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1.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4321, 2021 07 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34262040

RESUMO

Symmetry establishment is a critical process in the development of multicellular organs and requires careful coordination of polarity axes while cells actively divide within tissues. Formation of the apical style in the Arabidopsis gynoecium involves a bilateral-to-radial symmetry transition, a stepwise process underpinned by the dynamic distribution of the plant morphogen auxin. Here we show that SPATULA (SPT) and the HECATE (HEC) bHLH proteins mediate the final step in the style radialisation process and synergistically control the expression of adaxial-identity genes, HOMEOBOX ARABIDOPSIS THALIANA 3 (HAT3) and ARABIDOPSIS THALIANA HOMEOBOX 4 (ATHB4). HAT3/ATHB4 module drives radialisation of the apical style by promoting basal-to-apical auxin flow and via a negative feedback mechanism that finetune auxin distribution through repression of SPT expression and cytokinin sensitivity. Thus, this work reveals the molecular basis of axes-coordination and hormonal cross-talk during the sequential steps of symmetry transition in the Arabidopsis style.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Transporte Biológico , Citocininas/metabolismo , Retroalimentação Fisiológica , Flores/genética , Flores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Flores/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/genética , Ácidos Indolacéticos/metabolismo
2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(10)2021 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34069068

RESUMO

MADS-box genes are involved in various developmental processes including vegetative development, flower architecture, flowering, pollen formation, seed and fruit development. However, the function of most MADS-box genes and their regulation mechanism are still unclear in woody plants compared with model plants. In this study, a MADS-box gene (CiMADS43) was identified in citrus. Phylogenetic and sequence analysis showed that CiMADS43 is a GOA-like Bsister MADS-box gene. It was localized in the nucleus and as a transcriptional activator. Overexpression of CiMADS43 promoted early flowering and leaves curling in transgenic Arabidopsis. Besides, overexpression or knockout of CiMADS43 also showed leaf curl phenotype in citrus similar to that of CiMADS43 overexpressed in Arabidopsis. Protein-protein interaction found that a SEPALLATA (SEP)-like protein (CiAGL9) interacted with CiMADS43 protein. Interestingly, CiAGL9 also can bind to the CiMADS43 promoter and promote its transcription. Expression analysis also showed that these two genes were closely related to seasonal flowering and the development of the leaf in citrus. Our findings revealed the multifunctional roles of CiMADS43 in the vegetative and reproductive development of citrus. These results will facilitate our understanding of the evolution and molecular mechanisms of MADS-box genes in citrus.


Assuntos
Citrus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Flores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Proteínas de Domínio MADS/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Domínios e Motivos de Interação entre Proteínas , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Citrus/genética , Citrus/metabolismo , Flores/genética , Flores/metabolismo , Proteínas de Domínio MADS/genética , Fenótipo , Filogenia , Folhas de Planta/genética , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Homologia de Sequência
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(10)2021 May 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34067635

RESUMO

The color of bracts generally turns yellow or black from green during cereal grain development. However, the impact of these phenotypic changes on photosynthetic physiology during black bract formation remains unclear. Two oat cultivars (Avena sativa L.), 'Triple Crown' and 'Qinghai 444', with yellow and black bracts, respectively, were found to both have green bracts at the heading stage, but started to turn black at the flowering stage and become blackened at the milk stage for 'Qinghai 444'. Their photosynthetic characteristics were analyzed and compared, and the key genes, proteins and regulatory pathways affecting photosynthetic physiology were determined in 'Triple Crown' and 'Qinghai 444' bracts. The results show that the actual PSII photochemical efficiency and PSII electron transfer rate of 'Qinghai 444' bracts had no significant changes at the heading and milk stages but decreased significantly (p < 0.05) at the flowering stage compared with 'Triple Crown'. The chlorophyll content decreased, the LHCII involved in the assembly of supercomplexes in the thylakoid membrane was inhibited, and the expression of Lhcb1 and Lhcb5 was downregulated at the flowering stage. During this critical stage, the expression of Bh4 and C4H was upregulated, and the biosynthetic pathway of p-coumaric acid using tyrosine and phenylalanine as precursors was also enhanced. Moreover, the key upregulated genes (CHS, CHI and F3H) of anthocyanin biosynthesis might complement the impaired PSII activity until recovered at the milk stage. These findings provide a new insight into how photosynthesis alters during the process of oat bract color transition to black.


