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1.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237173, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32845897

RESUMO

Gentian is an important ornamental flower in Japan. The corolla of the majority of cultivated Japanese gentians have green spots, which are rarely encountered in flowers of other angiosperms. Little information is available on the functional traits of the green spots. In this study, we characterized the green spots in the Japanese gentian corolla using a number of microscopic techniques. Opto-digital microscopy revealed that a single visible green spot is composed of approximately 100 epidermal cells. The epidermal cells of a green spot formed a dome-like structure and the cell lumen contained many green structures that were granular and approximately 5 µm in diameter. The green structures emitted red autofluorescence when irradiated with 488 nm excitation light. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that the green structures contained typical thylakoids and grana, thus indicating they are chloroplasts. No grana were observed and the thylakoids had collapsed in the plastids of epidermal cells surrounding green spots. To estimate the rate of photosynthetic electron transfer of the green spots, we measured chlorophyll fluorescence using the MICROSCOPY version of an Imaging-PAM (pulse-amplitude-modulated) fluorometer. Under actinic light of 449 µmol m-2 s-1, substantial electron flow through photosystem II was observed. Observation of green spot formation during corolla development revealed that immature green spots formed at an early bud stage and developed to maturity associated with chloroplast degradation in the surrounding epidermal cells. These results confirmed that the Japanese gentian corolla contains functional chloroplasts in restricted areas of epidermal cells and indicated that a sophisticated program for differential regulation of chloroplast formation and degradation is operative in the epidermis.


Assuntos
Flores/citologia , Flores/metabolismo , Gentiana/anatomia & histologia , Tilacoides/metabolismo , Clorofila/metabolismo , Transporte de Elétrons , Japão , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Microscopia de Fluorescência , Fotossíntese , Complexo de Proteína do Fotossistema I/metabolismo , Complexo de Proteína do Fotossistema II/metabolismo , Epiderme Vegetal/citologia , Epiderme Vegetal/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo
2.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237176, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32745128

RESUMO

Some monocotyledonous plants, including liliaceous, amaryllidaceous and iridaceous ones, produce flowers with petaloid tepals in whorls 1 and 2 organs. For explaining the molecular mechanism of two-layered petaloid tepal development, the modified ABC model has been proposed, in which B class genes are expressed in whorl 1 organs as well as in whorls 2 and 3 organs. We have previously obtained results strongly support the modified ABC model by chimeric repressor gene-silencing technology (CRES-T)-mediated suppression of B function in the liliaceous plant Tricyrtis sp. In the present study, we introduced a CRES-T construct derived from the B class gene of Tricyrtis sp. (TrihDEFa-SRDX) into Lilium sp. in order to examine the effect of suppressing B function on the floral organ identity. Flowers of transgenic plants did not open fully and had pale pink-colored tepals with decreased numbers of papillae on the adaxial side in whorls 1 and 2 compared with those of non-transgenic plants. No apparent morphological alterations were observed in whorls 3 and 4 organs. Both the amount of total anthocyanins and the expression levels of endogenous flavonoid biosynthesis-related genes (LhMYB12, LhbHLH2, LhCHS, LhF3H, LhF3'H, LhDFR and LhANS) decreased in whorls 1 and 2 organs of transgenic plants compared with non-transgenic plants. In addition, the expression levels of endogenous B class genes (LFDEF, LFGLOA and LFGLOB) decreased in transgenic plants and the level was negatively correlated with the degree of morphological alteration. Thus suppression of B function may reduce the identity of petaloid tepals in whorls 1 and 2 of transgenic Lilium sp.


