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1.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(13): 3144-3154, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32726023

RESUMO

To reveal the processing mechanism of Chrysanthemi Flos from the changes of chemical compositions after frying and its effect on the efficacy of liver protection. Ultra performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time of flight-mass spectrometry(UPLC-Q-TOF-MS) and ultra high performance liquid chromatography(HPLC) were used for the qualitative and quantitative researches of chemical compositions before and after Chrysanthemi Flos frying. Progenesis QI and SPSS software were used for principal component analysis(PCA), partial least squares discriminant analysis(PLS-DA), variable importance projection(VIP) analysis and t-test to identify the compositions with significant changes. Pharmacodynamics experiment was used to investigate the protective effect of crude and fried Chrysanthemi Flos on CCl_4-induced acute liver injury in mice. According to mass spectrometry data, there were 28 chemical compositions in crude and fried Chrysanthemi Flos, mainly including flavonoids and organic acids. 13 compositions such as luteolin, apigenin and luteolin glycoside were increased significantly after frying, while 7 compositions such as chlorogenic acid, luteolin-7-O-glucuronide and apigenin-7-O-glucuronide were decreased significantly after frying. Through principal component analysis, crude and fried Chrysanthemi Flos products were divided into two categories, indicating that there were internal differences in quality. The results of liver injury protection experiment in mice showed that the AST, ALT and MDA contents were significantly decreased and SOD level was increased in mice with liver injury in both the high and medium dose groups. Histopathological examination showed that crude and fried Chrysanthemi Flos can protect the liver by reducing inflammatory cell infiltration, reducing steatosis, and repairing damaged liver cells. The results of this study showed that the chemical compositions had obvious changes after frying, and both crude and fried Chrysanthemis Flos had protective effects on CCl_4-induced acute liver injury in mice. In addition, in the range of high, medium and low doses, the liver protection effect of crude and fried Chrysanthemi Flos increased with the increase of dose. The experiment results provided reference for the mechanism of fried Chrysanthemi Flos and clinical selection of processed products.


Assuntos
Chrysanthemum , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Flavonoides/análise , Flores/química , Fígado/química , Camundongos
2.
Arch Biochem Biophys ; 690: 108506, 2020 09 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32679197

RESUMO

A new bisepoxylignan dendranlignan A (A1) and the known compound lantibeside D (D2) was isolated from Chrysanthemum Flower, the dried capitulum of Dendranthema morifolium (Ramat.) kitam. Their structures were determined on the basis of extensive spectroscopic methods, including 1D-NMR, 2D-NMR and MS data. Additionally, A1 and D2 were evaluated for their effects on the production of inflammatory mediators in H9c2 cardiomyocytes stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Results demonstrated that A1 and D2 decreased LPS-induced production of inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-2 and IFN-γ in H9c2 cells. Both compounds also decreased the nuclear localization of c-JUN, p-P65 and p-IRF3, but did not affect the level of TLR4. Molecular docking indicated that A1 and D2 occupied the ligand binding sites of TLR4-MD2. In the present study, we for the first time discovered a new bisepoxylignan compound A1, and found that this compound has a potential to inhibit inflammation by inhibiting TLR4 signaling.


Assuntos
Chrysanthemum/química , Flores/química , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/química , Poli-Inos/química , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/metabolismo , Animais , Citocinas/química , Descoberta de Drogas , Humanos , Inflamação/metabolismo , Lipopolissacarídeos/química , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Estrutura Molecular , Miócitos Cardíacos/metabolismo , Poli-Inos/farmacologia , Transdução de Sinais , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
3.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234820, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32559247

