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1.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(39): 10891-10903, 2019 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31505929

RESUMO

Jasmonates (JAs) play an important role in plant developmental processes and regulate the biosynthesis of various specialized metabolites, and transcription factors are crucial in mediating JA signaling to regulate these processes. Capsaicinoids (Caps) are intriguing specialized metabolites produced uniquely by Capsicum species that give their fruits a pungent flavor to defend against herbivory and pathogens. In this study, we identify a R2R3-MYB transcription factor CaMYB108 and demonstrate its roles in regulating the biosynthesis of Caps and stamen development. Transcriptional analysis indicated that CaMYB108 was preferentially expressed in the flower and fruit, while the subcellular localization of CaMYB108 was shown to be the nucleus. Virus-induced gene silencing of CaMYB108 led to the expression of capsaicinoid biosynthetic genes (CBGs), and the contents of Caps dramatically reduce. Moreover, the CaMYB108-silenced plants showed delayed anther dehiscence and reduced pollen viability. Transient overexpression of CaMYB108 caused the expression of CBGs to be upregulated, and the Caps content significantly increased. The results of dual-luciferase reporter assays showed that CaMYB108 targeted CBG promoters. In addition, the expression of CaMYB108 and CBGs was inducible by methyl jasmonate and was consistent with the increased content of Caps. Overall, our results indicate that CaMYB108 is involved in the regulation of Caps biosynthesis and stamen development.


Assuntos
Capsaicina/metabolismo , Capsicum/metabolismo , Ciclopentanos/metabolismo , Flores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Oxilipinas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Capsicum/genética , Capsicum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Flores/genética , Flores/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Pólen/genética , Pólen/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Pólen/metabolismo , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
2.
J Chem Ecol ; 45(8): 657-666, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31407199

RESUMO

The box tree moth, Cydalima perspectalis, is an invasive pest in Europe causing damage on Buxus species. In this study, we aimed to develop a "bisexual" lure to attract both female and male moths. Based on a previous screening bioassay we tested methyl salicylate, phenylacetaldehyde and eugenol as potential attractants in different combinations. The trapping results showed that both binary and ternary blends attracted male and female moths. Catches with these blends were comparable to catches with the synthetic pheromone. Subsequently we carried out single sensillum recordings, which proved the peripheral detection of the above-mentioned compounds on male and female antennae. To identify synergistic flower volatiles, which can be also attractive and can increase the trap capture, we collected flower headspace volatiles from 12 different flowering plant species. Several components of the floral scents evoked good responses from antennae of both females and males in gas chromatography-electroantennographic detection. The most active components were tentatively identified by gas chromatography coupled mass spectrometry as benzaldehyde, cis-ß-ocimene, (±)-linalool and phenethyl alcohol. These selected compounds in combination did not increase significantly the trap capture compared to the methyl salicylate- phenyacetaldehyde blend. Based on these results we discovered the first attractive blend, which was able to attract both adult male and female C. perspectalis in field conditions. These results will yield a good basis for the optimization and development of a practically usable bisexual lure against this invasive pest.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Mariposas/fisiologia , Feromônios/farmacologia , Animais , Eugenol/química , Eugenol/farmacologia , Feminino , Flores/química , Flores/metabolismo , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Controle de Insetos , Masculino , Monoterpenos/química , Monoterpenos/farmacologia , Feromônios/análise , Robinia/química , Robinia/metabolismo , Rosa/química , Rosa/metabolismo , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/química , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/farmacologia
3.
Chem Biodivers ; 16(10): e1900363, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31385642

RESUMO

In this study, the metabolite profiling of three different parts of Crocus sativus L. was measured by using ultra-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-QTof-MS/MS). Multivariate statistical analysis was used to distinguish among the samples from different parts. A total of 54 compounds were identified in tepals, stigmas and stamens by UPLC-QTof-MS/MS. The results stated that chemical characteristics of saffron were obviously diverse in terms of the parts of flower. Through analysis, coniferin and crocin-2 were special components in stigmas when compared to tepals and stamens. The content of flavonoids was high in tepals when compared with the stigmas. The tepal of saffron may processed as a source of flavonoids in the future. The research provided the basis for the theory that only the stigma can be used as medicine.


