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1.
Water Sci Technol ; 82(5): 799-828, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33031062

RESUMO

Since it is difficult to analyze the components of organic matter in complex effluent matrices individually, the use of more collective, but at the same time, specific wastewater characterization methods would be more appropriate to evaluate changes in effluent characteristics during wastewater treatment. For this purpose, size distribution and structural (resin) fractionation tools have recently been proposed to categorize wastewater. There are several case studies available in the scientific literature being devoted to the application of these fractionation methods. This paper aimed to review the most relevant studies dealing with the evaluation of changes in wastewater characteristics using size distribution and structural (resin) fractionation tools. According to these studies, sequential filtration-ultrafiltration procedures, as well as XAD resins, are frequently employed for size and structural fractionations, respectively. This review focuses on the most relevant publications including biological treatment processes, as well as chemical treatment methods such as coagulation-flocculation, electrocoagulation, the Fenton's reagent and ozonation. This study aims at providing an insight into the possible treatment mechanisms and details the understanding what structural features of wastewater components enabled or prevented efficient treatment (removal) or targeted pollutants.


Assuntos
Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos , Águas Residuárias , Fracionamento Químico , Floculação , Ultrafiltração
2.
Water Sci Technol ; 82(1): 131-143, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32910798

RESUMO

Higher standards in the European Water Framework Directive and national directive demand advanced wastewater treatment for removal of nutrients and organic micropollutants before the discharge into water bodies. Systematic investigations regarding relative dosage and filtration processes for removal of flocculated solids are currently lacking. In this study, the performance of technologies for advanced removal of total phosphorus down to <100 µg/L with pile cloth-filtration (CF) and membrane filtration was verified and synergy effects for the removal of other contaminants were identified. The results show that an over-stoichiometric addition of coagulants of >5 mol Me3+/mol sRP was necessary to achieve soluble reactive phosphorus (sRP) concentrations of <50 µg/L in the effluent. After the coupled process of tertiary phosphorus removal and solids removal, the soluble non-reactive phosphorus (sNRP) concentration regulates the lowest total phosphorus effluent concentration. sNRP is also partially, but not completely, removed by the use of coagulants. CF has proven to be an alternative technology for the removal of phosphorus and total suspended solids below the detection limit.


Assuntos
Fósforo , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos , Filtração , Floculação , Águas Residuárias
3.
Sci Total Environ ; 740: 139737, 2020 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32927561

RESUMO

Limited information exists on the damage of harmful cyanobacteria cells, such as Raphidiopsis raciborskii and Dolichospermum circinale, caused by the hydraulic conditions at water treatment plants especially when it comes to the mechanical stresses imposed by coagulation and flocculation. To close this gap, this study evaluated the impacts of rapid and slow-mixing on R. raciborskii and D. circinale cells and trichomes. The hydraulic conditions used during the experiment were selected based on AWWA, which are widely applied in the absence of specific treatability tests. Cellular integrity was evaluated by the Erythrosine B staining method and logistic regression was used to study the association between organism integrity and hydraulic conditions (i.e., velocity gradient and mixing time). Wilcoxon rank-sum test was used to verify if there was a significant reduction of the trichome length and cell integrity. Rapid-mixing (velocity gradient of 750 s-1 for 60 s) reduced the odds of finding intact D. circinale to <50%, whereas the odds of finding intact R. raciborskii cells did not significantly decrease. The odds of finding intact cells of R. raciborskii were 124 times greater than D. circinale. Rapid-mixing also reduced the length of D. circinale trichomes by approximately 50% but did not significantly decrease R. raciborskii trichomes. Slow-mixing did not significantly affect organisms or trichomes of either species. The results indicate that AWWA recommendations for coagulation may cause damage to D. circinale but not to R. raciborskii, suggesting that the operation of water treatment plants could be adjusted according to the dominant cyanobacterium present in the reservoir to avoid cell rupture and metabolite release.


