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1.
Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci ; 377(1853): 20210157, 2022 06 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35491598

RESUMO

Disease is an integral part of any organisms' life, and bees have evolved immune responses and a suite of hygienic behaviours to keep them at bay in the nest. It is now evident that flowers are another transmission hub for pathogens and parasites, raising questions about adaptations that help pollinating insects stay healthy while visiting hundreds of plants over their lifetime. Drawing on recent advances in our understanding of how bees of varying size, dietary specialization and sociality differ in their foraging ranges, navigational strategies and floral resource preferences, we explore the behavioural mechanisms and strategies that may enable foraging bees to reduce disease exposure and transmission risks at flowers by partitioning overlapping resources in space and in time. By taking a novel behavioural perspective, we highlight the missing links between disease biology and the ecology of plant-pollinator relationships, critical for improving the understanding of disease transmission risks and the better design and management of habitat for pollinator conservation. This article is part of the theme issue 'Natural processes influencing pollinator health: from chemistry to landscapes'.


Assuntos
Flores , Polinização , Animais , Comportamento Apetitivo , Abelhas , Ecossistema , Flores/fisiologia , Insetos , Polinização/fisiologia
2.
Int J Biometeorol ; 66(5): 849-862, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35235036

RESUMO

Phenology has emerged as a key metric to measure how species respond to changes in climate. Innovative means have been developed to extend the temporal and spatial range of phenological data by obtaining data from herbarium specimens, citizen science programs, and biodiversity data repositories. These different data types have seldom been compared for their effectiveness in detecting environmental impacts on phenology. To address this, we compare three separate phenology datasets from Denmark: (i) herbarium specimen data spanning 145 years, (ii) data collected from a citizen science phenology program over a single year observing first flowering, and (iii) data derived from incidental biodiversity observations in iNaturalist over a single year. Each dataset includes flowering day of year observed for three common spring-flowering plant species: Allium ursinum (ramsons), Aesculus hippocastanum (horse chestnut), and Sambucus nigra (black elderberry). The incidental iNaturalist dataset provided the most extensive geographic coverage across Denmark and the largest sample size and recorded peak flowering in a way comparable to herbarium specimens. The directed citizen science dataset recorded much earlier flowering dates because the program objective was to report the first flowering, and so was less compared to the other two datasets. Herbarium data demonstrated the strongest effect of spring temperature on flowering in Denmark, possibly because it was the only dataset measuring temporal variation in phenology, while the other datasets measured spatial variation. Herbarium data predicted the mean flowering day of year recorded in our iNaturalist dataset for all three species. Combining herbarium data with iNaturalist data provides an even more effective method for detecting climatic effects on phenology. Phenology observations from directed and incidental citizen science initiatives will increase in value for climate change research in the coming years with the addition of data capturing the inter-annual variation in phenology.


Assuntos
Ciência do Cidadão , Mudança Climática , Dinamarca , Flores/fisiologia , Reprodução
3.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 5086, 2022 03 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35332183

RESUMO

Insect-pollinated plants often release complex mixtures of floral scents to attract their pollinators. Yet scent compounds eliciting physiological or behavioural responses in pollinators have only been identified in few plant species. The sapromyiophilous aroid Arum maculatum releases a highly diverse dung-like scent with overall more than 300 different compounds recorded so far to attract its psychodid and other fly pollinators. The volatiles' role in pollinator attraction is mostly unknown. To identify potential behaviourally active compounds, we recorded electroantennographic responses of four Psychodidae and one Sphaeroceridae species to (1) inflorescence scents of A. maculatum and (2) the scents released by cow dung, likely imitated by the plant species. Here we show that these flies are sensitive to 78 floral volatiles of various chemical classes, 18 of which were also found in cow dung. Our study, which for the first time determined physiologically active compounds in the antennae of Psychoda spp. and Sphaeroceridae, identified various volatiles not known to be biologically active in any floral visitors so far. The obtained results help deciphering the chemical basis that enables A. maculatum and other plants, pollinated by psychodids and sphaerocerids, to attract and deceive their pollinators.