Assuntos
Crocus/química , Flavonoides/análise , Flores/química , Metabolômica , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Crocus/metabolismo , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Flores/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
4.
BMC Plant Biol ; 19(1): 337, 2019 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31375064

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cymbidium goeringii belongs to the Orchidaceae, which is one of the most abundant angiosperm families. Cymbidium goeringii consist with high economic value and characteristics include fragrance and multiple flower colors. Floral scent is one of the important strategies for ensuring fertilization. However, limited genetic data is available in this non-model plant, and little known about the molecular mechanism responsible for floral scent in this orchid. Transcriptome and expression profiling data are needed to identify genes and better understand the biological mechanisms of floral scents in this species. Present transcriptomic data provides basic information on the genes and enzymes related to and pathways involved in flower secondary metabolism in this plant. RESULTS: In this study, RNA sequencing analyses were performed to identify changes in gene expression and biological pathways related scent metabolism. Three cDNA libraries were obtained from three developmental floral stages: closed bud, half flowering stage and full flowering stage. Using Illumina technique 159,616,374 clean reads were obtained and were assembled into 85,868 final unigenes (average length 1194 nt), 33.85% of which were annotated in the NCBI non redundant protein database. Among this unigenes 36,082 were assigned to gene ontology and 23,164 were combined with COG groups. Total 33,417 unigenes were assigned in 127 pathways according to the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway database. According these transcriptomic data we identified number of candidates genes which differentially expressed in different developmental stages of flower related to fragrance biosynthesis. In q-RT-PCR most of the fragrance related genes highly expressed in half flowering stage. CONCLUSIONS: RNA-seq and DEG data provided comprehensive gene expression information at the transcriptional level that could be facilitate the molecular mechanisms of floral biosynthesis pathways in three developmental phase's flowers in Cymbidium goeringii, moreover providing useful information for further analysis on C. goeringii, and other plants of genus Cymbidium.


Assuntos
Flores/metabolismo , Genes de Plantas/genética , Odorantes , Orchidaceae/genética , Acetatos/metabolismo , Ciclopentanos/metabolismo , Farneseno Álcool/metabolismo , Flores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genes de Plantas/fisiologia , Orchidaceae/metabolismo , Oxilipinas/metabolismo , Filogenia , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Sesquiterpenos/metabolismo , Terpenos/metabolismo
5.
J Chem Ecol ; 45(8): 667-672, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31313134

RESUMO

Agriotes ustulatus is an economically important click beetle in Europe. A female-produced pheromone, (E,E)-farnesyl acetate, has been identified and is used for monitoring and detecting males. More recently, a floral lure targeting females with modest, but significant, activity has been described. Based on preliminary data, we hypothesized, that similar to the effects on the congeneric A. brevis, addition of the pheromone to the floral lure should improve female A. ustulatus catches. Also, as click beetles have been reported to respond to white light, we studied possible interactions between visual and chemical cues. In field trials, the addition of the synthetic pheromone to the floral lure resulted in a dramatic increase in the number of females trapped, whereas male catches remained unaffected and equal to those in traps baited with pheromone only. A white visual cue did not influence trap catches. Maximum catches of both sexes of A. ustulatus can be achieved using the pheromone and the floral lure inside the same trap. Furthermore, the compounds can be formulated in a single polyethylene bag dispenser, making handling of the trap easier. Due to a much larger proportion of females in the catch, this improved trap may be a promising tool for semiochemical-based, environmentally sound agricultural practice against this important pest.


Assuntos
Besouros/fisiologia , Feromônios/química , Acroleína/análogos & derivados , Acroleína/química , Acroleína/farmacologia , Animais , Anisóis/química , Anisóis/farmacologia , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Farneseno Álcool/análogos & derivados , Farneseno Álcool/química , Farneseno Álcool/farmacologia , Feminino , Flores/química , Flores/metabolismo , Controle de Insetos , Masculino , Feromônios/farmacologia , Estereoisomerismo
6.
J Photochem Photobiol B ; 197: 111536, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31326846

