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1.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(39): 10891-10903, 2019 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31505929

RESUMO

Jasmonates (JAs) play an important role in plant developmental processes and regulate the biosynthesis of various specialized metabolites, and transcription factors are crucial in mediating JA signaling to regulate these processes. Capsaicinoids (Caps) are intriguing specialized metabolites produced uniquely by Capsicum species that give their fruits a pungent flavor to defend against herbivory and pathogens. In this study, we identify a R2R3-MYB transcription factor CaMYB108 and demonstrate its roles in regulating the biosynthesis of Caps and stamen development. Transcriptional analysis indicated that CaMYB108 was preferentially expressed in the flower and fruit, while the subcellular localization of CaMYB108 was shown to be the nucleus. Virus-induced gene silencing of CaMYB108 led to the expression of capsaicinoid biosynthetic genes (CBGs), and the contents of Caps dramatically reduce. Moreover, the CaMYB108-silenced plants showed delayed anther dehiscence and reduced pollen viability. Transient overexpression of CaMYB108 caused the expression of CBGs to be upregulated, and the Caps content significantly increased. The results of dual-luciferase reporter assays showed that CaMYB108 targeted CBG promoters. In addition, the expression of CaMYB108 and CBGs was inducible by methyl jasmonate and was consistent with the increased content of Caps. Overall, our results indicate that CaMYB108 is involved in the regulation of Caps biosynthesis and stamen development.


Assuntos
Capsaicina/metabolismo , Capsicum/metabolismo , Ciclopentanos/metabolismo , Flores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Oxilipinas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Capsicum/genética , Capsicum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Flores/genética , Flores/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Pólen/genética , Pólen/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Pólen/metabolismo , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
2.
DNA Cell Biol ; 38(9): 982-995, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31411493

RESUMO

The phosphatidylethanolamine-binding protein (PEBP) gene family exists in all eukaryote kingdoms, with three subfamilies: FT (FLOWERING LOCUS T)-like, TFL1 (TERMINAL FLOWER 1)-like, and MFT (MOTHER OF FT AND TFL1)-like. FT genes promote flowering, TFL1 genes act as a repressor of the floral transition, and MFT genes have functions in flowering promotion and regulating seed germination. We identified and characterized orthologs of the Arabidopsis FT/TFL1 gene family in petunia to elucidate their expression patterns and evolution. Thirteen FT/TFL1-like genes were isolated from petunia, with the five FT-like genes mainly expressed in leaves. The circadian rhythms of five FT-like genes and PhCO (petunia CONSTANS ortholog) were figured out. The expression of PhFT1 was contrary to that of PhFT2, PhFT3, PhFT4, and PhFT5. PhCO had a circadian clock different from Arabidopsis CO, but coincided with PhFT1; it decreased in daytime and accumulated at night. Two of the FT-like genes with differential circadian rhythm and higher expression levels, PhFT1 and PhFT4, were used to transform Arabidopsis. Eventually, overexpressing PhFT1 strongly delayed flowering, whereas overexpression of PhFT4 produced extremely early-flowering phenotype. Different from previous reports, PhTFL1a, PhTFL1b, and PhTFL1c were relatively highly expressed in roots. Taken together, this study demonstrates that petunia FT-like genes, like FT, are able to respond to photoperiod. The expression pattern of FT/TFL1 gene family in petunia contributes to a new insight into the functional evolution of this gene family.


Assuntos
Flores/genética , Família Multigênica , Petunia/genética , Proteína de Ligação a Fosfatidiletanolamina/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Flores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Petunia/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fenótipo , Proteína de Ligação a Fosfatidiletanolamina/metabolismo , Fotoperíodo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo
3.
BMC Plant Biol ; 19(1): 372, 2019 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31438864