Assuntos
Arum , Dípteros , Animais , Bovinos , Feminino , Flores/fisiologia , Odorantes , Feromônios/análise , Polinização
4.
Am J Bot ; 109(4): 526-534, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35253215

RESUMO

PREMISE: Pollinator declines can reduce the quantity and quality of pollination services, resulting in less pollen deposited on flowers and lower seed production by plants. In response to these reductions, plant species that cannot autonomously self-pollinate and thus are dependent on pollinators to set seed could plastically adjust their floral traits. Such plasticity could increase the opportunity for outcross pollination directly, as well as indirectly by affecting inflorescence traits. METHODS: To test whether plants can respond to pollinator declines by plastically adjusting their floral traits, we simulated declines by experimentally reducing pollinator access to Lobelia siphilitica plants and measuring two traits of early- and late-season flowers: (1) floral longevity; and (2) sex-phase duration. To test whether plasticity in these floral traits affected inflorescence traits, we measured daily display size and phenotypic gender. RESULTS: We found that experimentally reducing pollination did not affect female-phase duration, but did extend the male-phase duration of early-season flowers by 13% and the longevity of late-season flowers by 12.8%. However, plants with an extended male phase did not have a more male-biased phenotypic gender, and plants with an extended floral longevity did not have a larger daily display. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that plants can respond to pollinator declines by plastically adjusting both the longevity and sex-phase duration of their flowers. If this plasticity increases the opportunity for outcross pollination, then it could be one mechanism by which pollinator-dependent plant species maintain seed production as pollinators decline.


Assuntos
Lobelia , Flores/fisiologia , Inflorescência , Lobelia/fisiologia , Plantas , Pólen , Polinização/fisiologia
5.
BMC Plant Biol ; 22(1): 94, 2022 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35236303

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In certain unisexual flowers, non-functional sexual organs remain vestigial and unisexuality can be overlooked leading to the ambiguous description of the sexual systems. Therefore, to accurately describe the sexual system, detailed morphological and developmental analyses along with experimental crosses must be performed. Cylindropuntia wolfii is a rare cactus endemic to the Sonoran Desert in southern California and northern Baja California that was described as gynodioecious by morphological analysis. The aims of our project include accurately identifying the sexual system of C. wolfii using histological and functional studies and characterizing the developmental mechanisms that underlie its floral development. METHODS: Histological analyses were carried out on different stages of C. wolfii flowers and controlled crosses were performed in the field. RESULT: Our results identified C. wolfii to be functionally dioecious. The ovule and anther development differed between staminate and pistillate flowers. In vivo pollen germination tests showed that the pollen of staminate and pistillate flowers were viable and the stigma and style of both staminate and pistillate flowers were receptive. This suggests that there are no genetic or developmental barriers in the earlier stages of pollen recognition and pollen germination. CONCLUSIONS: Despite being functionally dioecious, we observed that functionally pistillate individuals produced fruits with a large number of aborted seeds. This implies that not only does this species have low reproductive success, but its small population sizes may lead to low genetic diversity.


Assuntos
Cactaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Flores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cactaceae/fisiologia , Flores/fisiologia , Desenvolvimento Vegetal , Polinização , Reprodução
6.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 178: 93-104, 2022 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35276599

RESUMO

Flowering means that the plant enters the reproductive growth stage, which is a crucial stage in the plant life cycle. Delaying flowering time to prolong vegetative growth is an important method to increase biomass yield and saccharification efficiency in switchgrass, It is of great significance to study the molecular mechanism of plant flowering and regulate the process of plant flowering in the process of biomass production. In this study, we identified 55 serine/threonine-protein kinase genes related to flower development from the switchgrass transcriptome database. Simultaneously, we cloned one of them, PvSTK1, whose expression level and differential fold were significantly higher than other members. PvSTK1 is located on chromosome 8N and its protein was in the cell membrane, cytoplasm, and nucleus. The spatio-temporal expression analysis of the PvSTK1 in switchgrass displayed that the PvSTK1 is crucial in vegetative period, however, not in the transition to reproductive period. Overexpression of PvSTK1 in Arabidopsis resulted in down-regulation of flower-promoting genes and up-regulation of flower-suppressing genes, thereby delaying flowering. In addition, PvSTK1 caused atrophy of the ovules of the florets at the base of the inflorescence, leading to sterility of the florets. The function of PvSTK1 is to inhibit the development of floral organs, and its overexpression can prolong its vegetative period. In the future, overexpression of the PvSTK1 gene in switchgrass will change the flowering time and increase yield and utilization efficiency of biomass.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis , Panicum , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Flores/fisiologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Panicum/genética , Panicum/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/metabolismo , Reprodução
7.
PLoS One ; 17(2): e0262985, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35113889