Assuntos
Avena/metabolismo , Flores/metabolismo , Complexo de Proteína do Fotossistema II/metabolismo , Antocianinas/genética , Antocianinas/metabolismo , Clorofila/metabolismo , Expressão Gênica/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Fotossíntese/fisiologia , Complexo de Proteína do Fotossistema II/fisiologia , Tilacoides/metabolismo
4.
Plant Sci ; 309: 110935, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34134842

RESUMO

Eggplant is rich in anthocyanins, which are thought to be highly beneficial for human health. There is no study on weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) of anthocyanin biosynthesis in eggplant. Here, transcriptome data of 33 eggplant pericarp samples treated with light were used for WGCNA to identify significant modules. Total 13000 DEGs and 12 modules were identified, and the most significant module was associated with the secondary metabolites pathways. In addition, the hub gene SmWRKY44 with high connectivity was selected and its function was verified. The expression of SmWRKY44 showed a significant correlation with anthocyanin accumulation in the eggplant peels, leaves, and flowers. SmWRKY44-OE Arabidopsis significantly increased the accumulation of anthocyanins. Yeast two-hybrid and BiFC assays showed that SmWRKY44 could interact with SmMYB1, and it was also found that they could jointly promote the biosynthesis of anthocyanins in eggplant leaves through transient expression analysis. Our work provides a new direction for studying the molecular mechanism of light-induced anthocyanin biosynthesis in eggplant.


Assuntos
Antocianinas/biossíntese , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Solanum melongena/genética , Transcriptoma , Antocianinas/efeitos da radiação , Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Flores/genética , Flores/metabolismo , Flores/efeitos da radiação , Frutas/genética , Frutas/metabolismo , Frutas/efeitos da radiação , Expressão Gênica , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Folhas de Planta/genética , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/efeitos da radiação , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Solanum melongena/metabolismo , Solanum melongena/efeitos da radiação , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
5.
Plant Sci ; 309: 110938, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34134845

RESUMO

Marigold (Tagetes erecta), as one member of Asteraceae family, bears a typical capitulum with two morphologically distinct florets. The SEPALLATA genes are involved in regulating the floral meristem determinacy, organ identity, fruit maturation, seed formation, and plant architecture. Here, five SEP-like genes were cloned and identified from marigold. Sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that TeSEP3-1, TeSEP3-2, and TeSEP3-3 proteins were grouped into SEP3 clade, and TeSEP1 and TeSEP4 proteins were clustered into SEP1/2/4 clade. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis revealed that TeSEP1 and TeSEP3-3 were broadly expressed in floral organs, and that TeSEP3-2 and TeSEP4 were mainly expressed in pappus and corollas, while TeSEP3-1 was mainly expressed in two inner whorls. Ectopic expression of TeSEP1, TeSEP3-2, TeSEP3-3, and TeSEP4 in arabidopsis and tobacco resulted in early flowering. However, overexpression of TeSEP3-1 in arabidopsis and tobacco caused no visible phenotypic changes. Notably, overexpression of TeSEP4 in tobacco decreased the number of petals and stamens. Overexpression of TeSEP1 in tobacco led to longer sepals and simpler inflorescence architecture. The comprehensive pairwise interaction analysis suggested that TeSEP proteins had a broad interaction with class A, C, D, E proteins to form dimers. The yeast three-hybrid analysis suggested that in ternary complexes, class B proteins interacted with TeSEP3 by forming heterodimer TePI-TeAP3-2. The regulatory network analysis of MADS-box genes in marigold further indicated that TeSEP proteins played a "glue" role in regulating floral organ development, implying functional conservation and divergence of MADS box genes in regulating two-type floret developments. This study provides an insight into the formation mechanism of floral organs of two-type florets, thus broadening our knowledge of the genetic basis of flower evolution.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis/genética , Tagetes/genética , Arabidopsis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Flores/genética , Flores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Flores/metabolismo , RNA de Plantas/genética , Tagetes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Tagetes/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
6.
Plant Sci ; 309: 110952, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34134848

