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1.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(37): 23148-23157, 2020 09 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32868445

RESUMO

Heterostyly represents a fascinating adaptation to promote outbreeding in plants that evolved multiple times independently. While l-morph individuals form flowers with long styles, short anthers, and small pollen grains, S-morph individuals have flowers with short styles, long anthers, and large pollen grains. The difference between the morphs is controlled by an S-locus "supergene" consisting of several distinct genes that determine different traits of the syndrome and are held together, because recombination between them is suppressed. In Primula, the S locus is a roughly 300-kb hemizygous region containing five predicted genes. However, with one exception, their roles remain unclear, as does the evolutionary buildup of the S locus. Here we demonstrate that the MADS-box GLOBOSA2 (GLO2) gene at the S locus determines anther position. In Primula forbesii S-morph plants, GLO2 promotes growth by cell expansion in the fused tube of petals and stamen filaments beneath the anther insertion point; by contrast, neither pollen size nor male incompatibility is affected by GLO2 activity. The paralogue GLO1, from which GLO2 arose by duplication, has maintained the ancestral B-class function in specifying petal and stamen identity, indicating that GLO2 underwent neofunctionalization, likely at the level of the encoded protein. Genetic mapping and phylogenetic analysis indicate that the duplications giving rise to the style-length-determining gene CYP734A50 and to GLO2 occurred sequentially, with the CYP734A50 duplication likely the first. Together these results provide the most detailed insight into the assembly of a plant supergene yet and have important implications for the evolution of heterostyly.


Assuntos
Flores/genética , Genes de Plantas/genética , Plantas/genética , Fenótipo , Filogenia , Pólen/genética , Primula/genética
2.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236351, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32785293

RESUMO

Hybrid performance during wheat breeding can be improved by analyzing genetic distance (GD) among wheat genotypes and determining its correlation with heterosis. This study evaluated the GD between 16 wheat genotypes by using 60 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers to classify them according to their relationships and select those with greater genetic diversity, evaluate the correlation of the SSR marker distance with heterotic performance and specific combining ability (SCA) for heat stress tolerance, and identify traits that most influence grain yield (GY). Eight parental genotypes with greater genetic diversity and their 28 F1 hybrids generated using diallel crossing were evaluated for 12 measured traits in two seasons. The GD varied from 0.235 to 0.911 across the 16 genotypes. Cluster analysis based on the GD estimated using SSRs classified the genotypes into three major groups and six sub-groups, almost consistent with the results of principal coordinate analysis. The combined data indicated that five hybrids showed 20% greater yield than mid-parent or better-parent. Two hybrids (P2 × P4) and (P2 × P5), which showed the highest performance of days to heading (DH), grain filling duration (GFD), and GY, and had large genetic diversity among themselves (0.883 and 0.911, respectively), were deemed as promising heat-tolerant hybrids. They showed the best mid-parent heterosis and better-parent heterosis (BPH) for DH (-11.57 and -7.65%; -13.39 and -8.36%, respectively), GFD (12.74 and 12.17%; 12.09 and 10.59%, respectively), and GY (36.04 and 20.04%; 44.06 and 37.73%, respectively). Correlation between GD and each of BPH and SCA effects based on SSR markers was significantly positive for GFD, hundred kernel weight, number of kernels per spike, harvest index, GY, and grain filling rate and was significantly negative for DH. These correlations indicate that the performance of wheat hybrids with high GY and earliness could be predicted by determining the GD of the parents by using SSR markers. Multivariate analysis (stepwise regression and path coefficient) suggested that GFD, hundred kernel weight, days to maturity, and number of kernels per spike had the highest influence on GY.


