia sinensis, Withania somnifera and the seeds of Vitis vinifera were collected and methanolic extracts were prepared. Then, these extracts were subjected to DPPH, α- amylase assays to determine the antioxidant properties. A MTT assay was performed to investigate the viability of the extracts of HepG2 cells, and the mode of cell death was detected by Ao/EtBr staining and flow cytometry with PI Annexin- V FITC dual staining. Then, the protein expression of BAX and BCl2 was studied using fluorescent dye to determine the regulation of the BAX and BCl2 genes. We observed that all the three extracts showed the presence of bioactive compounds such as polyphenols or phytochemicals. The W. somnifera bioactive compounds were found to have the highest anti-proliferative activity on human liver cancer cells.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Camellia sinensis/química , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Vitis/química , Withania/química , Alcaloides/química , Alcaloides/isolamento & purificação , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/química , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/isolamento & purificação , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Compostos de Bifenilo/antagonistas & inibidores , Compostos de Bifenilo/química , Morte Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Flavonoides/química , Flavonoides/isolamento & purificação , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Picratos/antagonistas & inibidores , Picratos/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/metabolismo , Sementes/química , Transdução de Sinais , Taninos/química , Taninos/isolamento & purificação , Terpenos/química , Terpenos/isolamento & purificação , alfa-Amilases/genética , alfa-Amilases/metabolismo , Proteína X Associada a bcl-2/genética , Proteína X Associada a bcl-2/metabolismo
14.
Molecules ; 26(15)2021 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361758

RESUMO

Sulla (Hedysarum coronarium L.) is a biennal forage legume originated from the Mediterranean basin and used for animal feeding due to its high forage quality and palatability. Several species of Hedysarum have been considered for their nutritional, pharmaceutical, and biological properties, and different applications have been reported, both for human consumption and animal nutrition. Although a systematic investigation of the chemical constituents of Hedysarum spp. has been performed in order to provide chemotaxonomic evidences for the genus and to support the pharmacological application of several species within the genus, few data are available on the chemical constituents of H. coronarium, and only the content of condensed tannins and flavonoids in leaves has been previously reported. In the present paper, results from a detailed chemical analysis of the extracts from the leaves and flowers of H. coronarium grown wild in southern Italy are presented. Identification of the main specialized metabolites within the chemical classes of flavonoids, proanthocyanidins and saponins, is described, including considerations on their content in the two plant organs. Information acquired from this study expands the knowledge on H. coronarium as a source of valuable phytochemicals for different applications in human and animal health and nutrition.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Fabaceae/química , Flavonoides/química , Proantocianidinas/química , Saponinas/química , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Fabaceae/metabolismo , Flavonoides/classificação , Flavonoides/isolamento & purificação , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Flores/química , Humanos , Itália , Extratos Vegetais/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Proantocianidinas/classificação , Proantocianidinas/isolamento & purificação , Proantocianidinas/metabolismo , Saponinas/classificação , Saponinas/isolamento & purificação , Saponinas/metabolismo
15.
Molecules ; 26(14)2021 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34299545

RESUMO

Red Delicious apple pomace was produced at laboratory scale with a domestic blender and different non-conventional extraction techniques were performed to isolate phenolic compounds, such as ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE), ultraturrax extraction (UTE), accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) and pulsed electric field (PEF) extraction pre-treatment. Total phenolic content (TPC) was determined by Folin-Ciocalteu assay. Phloridzin, the main phenolic compound in apples, was determined by chromatographic analysis Q-TOF-LC/MS. The results obtained with these techniques were compared in order to identify the most efficient method to recover polyphenols. The highest value of TPC (1062.92 ± 59.80 µg GAE/g fresh apple pomace) was obtained when UAE was performed with EtOH:H2O (50:50, v/v), while ASE with EtOH:H2O (30:70, v/v) at 40 °C and 50% of flush was the most efficient technique in the recovery of phloridzin. The concentration of the main phenolic compounds ranged from 385.84 to 650.56 µg/g fresh apple pomace. The obtained results confirm that apple pomace represents an interesti-ng by-product, due to the presence of phenolic compounds. In particular, phloridzin could be considered a biomarker to determine the quality of numerous apple products. Therefore, this research could be a good starting point to develop a value-added product such as a functional food or nutraceutical.