RESUMO

Linalool is an aromatic monoterpene produced in the Chinese medicinal plant Dendrobium officinale, but little information is available on the regulation of linalool biosynthesis. Here, a novel basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor, DobHLH4 from D. officinale, was identified and functionally characterized. The expression profile of DobHLH4 was positively correlated with that of DoTPS10 (R2 = 0.985, p < 0.01), which encodes linalool synthase that is responsible for linalool production, during floral development. DobHLH4 was highly expressed in petals, and was significantly induced by methyl jasmonate. Analysis of subcellular localization showed that DobHLH4 was located in the nucleus. Yeast one-hybrid and dual-luciferase assays indicated that DobHLH4 bound directly to the DoTPS10 promoter harboring the G-box element, and up-regulated DoTPS10 expression. A yeast two-hybrid screen confirmed that DobHLH4 physically interacted with DoJAZ1, suggesting that DobHLH4 might function in the jasmonic acid-mediated accumulation of linalool. Furthermore, transient overexpression of DobHLH4 in D. officinale petals significantly increased linalool production by triggering linalool biosynthetic pathway genes, especially DoTPS10. We suggest a hypothetical model that depicts how jasmonic acid signaling may regulate DoTPS10 by interacting with DobHLH4 and DoJAZ1. In doing so, the formation of linalool is controlled. Our results indicate that DobHLH4 is a positive regulator of linalool biosynthesis and may be a promising target for in vitro-based metabolic engineering to produce linalool.


Assuntos
Acetatos/metabolismo , Monoterpenos Acíclicos/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/metabolismo , Ciclopentanos/metabolismo , Dendrobium/genética , Oxilipinas/metabolismo , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Alquil e Aril Transferases/genética , Alquil e Aril Transferases/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/genética , Vias Biossintéticas , Dendrobium/química , Dendrobium/metabolismo , Flores/química , Flores/genética , Flores/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Óleos Voláteis/metabolismo , Óleos Vegetais/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética
7.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 289, 2021 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34167466

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Blueberry (Vaccinium spp.) is characterized by the production of berries that are smaller than most common fruits, and the underlying mechanisms of fruit size in blueberry remain elusive. V. corymbosum 'O'Neal' and 'Bluerain' are commercial southern highbush blueberry cultivars with large- and small-size fruits, respectively, which mature 'O'Neal' fruits are 1 ~ 2-fold heavier than those of 'Bluerain'. In this study, the ontogenetical patterns of 'O'Neal' and 'Bluerain' hypanthia and fruits were compared, and comparative transcriptomic analysis was performed during early fruit development. RESULTS: V. corymbosum 'O'Neal' and 'Bluerain' hypanthia and fruits exhibited intricate temporal and spatial cell proliferation and expansion patterns. Cell division before anthesis and cell expansion after fertilization were the major restricting factors, and outer mesocarp was the key tissue affecting fruit size variation among blueberry genotypes. Comparative transcriptomic and annotation analysis of differentially expressed genes revealed that the plant hormone signal transduction pathway was enriched, and that jasmonate-related TIFYs genes might be the key components orchestrating other phytohormones and influencing fruit size during early blueberry fruit development. CONCLUSIONS: These results provided detailed ontogenetic evidence for determining blueberry fruit size, and revealed the important roles of phytohormone signal transductions involving in early fruit development. The TIFY genes could be useful as markers for large-size fruit selection in the current breeding programs of blueberry.