RESUMO

The Dilleniaceae is known to produce nectarless flowers pollinated by bees, but the fact that bats ingest Dillenia biflora pollen led us to question pollination assumptions for these trees. We aimed to identify the pollinators of D. biflora, check for nectar presence, and investigate potential for cleistogamy and global prevalence of this pollination system. We examined aspects of the pollination of D. biflora on two Fijian islands using video recordings, direct observations, hand pollination, measurements (flowers, bite marks, nectar), and monitoring. The flowers, receptive for one night, contained copious nectar and had permanently closed globose corollas that required removal by bats for pollination. All the 101 flowers that retained their corolla died and did not produce seeds by cleistogamy. The bat Notopteris macdonaldi was well adapted to corolla removal. Keeping corollas closed until bats manipulate the nectar-rich flowers is a beneficial strategy in high-rainfall environments with many flower parasites. We propose to name a pollination system reliant exclusively on bats "chiropteropisteusis." From clues in the literature, other species in the geographical range of Dillenia are probably chiropteropisunous. Chiropteropisteusis should be investigated in the Old-World range of Dillenia, many species of which are threatened. The remarkable "fall" of the entire corolla observed by an earlier botanist for several species in the genus is most likely attributable to bats. This discovery has important implications for the conservation of bat-dependent trees and their associated fauna, particularly considering the high level of threat faced by flying-foxes globally.


Assuntos
Quirópteros/fisiologia , Dilleniaceae/fisiologia , Flores/fisiologia , Néctar de Plantas/fisiologia , Pólen/química , Polinização , Animais
8.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 3222, 2022 02 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35217699

RESUMO

Hybrid crop production is more reliant on pollinators compared to open-pollinated crops because they require cross-pollination between a male-fertile and a male-sterile line. Little is known about how stigma receipt of pollen from male-sterile genotypes affects reproduction in hybrids. Non-viable and non-compatible pollen cannot fertilise plant ovules, but may still interfere with pollination success. Here we used seedless watermelon (Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai) as a model hybrid plant, to evaluate the morphology, physiology, and movement of pollen from inter-planted genotypes (diploids and triploids). We found that pollen from triploids ('Exclamation' and 'Royal Armada') and diploids ('SP-6', 'Summer Flavor 800', and 'Tiger') was visually distinguishable. Pollen in triploids had more deformities (42.4-46%), tetrads (43-44%), and abnormal growth of callose plugs in pollen tubes. The amount of pollen in triploids to germinate on stigmas was low (8 ± 3%), and few pollen grains produced pollen tubes (6.5 ± 2%). Still, contrary to previous reports our results suggest that some viable pollen grains are produced by triploid watermelons. However, whilst honey bees can collect and deposit pollen from triploids onto stigmas, its effect on hybrid watermelon reproduction is likely to be minimal due to its low germination rate.


Assuntos
Citrullus , Triploidia , Animais , Abelhas/genética , Citrullus/genética , Produção Agrícola , Flores/fisiologia , Masculino , Pólen/genética , Polinização
9.
Proc Biol Sci ; 289(1968): 20212456, 2022 02 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35105239

RESUMO

Global temperatures are rising at an unprecedented rate, but environmental responses are often difficult to recognize and quantify. Long-term observations of plant phenology, the annually recurring sequence of plant developmental stages, can provide sensitive measures of climate change and important information for ecosystem services. Here, we present 419 354 recordings of the first flowering date from 406 plant species in the UK between 1753 and 2019 CE. Community-wide first flowering advanced by almost one month on average when comparing all observations before and after 1986 (p < 0.0001). The mean first flowering time is 6 days earlier in southern than northern sites, 5 days earlier under urban than rural settings, and 1 day earlier at lower than higher elevations. Compared to trees and shrubs, the largest lifeform-specific phenological shift of 32 days is found in herbs, which are generally characterized by fast turnover rates and potentially high levels of genetic adaptation. Correlated with January-April maximum temperatures at -0.81 from 1952-2019 (p < 0.0001), the observed trends (5.4 days per decade) and extremes (66 days between the earliest and latest annual mean) in the UK's first flowering dataset can affect the functioning and productivity of ecosystems and agriculture.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Flores , Mudança Climática , Flores/fisiologia , Plantas , Estações do Ano , Temperatura , Reino Unido
10.
Am J Bot ; 109(2): 345-360, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35192727