RESUMO

The latent utilization of biomaterials that are osteo-conducive in the advancement of healing bone fracture has fascinated extensive consideration. This work includes the synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) with the help of a Bauhinia acuminate plant flower extract through an ecofriendly synthetic process without any use of harmful reductants. In the fabrication of AgNPs, Bauhinia acuminate plant flower extract bio constituents acts as both stabilizing and reducing agent. The studies of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques confirmed the formation of AgNPS. TEM images revealed that AgNPs are uniform with average particle size of 17 nm. Further, this work explored if silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) might endorse the osteogenesis and proliferation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and advance the curing of bone fractures. We also exhibited that the prepared AgNPs could promote the in -vitro osteogenic differentiation and proliferation of MSCs'. Also, the prepared AgNps could stimulate the proliferation of mMSCs at specific concentrations of 6-20 µM. Further, cell viability studies showed that AgNPs exhibited no reduction in mouse mesenchymal stem cell viability at <4 µM. Further, these results indicated the induction effects of AgNPs on osteogenic differentiation and proliferation on MSCs, as well as the advancement of meniscus injury healing.


Assuntos
Bauhinia/química , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Osteogênese , Extratos Vegetais/química , Prata/química , Animais , Bauhinia/metabolismo , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Flores/química , Flores/metabolismo , Consolidação da Fratura/efeitos dos fármacos , Química Verde , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/citologia , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/metabolismo , Nanopartículas Metálicas/toxicidade , Camundongos , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Osteogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier
7.
Chem Biodivers ; 16(8): e1900183, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31361076

RESUMO

This work describes the study of the chemical composition and bioactivity of the essential oils (EOs) of the different organs (leaves, flowers, stems and roots) from Eruca vesicaria. According to the GC and GC/MS analysis, all the EOs were dominated by erucin (4-methylthiobutyl isothiocyanate) with a percentage ranging from 17.9 % (leaves) to 98.5 % (roots). The isolated EOs were evaluated for their antioxidant (DPPH, ABTS and ß-carotene/linoleic acid), antibacterial and inhibitory property against α-amylase and α-glucosidase. Most EOs exhibited an interesting α-glucosidase and α-amylase inhibitory potential. The roots essential oil was found to be the most active with IC50 values of 0.80±0.06 and 0.11±0.01 µg mL-1 , respectively. The essential oil of roots exhibited the highest antioxidant activity (DPPH, PI=92.76±0.01 %; ABTS, PI=78.87±0.19; and ß-carotene, PI=56.1±0.01 %). The isolated oils were also tested for their antibacterial activity against two Gram-positive and three Gram-negative bacteria. Moderate results have been noted by comparison with Gentamicin used as positive control.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/química , Brassicaceae/metabolismo , Óleos Voláteis/química , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Brassicaceae/química , Flores/química , Flores/metabolismo , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias Gram-Positivas/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipoglicemiantes/química , Óleos Voláteis/metabolismo , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta/química , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/química , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , alfa-Glucosidases/química , alfa-Glucosidases/metabolismo
8.
BMC Plant Biol ; 19(1): 313, 2019 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31307374

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Essential oils (EOs) of Lavandula angustifolia, mainly consist of monoterpenoids and sesquiterpenoids, are of great commercial value. The multi-flower spiciform thyrse of lavender not only determines the output of EOs but also reflects an environmental adaption strategy. With the flower development and blossom in turn, the fluctuation of the volatile terpenoids displayed a regular change at each axis. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the regulation of volatile terpenoids during the process of flowering is poorly understood in lavender. Here, we combine metabolite and RNA-Seq analyses of flowers of five developmental stages at first- and second-axis (FFDSFSA) and initial flower bud (FB0) to discover the active terpenoid biosynthesis as well as flowering-related genes. RESULTS: A total of 56 mono- and sesquiterpenoids were identified in the EOs of L. angustifolia 'JX-2'. FB0' EO consists of 55 compounds and the two highest compounds, ß-trans-ocimene (20.57%) and (+)-R-limonene (17.00%), can get rid of 74.71 and 78.41% aphids in Y-tube olfactometer experiments, respectively. With sequential and successive blossoms, temporally regulated volatiles were linked to pollinator attraction in field and olfaction bioassays. In three characteristic compounds of FFDSFSA' EOs, linalyl acetate (72.73%) and lavandulyl acetate (72.09%) attracted more bees than linalool (45.35%). Many transcripts related to flowering time and volatile terpenoid metabolism expressed differently during the flower development. Similar metabolic and transcriptomic profiles were observed when florets from the two axes were maintained at the same maturity grade. Besides both compounds and differentially expressed genes were rich in FB0, most volatile compounds were significantly correlated with FB0-specific gene module. Most key regulators related to flowering and terpenoid metabolism were interconnected in the subnetwork of FB0-specific module, suggesting the cross-talk between the two biological processes to some degree. CONCLUSIONS: Characteristic compounds and gene expression profile of FB0 exhibit ecological value in pest control. The precise control of each-axis flowering and regular emissions at transcriptional and metabolic level are important to pollinators attraction for lavender. Our study sheds new light on lavender maximizes its fitness from "gene-volatile terpenoid-insect" three layers.