Assuntos
Cianobactérias , Cylindrospermopsis , Purificação da Água , Floculação
4.
Sci Total Environ ; 746: 141039, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32750578

RESUMO

Microalgae biomass has been considered as a potential feedstock for the production of renewable chemicals and biofuels. Microalgae culture combined with wastewater treatment is a promising approach to improve the sustainability of the business model. However, algae culture and harvest account for the majority of the high costs, hindering the development of the microalgae-based wastewater utilization. Cost-effective culture systems and harvesting methods for enhancing biomass yield and reducing the cost of resource recovery have become extremely urgent and important. In this review, different commonly used culture systems for microalgae are discussed; the current harvesting methods with different culture systems have also been evaluated. Also, the inherent characteristics of inefficiency in algae wastewater treatment are elaborated. Current literature collectively supports that a biofilm type device is a system designed for higher biomass productivity, and offers ease of harvesting, in small-scale algae cultivation. Additionally, bio-flocculation, which uses one kind of flocculated microalgae to concentrate on another kind of non-flocculated microalgae is a low-cost and energy-saving alternative harvesting method. These findings provide insight into a comprehensive understanding of integrated culture systems and harvesting methods for microalgae-based wastewater treatment.


Assuntos
Microalgas , Águas Residuárias , Biocombustíveis , Biomassa , Floculação
5.
Sci Total Environ ; 745: 140875, 2020 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32758742

RESUMO

Flocculants and coagulants market is expected to grow in a Compound Annual Growth Rate (CAGR) of 5.9% between 2017 and 2022. The development of non-pollutant coagulants/flocculants aiming to replace conventional ones, usually toxic, has been extensively studied and one alternative is the possibility of obtaining tannin-based flocculants, compounds present in many plants and easily extracted. However, in order to use tannins as flocculants, their cationization is necessary, which is normally accomplished by Mannich reaction that requires formaldehyde addition, a toxic compound. In order to fill a gap in the literature, regarding coagulants/flocculants synthesis through green procedures, this paper aims to synthesize a flocculant from tannins with no use of formaldehyde, and optimize this synthesis through a Central Composite Rotatable Design (CCRD). The optimization variables were ammonium hydroxide (NH4OH) to tannin ratio, in the range of 1:1 to 5:1, and reaction time, in the range of 1 to 4 h The evaluation of the synthesized flocculant samples was accomplished by jar tests using a simulated effluent containing humic acid and the effect of reactant ratio and reaction time used in the synthesis was assessed. The flocculant synthesis methodology proposed on this study showed excellent results regarding turbidity and color removal, since 100% of turbidity removal and 89.9% of color removal were achieved. This novel tannin-based flocculant synthesis methodology is a promising technology to replace conventional coagulants/flocculants, once it is environmentally friendly.


Assuntos
Acacia , Purificação da Água , Floculação , Formaldeído , Taninos
6.
Bioresour Technol ; 317: 123983, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32799082

RESUMO

Microalgae biofuels have received extensive attention as a new generation of renewable energy. However, the cost of cultivation and harvest limits the large-scale use of microalgae. An innovative method for harvesting microalgae through flocculation using kitchen wastewater (KWW) and further co-pyrolysis to enhance the crude bio-oil production was proposed. Flocculation efficiency of KWW for Scenedesmus obliquus showed the highest value of 94.09%. Compared with centrifugation and chemical flocculation (CF), the thermogravimetric curve of the sample after KWW flocculation showed different pattern. In addition, bio-oil yield of microalgae harvested through KWW flocculation was also the highest among the three studied harvest methods, reaching 55.59%. Gas chromatographic mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of bio-oil showed that addition of KWW could promote the production of esters and hydrocarbons in comparison to the microalgae harvested by centrifugation or CF.


Assuntos
Microalgas , Biocombustíveis , Biomassa , Floculação , Pirólise , Águas Residuárias
7.
J Environ Manage ; 271: 111002, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32778288