RESUMO

Understanding how neonicotinoid insecticides affect non-target arthropods, especially pollinators, is an area of high priority and popular debate. Few studies have considered how pollinators interact and detect neonicotinoids, and almost none have examined for these effects in anthophilous Diptera such as hover flies (Syrphidae). We investigated behavioral responses of two species of hover flies, Eristalis arbustorum L. (Eristalinae) and Toxomerus marginatus Say (Syrphinae), when given a choice between artificial flowers with uncontaminated sucrose solution and neonicotinoid-contaminated (clothianidin) sucrose solution at field-realistic levels 2.5 ppb (average) and 150 ppb (high). We examined for 1) evidence that wild-caught flies could detect the insecticide gustatorily by analyzing amount of time spent feeding on floral treatments, and 2) whether flies could discriminate floral treatments visually by comparing visitation rates, spectral reflectance differences, and hover fly photoreceptor sensitivities. We did not find evidence that either species fed more or less on either of the treatment solutions. Furthermore, T. marginatus did not appear to visit one of the flower choices over the other. Eristalis arbustorum, however, visited uncontaminated flowers more often than contaminated flowers. Spectral differences between the flower treatments overlap with Eristalis photoreceptor sensitivities, opening the possibility that E. arbustorum could discriminate sucrose-clothianidin solution visually. The relevance of our findings in field settings are uncertain but they do highlight the importance of visual cues in lab-based choice experiments involving insecticides. We strongly encourage further research in this area and the consideration of both behavioral responses and sensory mechanisms when determining insecticidal impacts on beneficial arthropods.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Dípteros/fisiologia , Guanidinas/toxicidade , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Neonicotinoides/toxicidade , Sacarose/química , Tiazóis/toxicidade , Animais , Flores/química , Cadeias de Markov , Método de Monte Carlo , Polinização
4.
Food Chem ; 329: 127178, 2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32502746

RESUMO

A betacyanin rich extract was obtained from the flowers of Gomphrena globosa L. by ultrasound-assisted extraction and dried either by lyophilization or spray-drying, was tested as a natural colourant in cookies and compared to a commercial colourant. The extracts were characterized in terms of betacyanin content and antioxidant potential. The effects of the colourants incorporation in the cookies were assessed through proximate composition, soluble sugars, fatty acids, color, texture and microbial load, over a shelf life of 30 days. Considering all the assays and analyzing the results through a 2-way analysis of variance, the cookies incorporated with spray-dried colourant showed the most intense pink coloration while cookies incorporated with lyophilized extract lost less color intensity over time. Thus, betacyanin extracts have potential as pink natural alternatives to synthetic colourants in the food industry.


Assuntos
Amaranthaceae/química , Betacianinas/química , Doces/análise , Corantes/química , Amaranthaceae/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/química , Betacianinas/isolamento & purificação , Dessecação , Flores/química , Flores/metabolismo , Liofilização , Valor Nutritivo , Extratos Vegetais/química , Sonicação
5.
Plant Foods Hum Nutr ; 75(3): 413-419, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32476088

RESUMO

In semiarid regions of Mexico, it is common to use the floristic richness of wild plants as food ingredients. Hence, flowers of Agave salmiana, Aloe vera, Erythrina americana, and Myrtillocactus geometrizans, which are typical and traditionally consumed flowers, were analyzed. The physicochemical properties; proximate composition; the contents of minerals, carotenoids, ascorbic acid, phenols, and total flavonoids; the quantification of phenolic compounds by HPLC; and the antioxidant activity in vitro were determined. The flowers were high in carbohydrates, proteins and minerals, mainly K and N in flowers from E. americana and M. geometrizans, respectively. The highest concentration of carotenoids was detected in red flowers (E. americana). Total phenols ranged from 4.73 to 72.40 mg of gallic acid equivalents per gram of dry weight (GAE/g DW). However, the highest value of antioxidant activity was 819.80 µmol of Trolox equivalents per gram of dry weight (TE/g DW). The highest values of phenolic compounds content and antioxidant activity were found in the flowers of M. geometrizans. The antioxidant activity of flowers was mainly related to phenolic compounds. The main phenolic compounds detected in flowers were rutin and phloridzin. The edible flowers analyzed in this study are a potential source of compounds with high biological activity.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Flavonoides , Flores/química , México , Fenóis/análise , Extratos Vegetais
6.
Food Chem ; 330: 127170, 2020 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32531633