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Correct timing of flowering is critical for plants to produce enough viable offspring. In Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis), flowering time is regulated by an intricate network of molecular signaling pathways. Arabidopsis srr1-1 mutants lacking SENSITIVITY TO RED LIGHT REDUCED 1 (SRR1) expression flower early, particularly under short day (SD) conditions (1). SRR1 ensures that plants do not flower prematurely in such non-inductive conditions by controlling repression of the key florigen FT. Here, we have examined the role of SRR1 in the closely related crop species Brassica napus. RESULTS: Arabidopsis SRR1 has five homologs in Brassica napus. They can be divided into two groups, where the A02 and C02 copies show high similarity to AtSRR1 on the protein level. The other group, including the A03, A10 and C09 copies all carry a larger deletion in the amino acid sequence. Three of the homologs are expressed at detectable levels: A02, C02 and C09. Notably, the gene copies show a differential expression pattern between spring and winter type accessions of B. napus. When the three expressed gene copies were introduced into the srr1-1 background, only A02 and C02 were able to complement the srr1-1 early flowering phenotype, while C09 could not. Transcriptional analysis of known SRR1 targets in Bna.SRR1-transformed lines showed that CYCLING DOF FACTOR 1 (CDF1) expression is key for flowering time control via SRR1. CONCLUSIONS: We observed subfunctionalization of the B. napus SRR1 gene copies, with differential expression between early and late flowering accessions of some Bna.SRR1 copies. This suggests involvement of Bna.SRR1 in regulation of seasonal flowering in B. napus. The C09 gene copy was unable to complement srr1-1 plants, but is highly expressed in B. napus, suggesting specialization of a particular function. Furthermore, the C09 protein carries a deletion which may pinpoint a key region of the SRR1 protein potentially important for its molecular function. This is important evidence of functional domain annotation in the highly conserved but unique SRR1 amino acid sequence.


Assuntos
Brassica napus/genética , Flores/genética , Genes de Plantas , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Flores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Dosagem de Genes , Expressão Gênica , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/fisiologia
4.
BMC Plant Biol ; 19(1): 313, 2019 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31307374

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Essential oils (EOs) of Lavandula angustifolia, mainly consist of monoterpenoids and sesquiterpenoids, are of great commercial value. The multi-flower spiciform thyrse of lavender not only determines the output of EOs but also reflects an environmental adaption strategy. With the flower development and blossom in turn, the fluctuation of the volatile terpenoids displayed a regular change at each axis. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the regulation of volatile terpenoids during the process of flowering is poorly understood in lavender. Here, we combine metabolite and RNA-Seq analyses of flowers of five developmental stages at first- and second-axis (FFDSFSA) and initial flower bud (FB0) to discover the active terpenoid biosynthesis as well as flowering-related genes. RESULTS: A total of 56 mono- and sesquiterpenoids were identified in the EOs of L. angustifolia 'JX-2'. FB0' EO consists of 55 compounds and the two highest compounds, ß-trans-ocimene (20.57%) and (+)-R-limonene (17.00%), can get rid of 74.71 and 78.41% aphids in Y-tube olfactometer experiments, respectively. With sequential and successive blossoms, temporally regulated volatiles were linked to pollinator attraction in field and olfaction bioassays. In three characteristic compounds of FFDSFSA' EOs, linalyl acetate (72.73%) and lavandulyl acetate (72.09%) attracted more bees than linalool (45.35%). Many transcripts related to flowering time and volatile terpenoid metabolism expressed differently during the flower development. Similar metabolic and transcriptomic profiles were observed when florets from the two axes were maintained at the same maturity grade. Besides both compounds and differentially expressed genes were rich in FB0, most volatile compounds were significantly correlated with FB0-specific gene module. Most key regulators related to flowering and terpenoid metabolism were interconnected in the subnetwork of FB0-specific module, suggesting the cross-talk between the two biological processes to some degree. CONCLUSIONS: Characteristic compounds and gene expression profile of FB0 exhibit ecological value in pest control. The precise control of each-axis flowering and regular emissions at transcriptional and metabolic level are important to pollinators attraction for lavender. Our study sheds new light on lavender maximizes its fitness from "gene-volatile terpenoid-insect" three layers.


Assuntos
Flores/genética , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Lavandula/genética , Terpenos/metabolismo , Acetatos/metabolismo , Animais , Ecossistema , Flores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Flores/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Insetos , Lavandula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Lavandula/metabolismo , Monoterpenos/metabolismo , Odorantes , Óleos Voláteis/metabolismo , Óleos Vegetais/metabolismo , Polinização , RNA de Plantas , Análise de Sequência de RNA
5.
Gene ; 713: 143974, 2019 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31301484

