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1.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 1023, 2021 02 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33589628

RESUMO

Australia's 2019-2020 'Black Summer' bushfires burnt more than 8 million hectares of vegetation across the south-east of the continent, an event unprecedented in the last 200 years. Here we report the impacts of these fires on vascular plant species and communities. Using a map of the fires generated from remotely sensed hotspot data we show that, across 11 Australian bioregions, 17 major native vegetation groups were severely burnt, and up to 67-83% of globally significant rainforests and eucalypt forests and woodlands. Based on geocoded species occurrence data we estimate that >50% of known populations or ranges of 816 native vascular plant species were burnt during the fires, including more than 100 species with geographic ranges more than 500 km across. Habitat and fire response data show that most affected species are resilient to fire. However, the massive biogeographic, demographic and taxonomic breadth of impacts of the 2019-2020 fires may leave some ecosystems, particularly relictual Gondwanan rainforests, susceptible to regeneration failure and landscape-scale decline.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Floresta Úmida , Incêndios Florestais/estatística & dados numéricos , Austrália , Florestas , Humanos , Estações do Ano
2.
J Environ Manage ; 281: 111959, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33433366

RESUMO

Conversion of forest to rubber plantation is one of the most common land-use change in the humid tropical region. It is one of the fastest expanding farms that lead to various socioenvironmental issues. We investigated the effect of this land-use change on soil physico-chemical properties by surveying different succession stage rubber plantations, including monoculture and a mixture derived by mixing jungle rubber and a reference tropical rainforest. We also assessed the impact on stoichiometric ratios and allocation relationships of soil carbon (C), nitrogen (N), and phosphorus (P). Our results demonstrated that conversion of tropical rainforest to rubber monoculture resulted in serious soil degradation, with a lower level of water content, water holding capacities, total porosity, pH, and soil nutrients, and a higher level of soil bulk density. However, after transforming a rubber monoculture into a jungle rubber, the concentrations of soil total C, N, P, Ca, and Mg significantly increased, by 28%, 24%, 23%, 17%, and 39%, respectively. Meanwhile, soil salinity declined by 15%. Jungle rubber also exerted some desirable effects on soil physical properties, such as decreased soil bulk density, increased field capacity and non-porosity by 6%, 2%, and 33%, respectively. Like other tropical regions, soils in the present study areas are mainly under P limitation, but jungle rubber increased soil P turnover and thereby increases P availability. In conclusion, jungle rubber correcting the soil degradation resulted from rubber plantation on tropical forest soil. Given the improvements in soil quality, constructing multiple-strata and multi-species rubber agroforestry (e.g., jungle rubber) can be a promising approach to facilitate the restoration of the existing monoculture rubber plantations.


Assuntos
Borracha , Solo , Carbono/análise , China , Nitrogênio/análise , Floresta Úmida
3.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 684, 2021 01 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33514721

RESUMO

Assessing the seasonal patterns of the Amazon rainforests has been difficult because of the paucity of ground observations and persistent cloud cover over these forests obscuring optical remote sensing observations. Here, we use data from a new generation of geostationary satellites that carry the Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI) to study the Amazon canopy. ABI is similar to the widely used polar orbiting sensor, the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), but provides observations every 10-15 min. Our analysis of NDVI data collected over the Amazon during 2018-19 shows that ABI provides 21-35 times more cloud-free observations in a month than MODIS. The analyses show statistically significant changes in seasonality over 85% of Amazon forest pixels, an area about three times greater than previously reported using MODIS data. Though additional work is needed in converting the observed changes in seasonality into meaningful changes in canopy dynamics, our results highlight the potential of the new generation geostationary satellites to help us better understand tropical ecosystems, which has been a challenge with only polar orbiting satellites.


Assuntos
Monitorização de Parâmetros Ecológicos/métodos , Folhas de Planta/fisiologia , Floresta Úmida , Imagens de Satélites , Brasil , Cor , Fotossíntese , Estações do Ano , Análise Espaço-Temporal
4.
Sci Total Environ ; 760: 144092, 2021 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33341626