RESUMO

PREMISE: Floral scent is a key aspect of plant reproduction, but its intraspecific variation at multiple scales is poorly understood. Sexual dimorphism and temporal regulation of scent can be shaped by evolution, and interpopulation variation may be a bridge to species differences. We tested whether intraspecific chemical diversity in a wind-pollinated species where selection from biotic pollination is absent is associated with genetic divergence across the Hawaiian archipelago. METHODS: Floral volatiles from females, males, and hermaphrodites of subdioecious Schiedea globosa grown in a common environment from 12 populations were sampled day and night and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Variation among groups was analyzed by constrained ordination. We also examined the relationships of scent dissimilarity to geographic and genetic distance between populations. RESULTS: Flowers increased total emissions at night through higher emissions of several ketones, oximes, and phenylacetaldehyde. Females emitted less total scent per flower at night but more of some aliphatic compounds than males, and males emitted more ketones and aldoximes. Scent differed among populations during day and night. Divergence in scent produced at night increased with geographic distance within 70-100 km and increased with genetic distance for males during the day and night, but not for females. CONCLUSIONS: Schiedea globosa exhibits diel and sex-based variation in floral scent despite wind pollination and presumed loss of biotic pollination. In males, interpopulation scent differences are correlated with genetic differences, suggesting that scent evolved with dispersal within and across islands.


Assuntos
Polinização , Vento , Animais , Flores/fisiologia , Hawaii , Odorantes/análise , Polinização/fisiologia
11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(4)2022 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35216070

RESUMO

Tomato flower abscission is a critical agronomic problem directly affecting yield. It often occurs in greenhouses in winter, with the weak light or hazy weather leading to insufficient photosynthates. The importance of carbohydrate availability in flower retention has been illustrated, while relatively little is understood concerning the mechanism of carbohydrate regulation on flower abscission. In the present study, we analyzed the responding pattern of nonstructural carbohydrates (NSC, including total soluble sugars and starch) and the potential sugar signal pathway involved in abscission regulation in tomato flowers under shading condition, and their correlations with flower abscission rate and abscission-related hormones. The results showed that, when plants suffer from short-term photosynthesis deficiency, starch degradation in flower organs acts as a self-protection mechanism, providing a carbon source for flower growth and temporarily alleviating the impact on flower development. Trehalose 6-phosphate (T6P) and sucrose non-fermenting-like kinase (SnRK1) signaling seems to be involved in adapting the metabolism to sugar starvation stress through regulating starch remobilization and crosstalk with IAA, ABA, and ethylene in flowers. However, a continuous limitation of assimilating supply imposed starch depletion in flowers, which caused flower abscission.


Assuntos
Carboidratos/genética , Flores/genética , Flores/fisiologia , Lycopersicon esculentum/genética , Lycopersicon esculentum/fisiologia , Inanição/genética , Metabolismo dos Carboidratos/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Fotossíntese/genética , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/genética , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Transcriptoma/genética
12.
BMC Plant Biol ; 22(1): 80, 2022 Feb 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35193519

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Plants in cliff habitats may evolve specific reproductive strategies to cope with harsh environments, and unraveling these reproductive characteristics can improve our understanding of survival strategies and lithophyte evolution. This understanding is especially important for efforts to protect rare and endemic plants. Here, we investigated the reproductive biology of Lonicera oblata, an endangered lithophytic shrub that is scattered in highly fragmented and isolated cliff habitats of the Taihang and Yan mountains in North China. RESULTS: Flowers of L. oblata are herkogamous and protandrous, characteristics that can prevent autogamy at the single-flower level, and insects are necessary for pollination. The outcrossing index, pollen/ovule ratio, and the results of hand pollination were measured and all revealed a mixed mating system for L. oblata, that combines cross-fertilization and partial self-fertilization. The floral traits of L. oblata of zygomorphic and brightly yellowish corolla, heavy fragrance, and rich nectar, suggest an entomophilous pollination system. Sweat bees were observed as the most effective pollinators but their visiting frequencies were not high. Pollen limitation may limit the reproductive success of L. oblata. CONCLUSIONS: We determined the reproductive characteristics of L. oblata, a critically endangered species endemic to cliffs in North China, providing insight into its endangerment and suggesting conservation strategies. L. oblata has highly pollinator-dependent self-fertilization as part of a mixed mating system. Floral features such as low-flowering synchrony, asynchronous anthers dehiscence, and high duration of stigma receptivity, improve pollination efficiency in the case of low pollinator service. Our work provides reference information to understand the survival strategies and conservation of L. oblata and other lithophytes.