RESUMO

An orthologous gene of SEPALLATA1, designated as IiSEP1, was isolated from Isatis indigotica. The genomic DNA of IiSEP1 is 3.1 Kb in length. The full-length cDNA of IiSEP1 is 1481 bp and contains a 756 bp ORF encoding a 251-amino-acid protein. Sequence comparison revealed that IiSEP1 belonged to the MADS-box gene family. IiSEP1 contains 7 exons and 6 introns, showing similar exon-intron structure with Arabidopsis SEP1. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that IiSEP1 belonged to AGL2/SEP subfamily and was likely to be an I. indigotica ortholog of Arabidopsis SEP1. Quantitative real-time PCR showed that IiSEP1 was predominantly expressed in the reproductive organs. Ectopic expression of IiSEP1 in Arabidopsis resulted in early flowering, accompanied with the reduction of inflorescence number and the production of terminal flower on the top of the main stems. Moreover, IiSEP1 overexpressing flowers generated numerous variations in phenotype. The sepals were changed into petal-sepal mosaic structures or displayed carpelloid features, and transparent ovules were formed in internal surface of these sepals. In addition, some flowers were constituted by sepals and pistil, but lacked petals and stamens. Taken together, IiSEP1 might play important roles in reproductive growth of I. indigotica and could affect the morphogenesis of flowers and fruits.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Flores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/genética , Isatis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas de Schizosaccharomyces pombe/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Arabidopsis/genética , Flores/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Isatis/genética , Proteínas de Domínio MADS/genética , Fenótipo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Homologia de Sequência
6.
Plant Sci ; 286: 78-88, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31300145

RESUMO

Chloroplastic Cpn60 proteins are type I chaperonins comprising of Cpn60α and Cpn60ß subunits. Arabidopsis genome contains six entries in Cpn60 family, out of which two are for Cpn60α subunit and four for Cpn60ß subunit. We noted that the cpn60ß4 knockout mutant plants (T-DNA insertion salk_064887 line) differed from the wild type Col-0 plants in the developmental programming. cpn60ß4 mutant plants showed early seed germination. Radical emergence, hypocotyl emergence and cotyledons opening were faster in cpn60ß4 mutant plants than WT. Importantly, cpn60ß4 mutant plants showed early-flowering phenotype. The number of flowers and siliques as well as weight of the seeds were higher in cpn60ß4 mutant plants as compared to Col-0 plants. These effects were reverted to wild type like growth and developmental patterns when genomic fragment of Arabidopsis encompassing Cpn60ß4 gene was complemented in the mutant background. The overexpression of Cpn60ß4 gene using CaMV35 promoter in wild type background (OE-Cpn60ß4) delayed the floral transition as against wild type plants. The plastid division were affected in cpn60ß4 mutant plants compared to Col-0. The results of this study suggest that Cpn60ß4 plays important role(s) in chloroplast development and is a key factor in plant growth, development and flowering in Arabidopsis.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis/fisiologia , Arabidopsis/genética , Flores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Proteínas de Ligação a Fosfato/fisiologia , Arabidopsis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Cloroplastos/metabolismo , Flores/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Proteínas de Ligação a Fosfato/genética , Reprodução
7.
DNA Res ; 26(3): 243-260, 2019 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31231761

RESUMO

Whole-genome re-sequencing is a powerful approach to detect gene variants, but it is expensive to analyse only the target genes. To circumvent this problem, we attempted to detect novel variants of flowering time-related genes and their homologues in soybean mini-core collection by target re-sequencing using AmpliSeq technology. The average depth of 382 amplicons targeting 29 genes was 1,237 with 99.85% of the sequence data mapped to the reference genome. Totally, 461 variants were detected, of which 150 sites were novel and not registered in dbSNP. Known and novel variants were detected in the classical maturity loci-E1, E2, E3, and E4. Additionally, large indel alleles, E1-nl and E3-tr, were successfully identified. Novel loss-of-function and missense variants were found in FT2a, MADS-box, WDR61, phytochromes, and two-component response regulators. The multiple regression analysis showed that four genes-E2, E3, Dt1, and two-component response regulator-can explain 51.1-52.3% of the variation in flowering time of the mini-core collection. Among them, the two-component response regulator with a premature stop codon is a novel gene that has not been reported as a soybean flowering time-related gene. These data suggest that the AmpliSeq technology is a powerful tool to identify novel alleles.


Assuntos
Flores/genética , Genes de Plantas , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Soja/genética , Tempo , Estudos de Associação Genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA
8.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(26): 7399-7409, 2019 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31244203

RESUMO

Flavonol synthase (FLS) belongs to the 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenase (2-ODD) superfamily. We isolated OsFLS from the rice ( Oryza sativa) cultivar "Ilmi" OsFLS includes highly conserved 2-ODD-specific motifs and FLS-specific regions. Recombinant OsFLS exhibited both FLS and flavanone 3ß-hydroxylase (F3H) activities, converting dihydroflavonols into flavonols and flavanones into dihydroflavonols, respectively, and more efficiently used dihydrokaempferol than dihydroquercetin as a substrate. OsFLS was expressed in both nonpigmented and pigmented rice seeds and was developmentally regulated during seed maturation. Transgenic tobacco ( Nicotiana tabacum) plants expressing OsFLS produced pale pink or white flowers with significantly increased levels of kaempferol-3- O-rutinoside and dramatically reduced levels of anthocyanin in their petals. Additionally, pod size and weight were reduced compared to the wild type. Several early and late biosynthetic genes of flavonoid were downregulated in the transgenic flowers. We demonstrated that OsFLS is a bifunctional 2-ODD enzyme and functions in flavonol production in planta.