RESUMO

With the increasing concerns on food safety, foodborne toxicants, particularly advanced glycation end products (AGEs) have drawn large attention ascribing to their central role in the pathogenic process of diabetic complications. In this study, the antiglycative ability and action mechanism of 10 dried flowers were measured in fructose/glucose-BSA model with apple flower as the most effective one, probably through trapping reactive carbonyl species. Furthermore, apple flower was added in cookies to evaluate its antiglycative effect and data suggested that the fortification of cookies with apple flower powders significantly inhibited the formation of methylglyoxal and fluorescent AGEs. Moreover, sensory evaluation data showed that 2.5% (w/w) apple flower-fortified cookies had the highest acceptance. The active component in apple flower was further identified as phlorizin by chromatographic analysis. Our results highlighted the health benefits of consuming apple flower fortified foods which might possibly be developed into functional foods especially for diabetic patients.


Assuntos
Frutose/química , Glucose/química , Produtos Finais de Glicação Avançada/química , Malus/química , Animais , Flores/química , Aldeído Pirúvico/química , Soroalbumina Bovina/química
7.
Food Chem ; 326: 127028, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32428857

RESUMO

One interesting phenomenon of Chrysanthemum morifolium tea is its formation of a green or dark green color after hours of brewing, and it is important to study the compounds that form this color and whether they might be involved in health benefits. Non-targeted metabolomics could clearly distinguish between green and non-green species by sparse partial least squares discriminant analysis (sPLS-DA) and heat-mapping. We found that the pH was the primary factor in the formation of the green color. Two green precursors (GP1 and GP2) were separated and purified with preparative HPLC. FT-IR analysis and the saccharide content analysis showed that GP1 had the typical characteristics of saccharides. GP2 was identified as chlorogenic acid by ESI-Q-TOF/MS and NMR. We raised the formation process of green substances was caused by the hydrolysates of chlorogenic acid reacting with glycosides or groups attached to the saccharides, which suggests a new mechanism for color-forming reactions.


Assuntos
Chrysanthemum/química , Chá/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Cor , Flores/química , Glicosídeos/análise , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Extratos Vegetais/química , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier
8.
J Chromatogr A ; 1622: 461129, 2020 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32376025

RESUMO

This work describes the development of capacity orthogonal chromatography (COC), a new technique for simultaneously determining the loading capacity and orthogonality during the construction of two-dimensional (2D) separations. Three steps were required for the construction of a COC based on the correlation between the selectivity factor (α) and both orthogonality and loading capacity. (1) α values of the impurities-target compound were used to normalize the retention of the impurities around the target compound. (2) α values were input into four quadrants of a coordinate system to identify correlations between orthogonality and loading capacity. α values of the impurities must be greater in the first dimension than the second dimension, with iterated analyses performed until an αmax is obtained for the two purification methods. (3) Touch-peak separation using the first-dimensional αmax was performed and the target compound was collected. The co-eluted impurities are further separated in the second dimension. To test the efficiency of this technique, a COC using two methods on a standard C18 column was developed to purify corilagin from pomegranate flower extract. Despite its low abundance, 288 mg of corilagin was obtained by COC and further purified by LH-20 gel chromatography to obtain the compound with an 80.0% recovery and 98.4% purity. Compared to COC, the purity of corilagin independently obtained using the same purification methods and identical loading capacity was poor (60.1% and 61.6%). These results indicate that COC is a useful tool for extending loading capacity in the development of preparative 2D separations.


Assuntos
Flores/química , Glucosídeos/isolamento & purificação , Taninos Hidrolisáveis/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/química , Romã (Fruta)/química , Glucosídeos/química , Taninos Hidrolisáveis/química
9.
Food Chem ; 324: 126887, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32339788

