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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(17)2022 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36077286

RESUMO

Vernalization is the requirement for exposure to low temperatures to trigger flowering. The best knowledge about the mechanisms of vernalization response has been accumulated for Arabidopsis and cereals. In Arabidopsis thaliana, vernalization involves an epigenetic silencing of the MADS-box gene FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC), which is a flowering repressor. FLC silencing releases the expression of the main flowering inductor FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT), resulting in a floral transition. Remarkably, no FLC homologues have been identified in the vernalization-responsive legumes, and the mechanisms of cold-mediated transition to flowering in these species remain elusive. Nevertheless, legume FT genes have been shown to retain the function of the main vernalization signal integrators. Unlike Arabidopsis, legumes have three subclades of FT genes, which demonstrate distinct patterns of regulation with respect to environmental cues and tissue specificity. This implies complex mechanisms of vernalization signal propagation in the flowering network, that remain largely elusive. Here, for the first time, we summarize the available information on the genetic basis of cold-induced flowering in legumes with a special focus on the role of FT genes.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis , Arabidopsis , Fabaceae , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Temperatura Baixa , Fabaceae/genética , Fabaceae/metabolismo , Flores/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Proteínas de Domínio MADS/genética , Proteínas de Domínio MADS/metabolismo
2.
Commun Biol ; 5(1): 967, 2022 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36109650

RESUMO

Singapore's National Flower, Papilionanthe (Ple.) Miss Joaquim 'Agnes' (PMJ) is highly prized as a horticultural flower from the Orchidaceae family. A combination of short-read sequencing, single-molecule long-read sequencing and chromatin contact mapping was used to assemble the PMJ genome, spanning 2.5 Gb and 19 pseudo-chromosomal scaffolds. Genomic resources and chemical profiling provided insights towards identifying, understanding and elucidating various classes of secondary metabolite compounds synthesized by the flower. For example, presence of the anthocyanin pigments detected by chemical profiling coincides with the expression of ANTHOCYANIN SYNTHASE (ANS), an enzyme responsible for the synthesis of the former. Similarly, the presence of vandaterosides (a unique class of glycosylated organic acids with the potential to slow skin aging) discovered using chemical profiling revealed the involvement of glycosyltransferase family enzymes candidates in vandateroside biosynthesis. Interestingly, despite the unnoticeable scent of the flower, genes involved in the biosynthesis of volatile compounds and chemical profiling revealed the combination of oxygenated hydrocarbons, including traces of linalool, beta-ionone and vanillin, forming the scent profile of PMJ. In summary, by combining genomics and biochemistry, the findings expands the known biodiversity repertoire of the Orchidaceae family and insights into the genome and secondary metabolite processes of PMJ.


Assuntos
Antocianinas , Orchidaceae , Cromatina/metabolismo , Flores/genética , Flores/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Glicosiltransferases/genética , Redes e Vias Metabólicas , Orchidaceae/genética , Singapura
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(17)2022 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36077350

RESUMO

Iris laevigata is ideal for gardening and landscaping in northeast China because of its beautiful flowers and strong cold resistance. However, the short length of flowering time (2 days for individual flowers) greatly limits its applications. Molecular breeding and engineering hold high potential for producing I. laevigata of desirable flowering properties. A prerequisite is to identify and characterize key flowering control genes, the identity of which remains largely unknown in I. laevigata due to the lack of genome information. To fill this knowledge gap, we used sequencing data of the I. laevigata transcriptome to identify MADS-box gene-encoding transcription factors that have been shown to play key roles in developmental processes, including flowering. Our data revealed 41 putative MADS-box genes, which consisted of 8 type I (5 Mα and 3 Mß, respectively) and 33 type II members (2 MIKC* and 31 MIKCC, respectively). We then selected IlSEP3 and IlSVP for functional studies and found that both are localized to the nucleus and that they interact physically in vitro. Ectopic expression of IlSEP3 in Arabidopsis resulted in early flowering (32 days) compared to that of control plants (36 days), which could be mediated by modulating the expression of FT, SOC1, AP1, SVP, SPL3, VRN1, and GA20OX. By contrast, plants overexpressing IlSVP were phenotypically similar to that of wild type. Our functional validation of IlSEP3 was consistent with the notion that SEP3 promotes flowering in multiple plant species and indicated that IlSEP3 regulates flowering in I. laevigata. Taken together, this work provided a systematic identification of MADS-box genes in I. laevigata and demonstrated that the flowering time of I. laevigata can be genetically controlled by altering the expression of key MADS-box genes.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis , Iris (Planta) , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Flores/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Iris (Planta)/genética , Iris (Planta)/metabolismo , Proteínas de Domínio MADS/genética , Proteínas de Domínio MADS/metabolismo , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(17)2022 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36077445