Assuntos
Dioxigenases/genética , Dioxigenases/metabolismo , Oryza/enzimologia , Oxirredutases/genética , Oxirredutases/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Antocianinas/biossíntese , Cor , Flavonóis/biossíntese , Flores/genética , Flores/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Ácidos Cetoglutáricos/metabolismo , Oryza/genética , Tabaco/genética , Tabaco/metabolismo
9.
BMC Plant Biol ; 19(1): 277, 2019 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31234776

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Asia lotus (Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn.) is an ornamental aquatic plant with high economic value. Flower colour is an important ornamental trait, with much of N. nucifera breeding focusing on its yellow flowers. To explore the yellow flower colouration mechanism in N. nucifera, we analysed its pigment constituents and content, as well as gene expression in the flavonoid pathway, in two N. nucifera cultivars. RESULTS: We performed metabolomic and gene expression analyses in two N. nucifera cultivars with yellow and white flowers, Molinqiuse (MLQS) and Yeguangbei (YGB), respectively, at five stages of flower colouration. Based on phenotypic observation and metabolite analyses, the later stages of flower colouration (S3-S5) were determined to be key periods for differences between MLQS and YGB, with dihydroflavonols and flavonols differing significantly between cultivars. Dihydroquercetin, dihydrokaempferol, and isorhamnetin were significantly higher in MLQS than in YGB, whereas kaempferol was significantly higher in YGB. Most of the key homologous structural genes in the flavonoid pathway were significantly more active in MLQS than in YGB at stages S1-S4. CONCLUSION: In this study, we performed the first analyses of primary and secondary N. nucifera metabolites during flower colouration, and found that isorhamnetin and kaempferol shunting resulted in petal colour differences between MLQS and YGB. Based on our data integration analyses of key enzyme expression in the putative flavonoid pathways of the two N. nucifera cultivars, NnFLS gene substrate specificity and differential expression of NnOMTs may be related to petal colour differences between MLQS and YGB. These results will contribute to determining the mechanism of yellow flower colouration in N. nucifera, and will improve yellow petal colour breeding in lotus species.


Assuntos
Flavonoides/metabolismo , Flores/genética , Nelumbo/metabolismo , Pigmentação/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Genes de Plantas , Quempferóis/metabolismo , Metaboloma , Metiltransferases/genética , Nelumbo/enzimologia , Nelumbo/genética , Quercetina/análogos & derivados , Quercetina/metabolismo , Especificidade da Espécie
10.
BMC Plant Biol ; 19(1): 246, 2019 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31182023

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rapid-cycling Brassica rapa (RCBr), also known as Wisconsin Fast Plants, are small robust plants with a short lifecycle that are widely used in biology teaching. RCBr have been used for decades but there are no published reports of RCBr genetic transformation. Agrobacterium-mediated vacuum infiltration has been used to transform pakchoi (Brassica rapa ssp. chinensis) and may be suitable for RCBr transformation. The floral dip transformation method, an improved version of vacuum infiltration, could make the procedure easier. RESULTS: Based on previous findings from Arabidopsis and pakchoi, plants of three different ages were inoculated with Agrobacterium. Kanamycin selection was suboptimal with RCBr; a GFP screen was used to identify candidate transformants. RCBr floral bud dissection showed that only buds with a diameter less than 1 mm carried unsealed carpels, a key point of successful floral dip transformation. Plants across a wide range of inflorescence maturities but containing these immature buds were successfully transformed, at an overall rate of 0.1% (one per 1000 T1 seeds). Transformation was successful using either vacuum infiltration or the floral dip method, as confirmed by PCR and Southern blot. CONCLUSION: A genetic transformation system for RCBr was established in this study. This will promote development of new biology teaching tools as well as basic biology research on Brassica rapa.