Assuntos
Flores/fisiologia , Insetos , Lonicera/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Tamanho Corporal , China , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Ecossistema , Espécies em Perigo de Extinção , Flores/anatomia & histologia , Lonicera/fisiologia , Néctar de Plantas , Pólen/fisiologia , Polinização
13.
Plant Mol Biol ; 108(6): 565-583, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35106703

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: Transcriptome landscape during early inflorescence developmental stages identified candidate flowering time regulators including Early Flowering 3a. Further genomics approaches validated the role of this gene in flowering time regulation. The early stages of inflorescence development in plants are as crucial as the later floral developmental stages. Several traits, such as inflorescence architecture and flower developmental timings, are determined during those early stages. In chickpea, diverse forms of inflorescence architectures regarding meristem determinacy and the number of flowers per node are observed within the germplasm. Transcriptome analysis in four desi chickpea accessions with such unique inflorescence characteristics identifies the underlying shared regulatory events leading to inflorescence development. The vegetative to reproductive stage transition brings about major changes in the transcriptome landscape. The inflorescence development progression associated genes identified through co-expression network analysis includes both protein-coding genes and long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs). Few lncRNAs identified in our study positively regulate flowering-related mRNA stability by acting competitively with miRNAs. Bulk segregrant analysis and association mapping narrowed down an InDel marker regulating flowering time in chickpea. Deletion of 11 bp in first exon of a negative flowering time regulator, Early Flowering 3a gene, leads to early flowering phenotype in chickpea. Understanding the key players involved in vegetative to reproductive stage transition and floral meristem development will be useful in manipulating flowering time and inflorescence architecture in chickpea and other legumes.


Assuntos
Cicer , Cicer/genética , Flores/fisiologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Inflorescência/genética , Meristema/genética , Fenótipo , Transcriptoma
14.
Plant Cell Environ ; 45(5): 1442-1456, 2022 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35040157

RESUMO

The timely transition from vegetative to reproductive development is coordinated through the quantitative regulation of floral pathway genes in response to physiological and environmental cues. The function of ethylene-responsive element-binding protein (ERF) transcription factors in the regulation of flowering in chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat.) is not well understood. Here, chrysanthemum overexpressing CmERF110 flowered earlier than the wild-type plants, while those in which CmERF110 was suppressed flowered later. RNA-seq results revealed that several genes involved in the circadian rhythm were transcribed differently in CmERF110 transgenic plants from that of the wild-type plants. The rhythm peak of the circadian clock genes in transgenic plants was delayed. Yeast two-hybrid screening of CmERF110 interactors identified a chrysanthemum FLOWERING LOCUS KH DOMAIN (FLK) homologue CmFLK, which was further confirmed with both in vitro and in vivo assays. KEGG pathway enrichment also revealed that CmFLK is involved in the regulation of circadian rhythm-related genes. CmFLK transgenic plants showed a change in flowering time and delayed rhythm peak of the circadian rhythm genes. Taken together, the present data not only suggest that CmERF110 interacts with CmFLK to promote floral transition by tuning the circadian clock, but also provides evidence for the evolutionary conservation of the components in the autonomous pathway in chrysanthemum.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis , Chrysanthemum , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Chrysanthemum/genética , Chrysanthemum/metabolismo , Ritmo Circadiano/genética , Etilenos , Flores/fisiologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Fotoperíodo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
15.
Plant Physiol ; 188(4): 1887-1899, 2022 03 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35026009