RESUMO

The Amazon rainforest is the world's largest tropical forest, and this biome may be a significant contributor to primary biological aerosol (PBA) emissions on a global scale. These aerosols also play a pivotal role in modulating ecosystem dynamics, dispersing biological material over geographic barriers and influencing climate through radiation absorption, light scattering, or acting as cloud condensation nuclei. Despite their importance, there are limited studies investigating the effect of environmental variables on the bioaerosol composition in the Amazon rainforest. Here we present a 16S rRNA gene-based amplicon sequencing approach to investigate the bacterial microbiome in aerosols of the Amazon rainforest during distinct seasons and at different heights above the ground. Our data revealed that seasonal changes in temperature, relative humidity, and precipitation are the primary drivers of compositional changes in the Amazon rainforest aerosol microbiome. Interestingly, no significant differences were observed in the bacterial community composition of aerosols collected at ground and canopy levels. The core airborne bacterial families present in Amazon aerosol were Enterobacteriaceae, Beijerinckiaceae, Polyangiaceae, Bacillaceae and Ktedonobacteraceae. By correlating the bacterial taxa identified in the aerosol with literature data, we speculate that the phyllosphere may be one possible source of airborne bacteria in the Amazon rainforest. Results of this study indicate that the aerosol microbiota of the Amazon Rainforest are fairly diverse and principally impacted by seasonal changes in temperature and humidity.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Floresta Úmida , Aerossóis , Florestas , Humanos , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
5.
J Environ Manage ; 279: 111805, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33316643

RESUMO

Tropical secondary forests play a prominent role in conserving biodiversity and providing ecosystem services, but their recovery can be slow and their succession trajectory is distinct from old-growth forests. Thinning is an essential silvicultural approach to enhance the recovery rate and timber production of forests. However, the selection of trees to thin has been mainly based on size class rather than on species identity. There is little empirical or experimental evidence of species-focused thinning with the goal of altering species composition. We examined the effects of thinning on community structure, demographic rates, species richness and functional diversity of woody plants in a detailed investigation of 60-year-old secondary tropical lowland rain forest on Hainan Island, South China. The density and basal area of trees ≥5 cm DBH (diameter at breast height) increased significantly after five years' recovery with no significant change for saplings (DBH < 5 cm). Species composition after thinning changed significantly and mid-to late-successional species of both saplings and trees were more abundant after five years' recovery. The relative growth rates (RGR) and recruitment rates were significantly higher in thinning plots for both saplings and trees, and RGRs increased by 127% and 48%, respectively. The mortality rate decreased by 13% for trees and increased by 47% for saplings in thinning plots compared to the control. The community weighted mean (CWM) of the specific leaf area (SLA) of saplings showed a significantly decreasing trend while CWMs of wood density (WD) and mean maximum height (Hmax) of saplings increased after thinning. By contrast, CWMs of SLA and Hmax of trees were significantly higher, but WD was significantly lower- in thinning plots than the control. RGR and recruitment rate of saplings and trees increased significantly as thinning intensity increased. However, the thinning intensity had a weak or nil effect on the mortality rate. Our results support the selective removal and girdling of pioneer and mid-successional species in a way that could accelerate recovery and improve the growth and recruitment of late-successional species in tropical secondary forests. Thinning at a relatively low intensity can maintain species diversity and alter species functional composition. This outcome shows promise for improved future management of tropical forests in human-modified tropical forest landscapes.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Clima Tropical , Biodiversidade , China , Demografia , Florestas , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Floresta Úmida , Árvores
6.
J Environ Manage ; 279: 111819, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33321354

RESUMO

The benefits provided by tropical rainforests are unevenly distributed throughout the landscape and are shaped by abiotic and biotic components that influence the spatial distribution and functional traits of the species involved. We tested whether environmental stratification of the rainforest in biophysical Landscape Units (LU), defined by topography and soil, is related to the spatial distribution of diversity, abundance and productivity (standing biomass) of tree assemblages that provide potential forest products (PFP). Considering that different PFP are associated with specific plant traits, we also tested whether a phylogenetic signal exists among the species that comprise specific use categories. Non-metric multidimensional scaling ordinations and permutational analysis of variance were based on the frequency, abundance and productivity of 129 species, the PFP of which were classified as fodder, food, fuelwood, medicinal, melliferous, ornamental, plywood and timber in 15 plots of 0.5 ha each. We constructed a phylogenetic tree of the studied species and analyzed the phylogenetic signal strength (D-statistic) among them. The spatial distribution of diversity and abundance of useful species changes among the LU. Specific PFP can be provided in contrasting habitat conditions, but generally not by the same species. The PFP categories that presented a phylogenetic signal were associated with wood characteristics (fuelwood and plywood) and the palatability of the leaves and reproductive structures (fodder). The Moraceae family was significantly related to fodder and plywood, whereas Meliaceae, Myrtaceae and Sapotaceae were mostly used for fuelwood. The medicinal species presented convergent traits distributed throughout the phylogeny. However, since our study included a broad variety of plant structures, it is possible that phylogenetic dispersion can change if we consider the specific uses within each category. Our findings show that the assemblages of PFP suppliers can be clustered through biophysical units based on soil and topography, and specific categories of PFP are often supplied by phylogenetically related species. This knowledge is fundamental in order to incorporate the high diversity of tree species and their potential uses into productive reforestation and agroforestry programs.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Floresta Úmida , Ecossistema , Florestas , Filogenia
7.
Sci Total Environ ; 759: 144312, 2021 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33333330

