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1.
BMC Plant Biol ; 22(1): 97, 2022 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35246031

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bougainvillea is a popular ornamental plant with brilliant color and long flowering periods. It is widely distributed in the tropics and subtropics. The primary ornamental part of the plant is its colorful and unusual bracts, rich in the stable pigment betalain. The developmental mechanism of the bracts is not clear, and the pathway of betalain biosynthesis is well characterized in Bougainvillea. RESULTS: At the whole-genome level, we found 23,469 protein-coding genes by assembling the RNA-Seq and Iso-Seq data of floral and leaf tissues. Genome evolution analysis revealed that Bougainvillea is related to spinach; the two diverged approximately 52.7 million years ago (MYA). Transcriptome analysis of floral organs revealed that flower development of Bougainvillea was regulated by the ABCE flower development genes; A-class, B-class, and E-class genes exhibited high expression levels in bracts. Eight key genes of the betalain biosynthetic pathway were identified by homologous alignment, all of which were upregulated concurrently with bract development and betalain accumulation during the bract initiation stage of development. We found 47 genes specifically expressed in stamens, including seven highly expressed genes belonging to the pentose and glucuronate interconversion pathways. BgSEP2b, BgSWEET11, and BgRD22 are hub genes and interacted with many transcription factors and genes in the carpel co-expression network. CONCLUSIONS: We assembled protein-coding genes of Bougainvilea, identified the floral development genes, and constructed the gene co-expression network of petal, stamens, and carpel. Our results provide fundamental information about the mechanism of flower development and pigment accumulation in Bougainvillea, and will facilitate breeding of cultivars with high ornamental value.


Assuntos
Betalaínas/biossíntese , Flores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Flores/genética , Nyctaginaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Nyctaginaceae/genética , Organogênese Vegetal/genética , Pigmentação/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Redes e Vias Metabólicas
2.
BMC Plant Biol ; 22(1): 94, 2022 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35236303

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In certain unisexual flowers, non-functional sexual organs remain vestigial and unisexuality can be overlooked leading to the ambiguous description of the sexual systems. Therefore, to accurately describe the sexual system, detailed morphological and developmental analyses along with experimental crosses must be performed. Cylindropuntia wolfii is a rare cactus endemic to the Sonoran Desert in southern California and northern Baja California that was described as gynodioecious by morphological analysis. The aims of our project include accurately identifying the sexual system of C. wolfii using histological and functional studies and characterizing the developmental mechanisms that underlie its floral development. METHODS: Histological analyses were carried out on different stages of C. wolfii flowers and controlled crosses were performed in the field. RESULT: Our results identified C. wolfii to be functionally dioecious. The ovule and anther development differed between staminate and pistillate flowers. In vivo pollen germination tests showed that the pollen of staminate and pistillate flowers were viable and the stigma and style of both staminate and pistillate flowers were receptive. This suggests that there are no genetic or developmental barriers in the earlier stages of pollen recognition and pollen germination. CONCLUSIONS: Despite being functionally dioecious, we observed that functionally pistillate individuals produced fruits with a large number of aborted seeds. This implies that not only does this species have low reproductive success, but its small population sizes may lead to low genetic diversity.


Assuntos
Cactaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Flores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cactaceae/fisiologia , Flores/fisiologia , Desenvolvimento Vegetal , Polinização , Reprodução
3.
Curr Biol ; 32(3): R135-R137, 2022 02 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35134363

RESUMO

Manipulation of active brassinosteroid content in the developing flower of Primula dictates style length and female incompatibility type. A new study reveals the dual effects of brassinosteroids on establishing both the morphology of the pistil and mate recognition in self-incompatible heterostylous Primula forbseii.