RESUMO

SQUAMOSA Promoter-Binding Protein-Like (SPL) genes encode plant-specific transcription factors which bind to the SQUAMOSA promoter of the MADS-box genes to regulate its expression. It plays important regulatory roles in floral induction and development, fertility, light signals and hormonal transduction, and stress response in plants. In this study, 32 PySPL genes with complete SBP (squamosa promoter binding protein) conserved domain were identified from the genome of Prunus × yedoensis 'Somei-yoshino' and analyzed by bioinformatics. 32 PySPLs were distributed on 13 chromosomes, encoding 32 PySPL proteins with different physical and chemical properties. The phylogenetic tree constructed with Arabidopsis thaliana and Oryza sativa can be divided into 10 subtribes, indicating PySPLs of different clusters have different biological functions. The conserved motif prediction showed that the number and distribution of motifs on each PySPL is varied. The gene structure analysis revealed that PySPLs harbored exons ranging from 2 to 10. The predictive analysis of acting elements showed that the promoter of PySPLs contain a large number of light-responsive elements, as well as response elements related to hormone response, growth and development and stress response. The analysis of the PySPLs expressions in flower induction and flower organs based on qRT-PCR showed that PySPL06/22 may be the key genes of flower development, PySPL01/06 and PySPL22 may play a role in the development of sepal and pistil, respectively. The results provide a foundation for the study of SPL transcription factors of Prunus × yedoensis 'Somei-yoshino' and provide more reference information of the function of SPL gene in flowering.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis , Oryza , Prunus , Arabidopsis/genética , Flores/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Família Multigênica , Oryza/genética , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Prunus/genética , Prunus/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(17)2022 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36077538

RESUMO

Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) is one of the important fiber crops. Cotton flowers usually appear white (or cream-colored) without colored spots at the petal base, and turn pink on the next day after flowering. In this study, using a mutant showing pink petals with crimson spots at their base, we conducted comparative metabolome and transcriptome analyses to investigate the molecular mechanism of coloration in cotton flowers. Metabolic profiling showed that cyanidin-3-O-glucoside and glycosidic derivatives of pelargonidins and peonidins are the main pigments responsible for the coloration of the pink petals of the mutant. A total of 2443 genes differentially expressed (DEGs) between the white and pink petals were identified by RNA-sequencing. Many DEGs are structural genes and regulatory genes of the anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway. Among them, MYB21, UGT88F3, GSTF12, and VPS32.3 showed significant association with the accumulation of cyanidin-3-O-glucoside in the pink petals. Taken together, our study preliminarily revealed the metabolites responsible for the pink petals and the key genes regulating the biosynthesis and accumulation of anthocyanins in the pink petals. The results provide new insights into the biochemical and molecular mechanism underlying anthocyanin biosynthesis in upland cotton.


Assuntos
Antocianinas , Gossypium , Antocianinas/metabolismo , Flores/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Glucosídeos/metabolismo , Gossypium/genética , Gossypium/metabolismo , Metaboloma , Transcriptoma
6.
BMC Genomics ; 23(1): 650, 2022 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36100898