Assuntos
Flores/genética , Inativação Gênica , Lilium/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Flores/anatomia & histologia , Flores/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
3.
Plant Mol Biol ; 104(1-2): 137-150, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32623622

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: OsGhd7 gene was discovered by screening our rice activation tagging population. CRISPR-Cas9 created knockouts of OsGhd7 conferred early flowering and early maturity in rice varieties across multiple geographical locations in China. Our research shows that OsGhd7 is a good target for breeding early maturity rice varieties, and an excellent example of the advantages of applying the CRISPR-Cas9 technology for trait improvement. Flowering time (heading date) is an important trait for crop cultivation and yield. In this study, we discovered a late flowering gene OsGhd7 by screening our rice activation tagging population, and demonstrated that overexpression of OsGhd7 delayed flowering time in rice, and the delay in flowering time depended on the transgene expression level. OsGhd7 is a functional allele of the Ghd7 gene family; knockouts of OsGhd7 generated by CRISPR-Cas9 significantly accelerated flowering time and the earliness of the flowering time depended on field location. The homozygous OsGhd7 knockout lines showed approximately 8, 10, and 20 days earlier flowering than controls at three different locations in China (Changsha City, Sanya City, and Beijing City, respectively) that varied from 18.25° N to 39.90° N. Furthermore, knockouts of OsGhd7 also showed an early flowering phenotype in different rice varieties, indicating OsGhd7 can be used as a common target gene for using the CRISPR technology to modulate rice flowering time. The importance of OsGhd7 and CRISPR technology for breeding early maturity rice varieties are discussed.


Assuntos
Sistemas CRISPR-Cas/genética , Flores/genética , Oryza/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Alelos , Sequência de Bases , Clonagem Molecular , Repetições Palindrômicas Curtas Agrupadas e Regularmente Espaçadas , Flores/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Técnicas de Inativação de Genes , Oryza/metabolismo , Fenótipo , Desenvolvimento Vegetal/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Reprodução , Alinhamento de Sequência
4.
Plant Mol Biol ; 104(1-2): 187-201, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32681357

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: The mutation of FAX1 (Fatty Acid Export 1) disrupts ROS homeostasis and suppresses transcription activity of DYT1-TDF1-AMS-MS188 genetic network, leading to atypical tapetum PCD and defective pollen formation in Arabidopsis. Fatty acids (FAs) have multiple important biological functions and exert diverse cellular effects through modulating Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) homeostasis. Arabidopsis FAX1 (Fatty Acid Export 1) mediates the export of de novo synthesized FA from chloroplast and loss of function of FAX1 impairs male fertility. However, mechanisms underlying the association of FAX1-mediated FA export with male sterility remain enigmatic. In this study, by using an integrated approach that included morphological, cytological, histological, and molecular analyses, we revealed that loss of function of FAX1 breaks cellular FA/lipid homeostasis, which disrupts ROS homeostasis and suppresses transcriptional activation of the DYT1-TDF1-AMS-MS188 genetic network of anther development, impairing tapetum development and pollen wall formation, and resulting in male sterility. This study provides new insights into the regulatory network for male reproduction in plants, highlighting an important role of FA export-mediated ROS homeostasis in the process.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Pólen/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/citologia , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Flores/citologia , Flores/genética , Flores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Flores/metabolismo , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Mutação , Fenótipo , Pólen/genética , Reprodução , Fatores de Transcrição
5.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236037, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32701981

RESUMO

Soil salinity imposes an agricultural and economic burden that may be alleviated by identifying the components of salinity tolerance in barley, a major crop and the most salt tolerant cereal. To improve our understanding of these components, we evaluated a diversity panel of 377 two-row spring barley cultivars during both the vegetative, in a controlled environment, and the reproductive stages, in the field. In the controlled environment, a high-throughput phenotyping platform was used to assess the growth-related traits under both control and saline conditions. In the field, the agronomic traits were measured from plots irrigated with either fresh or saline water. Association mapping for the different components of salinity tolerance enabled us to detect previously known associations, such as HvHKT1;5. Using an "interaction model", which took into account the interaction between treatment (control and salt) and genetic markers, we identified several loci associated with yield components related to salinity tolerance. We also observed that the two developmental stages did not share genetic regions associated with the components of salinity tolerance, suggesting that different mechanisms play distinct roles throughout the barley life cycle. Our association analysis revealed that genetically defined regions containing known flowering genes (Vrn-H3, Vrn-H1, and HvNAM-1) were responsive to salt stress. We identified a salt-responsive locus (7H, 128.35 cM) that was associated with grain number per ear, and suggest a gene encoding a vacuolar H+-translocating pyrophosphatase, HVP1, as a candidate. We also found a new QTL on chromosome 3H (139.22 cM), which was significant for ear number per plant, and a locus on chromosome 2H (141.87 cM), previously identified using a nested association mapping population, which associated with a yield component and interacted with salinity stress. Our study is the first to evaluate a barley diversity panel for salinity stress under both controlled and field conditions, allowing us to identify contributions from new components of salinity tolerance which could be used for marker-assisted selection when breeding for marginal and saline regions.