RESUMO

Epigenetic regulation and salt ions play essential roles in senescence control, but the underlying regulatory mechanism of senescence has not been thoroughly revealed in broccoli postharvest buds. Here, we found 200 mmol·L-1 NaCl, 400 mmol·L-1 KCl, 40 mmol·L-1 CaCl2 and 0.5 µmol·L-1 Trichostatin-A (TSA, a histone deacetylase inhibitor) delayed the bud senescence. They resulted in significantly inhibiting the malondialdehyde (MDA) content, and dramatically promoting the contents of superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD) and Chlorophyll. Furthermore, the expression of PHEOPHYTINASE (PPH) and NONYELLOWING (NYE1), but not SUPPRESSOR OF OVEREXPRESSION OF CONSTANS 1 (SOC1), were remarkably repressed by salt ions and TSA. Interestingly, HISTONE DEACETYLASE 9 (HDA9) and CATION/Ca2+ EXCHANGER 1 (CCX1) were down-regulated by NaCl, CaCl2 and TSA. Further assays demonstrated that HDA9 could not interact with CCX1 promoter. It suggested that CCX1 along with HDA9 were involved in inhibiting the senescence of broccoli buds, and regulated aging by indirect interaction.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Brassica/metabolismo , Regulação para Baixo/efeitos dos fármacos , Histona Desacetilases/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Sais/farmacologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Antiporters/química , Antiporters/genética , Antiporters/metabolismo , Brassica/química , Brassica/classificação , Cloreto de Cálcio/química , Cloreto de Cálcio/farmacologia , Clorofila/metabolismo , Flores/química , Flores/metabolismo , Ácidos Hidroxâmicos/química , Ácidos Hidroxâmicos/farmacologia , Íons/química , Filogenia , Sais/química , Alinhamento de Sequência
10.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(6): 1329-1333, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32281344

RESUMO

To reveal the main nutrients and functional ingredients in the flowers of Polygonatum cyrtonema and P. filipes, the content of the polysaccharides, saponins, amino acids, total phenols, mineral elements, and the DPPH free radical scavenging rates were determined. The flowers and rhizomes of P. cyrtonema were collected from Qingyang in Anhui and Qingyuan in Zhejiang, while the flowers and rhizomes of P. filipes were collected from Longyou in Zhejiang, respectively. The results showed that the polysaccharides content in flowers varied from 60.88 to 97.00 mg·g~(-1), about half of that in rhizomes. The saponins content in flowers varied from 32.55 to 40.93 mg·g~(-1), which was close to the content in rhizomes. The content of total phenols ranged from 40.79 to 50.95 mg·g~(-1), approximately 4.5 times of that in rhizomes. The total amino acids content in flowers was 111.85 to 131.03 mg·g~(-1), about 2.3 times of the content in rhizomes. The essential trace element content was abundant in flowers. The contents of heavy metal elements were all within the limits set by the standards. The DPPH free radical scavenging rate IC_(50) varied from 1.77 to 3.25 mg·mL~(-1), less than one-fifth of that in rhizomes, showing a significant superiority of antioxidant activity compared to rhizomes. The results initially revealed the fundamental of "the flowers exceed the rhizomes in effect", the common saying about the traditional Chinese medicinal herbs over the years, indicating a great developing potential of the flowers. Besides, as polysaccharides, saponins, amino acids, total phenols and other nutritive substances in flowers differ widely among species and provenances, it's important to develop variety breeding to improve the quality and yield of flowers.


Assuntos
Flores/química , Valor Nutritivo , Polygonatum/química , Aminoácidos/análise , Antioxidantes/análise , China , Nutrientes/análise , Extratos Vegetais , Rizoma/química , Oligoelementos/análise
11.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(6): 1363-1367, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32281349

RESUMO

The quality evaluation method for standard decoction of Chinese herbal slices is the basis for the quality evaluation of granules and preparations of classical formula(decoction)of traditional Chinese medicine. This study aimed to establish a method for the determination of quercetin-3-O-glucuronic acid in Nelumbinis Folium(NF)and its standard decoction, so as to provide reference for the quality control of NF and its standard decoction. Fifteen batches of representative NF were collected to prepare standard decoction, and the parameters of dry extract rate, transfer rate of index component, and pH value were calculated. HPLC was used to establish the content determination method for quercetin-3-O-glucuronic acid in NF and its standard decoction. The concentration range of quercetin-3-O-glucuronic acid in the standard decoction of NF was 1.09-3.06 g·L~(-1), while the concentration range of nuciferine was 0.01-0.17 g·L~(-1). The average extraction rate of NF standard decoction was(14.4±2.6)%, the average transfer rate of quercetin-3-O-glucuronic acid was(70.7±18.6)%, and the average transfer rate of nuciferine was(9.6±5.4)%. Compared with Nuciferine, quercetin-3-O-glucuronic acid had a high content and stable transfer rate in standard decoction, and was recommended to be the quality control marker for NF and its standard decoction. This paper establishes a quality evaluation method for NF standard decoction, and can provide reference for the quality control of all preparations derived from NF and its decoction.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Flores/química , Nelumbo/química , Controle de Qualidade , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa
12.
Food Chem ; 321: 126672, 2020 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32244136