Assuntos
Resposta ao Choque Térmico/genética , Vigor Híbrido/genética , Seleção Genética/genética , Triticum/genética , Pão , Cruzamento , Grão Comestível/genética , Grão Comestível/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Flores/genética , Flores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Genótipo , Humanos , Hibridização Genética/genética , Repetições de Microssatélites/genética , Fenótipo , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento
3.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237176, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32745128

RESUMO

Some monocotyledonous plants, including liliaceous, amaryllidaceous and iridaceous ones, produce flowers with petaloid tepals in whorls 1 and 2 organs. For explaining the molecular mechanism of two-layered petaloid tepal development, the modified ABC model has been proposed, in which B class genes are expressed in whorl 1 organs as well as in whorls 2 and 3 organs. We have previously obtained results strongly support the modified ABC model by chimeric repressor gene-silencing technology (CRES-T)-mediated suppression of B function in the liliaceous plant Tricyrtis sp. In the present study, we introduced a CRES-T construct derived from the B class gene of Tricyrtis sp. (TrihDEFa-SRDX) into Lilium sp. in order to examine the effect of suppressing B function on the floral organ identity. Flowers of transgenic plants did not open fully and had pale pink-colored tepals with decreased numbers of papillae on the adaxial side in whorls 1 and 2 compared with those of non-transgenic plants. No apparent morphological alterations were observed in whorls 3 and 4 organs. Both the amount of total anthocyanins and the expression levels of endogenous flavonoid biosynthesis-related genes (LhMYB12, LhbHLH2, LhCHS, LhF3H, LhF3'H, LhDFR and LhANS) decreased in whorls 1 and 2 organs of transgenic plants compared with non-transgenic plants. In addition, the expression levels of endogenous B class genes (LFDEF, LFGLOA and LFGLOB) decreased in transgenic plants and the level was negatively correlated with the degree of morphological alteration. Thus suppression of B function may reduce the identity of petaloid tepals in whorls 1 and 2 of transgenic Lilium sp.


Assuntos
Flores/genética , Inativação Gênica , Lilium/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Flores/anatomia & histologia , Flores/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
4.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4019, 2020 08 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32782255

RESUMO

Phenotypic plasticity, the ability of a genotype of producing different phenotypes when exposed to different environments, may impact ecological interactions. We study here how within-individual plasticity in Moricandia arvensis flowers modifies its pollination niche. During spring, this plant produces large, cross-shaped, UV-reflecting lilac flowers attracting mostly long-tongued large bees. However, unlike most co-occurring species, M. arvensis keeps flowering during the hot, dry summer due to its plasticity in key vegetative traits. Changes in temperature and photoperiod in summer trigger changes in gene expression and the production of small, rounded, UV-absorbing white flowers that attract a different assemblage of generalist pollinators. This shift in pollination niche potentially allows successful reproduction in harsh conditions, facilitating M. arvensis to face anthropogenic perturbations and climate change.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica , Ecossistema , Flores/fisiologia , Polinização , Animais , Abelhas , Brassicaceae/genética , Brassicaceae/fisiologia , Flores/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Estações do Ano
5.
Mol Genet Genomics ; 295(6): 1459-1476, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32683543

RESUMO

Polyploidy promotes morphological, physiological, and reproductive diversity in plants. The imminent effect of chromosome doubling in plants is the enlargement of organs such as flowers and fruits, which increases the commercial value of crops. Flowering plays a vital role in the growth and development of angiosperms. Here, we prepared an isolated microspore culture of 'FT', a doubled haploid (DH) line of Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L. ssp. pekinensis), and obtained diploid and autotetraploid plants with the same genetic background. Compared with diploids, the autotetraploids were characterized by large floral organs, dark petals, delayed flowering, and reduced fertility. The indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and jasmonic acid (JA) levels in autotetraploid petals were significantly higher and the abscisic acid (ABA) level was significantly lower than those in the diploid petals. The lutein level in autotetraploid petals was nearly two times higher than that in the diploid petals. A comparative transcriptome analysis revealed 14,412 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between the diploids and autotetraploids, and they were enriched in 117 Gene Ontology terms and 110 Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathways. We detected 231 DEGs related to phytohormone signal transduction and 29 DEGs involved in carotenoid biosynthesis. An miRNA-target mRNA analysis showed that 32 DEGs regulated by 16 DEMs were associated with flowering timing (BraA03000336, BraA09004319, and BraA09000515), petal development (BraA05002408, BraA01004006, BraA09004069, and BraA04000966), flower opening (BraA07000350), and pollen development (BraA01000720, BraA09005727, and BraA01000253). This study provides information to help elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying phenotypic variations induced by autopolyploidy in Chinese cabbage.