Assuntos
Cromossomos de Plantas , Hordeum/genética , Tolerância ao Sal/genética , Flores/genética , Flores/metabolismo , Genótipo , Hordeum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Hordeum/metabolismo , Pirofosfatase Inorgânica/genética , Fenótipo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Solo/química
6.
Food Chem ; 333: 127506, 2020 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32679417

RESUMO

Artichoke floral stems (AFS) food waste by-products were examined for their phytochemical constituents and their in vitro and in vivo biological activities. Although that the highest total phenol content and total flavonoid content were found in ethyl acetate extract, methanol extract possessed the strongest DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activity, and showed the highest reducing ferric antioxidant power (FRAP). The anti-acetylcholinesterase activity was higher in butanol extract, whereas the ethyl acetate extract had the highest inhibitory effect on heat-induced protein denaturation. In alloxan-induced diabetic mice, the AFS methanol extract (AFSE) rich in caffeoylquinic acids and flavones reduced blood glucose, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase, creatinine, and improved liver, and renal antioxidative status. Administration of AFSE to diabetic mice reduced total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL-cholesterol, and the atherogenic index of plasma (AIP) suggesting its hypolipidemic action. Overall, AFS could be considered as attractive source of health-promoting ingredients.


Assuntos
Cynara scolymus/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Extratos Vegetais/química , Alanina Transaminase , Animais , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Glicemia/análise , Candida albicans/efeitos dos fármacos , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Cynara scolymus/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/induzido quimicamente , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/patologia , Flavonoides/análise , Flores/química , Flores/metabolismo , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Fenóis/análise , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/uso terapêutico , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Caules de Planta/química , Caules de Planta/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray
7.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236530, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32706831

RESUMO

Apple trees grafted on different rootstock types, including vigorous rootstock (VR), dwarfing interstock (DIR), and dwarfing self-rootstock (DSR), are widely planted in production, but the molecular determinants of tree branch architecture growth regulation induced by rootstocks are still not well known. In this study, the branch growth phenotypes of three combinations of 'Fuji' apple trees grafted on different rootstocks (VR: Malus baccata; DIR: Malus baccata/T337; DSR: T337) were investigated. The VR trees presented the biggest branch architecture. The results showed that the sugar content, sugar metabolism-related enzyme activities, and hormone content all presented obvious differences in the tender leaves and buds of apple trees grafted on these rootstocks. Transcriptomic profiles of the tender leaves adjacent to the top buds allowed us to identify genes that were potentially involved in signaling pathways that mediate the regulatory mechanisms underlying growth differences. In total, 3610 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified through pairwise comparisons. The screened data suggested that sugar metabolism-related genes and complex hormone regulatory networks involved the auxin (IAA), cytokinin (CK), abscisic acid (ABA) and gibberellic acid (GA) pathways, as well as several transcription factors, participated in the complicated growth induction process. Overall, this study provides a framework for analysis of the molecular mechanisms underlying differential tree branch growth of apple trees grafted on different rootstocks.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Malus/genética , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Açúcares/metabolismo , Ácido Abscísico/análise , Ácido Abscísico/metabolismo , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Citocininas/análise , Citocininas/metabolismo , Flores/genética , Flores/metabolismo , Giberelinas/análise , Giberelinas/metabolismo , Ácidos Indolacéticos/análise , Ácidos Indolacéticos/metabolismo , Malus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fenótipo , Folhas de Planta/genética , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Caules de Planta/genética , Caules de Planta/fisiologia , RNA de Plantas/genética , RNA de Plantas/metabolismo , Açúcares/análise , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , alfa-Glucosidases/genética , alfa-Glucosidases/metabolismo
8.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0226469, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32525873