RESUMO

The phenols in Diaphragma juglandis fructus (DJF), walnut pellicle (WP), and flowers of Juglans regia (FJR) from walnut were extracted using three methods (methanolic condensation reflux extraction, ultrasonic wave extraction, and enzyme assisted-extraction), and phenolics and antioxidant capacities of different extractions were compared. Overall, 50 phenolics were identified by HPLC-MS/MS with 41 compounds in DJF, 32 in WP, and 29 in FJR. It was observed that tannins in WP was higher than those in DJF and FJR. As for PCA, more than 70% of the variance was explained with the obvious comparison between the phenolic constituents. The phenolics in walnut contributed to remarkable antioxidant effect, with the highest effect observed in WP. This study presents the analysis and comparison of the phenols can be further extended for the development of functional walnut instant foods.


Assuntos
Juglans/química , Fenóis/química , Antioxidantes/análise , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Flores/química , Frutas/química , Metanol/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Ondas Ultrassônicas
13.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(4): 829-837, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32237483

RESUMO

The flower color of Dendrobium catenatum(D. officinale) tends to fade during storage. In order to clarify the influence of storage conditions on the pigment components in flowers, two conditions were applied:temperature and illumination. The contents of pigments in the D. catenatum flower were determined by UV-Vis spectrophotometry and HPLC, and the changes of them during storage were analyzed. The results showed that illumination and temperature had an effect on the pigments of D. catenatum flower during sto-rage. Illumination significantly promoted the degradation of pigments. The contents of total chlorophyll, carotenoids and anthocyanins in the light samples were significantly lower than those in the dark. The total chlorophyll, carotenoids and anthocyanins in the light samples were decreased by 46.5%, 63.4%, and 69.2% respectively. Illumination had a greater effect on fat-soluble pigments than water-soluble pigments. Among the three temperature treatments, the contents of chlorophyll, carotenoid and anthocyanin were as follows:-20 ℃>4 ℃>room temperature, it is indicated that-20 ℃ was the best temperature to maintain the stability of pigment composition. The contents of chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, ß-carotene, lutein and zeaxanthin in the light samples decreased by 34.8%, 69.0%, 72.5%, 61.6%, 36.1%, respectively. After storage for 5 months, the contents of chlorophyll, carotenoid and anthocyanin constituent at-20 ℃ was significantly higher than those at 4 ℃ and room temperature. The results show that light avoiding and low-temperature can effectively slow down the degradation of pigment components. Therefore, it is suggested that D. catenatum flower should be stored in light avoiding and low-temperature conditions in actual production and processing, which can prolong the usable time.


Assuntos
Dendrobium/química , Armazenamento de Medicamentos , Flores/química , Pigmentos Biológicos/análise , Antocianinas/análise , Carotenoides/análise , Clorofila/análise , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Luz , Plantas Medicinais/química , Espectrofotometria , Temperatura
14.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(17): 20748-20756, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32248421