Assuntos
Flores/genética , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Lavandula/genética , Terpenos/metabolismo , Acetatos/metabolismo , Animais , Ecossistema , Flores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Flores/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Insetos , Lavandula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Lavandula/metabolismo , Monoterpenos/metabolismo , Odorantes , Óleos Voláteis/metabolismo , Óleos Vegetais/metabolismo , Polinização , RNA de Plantas , Análise de Sequência de RNA
9.
Plant Sci ; 286: 108-117, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31300136

RESUMO

It has been reported that drought stress (DS) reduces cotton yield by negatively affecting reproductive activities. Some studies have investigated the effects of DS on pollen physiology and biochemistry, but studies exploring the impact of drought on pistil biochemistry and its relationship with pollen tube growth rates in vivo are scarce. In order to investigate these objectives, a greenhouse study was conducted with a drought sensitive cotton cultivar, Yuzaomian 9110. Two water treatments were imposed at flowering stage, 1. control, where plants were irrigated with optimum quantity of water and 2. DS treatment, where plants were irrigated with 50% of the optimum quantity of water. Results indicated that stored starch content at the early stage of pollen tube growth (12:00 h) was 31.6% lower in drought-stressed pistils than control pistils, and it was highly correlated with pollen tube growth rate. The decline in starch accumulation of drought-stressed pistils could be attributed to the impeded transport of photosynthetic carbon assimilates. Moreover, decreased ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase and soluble starch synthase activities also resulted in curtailing starch accumulation in drought-stressed pistils. Furthermore, pistil sucrose concentration was significantly higher in droughted plants relative to control plants at 12:00 and 18:00 h (during the rapid growth period), which was due to lower activities of sucrose synthase and acid invertase, and the down-regulated expressions of sucrose synthase genes, GhSusA, GhSusB and GhSusD, and acid invertase genes, GhINV1 and GhINV2, in drought-stressed pistils, limiting as a result the hydrolysis of sucrose into hexose. Drought-stressed pistils sampled at 18:00 h had lower α-amylase activity compared to control pistils, resulting in decreased starch decomposition, which, in conjunction with the decreased hydrolysis of sucrose, led to lower glucose and fructose contents in drought-stressed pistils at 18:00 h. Finally, lower pyruvate level in drought-stressed pistils could not produce enough acetyl-CoA in the tricarboxylic acid cycle to yield sufficient energy (ATP) for pollen tube growth. We conclude that DS disrupts the carbohydrate balance of pistil, reducing as a consequence carbon and energy supply for pollen tube elongation in the style, which will ultimately result in reproductive failure.


Assuntos
Metabolismo dos Carboidratos , Secas , Gossypium/genética , Gossypium/metabolismo , Flores/metabolismo , Tubo Polínico/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Tubo Polínico/metabolismo
10.
J Dairy Sci ; 102(8): 7134-7149, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31155262