RESUMO

Colour is an important signal that flowering plants use to attract insect pollinators like bees. Previous research in Germany has shown that nectar volume is higher for flower colours that are innately preferred by European bees, suggesting an important link between colour signals, bee preferences and floral rewards. In Australia, flower colour signals have evolved in parallel to the Northern hemisphere to enable easy discrimination and detection by the phylogenetically ancient trichromatic visual system of bees, and native Australian bees also possess similar innate colour preferences to European bees. We measured 59 spectral signatures from flowers present at two preserved native habitats in South Eastern Australia and tested whether there were any significant differences in the frequency of flowers presenting higher nectar rewards depending upon the colour category of the flower signals, as perceived by bees. We also tested if there was a significant correlation between chromatic contrast and the frequency of flowers presenting higher nectar rewards. For the entire sample, and for subsets excluding species in the Asteraceae and Orchidaceae, we found no significant difference among colour categories in the frequency of high nectar reward. This suggests that whilst such relationships between flower colour signals and nectar volume rewards have been observed at a field site in Germany, the effect is likely to be specific at a community level rather than a broad general principle that has resulted in the common signalling of bee flower colours around the world.


Assuntos
Abelhas/fisiologia , Flores/metabolismo , Pigmentação , Néctar de Plantas/metabolismo , Polinização , Animais , Comportamento Animal , Açúcares/metabolismo
9.
Food Chem ; 329: 127178, 2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32502746

RESUMO

A betacyanin rich extract was obtained from the flowers of Gomphrena globosa L. by ultrasound-assisted extraction and dried either by lyophilization or spray-drying, was tested as a natural colourant in cookies and compared to a commercial colourant. The extracts were characterized in terms of betacyanin content and antioxidant potential. The effects of the colourants incorporation in the cookies were assessed through proximate composition, soluble sugars, fatty acids, color, texture and microbial load, over a shelf life of 30 days. Considering all the assays and analyzing the results through a 2-way analysis of variance, the cookies incorporated with spray-dried colourant showed the most intense pink coloration while cookies incorporated with lyophilized extract lost less color intensity over time. Thus, betacyanin extracts have potential as pink natural alternatives to synthetic colourants in the food industry.


Assuntos
Amaranthaceae/química , Betacianinas/química , Doces/análise , Corantes/química , Amaranthaceae/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/química , Betacianinas/isolamento & purificação , Dessecação , Flores/química , Flores/metabolismo , Liofilização , Valor Nutritivo , Extratos Vegetais/química , Sonicação
10.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0233120, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32421736

RESUMO

Day length is a determinant of flowering time in rice. Phytochromes participate in flowering regulation by measuring the number of daylight hours to which the plant is exposed. Here we describe G123, a rice mutant generated by irradiation, which displays insensitivity to the photoperiod and early flowering under both long day and short day conditions. To detect the mutation responsible for the early flowering phenotype exhibited by G123, we generated an F2 population, derived from crossing with the wild-type, and used a pipeline to detect genomic structural variation, initially developed for human genomes. We detected a deletion in the G123 genome that affects the PHOTOPERIOD SENSITIVITY13 (SE13) gene, which encodes a phytochromobilin synthase, an enzyme implicated in phytochrome chromophore biosynthesis. The transcriptomic analysis, performed by RNA-seq, in the G123 plants indicated an alteration in photosynthesis and other processes related to response to light. The expression patterns of the main flowering regulatory genes, such as Ghd7, Ghd8 and PRR37, were altered in the plants grown under both long day and short day conditions. These findings indicate that phytochromes are also involved in the regulation of these genes under short day conditions, and extend the role of phytochromes in flowering regulation in rice.