Assuntos
Primula , Brassinosteroides , Flores/crescimento & desenvolvimento
4.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 1881, 2022 02 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35115606

RESUMO

Employing of advanced statistical methods to quantify agricultural information has helped to carry out targeted planning to alleviate the problems of farmers, researchers and policy section. One of these exploratory methods, is multivariate statistical analysis that examines and models the relationship between variables. Considering the importance of Echium amoenum and its use growing trend in traditional medicine and the pharmaceutical industry, also the lack of information on the correlations between its yield and morpho physiological traits, the objective of this study was to determine the causality path in which the Echium amoenum characteristics affects the yield of Echium amoenum as regards of application of organic and chemical fertilizers under different plant densities. The employed method revealed that organic fertilizers increased flower yield compared with the control. The flower yield as a result of application of compost, vermicompost and cattle manure were increased by 25, 28, and 27% compared with the control, respectively. The results of multiple regression showed that variables of plant height, shoot dry weight, flower number per plant were the main factors affected the flower yield. The relative contribution of shoot dry weight was 16 and 25% more than plant height and flower number per plant, respectively. Causality analysis identified that shoot dry weight per plant had indirect effect on flower yield in different paths, as mainly was imposed through plant height considering the path coefficients. This study suggests that optimum production of Echium amoenum with application of ecological inputs along with effective agronomical managements of the causal paths of flower yield forming, including increase in shoot yield and plant height could be achieved through an ecological cropping system with reduced costs and no health concerning due to agrochemicals residual.


Assuntos
Produção Agrícola , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Echium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fertilizantes , Flores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Brotos de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Compostagem , Esterco , Modelos Estatísticos , Análise Multivariada , Densidade Demográfica
5.
Development ; 149(4)2022 02 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35175329

RESUMO

Organogenesis in plants is a dynamic process that occurs in meristems, where stem cells are maintained. A new paper in Development characterises the real-time dynamics of floral organ primordia initiation and floral meristem termination. We caught up with the authors, Ya Min, Stephanie Conway and Elena Kramer, to find out more about the paper and the story behind the research.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Vegetal/fisiologia , Pesquisadores/psicologia , Autoria , Flores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Flores/metabolismo , Humanos , Plantas/metabolismo
6.
Development ; 149(4)2022 02 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35175330

RESUMO

In-depth investigation of any developmental process in plants requires knowledge of both the underpinning molecular networks and how they directly determine patterns of cell division and expansion over time. Floral meristems (FMs) produce floral organs, after which they undergo floral meristem termination (FMT); precise control of organ initiation and FMT is crucial to the reproductive success of any flowering plant. Using live confocal imaging, we characterized developmental dynamics during floral organ primordia initiation and FMT in Aquilegia coerulea (Ranunculaceae). Our results uncover distinct patterns of primordium initiation between stamens and staminodes compared with carpels, and provide insight into the process of FMT, which is discernable based on cell division dynamics that precede carpel initiation. To our knowledge, this is the first quantitative live imaging of meristem development in a system with numerous whorls of floral organs, as well as an apocarpous gynoecium. This study provides crucial information for our understanding of how the spatial-temporal regulation of floral meristem behavior is achieved in both evolutionary and developmental contexts. This article has an associated 'The people behind the papers' interview.


Assuntos
Aquilegia/metabolismo , Meristema/metabolismo , Microscopia de Fluorescência , Aquilegia/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Flores/anatomia & histologia , Flores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Flores/metabolismo , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo
7.
Development ; 149(5)2022 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35226096

RESUMO

Flowering plants produce flowers and one of the most complex floral structures is the pistil or the gynoecium. All the floral organs differentiate from the floral meristem. Various reviews exist on molecular mechanisms controlling reproductive development, but most focus on a short time window and there has been no recent review on the complete developmental time frame of gynoecium and fruit formation. Here, we highlight recent discoveries, including the players, interactions and mechanisms that govern gynoecium and fruit development in Arabidopsis. We also present the currently known gene regulatory networks from gynoecium initiation until fruit maturation.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Arabidopsis/genética , Flores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Flores/genética , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Frutas/genética , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Citocinas/metabolismo , Flores/metabolismo , Frutas/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Ácidos Indolacéticos/metabolismo , Meristema/genética , Meristema/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Meristema/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(3)2022 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35163531