RESUMO

Forage sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] is a viable alternative to corn silage (Zea mays L.) in double cropping rotations with forage winter cereals in New York due to a later planting date and potentially earlier harvest date of forage sorghum than is typical for corn silage. Our objective was to determine whether harvest of brachytic dwarf brown midrib forage sorghum can take place before the currently recommended soft dough harvest time while maintaining dry matter (DM) yield, forage nutritive value, and total mixed ration performance. Seven trials were conducted on 2 research farms in central New York from 2014 to 2017. Forage sorghum received 1 of 2 fertilizer N rates at planting (112 and 224 kg of N/ha). Stands were harvested at boot, flower, milk, and soft dough stages. Forage samples were analyzed for nutritive value and substituted for corn silage in a typical dairy total mixed ration at varying amounts using the Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System. Timing of harvest affected yield and forage nutritive value for each individual trial and across trials, and the effects were independent of N fertilizer application rate. Averaged across trials, yield ranged from 10.7 Mg of DM/ha for the boot stage to 13.5, 15.2, and 15.8 Mg of DM/ha for the flower, milk, and soft dough stages, respectively. For individual trials, yield either remained constant with harvest beyond the flower stage (4 trials), or beyond the milk stage (1 trial), whereas for 2 trials yield increased up to the soft dough stage. At the later harvest stages, DM, starch, and nonfiber carbohydrates were increased, whereas crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, and 30-h neutral detergent fiber digestibility were decreased. Without adjusting for DM intake, substitution of corn silage by forage sorghum harvested at the soft dough stage resulted in stable predicted metabolizable energy allowable milk, whereas the reduced starch content of earlier harvested sorghum resulted in less metabolizable energy allowable milk with greater substitution of corn silage for sorghum. Forage sorghum can be harvested as early as the flower or milk stage without losing DM yield, allowing for timely planting of forage winter cereal in a double cropping rotation. However, energy supplementation in the diet is needed to make up for reduced starch concentrations with harvest of sorghum at flower and milk growth stages.


Assuntos
Sorghum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Dieta/veterinária , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Grão Comestível/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Grão Comestível/metabolismo , Fazendas , Flores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Flores/metabolismo , New York , Valor Nutritivo , Silagem/análise , Sorghum/metabolismo , Amido/análise , Amido/metabolismo , Fatores de Tempo , Zea mays/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Zea mays/metabolismo
11.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(26): 7223-7231, 2019 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31180671

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of 3-chloro-5-trifluoromethylpyridine-2-carboxylic acid (PCA), a metabolite of the fungicide fluopyram, on grapevine. During spring and summer 2015, grapevine growth disorders were observed in several countries in Europe. An unprecedented herbicide-like damage was diagnosed on leaves and flowers, causing significant loss of harvest. This study proposes PCA as the causing agent of the observed growth disorders. PCA was shown to cause leaf epinasty, impaired berry development that leads to crop loss, and root growth anomalies in Vitis vinifera similar to auxin herbicides in a dose-dependent manner. Using both field trials and greenhouse experiments, the present study provides first evidence for a link between the application of fluopyram in vineyards 2014, the formation of PCA, and the emergence of growth anomalies in 2015. Our data could be useful to optimize dosage, application time point, and other conditions for an application of fluopyram without phytotoxic effects.


Assuntos
Benzamidas/metabolismo , Ácidos Carboxílicos/efeitos adversos , Fungicidas Industriais/efeitos adversos , Piridinas/efeitos adversos , Piridinas/metabolismo , Vitis/efeitos dos fármacos , Vitis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Benzamidas/efeitos adversos , Ácidos Carboxílicos/metabolismo , Flores/efeitos dos fármacos , Flores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Flores/metabolismo , Frutas/efeitos dos fármacos , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Frutas/metabolismo , Fungicidas Industriais/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Vitis/metabolismo
12.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(26): 7399-7409, 2019 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31244203

RESUMO

Flavonol synthase (FLS) belongs to the 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenase (2-ODD) superfamily. We isolated OsFLS from the rice ( Oryza sativa) cultivar "Ilmi" OsFLS includes highly conserved 2-ODD-specific motifs and FLS-specific regions. Recombinant OsFLS exhibited both FLS and flavanone 3ß-hydroxylase (F3H) activities, converting dihydroflavonols into flavonols and flavanones into dihydroflavonols, respectively, and more efficiently used dihydrokaempferol than dihydroquercetin as a substrate. OsFLS was expressed in both nonpigmented and pigmented rice seeds and was developmentally regulated during seed maturation. Transgenic tobacco ( Nicotiana tabacum) plants expressing OsFLS produced pale pink or white flowers with significantly increased levels of kaempferol-3- O-rutinoside and dramatically reduced levels of anthocyanin in their petals. Additionally, pod size and weight were reduced compared to the wild type. Several early and late biosynthetic genes of flavonoid were downregulated in the transgenic flowers. We demonstrated that OsFLS is a bifunctional 2-ODD enzyme and functions in flavonol production in planta.