Assuntos
Malus/química , Fenóis/química , Antioxidantes/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Etanol/química , Flavonoides/química , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Polifenóis/química
16.
Molecules ; 26(12)2021 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34208196

RESUMO

Nutraceuticals are biologically active molecules present in foods; they can have beneficial effects on health, but they are not available in large enough quantities to perform this function. Plant metabolites, such as polyphenols, are widely diffused in the plant kingdom, where they play fundamental roles in plant development and interactions with the environment. Among these, flavonoids are of particular interest as they have significant effects on human health. In vitro and/or in vivo studies described flavonoids as essential nutrients for preventing several diseases. They display broad and promising bioactivities to fight cancer, inflammation, bacterial infections, as well as to reduce the severity of neurodegenerative and cardiovascular diseases or diabetes. Therefore, it is not surprising that interest in flavonoids has sharply increased in recent years. More than 23,000 scientific publications on flavonoids have described the potential anticancer activity of these natural molecules in the last decade. Studies, in vitro and in vivo, show that flavonoids exhibit anticancer properties, and many epidemiological studies confirm that dietary intake of flavonoids leads to a reduced risk of cancer. This review provides a glimpse of the mechanisms of action of flavonoids on cancer cells.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/química , Antioxidantes/química , Flavonoides/química , Humanos , Inflamação/metabolismo , Inflamação/patologia , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Neoplasias/patologia
17.
Molecules ; 26(12)2021 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34208231

RESUMO

Phytochemical investigation on the n-BuOH-soluble fraction of the aerial parts of Epimedium koreanum using the PCSK9 mRNA monitoring assay led to the identification of four previously undescribed acylated flavonoid glycosides and 18 known compounds. The structures of new compounds were elucidated by NMR, MS, and other chemical methods. All isolated compounds were tested for their inhibitory activity against PCSK9 mRNA expression in HepG2 cells. Of the isolates, compounds 6, 7, 10, 15, and 17-22 were found to significantly inhibit PCSK9 mRNA expression. In particular, compound 7 was shown to increase LDLR mRNA expression. Thus, compound 7 may potentially increase LDL uptake and lower cholesterol levels in the blood.


Assuntos
Epimedium/química , Flavonoides/química , Glicosídeos/química , Pró-Proteína Convertase 9/antagonistas & inibidores , RNA Mensageiro/antagonistas & inibidores , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Epimedium/metabolismo , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Glicosídeos/metabolismo , Glicosídeos/farmacologia , Humanos , Componentes Aéreos da Planta/química , Componentes Aéreos da Planta/metabolismo , Prenilação , Pró-Proteína Convertase 9/metabolismo , Receptores de LDL/agonistas
18.
Molecules ; 26(12)2021 Jun 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34203004

RESUMO

Green tea and its bioactive components, especially polyphenols, possess many health-promoting and disease-preventing benefits, especially anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anticancer, and metabolic modulation effects with multi-target modes of action. However, the effect of tea polyphenols on immune function has not been well studied. Moreover, the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms mediating immunoregulation are not well understood. This review summarizes the recent studies on the immune-potentiating effects and corresponding mechanisms of tea polyphenols, especially the main components of (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) and (-)-epicatechin-3-gallate (ECG). In addition, the benefits towards immune-related diseases, such as autoimmune diseases, cutaneous-related immune diseases, and obesity-related immune diseases, have been discussed.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Imunidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Fatores Imunológicos/farmacologia , Polifenóis/farmacologia , Chá/química , Animais , Antioxidantes/química , Produtos Biológicos/química , Produtos Biológicos/farmacologia , Catequina/análogos & derivados , Catequina/química , Catequina/farmacologia , Flavonoides/química , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Humanos , Fatores Imunológicos/química , Polifenóis/química
19.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(14)2021 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34299199