RESUMO

Flowering is a key agronomic trait that influences adaptation and productivity. Previous studies have indicated the genetic complexity associated with the flowering response in a photoinsensitive weedy rice accession PSRR-1 despite the presence of a photosensitive allele of a key flowering gene Hd1. In this study, we used whole-genome and RNA sequencing data from both cultivated and weedy rice to add further insights. The de novo assembly of unaligned sequences predicted 225 genes, in which 45 were specific to PSRR-1, including two genes associated with flowering. Comparison of the variants in PSRR-1 with the 3K rice genome (RG) dataset identified unique variants within the heading date QTLs. Analyses of the RNA-Seq result under both short-day (SD) and long-day (LD) conditions revealed that many differentially expressed genes (DEGs) colocalized with the flowering QTLs, and some DEGs such as Hd1, OsMADS56, Hd3a, and RFT1 had unique variants in PSRR-1. Ehd1, Hd1, OsMADS15, and OsMADS56 showed different alternate splicing (AS) events between genotypes and day length conditions. OsMADS56 was expressed in PSRR-1 but not in Cypress under both LD and SD conditions. Based on variations in both sequence and expression, the unique flowering response in PSRR-1 may be due to the high-impact variants of flowering genes, and OsMADS56 is proposed as a key regulator for its day-neutral flowering response.


Assuntos
Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Oryza/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma/métodos , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Produtos Agrícolas/classificação , Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Flores/genética , Flores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Oryza/classificação , Oryza/genética , Fotoperíodo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , RNA-Seq
9.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 2461, 2022 02 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35165323

RESUMO

Plants living at the edge of their range boundary tend to suffer an overall decline in their fitness, including growth and reproduction. However, the reproductive performance of plants in artificially expanded habitats is rarely investigated, although this type of study would provide a better understanding of range limitations and improved conservation of ex situ plants. In the current study, we transplanted a narrowly dispersed species of Gentiana officinalis H. Smith (Gentianaceae) from its natural area of distribution to two different elevations and natural elevation to comprehensively study its pollination biology, including flowering phenology and duration, floral display, reproductive allocation, pollinator activity, and seed production. The findings indicated that the starting point and endpoint of the flowering phenology of G. officinalis were earlier at the low elevation, but the peak flowering periods did not differ significantly between any of the experimental plots. When transplanted, the flowering duration, especially the female phase, was reduced; the floral display, including spray numbers, flower numbers, and flower size (length and width), decreased, especially at high elevations. Moreover, the pollen numbers and pollen-ovule ratio were decreased at both high and low elevations, although the ovule numbers showed no change, and aboveground reproductive allocation was decreased. Furthermore, pollinator richness and activity were significantly decreased, and the seed-set ratio decreased under both natural conditions and with supplemental pollination. Finally, more severe pollen limitation was found in transplanted individuals. These results indicated an overall decrease in reproductive fitness in plants living outside their original area of distribution when the geographical range of G. officinalis was expanded.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Aptidão Genética , Gentiana/genética , Dispersão Vegetal/genética , Polinização/genética , Flores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Pólen/genética , Estações do Ano , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento
10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(3)2022 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35163793

RESUMO

The Tiller Angle Control 1 (TAC1) gene belongs to the IGT family, which mainly controls plant branch angle, thereby affecting plant form. Two members of MdTAC1 are identified in apple; the regulation of apple branch angle by MdTAC1 is still unclear. In this study, a subcellular localization analysis detected MdTAC1a in the nucleus and cell membrane, but MdTAC1b was detected in the cell membrane. Transgenic tobacco by overexpression of MdTAC1a or MdTAC1b showed enlarged leaf angles, the upregulation of several genes, such as GA 2-oxidase (GA2ox), and a sensitive response to light and gravity. According to a qRT-PCR analysis, MdTAC1a and MdTAC1b were strongly expressed in shoot tips and vegetative buds of weeping cultivars but were weakly expressed in columnar cultivars. In the MdTAC1a promoter, there were losses of 2 bp in spur cultivars and 6 bp in weeping cultivar compared with standard and columnar cultivars. An InDel marker specific to the MdTAC1a promoter was developed to distinguish apple cultivars and F1 progeny. We identified a protein, MdSRC2, that interacts with MdTAC1a, whose encoding gene which was highly expressed in trees with large branch angles. Our results indicate that differences in the MdTAC1a promoter are major contributors to branch-angle variation in apple, and the MdTAC1a interacts with MdSRC2 to affect this trait.