RESUMO

This study reports the physicochemical characterization of clover (Trifolium hybridum) and citrus (Citrus sinensis) honeys produced in Fayoum, Egypt, by evaluating the analysis of moisture content, pH, total soluble solids (TSS), electric conductivity (EC), total sugars, crude protein, ash content, total acidity, hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), and total phenolic compounds (TPC). Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of honey extracts and their flower extracts were determined. The results clearly indicated that ethanol gave the highest extraction yield of both clover and citrus flowers, while ethyl acetate showed the highest extraction recovery for the phenolic compounds, with TPC amounting to 338.5 and 536.4 mg gallic acid equivalent kg-1 fresh weight in clover and citrus flower extracts, respectively. Honey samples have less TPC than their flowers. The results showed that the TPC of citrus honey and its flowers was higher than clover honey and its flowers, respectively. Antioxidant activity was higher in extracts obtained from citrus flower than extracts of clover flower. The same trend was noticed for honey samples. Both clover and citrus honeys showed antimicrobial effects against tested microorganisms. HPLC analysis showed that p-coumaric acid was the main phenolic component in ethanol extracts of clover and citrus honeys, contributing about 83.0% and 52.2%, respectively. In citrus and clover flower extracts, syringic acid and quercetin were the main phenolics, respectively. It would be expected that characteristics of honey samples are mainly depended on the floral origin of nectar foraged by bees.


Assuntos
Mel/análise , Animais , Antibacterianos , Antioxidantes , Abelhas , Egito , Flores/química , Fenóis/análise
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32278293

RESUMO

Lily, a famous cut flower with highly fragrance, has high ornamental and economic values. Monoterpenes are the main components contributing to its fragrance, and terpene synthase (TPS) genes play critical roles in the biosynthesis of monoterpenoids. To understand the function of TPS and to explore the molecular mechanism of floral scent in cultivar Lilium 'Siberia', transcriptomes of petal at different flowering stages and leaf were obtained by RNA sequencing and three unigenes related to TPS genes were selected for further validation. Quantitative real-time PCR showed that the expression level of LiTPS2 was greater than that of the other two TPS genes. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that LiTPS2 belonged to the TPSb subfamily, which was responsible for monoterpenes synthesis. Subcellular localization demonstrated that LiTPS2 was located in the chloroplasts. Furthermore, functional characterization showed that LiTPS2 utilized both geranyl pyrophosphate (GPP) and farnesyl pyrophosphate (FPP) to produce monoterpenoids such as linalool and sesquiterpenes like trans-nerolidol, respectively. Ectopic expression in transgenic tobacco plants suggested that the amount of linalool from the flowers of transgenic plants was 2-3 fold higher than that of wild-type plants. And the emissions of myrcene and (E)-ß-ocimene were also accumulated from the flowers of LiTPS2 transgenic lines. Surprisingly, these three compounds were the main fragrance components of oriental lily hybrids. Our results indicated that LiTPS2 contributed to the production of monoterpenes and could effectively regulate the aroma of Lilium cultivars, laying the foundation for biotechnological modification of floral scent profiles.


Assuntos
Alquil e Aril Transferases , Lilium , Alquil e Aril Transferases/genética , Flores/química , Flores/genética , Expressão Gênica , Lilium/classificação , Lilium/genética , Filogenia , Tabaco/genética , Tabaco/metabolismo
16.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(1): 59-64, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32237411

RESUMO

In this paper, five field density treatments were set up in the field plot experiment, which were 2 500,3 000,5 000,6 660,8 000 plants/mu(1 mu≈667 m~2). The agronomic traits, economic traits, mineral element absorption and the content of effective components of Chrysanthemum morifolium under different densities were studied. The results showed that dense planting could significantly reduce the number of secondary branches of Ch. morifolium and the yield per plant, but significantly increase the population yield of Ch. morifolium. The yield of Ch. morifolium was the highest when the density was 8 000 plants/mu, but the effect of increasing yield would gradually decrease with the increase of planting density. With the increase of planting density, the N, P and Mg elements in flowers firstly increased and then decreased. The N element content in leaves increased gradually, which showed that increasing the planting density within a certain range could increase the absorption of N, P and Mg elements in flowers and leaves of Ch. morifolium. The contents of rutin, chlorogenic acid and 3,5-O-dicaffeoyl quinic acid in Ch. morifolium showed a trend of first increasing and then decreasing with the increase of planting density. When the planting density was 5 500,5 000,3 750 plants/mu, the content of chlorogenic acid, rutin and 3,5-O-dicaffeyl quinic acid had the maximum value. The content of luteolin in Ch. morifolium decreased gradually with the increase of planting density. When the planting density was 7 143 plants/mu, the content of luteolin was the minimum. Considering factors such as yield and active ingredient content, the cultivation density of 5 000 plants/mu(row spacing 40 cm×30 cm) can be selected for standard planting of Ch. morifolium.