Assuntos
Flores/metabolismo , Flores/fisiologia , Oryza/genética , Oryza/fisiologia , Fotossíntese/fisiologia , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Flores/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/fisiologia , Oryza/metabolismo , Fotossíntese/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética
11.
Gene ; 753: 144803, 2020 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32446917

RESUMO

R2R3-type MYBs are a key group of regulatory factors that control diverse developmental processes and stress tolerance in plants. Soybean is a major legume crop with the richness of seed protein and edible vegetable oil, and 244 R2R3-type MYBs have been identified in soybean. However, the knowledge regarding their functional roles has been greatly limited as yet. In this study, a novel R2R3-type MYB (GmMYB81) was functionally characterized in soybean, and it is closely related to two abiotic stress-associated regulators (AtMYB44 and AtMYB77). GmMYB81 transcripts not only differentially accumulated in soybean tissues and during embryo development, but also were significantly enhanced by drought, salt and cold stress. Histochemical GUS assay in Arabidopsis indicated that GmMYB81 promoter showed high activity in seedlings, rosette leaves, inflorescences, silique wall, mature anthers, roots, and germinating seeds. Further investigation indicated that over-expression of GmMYB81 in Arabidopsis caused auxin-associated phenotypes, including small flower and silique, more branch, and weakened apical dominance. Moreover, over-expression of GmMYB81 significantly elevated the rates of seed germination and green seedling under salt and drought stress, indicating that GmMYB81 might confer plant tolerance to salt and drought stress during seed germination. Additionally, protein interaction analysis showed that GmMYB81 interacts with the abiotic stress regulator GmSGF14l. Further observation indicated that they displayed similar expression patterns under drought and salt stress, suggesting GmMYB81 and GmSGF14l might cooperatively affect stress tolerance. These findings will facilitate future investigations of the regulatory mechanisms of GmMYB81 in response to plant stress tolerance, especially seed germination under abiotic stresses.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Soja/genética , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Ácido Abscísico/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Secas , Fabaceae/genética , Flores/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Genes de Plantas/genética , Germinação/genética , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Estresse Salino/genética , Tolerância ao Sal/genética , Sementes/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
12.
Plant Mol Biol ; 103(6): 669-688, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32472481

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: The study has facilitated important insights into the regulatory networks involved in flower development in chrysanthemum (Asteraceae), and is informative with respect to the mechanism of flower shape determination. Chrysanthemum morifolium, valued as an ornamental species given the diversity of its inflorescence form, is viewed as a model for understanding flower development in the Asteraceae. Yet, the underlying regulatory networks remain largely unexplored. Here, a transcriptomic survey of the Chrysanthemum morifolium variety 'Jinba' was undertaken to uncover the global gene expression profiles and identify the modules of co-transcribed genes associated with flower development. The weighted gene coexpression network analysis revealed important networks and hub genes including ray floret petals-specific coexpression network, disc floret petals-specific network, B and E class genes involved network and CYC2 genes network. Three ray floret petal-specific hub genes were also strongly transcribed in the ray florets of a selection of six diverse varieties and especially so in those which form ligulate ray floret petals. CmCYC2c was strongly transcribed in the distal and lateral regions of the ray floret petals, and also, along with CmCYC2d, in the tubular ray florets. Furthermore, CmOFP, belonging to the family of ovate proteins, was identified in the CYC2 genes network. CmOFP can interact with CmCYC2d that physically interact with CmCYC2c. This work provides important insights into the regulatory networks involved in flower development in chrysanthemum, and is informative with respect to the mechanistic basis of the regulation of flower shape.


Assuntos
Chrysanthemum/metabolismo , Flores/metabolismo , Chrysanthemum/genética , Flores/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/fisiologia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
13.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(23): 12784-12790, 2020 06 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32461365

RESUMO

Fruit development normally occurs after pollination and fertilization; however, in parthenocarpic plants, the ovary grows into the fruit without pollination and/or fertilization. Parthenocarpy has been recognized as a highly attractive agronomic trait because it could stabilize fruit yield under unfavorable environmental conditions. Although natural parthenocarpic varieties are useful for breeding Solanaceae plants, their use has been limited, and little is known about their molecular and biochemical mechanisms. Here, we report a parthenocarpic eggplant mutant, pad-1, which accumulates high levels of auxin in the ovaries. Map-based cloning showed that the wild-type (WT) Pad-1 gene encoded an aminotransferase with similarity to Arabidopsis VAS1 gene, which is involved in auxin homeostasis. Recombinant Pad-1 protein catalyzed the conversion of indole-3-pyruvic acid (IPyA) to tryptophan (Trp), which is a reverse reaction of auxin biosynthetic enzymes, tryptophan aminotransferases (TAA1/TARs). The RNA level of Pad-1 gene increased during ovary development and reached its highest level at anthesis stage in WT. This suggests that the role of Pad-1 in WT unpollinated ovary is to prevent overaccumulation of IAA resulting in precocious fruit-set. Furthermore, suppression of the orthologous genes of Pad-1 induced parthenocarpic fruit development in tomato and pepper plants. Our results demonstrated that the use of pad-1 genes would be powerful tools to improve fruit production of Solanaceae plants.