RESUMO

Continuing our studies on the mechanisms underlying the cytotoxicity of potential drugs, we have described several aspects of the in vitro anticancer activity of ruthenium(II) and platinum(II) complexes with bioactive, synthetic aminoflavone ligands. We examined the mechanism of proapoptotic activity of cis-dichlorobis(3-imino-2-methoxyflavanone)ruthenium(II), cis-dichlorobis(3-imino-2-ethoxyflavanone)ruthenium(II), and trans-dichlorobis(3-aminoflavone)platinum(II). Cisplatin was used as a reference compound. The cytotoxicity was investigated by MTT assay. The mechanism of proapoptotic activity of the tested compounds was investigated by evaluation of caspase-8 activity, cytometric analysis of annexin-V positive cells, and mitochondrial potential loss measurement. The results showed that ruthenium compounds break partially or completely the cisplatin resistance by activating the caspase 8-dependent apoptosis pathway and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential. Platinum compounds also have a cytostatic effect, but their action requires more exposure time. Potential mechanisms underlying drug resistance in the two pairs of cancer cell lines were investigated: total glutathione content, P-glycoprotein activity, and differences in the activity of DNA repair induced by nucleotide excision. Results showed that cisplatin-resistant cells have elevated glutathione levels relative to sensitive cells. Moreover, they indicated the mechanisms enabling cells to avoid apoptosis caused by DNA damage. Pg-P activity has no effect on the development of cisplatin resistance in the cell lines described.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Complexos de Coordenação/farmacologia , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Compostos de Platina/farmacologia , Compostos de Rutênio/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/química , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Caspase 8/metabolismo , Cisplatino/farmacologia , Complexos de Coordenação/química , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Flavonoides/química , Humanos , Ligantes , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Neoplasias/patologia , Compostos de Platina/química , Compostos de Rutênio/química , Células Tumorais Cultivadas
20.
J Photochem Photobiol B ; 222: 112274, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34330082

RESUMO

Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has gained much attention in tumor therapy because of its special advantages. PDT heavily depends on the oxygen, yet the tumor microenvironment (TME) is a hypoxic and acid milieu, which weakens the PDT effect. Based on the consideration that the TME deteriorated by the PDT oxygen consumption could activate the hypoxic-sensitive small-molecule drug, we designed and prepared an integrated nanocomposite including zirconium ion metal organic framework (carrier), pyropheophorbide-a (PPa, photosensitizer), and 6-amino flavone (AF, hypoxic-sensitive drug), aiming to exert a cascaded PDT-chemotherapy (CT) antitumor effect and to solve the hypoxic challenge. The prepared nanocomposite showed great stability under the physiological (pH 7.4) condition and could continuously release PPa and AF under slightly acidic pH condition (pH 6.4), suggesting a tumor microenvironment responsive feature. Systematical in vitro and in vivo researches under various conditions (light, dark, hypoxic and normoxic) have showed that the obtained Zr-MOF@PPa/AF@PEG nanoparticles (NPs) had good biocompatibility and could achieve efficient antitumor effects based on PDT- chemotherapy (CT) cascade process. Finally, bright red fluorescence was observed in the tumor cells after internalization implying an application potential in tumor imaging.


Assuntos
Clorofila/análogos & derivados , Flavonoides/química , Estruturas Metalorgânicas/química , Nanocompostos/química , Fotoquimioterapia/métodos , Nanomedicina Teranóstica , Animais , Materiais Biocompatíveis/química , Materiais Biocompatíveis/farmacologia , Materiais Biocompatíveis/uso terapêutico , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Clorofila/química , Clorofila/metabolismo , Clorofila/uso terapêutico , Liberação Controlada de Fármacos , Feminino , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Flavonoides/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Nanocompostos/uso terapêutico , Nanocompostos/toxicidade , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias/patologia , Polietilenoglicóis/química , Oxigênio Singlete/metabolismo , Microambiente Tumoral , Zircônio/química
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