Assuntos
Agrobacterium/fisiologia , Brassica rapa/genética , Brassica rapa/microbiologia , Engenharia Genética/métodos , Transformação Genética , Southern Blotting , Flores/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase
11.
BMC Plant Biol ; 19(1): 251, 2019 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31185907

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Compared with annual herbaceous plants, woody perennials require a longer period of juvenile phase to flowering, and many traits can be only expressed in adulthood, which seriously makes the breeding efficiency of new varieties slower. For the study of poplar early flowering, the main focus is on the study Arabidopsis homologue gene CO/FT. Based on studies of Arabidopsis, rice and other plant species, some important research progress has been made on the regulation of flowering time by NF-Y subunits. However, little is known about the function of NF-Y regulating flowering in poplar. RESULTS: In the present study, we have identified PtNF-YB family members in poplar and focus on the function of the PtNF-YB1 regulate flowering timing using transgenic Arabidopsis and tomato. To understand this mechanisms, the expression levels of three known flowering genes (CO, FT and SOC1) were examined with RT-PCR in transgenic Arabidopsis. We used the Y2H and BiFC to assay the interactions between PtNF-YB1 and PtCO (PtCO1 and PtCO2) proteins. Finally, the potential molecular mechanism model in which PtNF-YB1 play a role in regulating flowering in poplar was discussed. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we have characterized the poplar NF-YB gene family and confirmed the function of the PtNF-YB1 regulate flowering timing. At the same time, we found that the function of PtNF-YB1 to improve early flowering can overcome species barriers. Therefore, PtNF-YB1 can be used as a potential candidate gene to improve early flowering by genetic transformation in poplar and other crops.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Populus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Populus/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Arabidopsis/genética , Sequência de Bases , Flores/genética , Flores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Família Multigênica , Fenótipo , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Populus/metabolismo , Alinhamento de Sequência , Fatores de Transcrição/química , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
12.
BMC Plant Biol ; 19(1): 233, 2019 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31159738

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Auxin conjugates are hydrolyzed to release free auxin to ensure defined cellular auxin levels or gradients within tissues for proper development or response to environmental signals. The auxin concentration in the abscission zone (AZ) is thought to play an important role in mediating the abscission lag phase. RESULTS: In this study, the full cDNA sequences of seven tomato ILR1-like SlILL genes were identified and characterized, All SlILLs were found to have auxin conjugate hydrolysis activity. The effects of different auxin conjugates on abscission identified IAA-Ile as a candidate to determine the auxin conjugate and auxin conjugate hydrolysis functions in abscission. Treatment of pedicel explants with IAA-Ile for different times showed that application before 6 h could effectively delay abscission. IAA-Ile pre-incubation for 2 h was sufficient to inhibit abscission. These results showed that there is not sufficient auxin conjugates in the AZ to inhibit abscission, and the optimal time to inhibit abscission by the application of exogenous auxin conjugates is before 6 h. Treatment with cycloheximide (CHX, a protein biosynthesis inhibitor) indicated that de novo synthesis of auxin conjugate hydrolases is also required to delay abscission. During abscission, SlILL1, 5, and 6 showed abscission-related gene expression patterns, and SlILL1, 3, 5, 6, and 7 showed increasing expression trends, which collectively might contribute to delay abscission. Silencing the expression of SlILL1, 3, 5, 6, and 7 using virus-induced gene silencing showed that SlILL1, 5, and 6 are major mediators of abscission in tomato. CONCLUSIONS: In the process of abscission, auxin inhibition is concentration dependent, and the concentration of auxin in the AZ was regulated by hydrolyzed auxin conjugates. SlILR1, 5, and 6 play a key role in flower pedicel abscission.


Assuntos
Flores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Hidrolases/metabolismo , Ácidos Indolacéticos/metabolismo , Lycopersicon esculentum/genética , Inibidores da Síntese de Proteínas/farmacologia , Cicloeximida/farmacologia , Flores/genética , Lycopersicon esculentum/enzimologia
13.
BMC Genomics ; 20(1): 390, 2019 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31109305

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Phytohormones are key regulators of plant growth, development, and signalling networks involved in responses to diverse biotic and abiotic stresses. Transcriptional reference maps of hormone responses have been reported for several model plant species such as Arabidopsis thaliana, Oryza sativa, and Brachypodium distachyon. However, because of species differences and the complexity of the wheat genome, these transcriptome data are not appropriate reference material for wheat studies. RESULTS: We comprehensively analysed the transcriptomic responses in wheat spikes to seven phytohormones, including indole acetic acid (IAA), gibberellic acid (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), ethylene (ET), cytokinin (CK), salicylic acid (SA), and methyl jasmonic acid (MeJA). A total of 3386 genes were differentially expressed at 24 h after the hormone treatments. Furthermore, 22.7% of these genes exhibited overlapping transcriptional responses for at least two hormones, implying there is crosstalk among phytohormones. We subsequently identified genes with expression levels that were significantly and differentially induced by a specific phytohormone (i.e., hormone-specific responses). The data for these hormone-responsive genes were then compared with the transcriptome data for wheat spikes exposed to biotic (Fusarium head blight) and abiotic (water deficit) stresses. CONCLUSION: Our data were used to develop a transcriptional reference map of hormone responses in wheat spikes.