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As one of the largest transcription factor families in plants, AP2/ERF gene superfamily plays important roles in plant growth, development, fruit ripening and biotic and abiotic stress responses. Despite the great progress has been made in kiwifruit genomic studies, little research has been conducted on the AP2/ERF genes of kiwifruit. The increasing kiwifruit genome resources allowed us to reveal the tissue expression profiles of AP2/ERF genes in kiwifruit on a genome-wide basis. RESULTS: In present study, a total of 158 AP2/ERF genes in A. eriantha were identified. All genes can be mapped on the 29 chromosomes. Phylogenetic analysis divided them into four main subfamilies based on the complete protein sequences. Additionally, our results revealed that the same subfamilies contained similar gene structures and conserved motifs. Ka/Ks calculation indicated that AP2/ERF gene family was undergoing a strong purifying selection and the evolutionary rates were slow. RNA-seq showed that the AP2/ERF genes were expressed differently in different flower development stages and 56 genes were considered as DEGs among three contrasts. Moreover, qRT-PCR suggested partial genes showed significant expressions as well, suggesting they could be key regulators in flower development in A. eriantha. In addition, two genes (AeAP2/ERF061, AeAP2/ERF067) had abundant transcription level based on transcriptomes, implying that they may play a crucial role in plant flower development regulation and flower tissue forming. CONCLUSIONS: We identified AP2/ERF genes and demonstrated their gene structures, conserved motifs, and phylogeny relationships of AP2/ERF genes in two related species of kiwifruit, A. eriantha and A. chinensis, and their potential roles in flower development in A. eriantha. Such information would lay the foundation for further functional identification of AP2/ERF genes involved in kiwifruit flower development.


Assuntos
Actinidia , Actinidia/genética , Flores/genética , Flores/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genoma de Planta , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(16)2022 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36012256

RESUMO

Flowering reversion is a common phenomenon in plant development in which differentiated floral organs switch from reproductive growth to vegetative growth and ultimately form abnormal floral organs or vegetative organs. This greatly reduces tomato yield and quality. Research on this phenomenon has recently increased, but there is a lack of research at the molecular and gene expression levels. Here, transcriptomic analyses of the inflorescence meristem were performed in two kinds of materials at different developmental stages, and a total of 3223 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were screened according to the different developmental stages and trajectories of the two materials. The analysis of database annotations showed that these DEGs were closely related to starch and sucrose metabolism, DNA replication and modification, plant hormone synthesis and signal transduction. It was further speculated that tomato flowering reversion may be related to various biological processes, such as cell signal transduction, energy metabolism and protein post-transcriptional regulation. Combined with the results of previous studies, our work showed that the gene expression levels of CLE9, FA, PUCHI, UF, CLV3, LOB30, SFT, S-WOX9 and SVP were significantly different in the two materials. Endogenous hormone analysis and exogenous hormone treatment revealed a variety of plant hormones involved in flowering reversion in tomato. Thus, tomato flowering reversion was studied comprehensively by transcriptome analysis for the first time, providing new insights for the study of flower development regulation in tomato and other plants.


Assuntos
Lycopersicon esculentum , Flores/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Hormônios , Lycopersicon esculentum/metabolismo , Meristema , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas/metabolismo , Transcriptoma
8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(16)2022 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36012392

RESUMO

SELF-PRUNING 6A (SP6A), a homolog of FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT), has been identified as tuberigen in potato. StSP6A is a mobile signal synthesized in leaves and transmitted to the stolon through phloem, and plays multiple roles in the growth and development of potato. However, the global StSP6A protein interaction network in potato remains poorly understood. In this study, BK-StSP6A was firstly used as the bait to investigate the StSP6A interaction network by screening the yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) library of potato, resulting in the selection of 200 independent positive clones and identification of 77 interacting proteins. Then, the interaction between StSP6A and its interactors was further confirmed by the Y2H and BiFC assays, and three interactors were selected for further expression analysis. Finally, the expression pattern of Flowering Promoting Factor 1.1 (StFPF1.1), No Flowering in Short Days 1 and 2 (StNFL1 and StNFL2) was studied. The three genes were highly expressed in flowers or flower buds. StFPF1.1 exhibited an expression pattern similar to that of StSP6A at the stolon swelling stages. StPHYF-silenced plants showed up-regulated expression of StFPF1.1 and StSP6A, while expression of StNFL1 and StNFL2 was down-regulated in the stolon. The identification of these interacting proteins lays a solid foundation for further functional studies of StSP6A.


Assuntos
Solanum tuberosum , Flores/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Folhas de Planta/genética , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Tubérculos/genética , Solanum tuberosum/metabolismo
10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(15)2022 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35955610

RESUMO

Ethylene biosynthesis and signal transduction play critical roles in plant sex differentiation. ACS (1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthase) is a rate-limiting enzyme in ethylene biosynthesis. However, the understanding of the ACS gene family in Cucurbita maxima is limited. Here, we identified and characterized 13 ACS genes in the C. maxima genome. All ACS genes could be divided into three groups according to a conserved serine residue at the C-terminus. Thirteen CmaACS genes were found to be randomly distributed on 10 of the 20 chromosomes of C. maxima. The ACS gene exhibits different tissue-specific expression patterns in pumpkin, and four ACS genes (CmaACS1, CmaACS4, CmaACS7, and CmaACS9) were expressed specifically in both the female and male flowers of C. maxima. In addition, the expression levels of CmaACS4 and CmaACS7 were upregulated after ethephon and IAA treatments, which ultimately increased the number of female flowers, decreased the position of the first female flower and decreased the number of bisexual flowers per plant. These results provide relevant information for determining the function of the ACS genes in C. maxima, especially for regulating the function of ethylene in sex determination.