Assuntos
Brassica rapa/genética , Diploide , Flores/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Pequeno RNA não Traduzido/genética , Tetraploidia , Brassica rapa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Flores/classificação , Flores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , RNA-Seq , Transcriptoma
6.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236037, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32701981

RESUMO

Soil salinity imposes an agricultural and economic burden that may be alleviated by identifying the components of salinity tolerance in barley, a major crop and the most salt tolerant cereal. To improve our understanding of these components, we evaluated a diversity panel of 377 two-row spring barley cultivars during both the vegetative, in a controlled environment, and the reproductive stages, in the field. In the controlled environment, a high-throughput phenotyping platform was used to assess the growth-related traits under both control and saline conditions. In the field, the agronomic traits were measured from plots irrigated with either fresh or saline water. Association mapping for the different components of salinity tolerance enabled us to detect previously known associations, such as HvHKT1;5. Using an "interaction model", which took into account the interaction between treatment (control and salt) and genetic markers, we identified several loci associated with yield components related to salinity tolerance. We also observed that the two developmental stages did not share genetic regions associated with the components of salinity tolerance, suggesting that different mechanisms play distinct roles throughout the barley life cycle. Our association analysis revealed that genetically defined regions containing known flowering genes (Vrn-H3, Vrn-H1, and HvNAM-1) were responsive to salt stress. We identified a salt-responsive locus (7H, 128.35 cM) that was associated with grain number per ear, and suggest a gene encoding a vacuolar H+-translocating pyrophosphatase, HVP1, as a candidate. We also found a new QTL on chromosome 3H (139.22 cM), which was significant for ear number per plant, and a locus on chromosome 2H (141.87 cM), previously identified using a nested association mapping population, which associated with a yield component and interacted with salinity stress. Our study is the first to evaluate a barley diversity panel for salinity stress under both controlled and field conditions, allowing us to identify contributions from new components of salinity tolerance which could be used for marker-assisted selection when breeding for marginal and saline regions.


Assuntos
Cromossomos de Plantas , Hordeum/genética , Tolerância ao Sal/genética , Flores/genética , Flores/metabolismo , Genótipo , Hordeum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Hordeum/metabolismo , Pirofosfatase Inorgânica/genética , Fenótipo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Solo/química
7.
PLoS Genet ; 16(7): e1008882, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32673315

RESUMO

Expansion of the maize growing area was central for food security in temperate regions. In addition to the suppression of the short-day requirement for floral induction, it required breeding for a large range of flowering time that compensates the effect of South-North gradients of temperatures. Here we show the role of a novel florigen gene, ZCN12, in the latter adaptation in cooperation with ZCN8. Strong eQTLs of ZCN8 and ZCN12, measured in 327 maize lines, accounted for most of the genetic variance of flowering time in platform and field experiments. ZCN12 had a strong effect on flowering time of transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plants; a path analysis showed that it directly affected maize flowering time together with ZCN8. The allelic composition at ZCN QTLs showed clear signs of selection by breeders. This suggests that florigens played a central role in ensuring a large range of flowering time, necessary for adaptation to temperate areas.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica/genética , Florígeno/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Zea mays/genética , Aclimatação/genética , Temperatura Baixa , Flores/genética , Flores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Humanos , Fotoperíodo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Zea mays/crescimento & desenvolvimento
8.
PLoS Genet ; 16(7): e1008812, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32658893