Assuntos
Chrysanthemum/química , Chrysanthemum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Flores/química , Folhas de Planta/química
17.
Arch Gynecol Obstet ; 301(4): 1103-1111, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32185551

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study aimed to assess the activity of A. austriaca flowers in treating polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) in rats. METHODS: A letrozole-induced PCOS rat model was used to evaluate the activity potential of A. austriaca flowers. For this purpose, extracts of different polarity were prepared from A. austriaca flowers using n-hexane, ethyl acetate, and methanol. Serum luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, progesterone, testosterone, estradiol, serum leptin, lipid, and glucose levels were tested. Moreover, the antioxidant activity was evaluated by calculating superoxide dismutase, malondialdehyde, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase levels. Following the biological activity studies, phytochemical studies were conducted on the active extract to detect the compound(s) responsible for the activity. RESULTS: The treatment with n-hexane extract contributed to regulating serum gonadotropin and steroid hormone levels. The plasma level of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol was significantly higher than that of the control group, while the levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, leptin, and glucose were significantly lower than those of the control group. Also, the n-hexane extract showed significant antioxidant activity in the PCOS rat model. Since the n-hexane extract was found to be active, isolation studies were performed on this extract and three main fractions were obtained from the n-hexane extract. Those fractions also were tested on letrozole-induced PCOS rat model. As a result, three triterpenoids, ß-amyrin palmitate, taraxasterol acetate, and taraxasterol were isolated and identified from Fr. B which is the most active fraction. CONCLUSION: n-Hexane extract and Fr. B obtained from this extract showed statistically significant activity in the letrozole-induced PCOS rat model and three triterpene-type compounds were isolated from Fr. B.


Assuntos
Anthemis/química , Flores/química , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/sangue , Triterpenos/efeitos adversos , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
18.
J Food Sci ; 85(4): 1151-1159, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32157694

RESUMO

Edible flowers are a new gourmet product; however, they are not always available all years. Thus, it is essential to find out technologies to guarantee this product for a longer time. Flowers of four species (borage [Borago officinalis], heartsease [Viola tricolor], kalanchoe [Kalanchoe blossfeldiana], and dandelion [Taraxacum officinale]) were subjected to freezing (in their natural form and in ice cubes) and analyzed in terms of visual appearance, the content of flavonoids, hydrolysable tannins, phenolics, antioxidant activity (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity and reducing power), and microbial quality after storage for 1 and 3 months. Flowers in ice cubes showed similar appearance to fresh ones during the 3 months of storage, whereas frozen flowers were only equivalent up to 1 month with the exception of kalanchoe. Even though flowers in ice cubes showed good appearance after 3 months of storage, they had the lowest values of bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity. On the contrary, when frozen, the content of bioactive compounds maintained or even increased up to 1 month of storage compared to fresh flowers, except for borage. Furthermore, in both freezing treatments, the microorganisms' counts decreased or maintained when compared to fresh samples, except in dandelion. In general, both treatments may allow keeping the flowers after their flowering times. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: The market of edible flowers is increasing, although they are a very perishable product with short shelf-life. Edible flowers are stored in the cold (frozen or in ice cubes); however, the effect on the bioactive compounds and microbial quality that this treatment may have on borage (Borago officinalis), heartsease (Viola tricolor), kalanchoe (Kalanchoe blossfeldiana), and dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) flowers is unknown. So, the present study was conducted to increase the knowledge about the changes that freezing treatments may have in different edible flowers. The results of the present study underline that each flower has different behavior at frozen and ice cubes storage. However, freezing flowers maintain/increase the contents of bioactive compounds, while ice cubes not. Both treatments are effective in protecting flowers from microorganism growth. So, suggesting that both freezing treatments can be used as a preservative method and may allow keeping the flowers after their flowering times.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/análise , Flores/química , Flores/microbiologia , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Borago/química , Borago/microbiologia , Flavonoides/análise , Análise de Alimentos , Armazenamento de Alimentos , Congelamento , Kalanchoe/química , Kalanchoe/microbiologia , Fenóis/análise , Taraxacum/química , Taraxacum/microbiologia , Viola/química , Viola/microbiologia
19.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2020: 7912763, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32089779