Assuntos
Cucurbita , Cucurbita/genética , Cucurbita/metabolismo , Etilenos/metabolismo , Flores/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas
11.
Food Res Int ; 159: 111598, 2022 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35940795

RESUMO

The protein extract of Moringa oleifera flowers is reported to have milk-clotting activity (MCA), but information regarding its protease is unclear. In this study, two milk-clotting proteases (MoFP 12 and MoFP 13) with molecular weights of 42.304 kDa and 31.741 kDa, respectively, were isolated and identified from M. oleifera flowers using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Bioinformatics analysis showed that these two milk-clotting proteases were primarily involved in hydrolase activity and catabolic process, and exhibited hydrophilicity. The secondary structure of MoFP 12 consisted of 43.65% helix, 13.23% strand, and 43.12% coil, and MoFP 13 consisted of 26.51% helix, 20.14% strand, and 53.35% coil. The proteases were stable in the pH range of 5.0 to 8.0 and showed their maximum MCA at 70℃. Additionally, by investigating the effect of proteases on caseins, κ-casein (CN) was observed to preferentially be hydrolyzed by the two proteases, followed by α-CN, and to a lesser extent ß-CN. These findings revealed the main milk-clotting proteases in M. oleifera flowers and its milk-clotting properties, indicating its potential for application in the dairy and food sectors, especially in the cheese-making industry.


Assuntos
Moringa oleifera , Animais , Caseínas/química , Cromatografia Líquida , Flores/metabolismo , Leite/química , Moringa oleifera/química , Peptídeo Hidrolases/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
12.
Development ; 149(17)2022 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35950915

RESUMO

In many flowering plants, petals initiate in alternate positions from first whorl sepals, suggesting possible signaling between sepal boundaries and petal initiation sites. PETAL LOSS (PTL) and RABBIT EARS (RBE) regulate petal initiation in Arabidopsis thaliana and their transcripts are expressed in sepal boundary and petal initiation sites, respectively, suggesting that PTL acts in a non-cell-autonomous manner. Here, we determined that cells expressing PTL and RBE fusion proteins did not overlap but were adjacent, confirming the non-cell-autonomous function of PTL. Genetic ablation of intersepal cells by expressing the diphtheria toxin-A chain gene driven by the PTL promoter resulted in flowers lacking petals, suggesting these cells are required for petal initiation. Transcriptome analysis combined with a PTL induction system revealed 42 genes that were upregulated under PTL activation, including UNUSUAL FLORAL ORGANS (UFO), which likely plays an important role in petal initiation. These findings suggest a molecular mechanism in which PTL indirectly regulates petal initiation and UFO mediates positional signaling between the sepal boundary and petal initiation sites.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis , Arabidopsis , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Flores/genética , Flores/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
13.
Plant Mol Biol ; 110(1-2): 187-197, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35943640

RESUMO

Flower color variation is ubiquitous in many plant species, and several studies have been conducted to elucidate the underlying molecular mechanism. There are two flower color variants (yellowish-white and fuchsia) in the Rheum palmatum complex, however, few studies have investigated this phenomenon. Here, we used transcriptome sequencing of the two color variants to shed light on the molecular and biochemical basis for these color morphs. Comparison of the two transcriptomes identified 9641 differentially expressed unigenes (DEGs), including 6477 up-regulated and 3163 down-regulated genes. Functional analyses indicated that several DEGs were related to the anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway, and the expression profiles of these DEGs were coincident with the qRT-PCR validation results, indicating that expression levels of structural genes have a profound effect on the color variation in the R. palmatum complex. Our results suggested that the interaction of transcription factors (MYB, bHLH and WRKY) also regulated the anthocyanin biosynthesis in the R. palmatum complex. Estimation of selection pressures using the dN/dS ratio showed that 1106 pairs of orthologous genes have undergone positive selection. Of these positively selected genes, 21 were involved in the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway, indicating that they may encode the proteins for structural alteration and affect flower color in the R. palmatum complex.