Assuntos
Malus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Tabaco/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Clonagem Molecular , Flores/genética , Flores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Flores/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Malus/genética , Malus/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/genética , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Tabaco/genética , Transformação Genética
11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(3)2022 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35163160

RESUMO

The flower is the main organ that produces essential oils in many plants. The yield of raw flowers and the number of secretory epidermal cells are the main factors for essential oil production. The cultivated rose species "Pingyin 1" in China was used to study the effect of RrANT1 on floral organ development. Eighteen AP2 transcription factors with dual AP2 domains were identified from Rosa rugosa genome. RrANT1 belonged to euANT. The subcellular localization results showed that RrANT1 protein is localized in the nucleus. The relative expression level of RrANT1 in the receptacle is higher than that in petals in the developmental stages, and both decreased from the initial phase to senescence. Compared with the RrANT1 expression level in petals in the blooming stage, RrANT1 expression level was significant in petals (~48.8) and highest in the receptacle (~102.5) in the large bud stage. It was only highly expressed in the receptacle (~39.4) in the blooming period. RrANT1 overexpression significantly increased petunia flower and leaf sizes (~1.2), as well as flower fresh weight (~30%). The total number of epidermis cells in the petals of overexpressing plants significantly increased (>40%). This study concluded that RrANT1 overexpression can increase the size and weight of flowers by promoting cell proliferation, providing a basis for creating new rose germplasm to increase rose and essential oil yield.


Assuntos
Flores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Petunia/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Rosa/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Flores/genética , Flores/metabolismo , Tamanho do Órgão , Petunia/genética , Petunia/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Rosa/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(3)2022 Feb 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35163816

RESUMO

Zinc finger proteins are widely involved and play an important role in plant growth and abiotic stress. In this research, MdZAT5, a gene encoding C2H2-type zinc finger protein, was cloned and investigated. The MdZAT5 was highly expressed in flower tissues by qRT-PCR analyses and GUS staining. Promoter analysis showed that MdZAT5 contained multiple response elements, and the expression levels of MdZAT5 were induced by various abiotic stress treatments. Overexpression of MdZAT5 in apple calli positively regulated anthocyanin accumulation by activating the expressions of anthocyanin biosynthesis-related genes. Overexpression of MdZAT5 in Arabidopsis also enhanced the accumulation of anthocyanin. In addition, MdZAT5 increased the sensitivity to salt stress in apple calli. Ectopic expression of MdZAT5 in Arabidopsis reduced the expression of salt-stress-related genes (AtNHX1 and AtABI1) and improved the sensitivity to salt stress. In conclusion, these results suggest that MdZAT5 plays a positive regulatory role in anthocyanin accumulation and negatively regulates salt resistance.


Assuntos
Antocianinas/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Malus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas Repressoras/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Clonagem Molecular , Flores/genética , Flores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Malus/genética , Malus/metabolismo , Modelos Moleculares , Filogenia , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/metabolismo , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Proteínas Repressoras/química , Proteínas Repressoras/genética , Estresse Salino , Regulação para Cima
13.
Molecules ; 27(3)2022 Jan 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35164035

RESUMO

Water shortage caused by long-term drought is one of the most serious abiotic stress factors in maize. Different drought conditions lead to differences in growth, development, and metabolism of maize. In previous studies, proteomics and genomics methods have been widely used to explain the response mechanism of maize to long-term drought, but there are only a few articles related to metabolomics. In this study, we used transcriptome and metabolomics analysis to characterize the differential effects of drought stress imposed at seedling or flowering stages on maize. Through the association analysis of genes and metabolites, we found that maize leaves had 61 and 54 enriched pathways under seedling drought and flowering drought, respectively, of which 13 and 11 were significant key pathways, mostly related to the biosynthesis of flavonoids and phenylpropanes, glutathione metabolism and purine metabolism. Interestingly, we found that the α-linolenic acid metabolic pathway differed significantly between the two treatments, and a total of 10 differentially expressed genes and five differentially abundant metabolites have been identified in this pathway. Some differential accumulation of metabolites (DAMs) was related to synthesis of jasmonic acid, which may be one of the key pathways underpinning maize response to different types of long-term drought. In general, metabolomics provides a new method for the study of water stress in maize and lays a theoretical foundation for drought-resistant cultivation of silage maize.