Assuntos
Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta/farmacologia , Transcriptoma , Triticum/genética , Desidratação/genética , Desidratação/metabolismo , Flores/efeitos dos fármacos , Flores/genética , Flores/metabolismo , Fusarium , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Transcriptoma/efeitos dos fármacos , Triticum/efeitos dos fármacos , Triticum/metabolismo , Triticum/microbiologia
14.
Yi Chuan ; 41(5): 430-438, 2019 May 20.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31106779

RESUMO

Arabidopsis CKI1 (cytokinin independent 1) is a histidine kinase protein involved in the two-component system, which can activate two-component signaling via the downstream histidine phospho-transfer proteins, playing the essential roles in central cell fate determination and development regulation in embryo sacs. However, studies on CKI1 upstream transcription regulators are still limited. In the present study, promoter activities with varying fragments were investigated, and CKI1 upstream transcription regulators were screened and identified by the yeast-one hybrid technique. Results indicated F5/R2 fragments located in the intron region showed promoter activities in embryo sacs, which is consistent with CKI1 full-length promoters. Then three tandem repeats of F5/R2 fragments were used to construct the bait expression vector, and Arabidopsis pistils were collected for cDNA library construction. Totally, 226 positive clones were screened by the yeast-one hybrid technique, 66 readable sequences were retrieved after removing sequences with low quality and redundant repeats, among which eight proteins could act as DNA-binding proteins. These results provided some important clues to study the molecular function of CKI1 in the transcription regulation network.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas Quinases/genética , Flores/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas
15.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(9)2019 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31085987

RESUMO

Sheepgrass (Leymus chinensis (Trin.) Tzvel.) is an economically and ecologically important forage in the grass family. Self-incompatibility (SI) limits its seed production due to the low seed-setting rate after self-pollination. However, investigations into the molecular mechanisms of sheepgrass SI are lacking. Therefore, microscopic observation of pollen germination and pollen tube growth, as well as transcriptomic analyses of pistils after self- and cross-pollination, were performed. The results indicated that pollen tube growth was rapidly inhibited from 10 to 30 min after self-pollination and subsequently stopped but preceded normally after cross-pollination. Time course comparative transcriptomics revealed different transcriptome dynamics between self- and cross-pollination. A pool of SI-related signaling genes and pathways was generated, including genes related to calcium (Ca2+) signaling, protein phosphorylation, plant hormone, reactive oxygen species (ROS), nitric oxide (NO), cytoskeleton, and programmed cell death (PCD). A putative SI response molecular model in sheepgrass was presented. The model shows that SI may trigger a comprehensive calcium- and phytohormone-dominated signaling cascade and activate PCD, which may explain the rapid inhibition of self-pollen tube growth as observed by cytological analyses. These results provided new insight into the molecular mechanisms of sheepgrass (grass family) SI.


Assuntos
Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Poaceae/genética , Transcriptoma/genética , Cálcio/metabolismo , Flores/genética , Flores/fisiologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/fisiologia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Polinização/genética , Polinização/fisiologia , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia
16.
Plant Cell Physiol ; 60(8): 1702-1721, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31077318

RESUMO

In plants, DNA methylation (i.e. chromatin modification) is important for various biological processes, including growth, development and flowering. Because 'Fuji' apple trees are alternate bearing and have a long ripening period and poor-quality flower buds, we used bud types with diverse flowering capabilities to investigate the epigenetic regulatory mechanisms influencing flower bud formation. We examined the DNA methylation changes and the transcriptional responses in the selected apple bud types. We observed that in the apple genome, approximately 79.5%, 67.4% and 23.7% of the CG, CHG and CHH sequences are methylated, respectively. For each sequence context, differentially methylated regions exhibited distinct methylation patterns among the analyzed apple bud types. Global methylation and transcriptional analyses revealed that nonexpressed genes or genes expressed at low levels were highly methylated in the gene-body regions, suggesting that gene-body methylation is negatively correlated with gene expression. Moreover, genes with methylated promoters were more highly expressed than genes with unmethylated promoters, implying promoter methylation and gene expression are positively correlated. Additionally, flowering-related genes (e.g. SOC1, AP1 and SPLs) and some transcription factor genes (e.g. GATA, bHLH, bZIP and WOX) were highly expressed in spur buds (highest flowering rate), but were associated with low methylation levels in the gene-body regions. Our findings indicate a potential correlation between DNA methylation and gene expression in apple buds with diverse flowering capabilities, suggesting an epigenetic regulatory mechanism influences apple flower bud formation.