Assuntos
Ácidos Indolacéticos/metabolismo , Mutação com Perda de Função , Partenogênese , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Solanum melongena/genética , Transaminases/genética , Flores/genética , Flores/metabolismo , Flores/fisiologia , Homeostase , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Solanum melongena/fisiologia , Transaminases/metabolismo
14.
Gene ; 746: 144656, 2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32278057

RESUMO

Jujube witches' broom (JWB) disease, associated with the presence of phytoplasmas, induces huge crop losses in the woody perennial fruit tree Ziziphus jujuba. An imbalance in the phytohormone auxin is thought to be a key factor in the development of the witches' broom symptoms, and in the alteration of floral development into leafy structures, termed phyllody. The Auxin Response Factor (ARF) gene family controls auxin-responsive gene expression during plant growth and development. However, it remains unknown if the ARF genes are involved in the formation of leaf-like flowers. In the present study, sixteen jujube ARF genes were identified bioinformatically and annotated based on the Z. jujuba cv. Dongzao genome. The ZjARFs were homologous to 12 out of the 23 Arabidopsis ARFs and were distributed in 8 jujube chromosomes and 3 unmapped scaffolds. Phylogenetic analysis grouped the ZjARFs into three classes. Spatio-temporal expression analysis revealed that the ZjARF genes were differentially expressed among different tissues during normal development. The expression of seven ZjARF genes was significantly decreased from flower buds to flowering. JWB-infected jujube plants developed the typical phyllody symptoms and showed lower auxin accumulation during floral development. ZjARF1, ZjARF2, ZjARF3, ZjARF4 and ZjARF8 resulted differentially regulated after phytoplasma infection. ZjARF4 was down-regulated before and during floral development in phytoplasma-infected plants, but it was significantly up-regulated before flowering and down-regulated during flowering in the healthy plants. Target site analysis showed that miRNA167, miRNA529 and miRNA2950 could directly target ZjARF4. Together, the data showed that the auxin-controlled ARF4 gene is likely involved in the disruption of floral development in phytoplasma-infected jujube plants.


Assuntos
Flores , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , MicroRNAs , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas , Fatores de Transcrição , Ziziphus , Flores/genética , Flores/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/biossíntese , MicroRNAs/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/biossíntese , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/biossíntese , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Ziziphus/genética , Ziziphus/metabolismo
15.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 1777, 2020 04 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32286317

RESUMO

Pseudonectaries, or false nectaries, the glistening structures that resemble nectaries or nectar droplets but do not secrete nectar, show considerable diversity and play important roles in plant-animal interactions. The morphological nature, optical features, molecular underpinnings and ecological functions of pseudonectaries, however, remain largely unclear. Here, we show that pseudonectaries of Nigella damascena (Ranunculaceae) are tiny, regional protrusions covered by tightly arranged, non-secretory polygonal epidermal cells with flat, smooth and reflective surface, and are clearly visible even under ultraviolet light and bee vision. We also show that genes associated with cell division, chloroplast development and wax formation are preferably expressed in pseudonectaries. Specifically, NidaYABBY5, an abaxial gene with ectopic expression in pseudonectaries, is indispensable for pseudonectary development: knockdown of it led to complete losses of pseudonectaries. Notably, when flowers without pseudonectaries were arrayed beside those with pseudonectaries, clear differences were observed in the visiting frequency, probing time and visiting behavior of pollinators (i.e., honey bees), suggesting that pseudonectaries serve as both visual attractants and nectar guides.