RESUMO

In municipal wastewater treatment, inorganic coagulants (IC), e.g. polyaluminium chloride (PAC), are normally used to remove pollutants such as dissolved and particulate nutrients, in a process called coagulation/flocculation. However, IC use has been linked to issues e.g. in effluent water post-treatment, sludge management and disposal (IC increase sludge volume and metal concentrations in sludge), etc., raising uncertainties about their overall cost-efficiency and environmental benefits. In this study, the suitability of organic coagulants (OC) as sole precipitation agents to replace IC (PAC) was investigated. A total of 10 synthetic (i.e. polyDADMACs and polyamines) and semi-natural (chitosan, starch, and tannin-based) OC products were tested in treatment of samples from primary sedimentation and secondary sedimentation stages of municipal wastewater treatment, and their performance was compared with that of PAC. The study was conducted using the jar test methodology. The coagulants were tested for their ability to remove target pollutants (e.g. BOD7, COD, SS, tot-P, PO4-P, tot-N) and form rapidly settling flocs. In general, higher (up to 60%) coagulant doses were needed in treatment of secondary wastewater samples than primary samples. In comparison with the OC doses required for effective treatment, the PAC doses were higher (up to 80%). In treatment of secondary wastewater samples, OC with high molecular weight (MW) and high charge density (CD) (e.g. pAmine1) achieved best removal of target pollutants (e.g. 72% SS, 87% PO4-P, 88% BOD7), followed by PAC. In treatment of primary wastewater, PAC performed best (removing e.g. 96% SS, 96% PO4-P), closely followed by chitosan and polyamine products. Based on these results, polyamine products with high MW and (very) high CDs have the potential to act as the sole precipitation agent in both primary and secondary stages of municipal wastewater treatment. Further research is needed to determine the effect of residual coagulant on downstream water and sludge treatment processes (e.g. activated sludge process, sludge dewatering, etc.).


Assuntos
Polieletrólitos , Águas Residuárias , Floculação , Esgotos , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos
8.
Water Res ; 183: 116045, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32777592

RESUMO

Microplastic (MP) removal by coagulation/flocculation followed by settling was studied in a secondary wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent matrix. MP concentration in size range <10 µm in wastewater is currently unknown due to the exclusion of this size range in many studies and due to difficulties in MP quantification. WWTP effluent samples were spiked with a known amount of polystyrene spheres of two different sizes 1 µm and 6.3 µm. The samples were treated with inorganic and organic coagulants typically used in WWTPs, i.e., ferric chloride, polyaluminum chloride, and polyamine. The effect of pH was studied with ferric chloride by changing the pH from 7.3 to 6.5. In this study, MP removal was monitored using flow cytometry. The role of chemicals in MP removal at WWTPs has not been in the focus of previously reported MP studies. Our results showed that all tested coagulants enhanced the removal of MPs with dosages applicable to tertiary treatment. The highest removal efficiency obtained was 99.4%, and ferric chloride and polyaluminum chloride were more efficient than polyamine. Performances of ferric chloride and polyaluminum chloride were close to each other, with a statistically significant difference at a certain dosage range. Our findings suggest that chemical coagulation plays a key role in the removal of MPs, and the process can be optimized by selecting the right coagulant and pH.


Assuntos
Águas Residuárias , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Alumínio , Floculação , Ferro , Microplásticos , Plásticos , Poliaminas , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos
9.
Bioresour Technol ; 315: 123857, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32707508

RESUMO

In the context of emerging biorefinery for microalgae, polyethyleneimine (PEI), has been tested in order to achieve separation of fat-soluble and water-soluble compounds from Haematococcus pluvialis. Several parameters were taken into account (ratio between sample and PEI, pH, and ionic strength) and 2 conditions (0.075% PEI pH 7.4, and 0.100% PEI pH8.5) were studied for up-scalability, with a recovery of flocculated compounds (lipids and pigments), and a complete characterization of both phases. Using 0.075% PEI, pH7.4, 100% sugars and 89.8% proteins were retained in the supernatant, but some trace of beta-carotene were also detected. For 0.100% PEI, pH 8.5, a loss in proteins content was highlighted (61.2% proteins retained), but no residual lipids or pigments were detected. PEI could therefore be considered as an efficient method to fractionate fat-soluble and water-soluble compounds from microalgae.