RESUMO

Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common clinical problem, characterized by a sudden loss of renal function, a high risk of death, and the eventual development of renal fibrosis and renal failure. Cordyceps cicadae is a traditional Chinese medicine with the potential function of kidney protection. We analyze two sputum extracts, a water extract (WCC), and an ethanol extract (ECC), to assess the potential of treating AKI in an animal model of kidney injury induced by cisplatin. A nephrotoxic mouse model was first established by intraperitoneal injection of cisplatin. Subsequently, WCC and ECC were orally administered in these mice. The results show that WCC and ECC significantly alleviated cisplatin-induced AKI renal histological changes, serum creatinine (CRE) and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) production, and the levels of NO, TNF-α, IL-1ß, and IL-6. The levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione (GSH) were suppressed by administration of WCC and ECC. However, WCC treatment prevented these changes significantly better than ECC treatment. In addition, Western blot data showed that WCC attenuated the cisplatin-induced protein expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and inducible NO synthase (iNOS), as well as inhibiting nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation in the kidney tissues. Furthermore, WCC greatly inhibited the expression of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and cisplatin-induced NF-κB activation, as well as dramatically increasing the production of antioxidative enzymes (i.e., superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase, nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), and heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1)), silent information regulator T1 (Sirt1), and p-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in the kidney tissues. In addition, we found that WCC increased the expression levels of the autophagy-related proteins LC3B and Beclin-1; proapoptotic proteins, including cleaved caspase-3 and cleaved poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) 1; and organic anion transporters 1 (OAT1) and 3 (OAT3) in the kidney tissues. Finally, WCC, ECC, and two bioactive compounds-adenosine and N6-(2-hydroxyethyl) adenosine (HEA)-inhibited the production of nitrite oxide (NO) and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) triggered by lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages in vitro. Collectively, WCC could provide a potential therapeutic candidate for the prevention of cisplatin-induced kidney injury through the inhibition of oxidative stress and inflammation.


Assuntos
Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP/metabolismo , Lesão Renal Aguda/induzido quimicamente , Cisplatino/efeitos adversos , Cordyceps/química , Flores/química , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa/métodos , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/metabolismo , Animais , Masculino , Camundongos
20.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(8): 2588-2596, 2020 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32031793

RESUMO

Monosaccharides play important roles in plant growth and development, and their biofunctions are closely related to their endogenous contents. Therefore, the determination of monosaccharides is beneficial for the further study of monosaccharide biofunction. In this work, we developed a liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analytical method assisted by a post-column derivatization technique (LC-PCD-MS) for the fast and automatic determination of 16 monosaccharides in samples. Post-column chemical derivatization of monosaccharides was performed by a reaction of monosaccharides with 4-benzylaminobenzeneboronic acid (4-PAMBA) through boronate ester formation in a three-way connector. 4-PAMBA worked as a derivatization reagent to improve the selectivity and sensitivity of monosaccharide detection by MS. The developed LC-PCD-MS method integrates LC separation, chemical derivatization, and MS detection in one run, thus greatly reducing the analysis time for each sample. The limits of detection and limits of quantification for 16 monosaccharides were in the range of 0.002-0.1 and 0.007-0.5 ng/mL, respectively. Good linearity was obtained from the linear regression, with a determination coefficient (R2) ranging from 0.9928 to 1.0000. The relative recoveries were in the range of 80.7-117.8%, with the intra- and interday relative standard deviations less than 19.7 and 16.5%, respectively, indicating good accuracy and acceptable reproducibility of the method. Finally, the method was successfully applied to investigate the spatial and temporal distribution of 16 monosaccharides in the developing flower and germinating seed of Arabidopsis thaliana.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Monossacarídeos/análise , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Arabidopsis/química , Arabidopsis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/instrumentação , Flores/química , Flores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Flores/metabolismo , Limite de Detecção , Monossacarídeos/metabolismo , Sementes/química , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sementes/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/instrumentação
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