Assuntos
Flores/metabolismo , Nigella damascena/metabolismo , Divisão Celular/fisiologia , Ecologia , Flores/fisiologia , Nigella damascena/fisiologia , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/fisiologia , Ranunculaceae/metabolismo , Ranunculaceae/fisiologia
16.
Food Chem ; 324: 126887, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32339788

RESUMO

Epigenetic regulation and salt ions play essential roles in senescence control, but the underlying regulatory mechanism of senescence has not been thoroughly revealed in broccoli postharvest buds. Here, we found 200 mmol·L-1 NaCl, 400 mmol·L-1 KCl, 40 mmol·L-1 CaCl2 and 0.5 µmol·L-1 Trichostatin-A (TSA, a histone deacetylase inhibitor) delayed the bud senescence. They resulted in significantly inhibiting the malondialdehyde (MDA) content, and dramatically promoting the contents of superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD) and Chlorophyll. Furthermore, the expression of PHEOPHYTINASE (PPH) and NONYELLOWING (NYE1), but not SUPPRESSOR OF OVEREXPRESSION OF CONSTANS 1 (SOC1), were remarkably repressed by salt ions and TSA. Interestingly, HISTONE DEACETYLASE 9 (HDA9) and CATION/Ca2+ EXCHANGER 1 (CCX1) were down-regulated by NaCl, CaCl2 and TSA. Further assays demonstrated that HDA9 could not interact with CCX1 promoter. It suggested that CCX1 along with HDA9 were involved in inhibiting the senescence of broccoli buds, and regulated aging by indirect interaction.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Brassica/metabolismo , Regulação para Baixo/efeitos dos fármacos , Histona Desacetilases/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Sais/farmacologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Antiporters/química , Antiporters/genética , Antiporters/metabolismo , Brassica/química , Brassica/classificação , Cloreto de Cálcio/química , Cloreto de Cálcio/farmacologia , Clorofila/metabolismo , Flores/química , Flores/metabolismo , Ácidos Hidroxâmicos/química , Ácidos Hidroxâmicos/farmacologia , Íons/química , Filogenia , Sais/química , Alinhamento de Sequência
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32305821

RESUMO

Short and concentrated natural fluorescence hinders tree peony (Paeonia suffruticosa) annual production, and defoliation and gibberellin (GA) application is used to induce its reflowering in autumn. Here, the individual roles of defoliation and GA treatment were determined by monitoring morphological and soluble sugar changes in buds and leaves, and by investigating carbon allocation- and metabolism-related gene expression. Both defoliation and GA treatment induced early bud development, but induction was faster using the GA treatment. Only defoliation, not GA treatment, induced the final reflowering, although their combination accelerated it. Furthermore, defoliation decreased the sucrose content in buds much faster than the GA treatment. This sucrose reduction may play a key role in tree peony reflowering, and the higher carbon metabolism activity in young leaves after defoliation may further help the reflowering process. Defoliation enhanced the expression of sucrose transporters PsSUT4 and PsSWEET12 in buds, and their expression in young leaves was greater than after GA treatment. This indicated that PsSUT4 and PsSWEET12 may help transport carbon into buds after defoliation. In addition, the invertases, PsCIN2 and PsCWIN1 in young leaves were more highly expressed after defoliation, indicating that they may contribute to reflowering after defoliation by accelerating sucrose hydrolysis in young leaves. In addition, the expression levels of PsVIN1 and PsVIN2 in leaves, and PsVIN2 in buds were more highly induced by GA treatment than by defoliation, indicating that PsVINs may mainly respond to GA treatment. These results may help improve the tree peony forcing culture technology and related industrial production.


Assuntos
Carbono , Flores , Paeonia , Folhas de Planta , Carbono/metabolismo , Flores/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Giberelinas/farmacologia , Paeonia/efeitos dos fármacos , Paeonia/genética , Paeonia/fisiologia , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo
18.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(7)2020 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32218171