Assuntos
Flores/fisiologia , Malus/genética , Malus/fisiologia , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Análise de Sequência de RNA/métodos , Metilação de DNA/genética , Metilação de DNA/fisiologia , Flores/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/fisiologia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia
17.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(9)2019 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31052421

RESUMO

Trehalose-6-phosphate (T6P) phosphatase (TPP), a dephosphorylating enzyme, catalyzes the dephosphorylation of T6P, generating trehalose. In Jatropha, we found six members of the TPP family. Five of them JcTPPA, JcTPPC, JcTPPD, JcTPPG, and JcTPPJ are highly expressed in female flowers or male flowers, or both, suggesting that members of the JcTPP family may participate in flower development in Jatropha. The wide expression of JcTPPJ gene in various organs implied its versatile roles and thus was chosen for unraveling its biological functions during developmental process. We constructed an overexpression vector of JcTPPJ cDNA driven by the cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter for genetic transformation. Compared with control Arabidopsis plants, 35S:JcTPPJ transgenic Arabidopsis plants presented greater sucrose contents in their inflorescences and displayed late-flowering and heterostylous phenotypes. Exogenous application of sucrose to the inflorescence buds of wild-type Arabidopsis repressed the development of the perianth and filaments, with a phenocopy of the 35S:JcTPPJ transgenic Arabidopsis. These results suggested that the significantly increased sucrose level in the inflorescence caused (or induced) by JcTTPJ overexpression, was responsible for the formation of heterostylous flower phenotype. However, 35S:JcTPPJ transgenic Jatropha displayed no obvious phenotypic changes, implying that JcTPPJ alone may not be sufficient for regulating flower development in Jatropha. Our results are helpful for understanding the function of TPPs, which may regulate flower organ development by manipulating the sucrose status in plants.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis/genética , Expressão Ectópica do Gene , Flores/genética , Jatropha/genética , Fenótipo , Monoéster Fosfórico Hidrolases/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Arabidopsis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Jatropha/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Monoéster Fosfórico Hidrolases/metabolismo , Desenvolvimento Vegetal/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sacarose/metabolismo
18.
BMC Plant Biol ; 19(1): 217, 2019 May 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31122203

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Color directly affects fruit quality and consumer preference. In fig syconia, the female flower tissue is contained in a receptacle. Anthocyanin pigmentation of this tissue and the peel differs temporally and spatially. A transcriptome study was carried out to elucidate key genes and transcription factors regulating differences in fig coloring. RESULTS: Anthocyanins in the female flower tissue were identified mainly as pelargonidin-3-glucoside and cyanidin-3-rutinoside; in the peel, the major anthocyanins were cyanidin 3-O-glucoside and cyanidin-3-rutinoside. Anthocyanin content was significantly higher in the female flower tissue vs. peel before fig ripening, whereas at ripening, the anthocyanin content in the peel was 5.39 times higher than that in the female flower tissue. Light-deprivation treatment strongly inhibited peel, but not female flower tissue, anthocyanin pigmentation. RNA-Seq revealed 522 differentially expressed genes (recruited with criteria log2 ≥ 2 and P < 0.05) at fig ripening, with 50 upregulated and 472 downregulated genes in the female flower tissue. Light deprivation upregulated 1180 and downregulated 856 genes in the peel, and upregulated 909 and downregulated 817 genes in the female flower tissue. KEGG enrichment revealed significantly changed expression in the phenylpropanoid-biosynthesis and flavonoid-biosynthesis pathways in the peel, but not in the female flower tissue, with significant repression of FcCHS, FcCHI, FcF3H, FcF3'H, FcDFR and FcUFGT transcripts. Light deprivation led to differential expression of 71 and 80 transcription factor genes in the peel and female flower tissue, respectively. Yeast one-hybrid screen revealed that FcHY5 and FcMYB114 bind the promoter regions of FcCHS and FcDFR, respectively in the flavonoid-biosynthesis pathway. CONCLUSIONS: Phenylpropanoid- and flavonoid-biosynthesis pathways were differentially expressed spatially and temporally in the peel and female flower tissue of fig syconia; pathway expression in the peel was strongly regulated by light signal. Differentially expressed transcription factors were recruited as candidates to screen important expression regulators in the light-dependent and light-independent anthocyanin-synthesis pathway. Our study lays the groundwork for further elucidation of crucial players in fig pigmentation.