Assuntos
Mirtilos Azuis (Planta)/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Flores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Mirtilos Azuis (Planta)/anatomia & histologia , Mirtilos Azuis (Planta)/metabolismo , Proliferação de Células , Flores/anatomia & histologia , Flores/metabolismo , Frutas/anatomia & histologia , Frutas/metabolismo , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/metabolismo , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/fisiologia , RNA de Plantas/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/genética
8.
Molecules ; 26(9)2021 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34062758

RESUMO

Crataegus contains numerous health-promoting compounds that are also proposed to have anti-cancer properties. Herein, we aimed at a contemporaneous evaluation of the effects of polyphenol-rich extracts of berries, leaves, and flowers of six Crataegus species on the viability and invasive potential on the highly aggressive human glioblastoma U87MG cell line. The treatment with the extracts evoked cytotoxic effects, with the strongest in the berry extracts. All extracts not only promoted the apoptosis-related cleavage of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1) but also substantially inhibited the activity of pro-survival kinases, focal adhesion kinase (FAK), and protein kinase B (PKB; also known as Akt), thus indicating the suppression of proliferative and invasive potentials of the examined glioblastoma cells. The qualitative and quantitative characterization of the extracts' content was also performed and revealed that amongst 37 polyphenolic compounds identified in the examined Crataegus extracts, the majority (29) was detected in berries; the leaf and flower extracts, exerting milder cytotoxic effects, contained only 14 and 13 compounds, respectively. The highest polyphenol content was found in the berries of C. laevigata x rhipidophylla x monogyna, in which flavan-3-ols and phenolic acids predominated. Our results demonstrated that a high content of polyphenolic compounds correlated with the extract cytotoxicity, and especially berries were a valuable source of compounds with anti-cancer potential. This might be a promising option for the development of an effective therapeutic strategy against highly malignant glioblastomas in the future.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas/tratamento farmacológico , Crataegus/metabolismo , Flores/metabolismo , Glioblastoma/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Polifenóis/química , Citoesqueleto de Actina/metabolismo , Apoptose , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular , Humanos , Hidroxibenzoatos/química , Microscopia Confocal , Invasividade Neoplásica , Neoplasias/metabolismo
9.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 257, 2021 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34088264

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Roses are famous ornamental plants worldwide. Floral coloration is one of the most prominent traits in roses and is mainly regulated through the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway. In this study, we investigated the key genes and metabolites of the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway involved in color mutation in miniature roses. A comparative metabolome and transcriptome analysis was carried out on the Neptune King rose and its color mutant, Queen rose, at the blooming stage. Neptune King rose has light pink colored petals while Queen rose has deep pink colored petals. RESULT: A total of 190 flavonoid-related metabolites and 38,551 unique genes were identified. The contents of 45 flavonoid-related metabolites, and the expression of 15 genes participating in the flavonoid pathway, varied significantly between the two cultivars. Seven anthocyanins (cyanidin 3-O-glucosyl-malonylglucoside, cyanidin O-syringic acid, cyanidin 3-O-rutinoside, cyanidin 3-O-galactoside, cyanidin 3-O-glucoside, peonidin 3-O-glucoside chloride, and pelargonidin 3-O-glucoside) were found to be the major metabolites, with higher abundance in the Queen rose. Thirteen anthocyanin biosynthetic related genes showed an upregulation trend in the mutant flower, which may favor the higher levels of anthocyanins in the mutant. Besides, eight TRANSPARENT TESTA 12 genes were found upregulated in Queen rose, probably contributing to a high vacuolar sequestration of anthocyanins. Thirty transcription factors, including two MYB and one bHLH, were differentially expressed between the two cultivars. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides important insights into major genes and metabolites of the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway modulating flower coloration in miniature rose. The results will be conducive for manipulating the anthocyanin pathways in order to engineer novel miniature rose cultivars with specific colors.


Assuntos
Antocianinas/biossíntese , Flores/metabolismo , Rosa/metabolismo , Flores/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Metaboloma , Pigmentação , Rosa/genética
10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(9)2021 May 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34064462