Assuntos
Dioxigenases/genética , Dioxigenases/metabolismo , Oryza/enzimologia , Oxirredutases/genética , Oxirredutases/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Antocianinas/biossíntese , Cor , Flavonóis/biossíntese , Flores/genética , Flores/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Ácidos Cetoglutáricos/metabolismo , Oryza/genética , Tabaco/genética , Tabaco/metabolismo
13.
Chem Biodivers ; 16(8): e1900252, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31250551

RESUMO

Patrinia scabiosifolia (PS) has bioactivities such as antitumor and anti-inflammation effects. However, its effects on human skin physiological activities, such as skin regeneration and wound healing, remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the effects of absolute extracted from PS flower (PSF) on migration and proliferation of human dermal keratinocyte (HaCat). The yield of PSF absolute obtained by solvent extraction method was 0.105 % and its five constituents were found in GC/MS analysis. The PSF absolute induced the proliferation and migration of HaCats. The absolute increased the phosphorylation of serine/threonine-specific protein kinase (Akt) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase1/2 (Erk1/2) in HaCats. In addition, the absolute stimulated the outgrowth of collagen sprouting of HaCats. These results demonstrated, for the first time, that PSF absolute may have positive effects on skin regeneration and/or wound healing by inducing migration and proliferation of dermal keratinocytes via the Akt/Erk1/2 pathway. Therefore, PSF absolute may be a useful natural material for skin regeneration and/or wound healing.


Assuntos
Patrinia/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Linhagem Celular , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , MAP Quinases Reguladas por Sinal Extracelular/metabolismo , Flores/química , Flores/metabolismo , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Humanos , Queratinócitos/citologia , Queratinócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Queratinócitos/metabolismo , Patrinia/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
14.
BMC Plant Biol ; 19(1): 261, 2019 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31208339

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hydroxycinnamoyl-spermine conjugates (HCSpm) are a class of hydroxycinnamic acid amides (HCAAs), which not only are instrumental in plant development and stress response, but also benefit human health. However, HCSpm are not commonly produced in plants, and the mechanism of their biosynthesis remains unclear. In previous investigations of phenolics in Solanum fruits related to eggplant (Solanum melongena L.), we discovered that Solanum richardii, an African wild relative of eggplant, was rich in HCSpms in fruits. RESULTS: The putative spermine hydroxycinnamoyl transferase (HT) SpmHT was isolated from S. richardii and eggplant. SrSpmHT expression was high in flowers and fruit, and was associated with HCSpm accumulation in S. richardii; however, SpmHT was hardly detected in eggplant cultivars and other wild relatives. Recombinant SpmHT exclusively selected spermine as the acyl acceptor substrate, while showing donor substrate preference in the following order: caffeoyl-CoA, feruloyl-CoA, and p-coumaroyl-CoA. Molecular docking revealed that substrate binding pockets of SpmHT could properly accommodate spermine but not the shorter, more common spermidine. CONCLUSION: SrSpmHT is a novel spermine hydroxycinnamoyl transferase that uses Spm exclusively as the acyl acceptor substrate to produce HCSpms. Our findings shed light on the HCSpm biosynthetic pathway that may allow an increase of health beneficial metabolites in Solanum crops via methods such as introgression or engineering HCAA metabolism.


Assuntos
Aciltransferases/metabolismo , Ácidos Cumáricos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Solanum melongena/enzimologia , Solanum/enzimologia , Espermina/metabolismo , Flores/enzimologia , Flores/metabolismo , Frutas/enzimologia , Frutas/metabolismo , Redes e Vias Metabólicas , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Solanum/genética , Solanum/metabolismo , Solanum melongena/genética , Solanum melongena/metabolismo
15.
Food Chem ; 295: 646-652, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31174808