Assuntos
Microalgas , Fracionamento Químico , Clorofíceas , Floculação , Polietilenoimina
10.
Water Sci Technol ; 81(8): 1668-1681, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32644960

RESUMO

Dissolved air flotation (DAF) has received more attention recently as a separation technique in both drinking water as well as wastewater treatment. However, the process as well as the preceding flocculation step is complex and not completely understood. Given the multiphase nature of the process, fluid dynamics studies are important to understand and optimize the DAF system in terms of operation and design. The present study is intended towards a comprehensive computational analysis for design optimization of the treatment plant in Kluizen, Belgium. Setting up the modelling framework involving the multiphase flow problem is briefly discussed. 3D numerical simulations on a scaled down model of the DAF design were analysed. The flow features give better confidence, but the flocs escape through the outlet still prevails which is averse to the system performance. In order to improve the performance and ease of maintenance, design modifications have been proposed by using a perforated tube for water extraction and are found to be satisfactory. The discussion is further reinforced through validating the numerical model against the experimental findings for stratified flow conditions.


Assuntos
Água Potável , Purificação da Água , Ar , Bélgica , Floculação
11.
Water Res ; 183: 116093, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32645580

RESUMO

Many PACl (poly-aluminum chloride) coagulants with different characteristics have been trial-produced in laboratories and commercially produced, but the selection of a proper PACl still requires empirical information and field testing. Even PACls with the same property sometimes show different coagulation performances. In this study, we compared PACls produced by AlCl3-titration and Al(OH)3-dissolution on their performance during coagulation-flocculation, sedimentation, and sand filtration (CSF) processes. The removal targets were particles of superfine powdered activated carbon (SPAC), which are used for efficient adsorptive removal of micropollutants, but strict removal of SPAC is required because of the high risk of their leakage after CSF. PACls of high-basicity produced by AlCl3-titration and Al(OH)3-dissolution were the same in terms of the ferron assay and colloid charge, but their performance in CSF were completely different. High-basicity Al(OH)3-dissolution PACls formed large floc particles and yielded very few remaining SPAC particles in the filtrate, whereas high-basicity AlCl3-titration PACls did not form large floc particles. High-basicity PACls produced by Al(OH)3-dissolution were superior to low-basicity PACl in lowering remaining SPAC particles by the same method because of their high charge neutralization capacity, although their floc formation ability was similar or slightly inferior. However, high-basicity Al(OH)3-dissolution PACl was inferior when the sulfate ion concentration in the raw water was low. Sulfate ions were required in the raw water for high-basicity PACls to be effective in floc formation. In particular, very high sulfate concentrations were required for high-basicity AlCl3-titration PACls. The rate of hydrolysis, which is related to the polymerization of aluminum species, is a key property, besides charge neutralization capacity, for proper coagulation, including formation of large floc particles. The aluminum species in the high-basicity PACls, in particular that produced by AlCl3-titration, was resistant to hydrolysis, but sulfate ions in raw water accelerated the rate of hydrolysis and thereby facilitated floc formation. Normal-basicity Al(OH)3-dissolution PACl was hydrolysis-prone, even without sulfate ions. Aluminum species in the high-basicity AlCl3-titration PACl were mostly those with a molecular weight (MW) of 1-10 kDa, whereas those of high-basicity Al(OH)3-dissolution PACls were mostly characterized by a MW > 10 kDa. Normal-basicity Al(OH)3-dissolution PACl was the least polymerized and contained monomeric species.


Assuntos
Carvão Vegetal , Purificação da Água , Hidróxido de Alumínio , Floculação , Pós , Areia , Solubilidade , Sulfatos , Água
12.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(32): 40088-40100, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32656751

RESUMO

Due to the complexity and variability of textile wastewater composition, a constant search for new treatment strategies that are efficient, eco-friendly, and cost-effective is mandatory. In the present study, the efficiency of coagulation-flocculation using biocoagulants derived from cactus Opuntia ficus indica and eggplant Solanum melongena to remove toxic compounds from Tunisian textile wastewater samples was evaluated by combining assays to investigate physicochemical properties and in vitro (geno)toxicity with analytical chemistry. Both natural coagulants could significantly improve the physicochemical properties of the textile wastewater samples compared to the traditionally used chemical coagulant. The highest rate of decolorization was achieved after treatment with the cactus-derived coagulant. The analytical study revealed the presence of only crystal violet dye (CV) in only one sample. Both natural coagulants were able to remove CV, which may (partially) explain the decolorization of the treated samples. Only one untreated textile effluent induced a genotoxic response in the VITOTOX® assay. The genotoxic effect was not linked to the presence of CV and was no longer observed after treatment with each of the natural coagulants, suggesting the effectiveness of the remediation treatments to remove potentially genotoxic compound(s). However, in the other genotoxicity tests, no biologically relevant effects were observed for any of the tested samples. In conclusion, although the physicochemical data indicate that the use of natural coagulants (cactus and eggplant) could be an interesting alternative treatment process to the chemical coagulant for detoxifying textile effluents, these results were only partially supported by the toxicological and analytical data.