RESUMO

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are regulators of the post-transcription stage of gene activity documented to play central roles in flower and fruit development in model plant species. However, little is known about their roles and differences in domesticated and wild Capsicum species. In this study, we used high-throughput sequencing to analyze the miRNA content at three developmental stages (flower, small fruit, and middle fruit) from two cultivated (C. baccatum and C. annuum) and two wild (C. chacoense and C. eximium) pepper species. This analysis revealed 22 known and 27 novel miRNAs differentially expressed across species and tissues. A number of stage- and species-specific miRNAs were identified, and Gene Ontology terms were assigned to 138 genes targeted by the miRNAs. Most Gene Ontology terms were for the categories "genetic information processing", "signaling and cellular processes", "amino acid metabolism", and "carbohydrate metabolism". Enriched KEGG analysis revealed the pathways amino acids, sugar and nucleotide metabolism, starch and sucrose metabolism, and fructose-mannose metabolism among the principal ones regulated by miRNAs during pepper fruit ripening. We predicted miRNA-target gene interactions regulating flowering time and fruit development, including miR156/157 with SPL genes, miR159 with GaMYB proteins, miR160 with ARF genes, miR172 with AP2-like transcription factors, and miR408 with CLAVATA1 gene across the different Capsicum species. In addition, novel miRNAs play an important role in regulating interactions potentially controlling plant pathogen defense and fruit quality via fructokinase, alpha-L-arabinofuranosidase, and aromatic and neutral amino acid transporter. Overall, the small RNA-sequencing results from this study represent valuable information that provides a solid foundation for uncovering the miRNA-mediated mechanisms of flower and fruit development between domesticated and wild Capsicum species.


Assuntos
Capsicum/genética , Flores/genética , Frutas/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , MicroRNAs/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Sistemas de Transporte de Aminoácidos/genética , Sistemas de Transporte de Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Capsicum/classificação , Capsicum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Capsicum/metabolismo , Domesticação , Flores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Flores/metabolismo , Frutoquinases/genética , Frutoquinases/metabolismo , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Frutas/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Ontologia Genética , Glicosídeo Hidrolases/genética , Glicosídeo Hidrolases/metabolismo , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Redes e Vias Metabólicas/genética , MicroRNAs/classificação , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Proteínas de Plantas/classificação , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , RNA de Plantas/genética , RNA de Plantas/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/classificação , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
11.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 164: 279-288, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34020168

RESUMO

Tree peony (Paeonia suffruticosa Andr.) is a well-known ornamental flower in China with diverse colors. Flower color is one of the most important economic characteristics of tree peony and is mainly determined by anthocyanins. In this study, we cloned a PsMYB58 gene, which contained a 654 bp open reading frame (ORF), encoding a polypeptide of 218 amino acids. Sequence and phylogenetic analysis indicated that PsMYB58 is an anthocyanin regulatory R2R3-MYB gene. The transcription levels of PsMYB58 in different developmental stages of tree peony flowers were similar to those of the anthocyanin biosynthetic genes PsCHS, PsCHI, PsDFR, and PsANS. A bimolecular fluorescence complementation assay showed that PsMYB58 interacted with PsbHLH1 and PsbHLH3 in vivo. The overexpression of PsMYB58 in tobacco enhanced anthocyanin accumulation in various organs. Comparative transcriptome analysis showed that 943 genes were upregulated and 1203 downregulated in PsMYB58 transgenic tobacco, among which genes involved in the anthocyanin pathway were positively activated. Real-time quantitative PCR analysis verified that anthocyanin biosynthetic genes, including NtCHS, NtCHI, NtF3H, NtF3'H, NtDFR, and NtANS, and an anthocyanin regulatory bHLH gene, NtAN1b, were significantly upregulated in PsMYB58 transgenic tobacco. Our results indicated that PsMYB58 is a positive anthocyanin regulator in tree peony flowers. In summary, the functional identification of PsMYB58 furthers our understanding of the mechanism of peony flower color formation, thus providing a foundation for flower color improvement and molecular breeding.