RESUMO

In Arabidopsis, CONSTANS (CO) integrates light and circadian clock signals to promote flowering under long days (LD). In the grasses, a duplication generated two paralogs designated as CONSTANS1 (CO1) and CONSTANS2 (CO2). Here we show that in tetraploid wheat plants grown under LD, combined loss-of-function mutations in the A and B-genome homeologs of CO1 and CO2 (co1 co2) result in a small (3 d) but significant (P<0.0001) acceleration of heading time both in PHOTOPERIOD1 (PPD1) sensitive (Ppd-A1b, functional ancestral allele) and insensitive (Ppd-A1a, functional dominant allele) backgrounds. Under short days (SD), co1 co2 mutants headed 13 d earlier than the wild type (P<0.0001) in the presence of Ppd-A1a. However, in the presence of Ppd-A1b, spikes from both genotypes failed to emerge by 180 d. These results indicate that CO1 and CO2 operate mainly as weak heading time repressors in both LD and SD. By contrast, in ppd1 mutants with loss-of-function mutations in both PPD1 homeologs, the wild type Co1 allele accelerated heading time >60 d relative to the co1 mutant allele under LD. We detected significant genetic interactions among CO1, CO2 and PPD1 genes on heading time, which were reflected in complex interactions at the transcriptional and protein levels. Loss-of-function mutations in PPD1 delayed heading more than combined co1 co2 mutations and, more importantly, PPD1 was able to perceive and respond to differences in photoperiod in the absence of functional CO1 and CO2 genes. Similarly, CO1 was able to accelerate heading time in response to LD in the absence of a functional PPD1. Taken together, these results indicate that PPD1 and CO1 are able to respond to photoperiod in the absence of each other, and that interactions between these two photoperiod pathways at the transcriptional and protein levels are important to fine-tune the flowering response in wheat.


Assuntos
Epistasia Genética/genética , Fotoperíodo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Triticum/genética , Alelos , Arabidopsis , Relógios Circadianos/genética , Ritmo Circadiano/genética , Flores/genética , Flores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Genótipo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento
9.
Plant Mol Biol ; 104(1-2): 137-150, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32623622

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: OsGhd7 gene was discovered by screening our rice activation tagging population. CRISPR-Cas9 created knockouts of OsGhd7 conferred early flowering and early maturity in rice varieties across multiple geographical locations in China. Our research shows that OsGhd7 is a good target for breeding early maturity rice varieties, and an excellent example of the advantages of applying the CRISPR-Cas9 technology for trait improvement. Flowering time (heading date) is an important trait for crop cultivation and yield. In this study, we discovered a late flowering gene OsGhd7 by screening our rice activation tagging population, and demonstrated that overexpression of OsGhd7 delayed flowering time in rice, and the delay in flowering time depended on the transgene expression level. OsGhd7 is a functional allele of the Ghd7 gene family; knockouts of OsGhd7 generated by CRISPR-Cas9 significantly accelerated flowering time and the earliness of the flowering time depended on field location. The homozygous OsGhd7 knockout lines showed approximately 8, 10, and 20 days earlier flowering than controls at three different locations in China (Changsha City, Sanya City, and Beijing City, respectively) that varied from 18.25° N to 39.90° N. Furthermore, knockouts of OsGhd7 also showed an early flowering phenotype in different rice varieties, indicating OsGhd7 can be used as a common target gene for using the CRISPR technology to modulate rice flowering time. The importance of OsGhd7 and CRISPR technology for breeding early maturity rice varieties are discussed.


Assuntos
Sistemas CRISPR-Cas/genética , Flores/genética , Oryza/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Alelos , Sequência de Bases , Clonagem Molecular , Repetições Palindrômicas Curtas Agrupadas e Regularmente Espaçadas , Flores/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Técnicas de Inativação de Genes , Oryza/metabolismo , Fenótipo , Desenvolvimento Vegetal/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Reprodução , Alinhamento de Sequência
10.
Plant Mol Biol ; 104(1-2): 187-201, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32681357