Assuntos
Rheum , Transcriptoma , Antocianinas , Cor , Flores/genética , Flores/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Rheum/genética , Rheum/metabolismo
14.
Nature ; 609(7926): 394-399, 2022 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35978193

RESUMO

Cellular RNAs are heterogeneous with respect to their alternative processing and secondary structures, but the functional importance of this complexity is still poorly understood. A set of alternatively processed antisense non-coding transcripts, which are collectively called COOLAIR, are generated at the Arabidopsis floral-repressor locus FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC)1. Different isoforms of COOLAIR influence FLC transcriptional output in warm and cold conditions2-7. Here, to further investigate the function of COOLAIR, we developed an RNA structure-profiling method to determine the in vivo structure of single RNA molecules rather than the RNA population average. This revealed that individual isoforms of the COOLAIR transcript adopt multiple structures with different conformational dynamics. The major distally polyadenylated COOLAIR isoform in warm conditions adopts three predominant structural conformations, the proportions and conformations of which change after cold exposure. An alternatively spliced, strongly cold-upregulated distal COOLAIR isoform6 shows high structural diversity, in contrast to proximally polyadenylated COOLAIR. A hyper-variable COOLAIR structural element was identified that was complementary to the FLC transcription start site. Mutations altering the structure of this region changed FLC expression and flowering time, consistent with an important regulatory role of the COOLAIR structure in FLC transcription. Our work demonstrates that isoforms of non-coding RNA transcripts adopt multiple distinct and functionally relevant structural conformations, which change in abundance and shape in response to external conditions.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis , Arabidopsis , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Flores/genética , Flores/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Proteínas de Domínio MADS/genética , Proteínas de Domínio MADS/metabolismo , RNA Antissenso/genética
16.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(14)2022 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35887360

RESUMO

Floral scents possess high ornamental and economic values to rose production in the floricultural industry. In the past two decades, molecular bases of floral scent production have been studied in the rose as well as their genetic inheritance. Some significant achievements have been acquired, such as the comprehensive rose genome and the finding of a novel geraniol synthase in plants. In this review, we summarize the composition of floral scents in modern roses, focusing on the recent advances in the molecular mechanisms of floral scent production and emission, as well as the latest developments in molecular breeding and metabolic engineering of rose scents. It could provide useful information for both studying and improving the floral scent production in the rose.


Assuntos
Odorantes , Rosa , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Flores/metabolismo , Feromônios/metabolismo , Rosa/genética , Rosa/metabolismo
17.
G3 (Bethesda) ; 12(9)2022 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35861391

RESUMO

Deceptive pollination often involves volatile organic compound emissions that mislead insects into performing nonrewarding pollination. Among deceptively pollinated plants, Arum maculatum is particularly well-known for its potent dung-like volatile organic compound emissions and specialized floral chamber, which traps pollinators-mainly Psychoda phalaenoides and Psychoda grisescens-overnight. However, little is known about the genes underlying the production of many Arum maculatum volatile organic compounds, and their influence on variation in pollinator attraction rates. Therefore, we performed de novo transcriptome sequencing of Arum maculatum appendix and male floret tissue collected during anthesis and postanthesis, from 10 natural populations across Europe. These RNA-seq data were paired with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses of floral scent composition and pollinator data collected from the same inflorescences. Differential expression analyses revealed candidate transcripts in appendix tissue linked to malodourous volatile organic compounds including indole, p-cresol, and 2-heptanone. In addition, we found that terpene synthase expression in male floret tissue during anthesis significantly covaried with sex- and species-specific attraction of Psychoda phalaenoides and Psychoda grisescens. Taken together, our results provide the first insights into molecular mechanisms underlying pollinator attraction patterns in Arum maculatum and highlight floral chamber sesquiterpene (e.g. bicyclogermacrene) synthases as interesting candidate genes for further study.