RESUMO

At the beginning of the SARS-COV-2 outbreak in Brazil, there was a striking difference between the contamination rate in the Amazonian States and the South and the Southeast States. The regions near the Amazon rainforest presented much higher and faster contaminations. This paper attempts to explain this phenomenon through a global analysis of the COVID-19 epidemic in Brazil. It also investigates the relationship between climate conditions and airborne transmission with the evolution of contagion in the Amazonian states. The method of investigation of the spread of SARS-COV-2 in these different macro-environments was based on the analysis of three extensive daily official databases on the number of deaths, the percentage of adherence of the populations to the restriction policies, and the local climatic conditions. Besides, the social conditions in those States were also taken into account. Then, it was compared the epidemiologic results for States with very different climatic characteristics and that had adopted, almost simultaneously, similar social isolation measures. However, all these analyses were not able to explain the remarkable difference in the evolution of the pandemic among Brazilian regions. So, it was necessary to invoke airborne transmission, facilitated by the very high air humidity, as a decisive factor to explain the faster evolution of contagion in the rainforest region. Air humidity seems to be the most important climatic factor in viral spreading, while usual ambient temperatures do not have a strong influence. Another very important result of this analysis was the observation that the onset of collective immunity may have been achieved with a contamination rate of about 15% of the Amazonian population.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças , Brasil/epidemiologia , Humanos , Umidade , Floresta Úmida , Temperatura
8.
Zootaxa ; 4894(2): zootaxa.4894.2.2, 2020 Dec 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33311081

RESUMO

In anuran amphibians, acoustic signals are fundamental mechanisms of mate recognition and mate choice, which makes frog calls a fundamental tool for anuran taxonomy. In this work, we describe the advertisement call of two species for the genus Melanophryniscus, M. cambaraensis and M. macrogranulosus and use the descriptions to try to solve a taxonomic problem between them. We collected data after heavy rains in three different sample sites in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, between 2012 and 2013. The advertisement call of both species is composed of two segments. It always begins with part A (about 0.44-6 seconds) composed of single modulated pulses separated by long time intervals. It is followed by part B, a long train of unmodulated pulses with short time intervals, lasting from 9 to 32.2 seconds. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) indicated some variation between temporal parameters of the two species, but Multivariate Analysis of Variance showed no significant differences. Within-individual Coefficient of Variation (CV) showed only two static parameters: pulse rate and peak frequency, both in the part B of the call. Despite intra-male variation in some acoustic parameters, it is not possible to differentiate between M. cambaraensis and M. macrogranulosus species only using bioacoustics.


Assuntos
Anuros , Bufonidae , Animais , Brasil , Masculino , Floresta Úmida , Vocalização Animal
9.
Zootaxa ; 4890(3): zootaxa.4890.3.5, 2020 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33311119

RESUMO

A new Neotropical genus of Ctenidae from the Brazilian Amazon rainforest is described based on male and female characters: Bulboctenus gen. nov. Three new species are described for the genus: Bulboctenus kayapo sp. nov., Bulboctenus itunaitata sp. nov. and Bulboctenus munduruku sp. nov. The genus can be distinguished from other Ctenidae by males with median apophysis oriented horizontally, perpendicular to the tegulum, RTA strongly excavated anteriorly, metatarsi III and IV with bulbous setae ventrally, sternum and coxae with thick setae; and females with median sector of the epigyne hexagonal with two posterior conical projections ventrally and elevated lateral margins. Discussion on the modification on the leg setae across the Neotropical Ctenids species are given.


Assuntos
Aranhas , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Brasil , Feminino , Masculino , Floresta Úmida
10.
Zootaxa ; 4878(2): zootaxa.4878.2.5, 2020 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33311156

RESUMO

We describe a new species of the Scinax catharinae group from one of the last remaining fragments of Atlantic Forest in northeastern Minas Gerais. The new species is distinguished from most species of the group mainly by having the mucronate snout in dorsal view, the unique light-yellow coloration on the gular surface in life contrasting with its overall color pattern, and the m. depressor mandibulae with an origin on the dorsal fascia at the level of the m. dorsalis scapulae. These two latter features are novelties in the diagnosis of Scinax species. The new species is currently known only from municipality of Santa Maria do Salto, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. This locality is a remaining fragment of Atlantic Forest and has a peculiar geomorphic feature that has been poorly sampled so far.