Assuntos
Secas , Flores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plântula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Zea mays/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ácido alfa-Linoleico/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genes de Plantas , Metabolômica , Estresse Fisiológico , Zea mays/embriologia , Zea mays/genética , Zea mays/metabolismo
14.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(3)2022 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35163510

RESUMO

In order to separate transformed cells from non-transformed cells, antibiotic selectable marker genes are usually utilized in genetic transformation. After obtaining transgenic plants, it is often necessary to remove the marker gene from the plant genome in order to avoid regulatory issues. However, many marker-free systems are time-consuming and labor-intensive. Homology-directed repair (HDR) is a process of homologous recombination using homologous arms for efficient and precise repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated protein-9 (Cas9) system is a powerful genome editing tool that can efficiently cause DSBs. Here, we isolated a rice promoter (Pssi) of a gene that highly expressed in stem, shoot tip and inflorescence, and established a high-efficiency sequence-excision strategy by using this Pssi to drive CRISPR/Cas9-mediated HDR for marker free (PssiCHMF). In our study, PssiCHMF-induced marker gene deletion was detected in 73.3% of T0 plants and 83.2% of T1 plants. A high proportion (55.6%) of homozygous marker-excised plants were obtained in T1 progeny. The recombinant GUS reporter-aided analysis and its sequencing of the recombinant products showed precise deletion and repair mediated by the PssiCHMF method. In conclusion, our CRISPR/Cas9-mediated HDR auto-excision method provides a time-saving and efficient strategy for removing the marker genes from transgenic plants.


Assuntos
Edição de Genes/métodos , Oryza/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Embaralhamento de DNA , Flores/genética , Flores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Recombinação Homóloga , Oryza/genética , Brotos de Planta/genética , Brotos de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Caules de Planta/genética , Caules de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento
15.
BMC Plant Biol ; 22(1): 2, 2022 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34979911

RESUMO

BACK GROUND: MYB Transcription factors (TFs) are most imperative and largest gene family in plants, which participate in development, metabolism, defense, differentiation and stress response. The MYB TFs has been studied in various plant species. However, comprehensive studies of MYB gene family in the sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) are still unknown. RESULTS: In the current study, a total of 69 MYB genes were investigated from sweet cherry genome and classified into 28 subfamilies (C1-C28 based on phylogenetic and structural analysis). Microcollinearity analysis revealed that dispersed duplication (DSD) events might play an important role in the MYB genes family expansion. Chromosomal localization, the synonymous (Ks) and nonsynonymous (Ka) analysis, molecular characteristics (pI, weight and length of amino acids) and subcellular localization were accomplished using several bioinformatics tools. Furthermore, the members of distinct subfamilies have diverse cis-acting regions, conserved motifs, and intron-exon architectures, indicating functional heterogeneity in the MYB family. Moreover, the transcriptomic data exposed that MYB genes might play vital role in bud dormancy. The quantitative real-time qRT-PCR was carried out and the expression pattern indicated that MYB genes significantly expressed in floral bud as compared to flower and fruit. CONCLUSION: Our comprehensive findings provide supportive insights into the evolutions, expansion complexity and functionality of PavMYB genes. These PavMYB genes should be further investigated as they seem to be brilliant candidates for dormancy manipulation in sweet cherry.