Assuntos
Araceae , Arum , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis , Alquil e Aril Transferases , Araceae/química , Araceae/metabolismo , Arum/metabolismo , Flores/genética , Flores/metabolismo , Polinização/genética , Transcriptoma , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/metabolismo
18.
Chem Biodivers ; 19(8): e202200471, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35774029

RESUMO

Dendrobium huoshanense flowers have been widely used for liver protection in China. This work was aimed to discover the natural products with activity of mitigating alcoholic hepatocyte injury from Dendrobium huoshanense flowers via bioactivity-guided isolation, and to clarify the underlying mechanisms of these natural products. As a result, three flavonoids, 3'-O-methylquercetin-3-O-ß-D-galactopyranoside (1), 3'-O-methylquercetin-3-O-ß-D-glucopyranoside (2) and quercetin-3-O-ß-D-glucopyranoside (3), were firstly isolated from D. huoshanense flowers. Results exhibited that flavonoids 1-3 could enhance the cell viability, decrease the expression of ALT and AST, inhibit the cell apoptosis, alleviate the oxidative stress, and mitigate the inflammatory response of alcohol-induced L02 cells. Mechanism study exhibited that flavonoids 1-3 could increase the expression of Nrf2 as well as its downstream antioxidation genes of alcohol-induced L02 cells, while ML-385 (Nrf2 inhibitor) could abolish the inhibitory effects of 1-3 on alcohol-induced hepatocyte injury. Flavonoids 1-3 could also reduce the phosphorylation levels of IκBα and NF-κB p65 of alcohol-induced L02 cells, while SC75741 (NF-κB inhibitor) could not enhance the inhibitory effects of 1-3 on alcohol-induced L02 cells injury. The data above indicated that flavonoids 1-3 could inhibit alcohol-induced hepatocyte injury, which might be attributed to alleviating oxidative stress and mitigating inflammatory response by activating Nrf2 and inhibiting NF-κB pathways.


Assuntos
Produtos Biológicos , Dendrobium , Produtos Biológicos/farmacologia , Etanol/farmacologia , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Flores/metabolismo , Hepatócitos/metabolismo , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo
19.
Commun Biol ; 5(1): 662, 2022 07 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35790878

RESUMO

FOREVER YOUNG FLOWER (FYF) has been reported to play an important role in regulating flower senescence/abscission. Here, we functionally analyzed five Arabidopsis FYF-like genes, two in the FYF subgroup (FYL1/AGL71 and FYL2/AGL72) and three in the SOC1 subgroup (SOC1/AGL20, AGL19, and AGL14/XAL2), and showed their involvement in the regulation of flower senescence and/or abscission. We demonstrated that in FYF subgroup, FYF has both functions in suppressing flower senescence and abscission, FYL1 only suppresses flower abscission and FYL2 has been converted as an activator to promote flower senescence. In SOC1 subgroup, AGL19/AGL14/SOC1 have only one function in suppressing flower senescence. We also found that FYF-like proteins can form heterotetrameric complexes with different combinations of A/E functional proteins (such as AGL6 and SEP1) and AGL15/18-like proteins to perform their functions. These findings greatly expand the current knowledge behind the multifunctional evolution of FYF-like genes and uncover their regulatory network in plants.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis , Arabidopsis , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Flores/genética , Flores/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Proteínas de Domínio MADS/genética , Proteínas de Domínio MADS/metabolismo , Senescência Vegetal
20.
Commun Biol ; 5(1): 686, 2022 07 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35810211

RESUMO

Color change during flower opening is common; however, little is understood on the biochemical and molecular basis related. Lilac (Syringa oblata), a well-known woody ornamental plant with obvious petal color changes, is an ideal model. Here, we presented chromosome-scale genome assembly for lilac, resolved the flavonoids metabolism, and identified key genes and potential regulatory networks related to petal color change. The genome assembly is 1.05 Gb anchored onto 23 chromosomes, with a BUSCO score of 96.6%. Whole-genome duplication (WGD) event shared within Oleaceae was revealed. Metabolome quantification identified delphinidin-3-O-rutinoside (Dp3Ru) and cyanidin-3-O-rutinoside (Cy3Ru) as the major pigments; gene co-expression networks indicated WRKY an essential regulation factor at the early flowering stage, ERF more important in the color transition period (from violet to light nearly white), while the MBW complex participated in the entire process. Our results provide a foundation for functional study and molecular breeding in lilac.


Assuntos
Syringa , Flores/genética , Flores/metabolismo , Luz , Metaboloma , Pigmentação/genética , Syringa/genética , Syringa/metabolismo
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