RESUMO

The effect of Clitoria ternatea flower (CTE) incorporated into cooked rice using domestic cooking methods on starch digestibility was determined. The incorporation of 1.25% and 2.5% (w/v) CTE caused a reduction in the starch digestibility of cooked rice using an electric rice cooker. In addition, there was significant alteration on the starch digestibility of cooked rice incorporated with 2.5% CTE using a microwave oven. Moreover, CTE significantly reduced the level of rapidly digestible starch and increased the level of undigested starch in cooked rice using an electric rice cooker. In the textural characteristics, the hardness of cooked rice with CTE remained unchanged, whereas a reduction in stickiness of cooked rice with CTE was observed. The sensory evaluation of cooked rice with CTE given by panelists demonstrated a good overall acceptability. Overall, the results show that CTE is a useful ingredient to incorporate with cooked rice for reduction of starch digestibility.


Assuntos
Culinária/métodos , Oryza/química , Ervilhas/metabolismo , Amido/metabolismo , Paladar , Antocianinas/análise , Flores/metabolismo , Fenóis/análise , Limiar Sensorial , Amido/química
16.
Plant Sci ; 285: 224-229, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31203887

RESUMO

Why evergreen fruit tree species accumulate starch in the ovary during flower bud differentiation in spring, as deciduous species do during flower bud dormancy, is not fully understood. This is because in evergreen species carbon supply is assured by leaves during flower development. We suggest the existence of an autonomous mechanism in the flowers which counteracts the competition for photoassimilates with new leaves, until they become source organs. Our hypothesis is that starch accumulated during Citrus ovary ontogeny originates from 1) its own photosynthetic capacity and 2) the mobilization of reserves. Through defoliation experiments, we found that ovaries accumulate starch during flower ontogeny using a dual mechanism: 1) the autotrophic route of source organs activating Rubisco (RbcS) genes expression, and 2) the heterotrophic route of sink organs that hydrolyze sucrose in the cytosol. Defoliation 40 days before anthesis did not significantly reduce ovary growth, flower abscission or starch concentration up to 20 days after anthesis (i.e. 60 days later). Control flowers activated the energy depletion signaling system (i.e. SnRK1) and RbcS gene expression around athesis. Defoliation accelerated and boosted both activities, increasing SPS gene expression (sucrose synthesis), and SUS1, SUS3 and cwINV (sucrose hydrolysis) to maintain a glucose threshold which satisfied its need to avoid abscission.


Assuntos
Metabolismo dos Carboidratos/fisiologia , Citrus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Flores/fisiologia , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Citrus/metabolismo , Citrus/fisiologia , Flores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Flores/metabolismo , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Transcriptoma
17.
BMC Genomics ; 20(1): 390, 2019 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31109305

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Phytohormones are key regulators of plant growth, development, and signalling networks involved in responses to diverse biotic and abiotic stresses. Transcriptional reference maps of hormone responses have been reported for several model plant species such as Arabidopsis thaliana, Oryza sativa, and Brachypodium distachyon. However, because of species differences and the complexity of the wheat genome, these transcriptome data are not appropriate reference material for wheat studies. RESULTS: We comprehensively analysed the transcriptomic responses in wheat spikes to seven phytohormones, including indole acetic acid (IAA), gibberellic acid (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), ethylene (ET), cytokinin (CK), salicylic acid (SA), and methyl jasmonic acid (MeJA). A total of 3386 genes were differentially expressed at 24 h after the hormone treatments. Furthermore, 22.7% of these genes exhibited overlapping transcriptional responses for at least two hormones, implying there is crosstalk among phytohormones. We subsequently identified genes with expression levels that were significantly and differentially induced by a specific phytohormone (i.e., hormone-specific responses). The data for these hormone-responsive genes were then compared with the transcriptome data for wheat spikes exposed to biotic (Fusarium head blight) and abiotic (water deficit) stresses. CONCLUSION: Our data were used to develop a transcriptional reference map of hormone responses in wheat spikes.