RESUMO

Perennial plants undergo a dormant period in addition to the growth and flowering phases that are commonly observed in annuals and perennials. Consequently, the regulation of these phase transitions in perennials is believed to be complicated. Previous studies have proposed that orthologs of FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) regulate not only floral initiation but also dormancy. We, therefore, investigated the involvement of FT orthologs (GtFT1 and GtFT2) during the phase transitions of the herbaceous perennial gentian (Gentiana triflora). Analysis of seasonal fluctuations in the expression of these genes revealed that GtFT1 expression increased prior to budbreak and flowering, whereas GtFT2 expression was induced by chilling temperatures with the highest expression occurring when endodormancy was released. The expression of FT-related transcription factors, reportedly involved in flowering, also fluctuated during each phase transition. These results suggested the involvement of GtFT1 in budbreak and floral induction and GtFT2 in dormancy regulation, implying that the two gentian FT orthologs activated a different set of transcription factors. Gentian ft2 mutants generated by CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genome editing had a lower frequency of budbreak and budbreak delay in overwintering buds caused by an incomplete endodormancy release. Our results highlighted that the gentian orthologs of FRUITFULL (GtFUL) and SHORT VEGETATIVE PHASE-like 1 (GtSVP-L1) act downstream of GtFT2, probably to prevent untimely budbreak during ecodormancy. These results suggest that each gentian FT ortholog regulates a different phase transition by having variable responses to endogenous or environmental cues, leading to their ability to induce the expression of distinct downstream genes.


Assuntos
Gentiana , Flores/fisiologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Gentiana/genética , Gentiana/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
16.
BMC Genomics ; 23(1): 40, 2022 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35012446

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: RADIALIS (RAD), belongs to the MYB gene family and regulates a variety of functions including floral dorsoventral asymmetry in Antirrhinum majus and development of fruit proteins in Solanum lycopersicum. RAD genes contain an SNF2_N superfamily domain. Here, we comprehensively identified 68 RAD genes from six different species including Arabidopsis and five species of cotton. RESULTS: Phylogenetic analysis classified RAD genes into five groups. Gene structure, protein motifs and conserved amino acid residues indicated that GhRAD genes were highly conserved during the evolutionary process. Chromosomal location information showed that GhRAD genes were distributed unevenly on different chromosomes. Collinearity and selection pressure analysis indicated RAD gene family expansion in G. hirsutum and G. barbadense with purifying selection pressure. Further, various growth and stress related promotor cis-acting elements were observed. Tissue specific expression level indicated that most GhRAD genes were highly expressed in roots and flowers (GhRAD2, GhRAD3, GhRAD4 and GhRAD11). Next, GhRAD genes were regulated by phytohormonal stresses (JA, BL and IAA). Moreover, Ghi-miRN1496, Ghi-miR1440, Ghi-miR2111b, Ghi-miR2950a, Ghi-miR390a, Ghi-miR390b and Ghi-miR7495 were the miRNAs targeting most of GhRAD genes. CONCLUSIONS: Our study revealed that RAD genes are evolutionary conserved and might be involved in different developmental processes and hormonal stress response. Data presented in our study could be used as the basis for future studies of RAD genes in cotton.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genes de Plantas , Gossypium/genética , Família Multigênica , Flores/fisiologia , Filogenia , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Estresse Fisiológico
17.
BMC Plant Biol ; 22(1): 52, 2022 Jan 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35078406

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A puzzle in evolution is the understanding of how the environment might drive subtle phenotypic variation, and whether this variation is adaptive. Under the neutral evolutionary theory, subtle phenotypes are almost neutral with little adaptive value. To test this idea, we studied the infraspecific variation in flower shape and color in Mammillaria haageana, a species with a wide geographical distribution and phenotypic variation, which populations are often recognized as infraspecific taxa. RESULTS: We collected samples from wild populations, kept them in the greenhouse for at least one reproductive year, and collected newly formed flowers. Our first objective was to characterize tepal natural variation in M. haageana through geometric morphometric and multivariate pigmentation analyses. We used landmark-based morphometrics to quantify the trends of shape variation and tepal color-patterns in 20 M. haageana accessions, belonging to five subspecies, plus 8 M. albilanata accessions for comparison as the sister species. We obtained eight geometric morphometric traits for tepal shape and color-patterns. We found broad variation in these traits between accessions belonging to the same subspecies, without taxonomic congruence with those infraspecific units. Also the phenetic cluster analysis showed different grouping patterns among accessions. When we correlated these phenotypes to the environment, we also found that solar radiation might explain the variation in tepal shape and color, suggesting that subtle variation in flower phenotypes might be adaptive. Finally we present anatomical sections in M. haageana subsp. san-angelensis to propose some of the underlying tepal structural features that may give rise to tepal variation. CONCLUSIONS: Our geometric morphometric approach of flower shape and color allowed us to identify the main trends of variation in each accession and putative subspecies, but also allowed us to correlate these variation to the environment, and propose anatomical mechanisms underlying this diversity of flower phenotypes.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Cactaceae/genética , Flores/anatomia & histologia , Flores/genética , Pigmentos Biológicos/metabolismo , Adaptação Fisiológica , Cactaceae/fisiologia , Flores/fisiologia , Pigmentos Biológicos/genética
18.
BMC Plant Biol ; 22(1): 56, 2022 Jan 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35086479