Assuntos
Águas Residuárias , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Floculação , Resíduos Industriais/análise , Indústria Têxtil , Têxteis , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos , Águas Residuárias/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
13.
Chemosphere ; 260: 127617, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32683031

RESUMO

In this study, poly dimethyl diallyl ammonium chloride (PDADMAC) and polyacrylamide (PAM) were applied to substitute ferric trichloride (FeCl3) and lime conditioning for advanced dewatering of landfill sludge (LS). Four response surface methodology (RSM) models were constructed for FeCl3-lime, FeCl3-PAM, PDADMAC-lime and PDADMAC-PAM, and identical dosages, namely 29.86, 57.91, 5.73 and 2.99 mg/g dry solids (DS) for FeCl3, lime, PDADMAC and PAM, were obtained by solving the system of four RSM equations at water content of 60% to investigate conditioning mechanisms. Compared to FeCl3-lime, PDADMAC-PAM conditioning had strong charge neutralization and bridging performance, and obtained conditioned LS with large flocs size, strong network structure and rapid dewatering rate. By integrating RSM with nonlinear programming for optimization, the total cost of PDADMAC-PAM route was saved by 7.9% and close to FeCl3-lime, and the optimized condition with dosages of 1.93 and 3.47 kg/t DS was further confirmed by pilot-scale experiments. The results indicated that PDADMAC-PAM was a feasible substitute for FeCl3-lime in sludge conditioning, and showed more advantage if dewatered sludge was further treated by incineration.


Assuntos
Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos/métodos , Resinas Acrílicas , Compostos de Cálcio , Floculação , Ferro/química , Óxidos , Polímeros , Esgotos/química , Instalações de Eliminação de Resíduos , Água
14.
Water Res ; 182: 115919, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32622122

RESUMO

As the understanding of how stormwater pollutants are fractioned and need for mitigation has increased, so has the investigation into more advanced treatment techniques. The present study investigated the treatment efficiency of coagulation/flocculation and sedimentation in semi-synthetic stormwater. Five coagulants were evaluated in terms of reducing particle content, organic carbon, total and dissolved metals, hydrocarbon oil index, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Changes in the resulting particle size distribution as a consequence of the coagulation treatment were also investigated. The pollutants in the semi-synthetic stormwater were predominantly in the particulate phase. The medium and longer chained hydrocarbons dominated the hydrocarbon oil index, while medium to high molecular weight PAHs were most abundant. Iron chloride was the only coagulant that affected particle size distribution post-treatment, shifting the distribution toward larger particles. In terms of total metal removal, the performance of the coagulants was similar, with over 90% removal on average. Concentration of zdissolved copper, one of the metals found in the dissolved phase, was reduced by 40% via coagulation treatment. The iron chloride coagulant increased dissolved Zn, a change attributed to a considerable drop in pH resulting in higher ion mobility. Similarly, the reduction in organic content (total organic carbon, oil, and PAHs) was over 90% for most coagulants.


Assuntos
Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Floculação , Ferro , Metais
15.
Bioresour Technol ; 314: 123770, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32652448

RESUMO

Microalgae harvesting is a major hindrance for the development of the microalgae industry. In this paper, short microwave treatment was used to assist the flocculation of Chlorella vulgaris with three flocculants, Fe3+ (FeCl3), chitosan, and Ca2+ (CaCl2). A microwave irradiation time of 20 s, and a pH of 10 was found to be the optimum condition. The harvesting efficiency could be significantly increased by 43.2%, 49.5% and 39.6%, respectively for Fe3+, chitosan, and Ca2+ assisted by microwave under these conditions. Microwave treatment did not cause any damage to the algal cells, and had no obvious influence on the lipid extraction. Microwave treatment decreased the concentration of the flocculants in culture medium after flocculation; this treatment enabled the reuse of the supernatant. This study provides a new and promising method of improving the flocculation efficiency for microalgae harvesting, by using microwave energy.