Assuntos
Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta/farmacologia , Transcriptoma , Triticum/genética , Desidratação/genética , Desidratação/metabolismo , Flores/efeitos dos fármacos , Flores/genética , Flores/metabolismo , Fusarium , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Transcriptoma/efeitos dos fármacos , Triticum/efeitos dos fármacos , Triticum/metabolismo , Triticum/microbiologia
18.
Plant Sci ; 283: 247-255, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31128695

RESUMO

Chrysanthemums require continuous short-days (SD) for anthesis. FTL3 (FLOWERING LOCUS T-like 3), a floral promoter expressed in chrysanthemum leaf, forms a complex with its interacting partner FDL1 to induce floral meristem identity gene AFL1. We explored the FTL3 induction mechanism during SD repeats in Chrysanthemum seticuspe. CsFTL3 expression was not immediately induced by a shift from long-day (LD) to SD, but gradually increased until the capitulum development stage under repeated SDs. Overexpression of CsFTL3 transgene increased endogenous leaf CsFTL3 induction under SD but not LD. Overexpression of CsFDL1 promoted anthesis and increased CsAFL1 and CsFTL3 expression under SD. Loss-of-function of CsFDL1 by RNAi resulted in delayed anthesis and downregulation of leaf CsAFL1 and CsFTL3, indicating the necessity of CsFDL1 for CsFTL3 induction. Overexpression of an antagonistic protein of CsFTL3 or CsFDL1 inhibited leaf CsFTL3 induction. CsFTL3 expression was positively regulated during SDs by a feedback mechanism involving the CsFTL3-CsFDL1 complex. Furthermore, flowering was accomplished by feedback with high levels of CsFTL3 induction under repeated SDs.


Assuntos
Chrysanthemum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Flores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas de Plantas/fisiologia , Chrysanthemum/metabolismo , Chrysanthemum/fisiologia , Retroalimentação Fisiológica , Flores/metabolismo , Flores/fisiologia , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Fotoperíodo , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/fisiologia , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/fisiologia , Transcriptoma
19.
Plant Cell Physiol ; 60(8): 1871-1879, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31135027

RESUMO

Wild-type plants of the Japanese morning glory (Ipomoea nil) produce blue flowers that accumulate anthocyanin pigments, whereas its mutant cultivars show wide range flower color such as red, magenta and white. However, I. nil lacks yellow color varieties even though yellow flowers were curiously described in words and woodblocks printed in the 19th century. Such yellow flowers have been regarded as 'phantom morning glories', and their production has not been achieved despite efforts by breeders of I. nil. The chalcone isomerase (CHI) mutants (including line 54Y) bloom very pale yellow or cream-colored flowers conferred by the accumulation of 2', 4', 6', 4-tetrahydoroxychalcone (THC) 2'-O-glucoside. To produce yellow phantom morning glories, we introduced two snapdragon (Antirrhinum majus) genes to the 54Y line by encoding aureusidin synthase (AmAS1) and chalcone 4'-O-glucosyltransferase (Am4'CGT), which are necessary for the accumulation of aureusidin 6-O-glucoside and yellow coloration in A. majus. The transgenic plants expressing both genes exhibit yellow flowers, a character sought for many years. The flower petals of the transgenic plants contained aureusidin 6-O-glucoside, as well as a reduced amount of THC 2'-O-glucoside. In addition, we identified a novel aurone compound, aureusidin 6-O-(6″-O-malonyl)-glucoside, in the yellow petals. A combination of the coexpression of AmAS1 and Am4'CGT and suppression of CHI is an effective strategy for generating yellow varieties in horticultural plants.


Assuntos
Benzofuranos/metabolismo , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Flores/metabolismo , Ipomoea nil/metabolismo , Engenharia Metabólica/métodos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia
20.
Nat Chem Biol ; 15(6): 583-588, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31101916

RESUMO

Plants synthesize volatile organic compounds (VOCs) to attract pollinators and beneficial microorganisms, to defend themselves against herbivores and pathogens, and for plant-plant communication. In general, VOCs accumulate in and are emitted from the tissue of their biosynthesis. However, using biochemical and reverse genetic approaches, we demonstrate a new physiological phenomenon: inter-organ aerial transport of VOCs via natural fumigation. Before petunia flowers open, a tube-specific terpene synthase produces sesquiterpenes, which are released inside the buds and then accumulate in the stigma, potentially defending the developing stigma from pathogens. These VOCs also affect reproductive organ development and seed yield, which are previously unknown functions of terpenoid compounds.


Assuntos
Flores/metabolismo , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/metabolismo , Flores/química , Estrutura Molecular , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/química
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