RESUMO

Protoplast systems have been proven powerful tools in modern plant biology. However, successful preparation of abundant viable protoplasts remains a challenge for Cymbidium orchids. Herein, we established an efficient protoplast isolation protocol from orchid petals through optimization of enzymatic conditions. It requires optimal D-mannitol concentration (0.5 M), enzyme concentration (1.2 % (w/v) cellulose and 0.6 % (w/v) macerozyme) and digestion time (6 h). With this protocol, the highest yield (3.50 × 107/g fresh weight of orchid tissue) and viability (94.21%) of protoplasts were obtained from flower petals of Cymbidium. In addition, we achieved high transfection efficiency (80%) through the optimization of factors affecting polyethylene glycol (PEG)-mediated protoplast transfection including incubation time, final PEG4000 concentration and plasmid DNA amount. This highly efficient protoplast-based transient expression system (PTES) was further used for protein subcellular localization, bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) assay and gene regulation studies of flowering related genes in Cymbidium orchids. Taken together, our protoplast isolation and transfection protocol is highly efficient, stable and time-saving. It can be used for gene function and molecular analyses in orchids and other economically important monocot crops.


Assuntos
Orchidaceae/metabolismo , Protoplastos/metabolismo , Separação Celular , Flores/genética , Flores/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Orchidaceae/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Ligação Proteica
19.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0230110, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32163460

RESUMO

In sweet cherry trees, flowering is commercially important because the flowers, after fertilization, will generate the fruits. In P. avium, the flowering induction and flower organogensis are the first developmental steps towards flower formation and they occur within specialized organs known as floral buds during the summer, nine months before blooming. During this period the number of floral buds per tree and the bud fruitfulness (number of flowers per bud) are stablished affecting the potential yield of orchards and the plant architecture. The floral bud development is sensitive to any type of stress and the hotter and drier summers will interfere with this process and are calling for new adapted cultivars. A better understanding of the underlying molecular and hormonal mechanisms would be of help, but unlike the model plant Arabidopsis, very little is known about floral induction in sweet cherry. To explore the molecular mechanism of floral bud differentiation, high-throughput RNA sequencing was used to detect differences in the gene expression of P. avium floral buds at five differentiation stages. We found 2,982 differentially expressed genes during floral bud development. We identified genes associated with floral initiation or floral organ identity that appear to be useful biomarkers of floral development and several transcription factor families (ERF, MYB, bHLH, MADS-box and NAC gene family) with novel potential roles during floral transition in this species. We analyzed in deep the MADS-box gene family and we shed light about their key role during floral bud and organs development in P. avium. Furthermore, the hormonal-related signatures in the gene regulatory networks and the dynamic changes of absicic acid, zeatin and indolacetic acid contents in buds suggest an important role for these hormones during floral bud differentiation in sweet cherry. These data provide a rich source of novel informacion for functional and evolutionary studies about floral bud development in sweet cherry and new tools for biotechnology and breeding.


Assuntos
Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Prunus avium/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Ácido Abscísico/metabolismo , Citocininas/metabolismo , Flores/genética , Flores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Flores/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Biblioteca Gênica , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Ácidos Indolacéticos/metabolismo , Filogenia , Folhas de Planta/genética , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/classificação , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Análise de Componente Principal , Prunus avium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Prunus avium/metabolismo , RNA-Seq , Fatores de Transcrição/classificação , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
20.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 1404, 2020 03 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32179752

RESUMO

Selfing is a frequent evolutionary trend in angiosperms, and is a suitable model for studying the recurrent patterns underlying adaptive evolution. Many plants avoid self-fertilization by physiological processes referred to as self-incompatibility (SI). In the Brassicaceae, direct and specific interactions between the male ligand SP11/SCR and the female receptor kinase SRK are required for the SI response. Although Arabidopsis thaliana acquired autogamy through loss of these genes, molecular evolution contributed to the spread of self-compatibility alleles requires further investigation. We show here that in this species, dominant SRK silencing genes have evolved at least twice. Different inverted repeat sequences were found in the relic SRK region of the Col-0 and C24 strains. Both types of inverted repeats suppress the functional SRK sequence in a dominant fashion with different target specificities. It is possible that these dominant suppressors of SI contributed to the rapid fixation of self-compatibility in A. thaliana.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis/fisiologia , Flores/genética , Autoincompatibilidade em Angiospermas , Alelos , Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Brassicaceae/genética , Brassicaceae/fisiologia , Evolução Molecular , Flores/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas
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