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Flowering signals are sensed in plant leaves and transmitted to the shoot apical meristems, where the formation of flowers is initiated. Searches for a diffusible hormone-like signaling entity ("florigen") went on for many decades, until a product of plant gene FT was identified as the key component of florigen in the 1990s, based on the analysis of mutants, genetic complementation evidence, and protein and RNA localization studies. Sequence homologs of FT protein are found throughout prokaryotes and eukaryotes; some eukaryotic family members appear to bind phospholipids or interact with the components of the signal transduction cascades. Most FT homologs are known to share a constellation of five charged residues, three of which, i.e., two histidines and an aspartic acid, are located at the rim of a well-defined cavity on the protein surface. RESULTS: We studied molecular features of the FT homologs in prokaryotes and analyzed their genome context, to find tentative evidence connecting the bacterial FT homologs with small molecule metabolism, often involving substrates that contain sugar or ribonucleoside moieties. We argue that the unifying feature of this protein family, i.e., a set of charged residues conserved at the sequence and structural levels, is more likely to be an enzymatic active center than a catalytically inert ligand-binding site. CONCLUSIONS: We propose that most of FT-related proteins are enzymes operating on small diffusible molecules. Those metabolites may constitute an overlooked essential ingredient of the florigen signal.


Assuntos
Florígeno/metabolismo , Flores/fisiologia , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/genética
19.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 172: 125-135, 2022 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35065373

RESUMO

The CONSTANS-LIKE1 (COL1) gene plays an important role in the regulation of photoperiodic flowering in plants. In this study, two COL1 homolog genes, MiCOL1A and MiCOL1B, were isolated from mango (Mangifera indica L.). The open reading frames of MiCOL1A and MiCOL1B are 852 and 822 bp in length and encode 284 and 274 amino acids, respectively. The MiCOL1A and MiCOL1B proteins contain only one CCT domain and belong to the CO/COL group IV protein family. MiCOL1A and MiCOL1B were expressed both in vegetative and reproductive organs but with expression level differences. MiCOL1A was highly expressed in juvenile and adult leaves, but MiCOL1B was highly expressed in flowers. Seasonal expression analysis showed that MiCOL1A and MiCOL1B have similar expression patterns and higher expression levels during flower induction and flower organ differentiation periods. However, MiCOL1A and MiCOL1B exhibited unstable patterns in circadian expression analysis. MiCOL1A and MiCOL1B were localized in the nucleus and had transcriptional activation activity in yeast. Overexpression of MiCOL1A and MiCOL1B resulted in significantly delayed flowering time in Arabidopsis. Furthermore, we also found that overexpression of MiCOL1A and MiCOL1B enhanced drought tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis. The results demonstrated that MiCOL1A and MiCOL1B are not only involved in flowering regulation but also play a role in the stress response of plants.


Assuntos
Flores/fisiologia , Mangifera , Proteínas de Plantas , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/fisiologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Mangifera/genética , Mangifera/fisiologia , Fotoperíodo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/fisiologia , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/fisiologia
20.
Plant Cell Physiol ; 63(3): 401-409, 2022 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35016218

RESUMO

Floral transition, the change from vegetative growth to reproductive development, is dramatic in flowering plants. Here, we show that one subgroup III member of the B-box (BBX) family, BBX17, is a repressor of floral transition under long-day conditions. BBX17 contains a B-box domain and a CCT domain. Although the phenotype of the BBX17 loss-of-function plants was comparable to that of wild-type plants, BBX17-overexpression plants displayed a delayed-flowering phenotype under long-day conditions. The delayed-flowering phenotype was not the result of an altered CONSTANS (CO) expression level but rather the repression of the FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) expression level. BBX17 physically associated with CO and repressed its ability to control FT expression. Furthermore, the BBX17 protein degraded in the dark, but irradiating seedlings with white, blue, red or far-red light stabilized the BBX17 level. We also proved that the degradation of BBX17 was via 26S proteasome and requires COP1. Thus, BBX17 acts as a key factor in the CO-FT regulatory system to control Arabidopsis thaliana flowering.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis , Arabidopsis , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Flores/fisiologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Fotoperíodo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
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