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: The mutation of FAX1 (Fatty Acid Export 1) disrupts ROS homeostasis and suppresses transcription activity of DYT1-TDF1-AMS-MS188 genetic network, leading to atypical tapetum PCD and defective pollen formation in Arabidopsis. Fatty acids (FAs) have multiple important biological functions and exert diverse cellular effects through modulating Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) homeostasis. Arabidopsis FAX1 (Fatty Acid Export 1) mediates the export of de novo synthesized FA from chloroplast and loss of function of FAX1 impairs male fertility. However, mechanisms underlying the association of FAX1-mediated FA export with male sterility remain enigmatic. In this study, by using an integrated approach that included morphological, cytological, histological, and molecular analyses, we revealed that loss of function of FAX1 breaks cellular FA/lipid homeostasis, which disrupts ROS homeostasis and suppresses transcriptional activation of the DYT1-TDF1-AMS-MS188 genetic network of anther development, impairing tapetum development and pollen wall formation, and resulting in male sterility. This study provides new insights into the regulatory network for male reproduction in plants, highlighting an important role of FA export-mediated ROS homeostasis in the process.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Pólen/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/citologia , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Flores/citologia , Flores/genética , Flores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Flores/metabolismo , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Mutação , Fenótipo , Pólen/genética , Reprodução , Fatores de Transcrição
11.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236530, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32706831

RESUMO

Apple trees grafted on different rootstock types, including vigorous rootstock (VR), dwarfing interstock (DIR), and dwarfing self-rootstock (DSR), are widely planted in production, but the molecular determinants of tree branch architecture growth regulation induced by rootstocks are still not well known. In this study, the branch growth phenotypes of three combinations of 'Fuji' apple trees grafted on different rootstocks (VR: Malus baccata; DIR: Malus baccata/T337; DSR: T337) were investigated. The VR trees presented the biggest branch architecture. The results showed that the sugar content, sugar metabolism-related enzyme activities, and hormone content all presented obvious differences in the tender leaves and buds of apple trees grafted on these rootstocks. Transcriptomic profiles of the tender leaves adjacent to the top buds allowed us to identify genes that were potentially involved in signaling pathways that mediate the regulatory mechanisms underlying growth differences. In total, 3610 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified through pairwise comparisons. The screened data suggested that sugar metabolism-related genes and complex hormone regulatory networks involved the auxin (IAA), cytokinin (CK), abscisic acid (ABA) and gibberellic acid (GA) pathways, as well as several transcription factors, participated in the complicated growth induction process. Overall, this study provides a framework for analysis of the molecular mechanisms underlying differential tree branch growth of apple trees grafted on different rootstocks.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Malus/genética , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Açúcares/metabolismo , Ácido Abscísico/análise , Ácido Abscísico/metabolismo , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Citocininas/análise , Citocininas/metabolismo , Flores/genética , Flores/metabolismo , Giberelinas/análise , Giberelinas/metabolismo , Ácidos Indolacéticos/análise , Ácidos Indolacéticos/metabolismo , Malus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fenótipo , Folhas de Planta/genética , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Caules de Planta/genética , Caules de Planta/fisiologia , RNA de Plantas/genética , RNA de Plantas/metabolismo , Açúcares/análise , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , alfa-Glucosidases/genética , alfa-Glucosidases/metabolismo
12.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0235267, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32584892

RESUMO

Biogeographic regions are defined by taxa with similar distribution patterns. Flowering plants have been widely used to propose biogeographic regionalization schemes because of shared historical or ecological factors that determine their distribution. The Mexican Transition Zone represents the boundary between the Nearctic and Neotropical kingdoms; however, there is no general agreement about the limits and extent of this region. Despite the significance of its role in the history of Mexican biota, no study involving a set of relevant plant taxa validates the magnitude of the Mexican Transition Zone. This work attempts to determine the proportion of flowering plant families and genera that characterize the biogeographic kingdoms and the Mexican Transition Zone. Through identification of distinctive genera it is shown that the Mexican Transition Zone includes the mountains of Mexico, from Oaxaca northwards. The results provide a broad view of the distribution patterns of the flora of Mexico and allow the evaluation of relationships and floristic affinities.