Assuntos
Ficus/fisiologia , Pigmentação , Transcriptoma , Ficus/genética , Ficus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ficus/efeitos da radiação , Flores/genética , Flores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Flores/fisiologia , Flores/efeitos da radiação , Frutas/genética , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Frutas/fisiologia , Frutas/efeitos da radiação , Pigmentação/efeitos da radiação , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Transcriptoma/efeitos da radiação
19.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 139: 642-650, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31048121

RESUMO

The Bromeliaceae family, which is distributed pantropically, is one of the most morphologically diverse families. Except for the edible pineapple (Ananas comosus), the vast majority of bromeliads cultivated worldwide are appreciated mainly for their ornamental value. As subtropical and tropical flowering plants, these bromeliads, among with Aechmea fasciata, have significant economic importance. However, the molecular mechanism of flowering in bromeliads remains unrevealed. In this study, an APETALA2 (AP2) homologue, AfAP2-2, which belongs to the AP2/ethylene response element binding protein (AP2/EREBP) transcription factor superfamily, was identified in A. fasciata. AfAP2-2 contains two conserved AP2 domains and is a nuclear-localized transactivator. The expression level of AfAP2-2 was predominantly higher in vegetative organs of the reproductive phase than in those of the vegetative phase. Ectopic expression of AfAP2-2 in Arabidopsis specifically delayed flowering in short-day (SD) conditions. Furthermore, the size and weight of seeds of AfAP2-2-overexpressing Arabidopsis plants were significantly reduced compared to those of the wild type (WT). Our findings suggest that AfAP2-2 might be a negative regulator of flowering and seed size and weight. These results may help facilitate the molecular breeding of bromeliads.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Sementes/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/fisiologia , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/fisiologia , Expressão Ectópica do Gene , Flores/genética , Flores/metabolismo , Flores/fisiologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/fisiologia , Sementes/genética , Sementes/fisiologia
20.
Gene ; 707: 65-77, 2019 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31059736

RESUMO

The genic male sterility (MS) plays a major role in melon hybrids production, it could reduce the cost of pollination and increase the yield and quality. However, the molecular mechanism underlying genetic male sterility is yet poorly understood. The morphological differences of flower buds of melon were observed showed that the flower buds were tetrad when they were 1 mm stage and monocyte microspore when they were 2 mm stage. Electron microscopy showed that there was significant difference between MS lines and MF (male fertility) lines. In order to detect the global expression of the genes during the melon anther development and association with MS, 12 DEGs (differentially expressed genes) libraries were constructed from the anther of MS and MF in the bud stage with 1 and 2 mm diameter, respectively. A total of 765 DEGs expressed in anther during different developmental stage (MS 1 mm vs. MS 2 mm), 148 and 309 DEGs were found to be related to MS as compared to MF (MS 1 mm vs. MF 1 mm, and MS 2 mm vs. MF 2 mm) at a false discovery rate FDR <0.01. Among these, 10 DEGs were expressed in all the three comparisons, including transcription factor bHLH genes. Among the DEGs in RNA-seq analysis, 28 were validated by qRT-PCR. Of these, a number of genes were involved in ABC transfactor B family, cytochrome-related genes, hormone-related genes (auxin transporter, gibberellin-regulated protein), MADS-box protein genes, F-box protein genes, peroxidase-related, and Zinc finger protein genes. These genes are involved in many biological pathways, including starch and sucrose metabolism, signal transduction mechanisms and transcription factors, etc. Compared to the same developmental stage of MS and MF, the different developmental stages of MS indicated diverse gene regulation pathways involved in the anther development in MS. These results would provide novel insight into the global network to male sterility in melon.


Assuntos
Cucumis melo/fisiologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Infertilidade das Plantas , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Quimera/genética , Quimera/fisiologia , Cucumis melo/genética , Cucumis melo/ultraestrutura , Flores/genética , Flores/fisiologia , Flores/ultraestrutura , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Microscopia Eletrônica , Análise de Sequência de RNA
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