Assuntos
Paeonia , Antocianinas , China , Flores/genética , Flores/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genes myb , Paeonia/genética , Paeonia/metabolismo , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/metabolismo
13.
New Phytol ; 231(4): 1612-1629, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34031889

RESUMO

Photoperiod-dependent male fertility is a critical enabler of modern hybrid breeding. A MYB transcription factor, CSA, is a key regulator of sugar partitioning in rice anthers, disruption of which causes photoperiod-sensitive male sterility. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms governing plant fertility in response to photoperiod. Here, we have obtained another rice photoperiod-sensitive male sterile mutant, csa2, which exhibits semi-sterility under long-day (LD) conditions, with normal fertility under short-day (SD) conditions. CSA2 specifically expressed in anthers, and here is shown to be indispensable for sugar partitioning to anthers under LD conditions. The CSA2 protein can restore the fertility of csa mutants under SD conditions when expressed in a CSA-specific pattern, indicating that the two proteins share common downstream regulatory targets. Transcriptomic analyses also reveal discrete regulatory targets in anthers. Furthermore, the regulatory role of CSA2 in sugar transport was influenced by the photoperiod conditions during floral initiation, not simply during anther development. Collectively, we propose that rice evolved at least two MYB proteins, CSA2 and CSA, that regulate sugar transport in anthers under LD and SD conditions, respectively. This finding provides insight into the molecular mechanisms that regulate male fertility in response to photoperiod.


Assuntos
Oryza , Flores/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Oryza/genética , Oryza/metabolismo , Fotoperíodo , Melhoramento Vegetal , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Açúcares , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
14.
Mol Genet Genomics ; 296(4): 1005-1015, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34052932

RESUMO

The spatially and temporally distinct expression of R2R3-MYB positive regulators is among the major mechanisms that create various anthocyanin color patterns in many flowers. However, we do not know how these positive regulators have gained different expression profiles. In the Asiatic hybrid lily 'Lollypop' (derived from the crosses of species belonging to Sinomartagon/Daurolirion section), MYB12 and MYB19S regulate the pigmentation at whole tepals and raised tepal spots, respectively. In the Oriental hybrid lily 'Sorbonne' (derived from the crosses of species belonging to the Archelirion section), MYB12 regulates both whole tepal and raised spot pigmentation. The genes have similar amino acid sequences with similar protein functions but exhibit different expression profiles in lily flowers. As promoters are among the most significant factors affecting gene expression profiles, their promoter sequences were determined in this study. The three genes had very different promoter sequences, and putative cis-regulatory elements were not conserved in numbers or order. To further confirm the promoter functions, tobacco plants were transformed with native promoter-driven MYB12 or MYB19S genes of 'Lollypop.' Expression levels of MYB12 were higher in corolla tubes than in lobes, while those of MYB19S were higher in corolla lobes than in tubes. Thus, the diverse promoter functions were likely to be the leading causes of their different expression profiles and generation of unique color patterns. Finally, the history of R2R3-MYB gene establishment during lily evolution was estimated using sequence data.


Assuntos
Antocianinas/biossíntese , Genes myb , Lilium , Pigmentação/genética , Antocianinas/genética , Flores/genética , Flores/metabolismo , Genes de Plantas , Genes myb/genética , Variação Genética , Lilium/genética , Lilium/metabolismo , Família Multigênica/genética , Taxa de Mutação , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Tabaco/genética , Tabaco/metabolismo , Transcriptoma
15.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(5)2021 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33807566

RESUMO

Angiosperm reproduction relies on the precise growth of the pollen tube through different pistil tissues carrying two sperm cells into the ovules' embryo sac, where they fuse with the egg and the central cell to accomplish double fertilization and ultimately initiate seed development. A network of intrinsic and tightly regulated communication and signaling cascades, which mediate continuous interactions between the pollen tube and the sporophytic and gametophytic female tissues, ensures the fast and meticulous growth of pollen tubes along the pistil, until it reaches the ovule embryo sac. Most of the pollen tube growth occurs in a specialized tissue-the transmitting tract-connecting the stigma, the style, and the ovary. This tissue is composed of highly secretory cells responsible for producing an extensive extracellular matrix. This multifaceted matrix is proposed to support and provide nutrition and adhesion for pollen tube growth and guidance. Insights pertaining to the mechanisms that underlie these processes remain sparse due to the difficulty of accessing and manipulating the female sporophytic tissues enclosed in the pistil. Here, we summarize the current knowledge on this key step of reproduction in flowering plants with special emphasis on the female transmitting tract tissue.