Assuntos
Biota , Magnoliopsida/genética , Flores/genética , Magnoliopsida/classificação , México , Filogenia
13.
Mol Genet Genomics ; 295(5): 1187-1195, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32476049

RESUMO

Cowpea (Vigna unguiculate (L.) Walp.) is a worldwide important multifunctional legume crop for food grain, vegetable, fodder, and cover crop. Nevertheless, only limited research has been conducted on agronomic traits. Here, we report quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis of the days to flowering (DTF) and plant height (PH) using a dense SNP linkage map recently developed from a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population derived from a cross between Golden Eye Cream and IT98K-476-8. The population was phenotyped for DTF and PH through field and greenhouse trials under two environments. The QTLs controlling these traits were mapped using multiple-environment combined and individual trial phenotypic data. The combined data analysis identified one major QTL (qDTF9.1) for DTF, and one major QTL (qPH9.1) and a minor QTL (qPH4.1) for PH. qDTF9.1 and qPH9.1 were adjacent to each other on Chromosome 9 and each explained 29.3% and 29.5% of the phenotypic variation (PVE), respectively. The individual trial data analysis identified a minor QTL (qDTF2.1) on Chromosome 2 for DTF and two minor QTLs (qPH4.1 and qPH4.2) on Chromosome 4 for PH, while the major QTLs, qDTF9.1 and qPH9.1, were consistently identified in all trials conducted. Epistasis analysis revealed that qDTF9.1 interacted with one locus on Chromosome 4, contributed 50% of the PVE, and qPH9.1 interacted with one locus on each of Chromosomes 4 and 6, contributing 30% and 23% of the PVE, respectively, suggesting that epistasis plays an important role in the trait performance. These results, therefore, provide a deeper understanding of the genetic architecture of plant DTF and PH, and molecular tools necessary for cloning the genes and for enhanced cowpea breeding.


Assuntos
Mapeamento Cromossômico/métodos , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Vigna/fisiologia , Cromossomos de Plantas/genética , Cruzamentos Genéticos , Epistasia Genética , Flores/genética , Flores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Vigna/anatomia & histologia , Vigna/genética
14.
Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao ; 36(6): 1170-1180, 2020 Jun 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32597066

RESUMO

HDA9, a member of the deacetylase family, plays a vital role in regulating plant flowering time through flowering integrator SOC1 and AGL24. However, it remains elusive how HDA9 interacts with SOC1 and AGL24 in flowering time control. Here, HDA9 was cloned in Brassica juncea and then its three active sites were separately replaced with Ala via overlap extension PCR. Thus, mutants of HDA9(D172A), HDA9(H174A) and HDA9(D261A) were constructed and fused into the pGADT7 vector. The yeast one-hybrid assays indicated that HDA9 mutants remained the interactions with the promoters of SOC1 and AGL24. Furthermore, the aforementioned results were confirmed in the dual luciferase assays. Interestingly, the DNA-protein interactions were weakened significantly due to the mutation in the three active sites of HDA9. It suggested that flowering signal integrator SOC1 and AGL24 were regulated by the key amino acid residues of 172th, 174th and 261th in HDA9. Our results provide valuable information for the in-depth study of the biological function and molecular regulation of HDA9 in Brassica juncea flowering time control.


Assuntos
Flores , Mostardeira , Proteínas de Plantas , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Flores/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Mostardeira/enzimologia , Mostardeira/genética , Mutação , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética
15.
Tree Physiol ; 40(9): 1260-1276, 2020 08 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32365206

RESUMO

Several plant species display a temporal separation of the male and female flower organ development to enhance outbreeding; however, little is known regarding the genetic mechanisms controlling this temporal separation. Quercus suber is a monoecious oak tree with accentuated protandry: in late winter, unisexual male flowers emerge adjacent to the swollen buds, whereas unisexual female flowers emerge in the axils of newly formed leaves formed during spring (4-8 weeks after male flowering). Here, a phylogenetic profiling has led to the identification of cork oak homologs of key floral regulatory genes. The role of these cork oak homologs during flower development was identified with functional studies in Arabidopsis thaliana. The expression profile throughout the year of flower regulators (inducers and repressors), in leaves and buds, suggests that the development of male and female flowers may be preceded by separated induction events. Female flowers are most likely induced during the vegetative flush occurring in spring, whereas male flowers may be induced in early summer. Male flowers stay enclosed within the pre-dormant buds, but complete their development before the vegetative flush of the following year, displaying a long period of anthesis that spans the dormant period. Our results portray a genetic mechanism that may explain similar reproductive habits in other monoecious tree species.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis , Quercus/genética , Flores/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética
16.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0233120, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32421736