Assuntos
Flores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Prunus avium/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Flores/genética , Frutas/genética , Família Multigênica , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Prunus avium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Prunus avium/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
16.
Plant Mol Biol ; 108(3): 241-255, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35064421

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: Nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD)-mediated degradation of BrFLC2 transcripts is the main cause of rapid flowering of oilseed-type B. rapa 'LP08' plants. Many Brassica species require vernalization (long-term winter-like cooling) for transition to the reproductive stage. In the past several decades, scientific efforts have been made to discern the molecular mechanisms underlying vernalization in many species. Thus, to identify the key regulators required for vernalization in Brassica rapa L., we constructed a linkage map composed of 7833 single nucleotide polymorphism markers using the late-flowering Chinese cabbage (B. rapa L. ssp. pekinensis) inbred line 'Chiifu' and the early-flowering yellow sarson (B. rapa L. ssp. trilocularis) line 'LP08' and identified a single major QTL on the upper-arm of the chromosome A02. In addition, we compared the transcriptomes of the lines 'Chiifu' and 'LP08' at five vernalization time points, including both non-vernalized and post-vernalization conditions. We observed that BrFLC2 was significantly downregulated in the early flowering 'LP08' and had two deletion sites (one at 4th exon and the other at 3' downstream region) around the BrFLC2 genomic region compared with the BrFLC2 genomic region in 'Chiifu'. Large deletion at 3' downstream region did not significantly affect transcription of both sense BrFLC2 transcript and antisense transcript, BrFLC2as along vernalization time course. However, the other deletion at 4th exon of BrFLC2 resulted in the generation of premature stop codon in BrFLC2 transcript in LP08 line. Cycloheximide treatment of LP08 line showed the de-repressed level of BrFLC2 in LP08, suggesting that low transcript level of BrFLC2 in LP08 might be caused by nonsense-mediated mRNA decay removing the nonsense transcript of BrFLC2. Collectively, this study provides a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying floral transition in B. rapa.


Assuntos
Brassica rapa/genética , Brassica rapa/fisiologia , Códon de Terminação/genética , Flores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/fisiologia , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Sequência de Bases , DNA de Plantas , Genoma de Planta , Mutação , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas
17.
Plant Sci ; 315: 111145, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35067308

RESUMO

Flowering time (or heading date in crops) is a critical agronomic trait for rice reproduction and adaptation. The circadian clock is an endogenous oscillator that is involved in controlling photoperiodic flowering. The rice LATE ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL (OsLHY), the core oscillator component of circadian clock, is a homolog of the LHY/CCA1 in Arabidopsis. Here we showed that CRISPR/Cas9-engineered mutations in OsLHY caused late flowering in rice only under natural long-day (nLD) and short-day (nSD) conditions, but not artificial SD (10 h light/14 h dark) conditions. In the oslhy mutant, the diurnal expression of circadian clock-related genes was seriously affected under both LD and SD conditions. Furthermore, the expression of the flowering activators Ehd1, Hd3a and RFT1 was down-regulated and flowering repressors Hd1 and Ghd7 was up-regulated in the oslhy mutant under LD conditions. While the transcripts of flowering-related genes were not dramatically influenced under SD conditions. Dual-luciferase assays showed that OsLHY repressed the transcription of OsGI, Hd1, Ghd7, Hd3a, RFT1 and OsELF3, and activated the transcription of Ehd1. Moreover, the yeast one hybrid assay and electrophoretic mobility shift assay confirmed that OsLHY directly repressed OsGI, RFT1 and OsELF3 by binding to their promoters, which is consistent with that in Arabidopsis. These results suggested that the OsLHY can promote rice flowering mainly through regulating Hd1 and Ehd1.


Assuntos
Ritmo Circadiano/fisiologia , Flores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Flores/genética , Oryza/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Oryza/genética , Oryza/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , China , Ritmo Circadiano/genética , Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Produtos Agrícolas/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genes de Plantas , Redes e Vias Metabólicas/genética , Fotoperíodo
18.
Molecules ; 27(2)2022 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35056846