Assuntos
Fertilização/fisiologia , Flores/fisiologia , Óvulo Vegetal/fisiologia , Matriz Extracelular/fisiologia , Flores/metabolismo , Magnoliopsida/metabolismo , Magnoliopsida/fisiologia , Óvulo Vegetal/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Tubo Polínico/metabolismo , Tubo Polínico/fisiologia , Sementes/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia
16.
Molecules ; 26(5)2021 Mar 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33802535

RESUMO

The attractive colour characteristics of the flowers of the species Impatiens walleriana have been arousing great interest in the food industry, which is looking for potential natural sources of colouring ingredients. In this sense, the present work focused on the chemical and bioactive characterization of pink and orange flowers of I. walleriana. The phenolic compounds were determined by HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS; in addition, different bioactivities (antioxidant, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and cytotoxicity) were also analysed. Both samples studied showed significant amounts of phenolic compounds, especially phenolic acids, flavonoids, and anthocyanins, which justifies the excellent performance in the different bioactivities studied. The orange variety, despite having a greater variety of phenolic compounds, showed a total amount of compounds lower than the pink variety. Overall, the flowers of I. walleriana emerge as a promising resource to be explored by the food industry.


Assuntos
Antocianinas/análise , Flavonoides/análise , Flores/química , Hidroxibenzoatos/análise , Impatiens/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Proliferação de Células , Flores/metabolismo , Impatiens/metabolismo , Células Tumorais Cultivadas
17.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(5)2021 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33800930

RESUMO

Common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench), a pseudocereal crop, produces a large number of flowers, but this does not guarantee high seed yields. This species demonstrates strong abortion of flowers and embryos. High temperatures during the generative growth phase result in an increase in the degeneration of embryo sacs. The aim of this study was to investigate proteomic changes in flowers and leaves of two common buckwheat accessions with different degrees of heat tolerance, Panda and PA15. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry techniques were used to analyze the proteome profiles. Analyses were conducted for flower buds, open flowers capable of fertilization, and wilted flowers, as well as donor leaves, i.e., those growing closest to the inflorescences. High temperature up-regulated the expression of 182 proteins. The proteomic response to heat stress differed between the accessions and among their organs. In the Panda accession, we observed a change in abundance of 17, 13, 28, and 11 proteins, in buds, open and wilted flowers, and leaves, respectively. However, in the PA15 accession there were 34, 21, 63, and 21 such proteins, respectively. Fifteen heat-affected proteins were common to both accessions. The indole-3-glycerol phosphate synthase chloroplastic-like isoform X2 accumulated in the open flowers of the heat-sensitive cultivar Panda in response to high temperature, and may be a candidate protein as a marker of heat sensitivity in buckwheat plants.


Assuntos
Fagopyrum/metabolismo , Flores/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Proteoma , Termotolerância/genética , Eletroforese em Gel Bidimensional , Fagopyrum/embriologia , Fagopyrum/genética , Fagopyrum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Resposta ao Choque Térmico/genética , Temperatura Alta , Indol-3-Glicerolfosfato Sintase/biossíntese , Indol-3-Glicerolfosfato Sintase/genética , Metionina Adenosiltransferase/biossíntese , Metionina Adenosiltransferase/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/biossíntese , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Regulação para Cima
18.
Science ; 372(6538): 171-175, 2021 04 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33833120

RESUMO

Sexual reproduction in angiosperms relies on precise communications between the pollen and pistil. The molecular mechanisms underlying these communications remain elusive. We established that in Arabidopsis, a stigmatic gatekeeper, the ANJEA-FERONIA (ANJ-FER) receptor kinase complex, perceives the RAPID ALKALINIZATION FACTOR peptides RALF23 and RALF33 to induce reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in the stigma papillae, whereas pollination reduces stigmatic ROS, allowing pollen hydration. Upon pollination, the POLLEN COAT PROTEIN B-class peptides (PCP-Bs) compete with RALF23/33 for binding to the ANJ-FER complex, leading to a decline of stigmatic ROS that facilitates pollen hydration. Our results elucidate a molecular gating mechanism in which distinct peptide classes from pollen compete with stigma peptides for interaction with a stigmatic receptor kinase complex, allowing the pollen to hydrate and germinate.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Flores/metabolismo , Peptídeos/metabolismo , Pólen/fisiologia , Polinização , Proteínas Quinases/metabolismo , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intercelular/metabolismo , Estado de Hidratação do Organismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
19.
Plant Mol Biol ; 106(3): 285-296, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33855676