RESUMO

Day length is a determinant of flowering time in rice. Phytochromes participate in flowering regulation by measuring the number of daylight hours to which the plant is exposed. Here we describe G123, a rice mutant generated by irradiation, which displays insensitivity to the photoperiod and early flowering under both long day and short day conditions. To detect the mutation responsible for the early flowering phenotype exhibited by G123, we generated an F2 population, derived from crossing with the wild-type, and used a pipeline to detect genomic structural variation, initially developed for human genomes. We detected a deletion in the G123 genome that affects the PHOTOPERIOD SENSITIVITY13 (SE13) gene, which encodes a phytochromobilin synthase, an enzyme implicated in phytochrome chromophore biosynthesis. The transcriptomic analysis, performed by RNA-seq, in the G123 plants indicated an alteration in photosynthesis and other processes related to response to light. The expression patterns of the main flowering regulatory genes, such as Ghd7, Ghd8 and PRR37, were altered in the plants grown under both long day and short day conditions. These findings indicate that phytochromes are also involved in the regulation of these genes under short day conditions, and extend the role of phytochromes in flowering regulation in rice.


Assuntos
Flores/metabolismo , Flores/fisiologia , Oryza/genética , Oryza/fisiologia , Fotossíntese/fisiologia , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Flores/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/fisiologia , Oryza/metabolismo , Fotossíntese/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética
17.
Plant Mol Biol ; 103(6): 669-688, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32472481

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: The study has facilitated important insights into the regulatory networks involved in flower development in chrysanthemum (Asteraceae), and is informative with respect to the mechanism of flower shape determination. Chrysanthemum morifolium, valued as an ornamental species given the diversity of its inflorescence form, is viewed as a model for understanding flower development in the Asteraceae. Yet, the underlying regulatory networks remain largely unexplored. Here, a transcriptomic survey of the Chrysanthemum morifolium variety 'Jinba' was undertaken to uncover the global gene expression profiles and identify the modules of co-transcribed genes associated with flower development. The weighted gene coexpression network analysis revealed important networks and hub genes including ray floret petals-specific coexpression network, disc floret petals-specific network, B and E class genes involved network and CYC2 genes network. Three ray floret petal-specific hub genes were also strongly transcribed in the ray florets of a selection of six diverse varieties and especially so in those which form ligulate ray floret petals. CmCYC2c was strongly transcribed in the distal and lateral regions of the ray floret petals, and also, along with CmCYC2d, in the tubular ray florets. Furthermore, CmOFP, belonging to the family of ovate proteins, was identified in the CYC2 genes network. CmOFP can interact with CmCYC2d that physically interact with CmCYC2c. This work provides important insights into the regulatory networks involved in flower development in chrysanthemum, and is informative with respect to the mechanistic basis of the regulation of flower shape.


Assuntos
Chrysanthemum/metabolismo , Flores/metabolismo , Chrysanthemum/genética , Flores/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/fisiologia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
18.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(23): 12784-12790, 2020 06 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32461365