Assuntos
Chlorella vulgaris , Microalgas , Biomassa , Floculação , Lipídeos , Micro-Ondas
16.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 331: 108691, 2020 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32534163

RESUMO

Currently, rapid, sensitive, and convenient visual detection methods for Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) are scarce. In this study, a novel detection method based on recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) and polymer flocculation sedimentation (PFS) was developed. Twelve effective primer combinations derived from four forward primers F1, F2, F3, F4, and three reverse primers R1, R2, R3 targeting the nuc gene of S. aureus were designed and screened by a polymerase chain reaction and RPA methods. RPA reaction conditions, including temperature, time, and volume as well as PEG8000 and NaCl concentrations range, were optimized. Moreover, the specificity and sensitivity of the RPA-PFS assay were further analyzed. Finally, the potential use of the RPA-PFS assay was evaluated using artificially S. aureus contaminated food samples, including pork, beef, shrimp, fish, cheese, cabbage, leftover rice, egg, milk, and orange juice. Results showed that the SA5 (F2/R2) combination was the optimal primer candidate. The optimal temperature range, the shortest time and the minimal volume of RPA reaction were 40-42 °C, 10 min and 10 µL, respectively and the optimal PEG8000/NaCl concentrations were 0.2 g/mL and 2.5 M, respectively, for the adsorption between magnetic beads and RPA products. The RPA-PFS method could detect as little as 13 fg genomic DNA of S. aureus and was also specific for five target S. aureus as well as twenty-seven non-target foodborne bacteria. The limit of detection of RPA-PFS for S. aureus in artificially contaminated food samples was 38 CFU/mL (g). Besides, RPA-PFS has directly been judged by the naked eye and has totally taken less than 20 min. In short, the assay RPA-PFS developed in this study is a rapid, sensitive, and specific visual detection method for S. aureus.


Assuntos
Floculação , Microbiologia de Alimentos/métodos , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico , Staphylococcus aureus/genética , Staphylococcus aureus/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Leite/microbiologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Polímeros/química , Alimentos Marinhos/microbiologia , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Infecções Estafilocócicas/prevenção & controle
17.
J Vis Exp ; (159)2020 05 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32538918

RESUMO

The analysis of environmental DNA (eDNA) has become a widely used approach to problem solving in species management. The detection of cryptic species including invasive and (or) species at risk is the goal, typically accomplished by testing water and sediment for the presence of characteristic DNA signatures. Reliable and efficient procedures for the capture of eDNA are required, especially those that can be performed easily in the field by personnel with limited training and citizen scientists. The capture of eDNA using membrane filtration is widely used currently. This approach has inherent issues that include the choice of filter material and porosity, filter fouling, and time required on site for the process to be performed. Flocculation offers an alternative that can be easily implemented and applied to sampling regimes that strive to cover broad territories in limited time.


Assuntos
DNA Ambiental/química , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Floculação/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Tartarugas
18.
Chemosphere ; 259: 127464, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32593001

RESUMO

In this work, a simple and environmentally-friendly enhanced coagulation, by using a cationic starch-based coagulant (starch-3-chloro-2-hydroxypropyl trimethyl ammonium chloride, St-CTA) coupled with an optimized polysilicic acid (PSA), has been tried to coagulate the kaolin suspensions and humic acid (HA) aqueous solutions, which are used as the simulated sources of inorganic colloidal particles and organic pollutant, respectively, in micro-polluted turbid surface water. Dosing of St-CTA and PSA at the same time is more efficient and more convenient than other two separated feeding methods in this enhanced coagulation process. The synergic coagulation process and mechanism were studied and discussed in detail based on the apparent coagulation performance, floc properties, and zeta potentials of supernatants. St-CTA caused an efficient charge neutralization, i.e. compression of electric double layer of kaolin particles and electrostatic adsorption of HA, followed by an effective netting-bridging effect of PSA, resulting in an improved purification performance. St-CTA with a higher charge density showed better purification performance due to enhanced charge neutralization effect. In addition to simulated water, the validation of this enhanced coagulation process was further confirmed by comparison with a conventional coagulant, polyaluminium chloride, in treating a real surface water. This work thus provides a simple and environmentally-friendly strategy to efficiently purify micro-polluted turbid surface water and further improve the water safety.