RESUMO

The main focus of the study was to determine the content of phenolic acids, flavonoids, and organic acids in the flowers of Tagetes patula 'Petite Gold' and 'Petite Orange'. The growth of the plants was assessed depending on the cultivation conditions. The above plants were illuminated with white light, whereas the 'Petite Gold' ones with white light enhanced with blue or red light. Both cultivars grew in a two-level-mineral compounds organic substrate. The research showed that the French marigold flowers were rich in phenolic compounds and organic acids. The 'Petite Gold' flowers had more bioactive compounds compared with the 'Petite Orange' flowers. Three flavonoids, 10 phenolic acids and seven organic acids were found in the 'Petite Gold' flowers. The artificial lighting used during the cultivation of the plants showed diversified influence on the content of organic compounds in their flowers. The measurements of the plants' morphological traits and the number of inflorescences showed that illumination with red light resulted in a better effect. Large plants with numerous inflorescences grew in the substrate with a lower content of nutrients.


Assuntos
Ácidos/análise , Flores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Luz , Compostos Orgânicos/análise , Fenóis/análise , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Tagetes/química , Cor , Flores/metabolismo , Flores/efeitos da radiação , Extratos Vegetais/efeitos da radiação
19.
Gene ; 815: 146180, 2022 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34990794

RESUMO

Histone, a predominant protein component of chromatin, participates in DNA packaging and transcriptional regulation. However, the available information of Histone gene family is limited in radish. In this study, a total of 42 Histone gene family members were identified from the radish genome. Sequence alignment and phylogenetic analyses classified the Histone family into three groups (H2A, H2B and H3). Motif analysis showed that the functions of some motifs shared by H3 subfamily genes were related to chromosome regulation and cell development activities, such as motif 5 containing Cks1 and PPR region. Analysis of intron/exon structure indicated that RsCENH3 (RsHistone 18) has the characteristics of variant Histone. Furthermore, several motifs, including the LTR, G-box and TC-elements, were found in the promoters of RsHistone genes, which involved in cell development or various abiotic stresses responses. Transcriptome analysis indicated that the RsHistone genes exhibited higher expression level in floral buds than in roots and leaves. Subcellular localization showed that the RsCENH3 was localized on the nucleus, and it was highly expressed in the floral bud of 3.0-4.0 mm in radish. These findings would provide valuable information for characterization and potential utilization of Histone genes, and facilitate the efficient induction of double haploid plants in radish.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Histonas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Raphanus/genética , Cromossomos de Plantas , Evolução Molecular , Flores/genética , Flores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ontologia Genética , Genoma de Planta , Família Multigênica , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Raphanus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Estresse Fisiológico/genética
20.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(2)2022 01 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34996873

RESUMO

Carpels in maize undergo programmed cell death in half of the flowers initiated in ears and in all flowers in tassels. The HD-ZIP I transcription factor gene GRASSY TILLERS1 (GT1) is one of only a few genes known to regulate this process. To identify additional regulators of carpel suppression, we performed a gt1 enhancer screen and found a genetic interaction between gt1 and ramosa3 (ra3). RA3 is a classic inflorescence meristem determinacy gene that encodes a trehalose-6-phosphate (T6P) phosphatase (TPP). Dissection of floral development revealed that ra3 single mutants have partially derepressed carpels, whereas gt1;ra3 double mutants have completely derepressed carpels. Surprisingly, gt1 suppresses ra3 inflorescence branching, revealing a role for gt1 in meristem determinacy. Supporting these genetic interactions, GT1 and RA3 proteins colocalize to carpel nuclei in developing flowers. Global expression profiling revealed common genes misregulated in single and double mutant flowers, as well as in derepressed gt1 axillary meristems. Indeed, we found that ra3 enhances gt1 vegetative branching, similar to the roles for the trehalose pathway and GT1 homologs in the eudicots. This functional conservation over ∼160 million years of evolution reveals ancient roles for GT1-like genes and the trehalose pathway in regulating axillary meristem suppression, later recruited to mediate carpel suppression. Our findings expose hidden pleiotropy of classic maize genes and show how an ancient developmental program was redeployed to sculpt floral form.


Assuntos
Flores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Flores/genética , Zea mays/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Zea mays/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Apoptose , Flores/citologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genes de Plantas/genética , Inflorescência , Meristema/genética , Meristema/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Monoéster Fosfórico Hidrolases , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo
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