RESUMO

Fruit development normally occurs after pollination and fertilization; however, in parthenocarpic plants, the ovary grows into the fruit without pollination and/or fertilization. Parthenocarpy has been recognized as a highly attractive agronomic trait because it could stabilize fruit yield under unfavorable environmental conditions. Although natural parthenocarpic varieties are useful for breeding Solanaceae plants, their use has been limited, and little is known about their molecular and biochemical mechanisms. Here, we report a parthenocarpic eggplant mutant, pad-1, which accumulates high levels of auxin in the ovaries. Map-based cloning showed that the wild-type (WT) Pad-1 gene encoded an aminotransferase with similarity to Arabidopsis VAS1 gene, which is involved in auxin homeostasis. Recombinant Pad-1 protein catalyzed the conversion of indole-3-pyruvic acid (IPyA) to tryptophan (Trp), which is a reverse reaction of auxin biosynthetic enzymes, tryptophan aminotransferases (TAA1/TARs). The RNA level of Pad-1 gene increased during ovary development and reached its highest level at anthesis stage in WT. This suggests that the role of Pad-1 in WT unpollinated ovary is to prevent overaccumulation of IAA resulting in precocious fruit-set. Furthermore, suppression of the orthologous genes of Pad-1 induced parthenocarpic fruit development in tomato and pepper plants. Our results demonstrated that the use of pad-1 genes would be powerful tools to improve fruit production of Solanaceae plants.


Assuntos
Ácidos Indolacéticos/metabolismo , Mutação com Perda de Função , Partenogênese , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Solanum melongena/genética , Transaminases/genética , Flores/genética , Flores/metabolismo , Flores/fisiologia , Homeostase , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Solanum melongena/fisiologia , Transaminases/metabolismo
19.
BMC Evol Biol ; 20(1): 49, 2020 04 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32349663

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sympatric sister species provide an opportunity to investigate the genetic mechanisms and evolutionary forces that maintain species boundaries. The persistence of morphologically and genetically distinct populations in sympatry can only occur if some degree of reproductive isolation exists. A pair of sympatric sister species of Primulina (P. depressa and P. danxiaensis) was used to explore the genetic architecture of hybrid male sterility. RESULTS: We mapped one major- and seven minor-effect quantitative trait loci (QTLs) that underlie pollen fertility rate (PFR). These loci jointly explained 55.4% of the phenotypic variation in the F2 population. A Bateson-Dobzhansky-Muller (BDM) model involving three loci was observed in this system. We found genotypic correlations between hybrid male sterility and flower morphology, consistent with the weak but significant phenotypic correlations between PFR and floral traits. CONCLUSIONS: Hybrid male sterility in Primulina is controlled by a polygenic genetic basis with a complex pattern. The genetic incompatibility involves a three-locus BDM model. Hybrid male sterility is genetically correlated with floral morphology and divergence hitchhiking may occur between them.


Assuntos
Hibridização Genética , Lamiales/genética , Infertilidade das Plantas/genética , Simpatria/genética , Análise de Variância , Epistasia Genética , Flores/anatomia & histologia , Flores/genética , Genética Populacional , Genoma de Planta , Genótipo , Vigor Híbrido/genética , Fenótipo , Pólen/genética , Análise de Componente Principal , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética
20.
Gene ; 752: 144784, 2020 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32439372

RESUMO

The plant-specific YABBY transcription factors have important biological roles in plant morphogenesis, growth and development. In this study, we identified six YABBY genes in pomegranate (Punica granatum) and characterized their expression pattern during flower development. Six PgYABBY genes were divided into five subfamilies (YAB1/3, YAB2, INO, CRC, and YAB5), based on protein sequence, motifs and similarity of exon-intron structure. Next, analysis of putative cis-acting element showed that PgYABBYs contained lots of hormone response and stress response elements. Subsequently, gene function prediction and protein-protein network analysis showed that PgYABBYs were associated with the development of apical meristem, flower, carpel, and ovule. Analysis of PgYABBY genes expression in various structures and organs suggested that PgYABBYs were highly activated in flower, leaf and seed coat. Analysis of expression during flower development in pomegranate showed that PgINO might play critical role in regulating the differentiation of flowers. This study provided a theoretical basis for function research and utilization of YABBY genes in pomegranate.


Assuntos
Flores/genética , Romã (Fruta)/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Evolução Molecular , Frutas/genética , Frutas/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Meristema/metabolismo , Filogenia , Folhas de Planta/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Romã (Fruta)/metabolismo , Alinhamento de Sequência , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
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