Assuntos
Purificação da Água/métodos , Adsorção , Hidróxido de Alumínio , Floculação , Substâncias Húmicas , Caulim , Amido , Água , Poluição da Água
19.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(29): 37011-37021, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32577974

RESUMO

A large number of iron ore tailings (IOTs) are produced in steel industry, posing threat to the environment during its storage and disposal. To effectively reutilize Fe in IOTs, we propose a comprehensive utilization scheme: (1) most Fe in IOTs is extracted by concentrated hydrochloric acid to form FeCl3 flocculants; (2) after separation from the FeCl3 flocculants, a small amount of Fe is absorbed on the residue solids, which is further washed out to synthesize micron Fe3O4 as magnetic seeds. Results show that the as-synthetic FeCl3 flocculants meet the product standard for FeCl3 flocculants in China (GB/T 4482-2018) after a series of treatments including rotary evaporation, neutralization, and dilution and have comparable performance with commercial polyaluminum chloride (PAC) and polyaluminum ferric chloride (PAFC). Moreover, the addition of synthetic superparamagnetic Fe3O4 (as magnetic seeds) doubled the flocculation rate compared with as-synthetic FeCl3 flocculants alone. Finally, the reutilization of Fe in IOTs can create a direct economic value of ¥ 1.27/kg IOTs, and produce 745 g high-silicon residues for further reutilization, which indicates that our comprehensive utilization scheme is of great application potential.


Assuntos
Ferro , Magnetismo , China , Floculação , Fenômenos Magnéticos
20.
Water Sci Technol ; 81(5): 915-924, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32541110

RESUMO

Sedimentation processes are fundamental to solids/liquid separation in water and wastewater treatment, and therefore a robust understanding of the settlement characteristics of mass fractal aggregates (flocs) formed in the flocculation stage is fundamental to optimized settlement tank design and operation. However, the use of settling as a technique to determine aggregates' traits is limited by current understanding of permeability. In this paper, we combine experimental and numerical approaches to assess settling velocities of fractal aggregates. Using a non-intrusive in situ digital image-based method, three- and two-dimensional fractal dimensions were calculated for kaolin-based flocs. By considering shape and fractal dimension, the porosity, density and settling velocities of the flocs were calculated individually, and settling velocities compared with those of spheres of the same density using Stokes' law. Shape analysis shows that the settling velocities for fractal aggregates may be greater or less than those for perfect spheres. For example, fractal aggregates with floc fractal dimension, Df = 2.61, floc size, df > 320 µm and dp = 7.5 µm settle with lower velocities than those predicted by Stokes' law; whilst, for Df = 2.33, all aggregates of df > 70 µm and dp = 7.5 µm settled below the velocity calculated by Stokes' law for spheres. Conversely, fractal settling velocities were higher than spheres for all the range of sizes, when Df of 2.83 was simulated. The ratio of fractal aggregate to sphere settling velocity (the former being obtained from fractal porosity and density considerations), varied from 0.16 to 4.11 for aggregates in the range of 10 and 1,000 µm, primary particle size of 7.5 µm and a three-dimensional fractal dimension between 2.33 and 2.83. However, the ratio decreases to the range of 0.04-2.92 when primary particle size changes to 1.0 µm for the same fractal dimensions. Using the floc analysis technique developed here, the results demonstrate the difference in settlement behaviour between the approach developed here and the traditional Stokes' law approach using solid spheres. The technique and results demonstrate the improvements in understanding, and hence value to be derived, from an analysis based on fractal, rather than Euclidean, geometry when considering flocculation and subsequent clarification performance.


Assuntos
Fractais , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos , Floculação , Caulim , Tamanho da Partícula
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