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: We characterized genes that function in the photoperiodic flowering pathway in cassava. Transcriptome analysis of field-grown plants revealed characteristic expression patterns of these genes, demonstrating that field-grown cassava experiences two distinct developmental transitions. Cassava is an important crop for both edible and industrial purposes. Cassava develops storage roots that accumulate starch, providing an important source of staple food in tropical regions. To facilitate cassava breeding, it is important to elucidate how flowering is controlled. Several important genes that control flowering time have been identified in model plants; however, comprehensive characterization of these genes in cassava is still lacking. In this study, we identified genes encoding central flowering time regulators and examined these sequences for the presence or absence of conserved motifs. We found that cassava shares conserved genes for the photoperiodic flowering pathway, including florigen, anti-florigen and its associated transcription factor (GIGANTEA, CONSTANS, FLOWERING LOCUS T, CENTRORADIALIS/TERMINAL FLOWER1 and FD) and florigen downstream genes (SUPRESSOR OF OVEREXPRESSION OF CONSTANS1 and APETALA1/FRUITFUL). We conducted RNA-seq analysis of field-grown cassava plants and characterized the expression of flowering control genes. Finally, from the transcriptome analysis we identified two distinct developmental transitions that occur in field-grown cassava.


Assuntos
Flores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Flores/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Manihot/metabolismo , Motivos de Aminoácidos , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Colômbia , Florígeno/antagonistas & inibidores , Florígeno/metabolismo , Flores/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Manihot/genética , Manihot/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Alinhamento de Sequência
20.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 204, 2021 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33910529

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Rhododendron sanguineum complex is endemic to alpine mountains of northwest Yunnan and southeast Tibet of China. Varieties in this complex exhibit distinct flower colors even at the bud stage. However, the underlying molecular regulations for the flower color variation have not been well characterized. Here, we investigated this via measuring flower reflectance profiles and comparative transcriptome analyses on three coexisting varieties of the R. sanguineum complex, with yellow flush pink, bright crimson, and deep blackish crimson flowers respectively. We compared the expression levels of differentially-expressed-genes (DEGs) of the anthocyanin / flavonoid biosynthesis pathway using RNA-seq and qRT-PCR data. We performed clustering analysis based on transcriptome-derived Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) data, and finally analyzed the promoter architecture of DEGs. RESULTS: Reflectance spectra of the three color morphs varied distinctively in the range between 400 and 700 nm, with distinct differences in saturation, brightness, hue, and saturation/hue ratio, an indirect measurement of anthocyanin content. We identified 15,164 orthogroups that were shared among the three varieties. The SNP clustering analysis indicated that the varieties were not monophyletic. A total of 40 paralogous genes encoding 12 enzymes contributed to the flower color polymorphism. These anthocyanin biosynthesis-related genes were associated with synthesis, modification and transportation properties (RsCHS, RsCHI, RsF3H, RsF3'H, RsFLS, RsANS, RsAT, RsOMT, RsGST), as well as genes involved in catabolism and degradation (RsBGLU, RsPER, RsCAD). Variations in sequence and cis-acting elements of these genes might correlate with the anthocyanin accumulation, thus may contribute to the divergence of flower color in the R. sanguineum complex. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggested that the varieties are very closely related and flower color variations in the R. sanguineum complex correlate tightly with the differential expression levels of genes involved in the anabolic and catabolic synthesis network of anthocyanin. Our study provides a scenario involving intricate relationships between genetic mechanisms for floral coloration accompanied by gene flow among the varieties that may represent an early case of pollinator-mediated incipient sympatric speciation.


Assuntos
Antocianinas/metabolismo , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Rhododendron/genética , Transcriptoma , Cor , Flores/genética , Flores/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Fluxo Gênico , Especiação Genética , Pigmentação/genética , Rhododendron/metabolismo , Simpatria , Tibet
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