Assuntos
Anuros , Floresta Úmida , Animais , Tamanho Corporal , Brasil , Tamanho do Órgão
12.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0239056, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33075070

RESUMO

Piper is one of two large genera in the Piperaceae, and with ca. 2600 species, is one of the largest plant genera in the world. Species delimitation and evaluation of genetic diversity among populations are important requisites for conservation and adequate exploitation of economically important species. DNA barcoding has been used as a powerful tool and a practical method for species characterization and delimitation. The present work aims to evaluate molecular markers for barcoding three Piper species native to Brazil: P. gaudichaudianum ("jaborandi" or "pariparoba"), P. malacophyllum ("pariparoba-murta") and P. regnellii ("caapeba" or "pariparoba"). A reference DNA barcode library was developed using sequences of three candidate regions: ITS2, trnH-psbA and rbcL. Transferability of the microsatellite (SSR) primers Psol 3, Psol 6 and Psol 10, designed originally for Piper solmsianum, to the three Piper species was also evaluated. The discriminatory power of the markers was based on the determination of inter- and intraspecific distances, phylogenetic reconstruction, and clustering analysis, as well as BLASTn comparison. Sequences of ITS2 enabled efficient species identification by means of the BLASTn procedure. Based on these sequences, intraspecific divergence was lower than interspecific variation. Maximum Parsimony analyses based on ITS2 sequences provided three resolved clades, each corresponding to one of the three analysed species. Sequences of trnH-psbA and rbcL had lower discriminatory value. Analyses combining sequences of these regions were less effective toward the attainment of resolved and strongly supported clades of all species. In summary, robustly supported clades of P. regnellii were obtained in most of the analyses, based either on isolated or combined sequences. The SSRs primers Psol 3, Psol 6 and Psol 10 were shown to be transferable to P. gaudichaudianum and P. regnellii, but not to P. malacophyllum. Preliminary cluster analyses based on the polymorphism of the amplified products suggested that Psol 3 has lower potential than Psol 6 and Psol 10 for discrimination of Piper species.


Assuntos
DNA de Plantas/genética , Piper/classificação , Piper/genética , Brasil , Análise por Conglomerados , Código de Barras de DNA Taxonômico , DNA Espaçador Ribossômico/genética , Marcadores Genéticos , Variação Genética , Repetições de Microssatélites , Filogenia , Floresta Úmida , Especificidade da Espécie
13.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(10): e0008686, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33119616

RESUMO

As the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic continues to expand, healthcare resources globally have been spread thin. Now, the disease is rapidly spreading across South America, with deadly consequences in areas with already weakened public health systems. The Amazon region is particularly susceptible to the widespread devastation from Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) because of its immunologically fragile native Amerindian inhabitants and epidemiologic vulnerabilities. Herein, we discuss the current situation and potential impact of COVID-19 in the Amazon region and how further spread of the epidemic wave could prove devastating for many Amerindian people living in the Amazon rainforest.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/etnologia , Índios Sul-Americanos , Pneumonia Viral/etnologia , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Humanos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Floresta Úmida , América do Sul/epidemiologia
14.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0240049, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33031377

RESUMO

Bushmeat is a major source of protein and income in tropical regions but is often over-harvested. A better monitoring of bushmeat stocks could help achieve sustainability. We used a combination of simulations and transect survey data collected from blue duikers (Philantomba monticola) in the Lomako wildlife reserve, Democratic Republic of the Congo, to investigate the use of transect-based distance sampling to monitor bushmeat stocks. The comparison of dung piles and direct observations of duikers evidenced that animals avoided both the transects in the absence of observers, and the observers themselves. This type of behavioural response appeared common in a literature survey. It causes a negative bias in the estimates of population densities from the standard distance sampling methodology. This negative bias would lead to over-pessimistic predictions of population viability, especially if the behavioural response is more intense in the locations where the animals are hunted. In turn, this would lead to excessively conservative management recommendations. To correct for the effect of the behavioural response of the animals to either the transects or the observers, we recommend recording both the forward and perpendicular distances to the observers (2D distance sampling), not just the perpendicular distance. We also recommend multiple-observer protocols. As a cautionary note, we also demonstrate a scenario where the intensity of the behavioural response is too high to reliably estimate the abundance of the population. As a perspective, we outline the general principles of a local stakeholder-based program combining distance sampling with less intensive types of ecological indicators to monitor wildlife populations.


Assuntos
Antílopes/fisiologia , Floresta Úmida , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Comportamento Animal , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Densidade Demográfica
15.
Zootaxa ; 4803(2): zootaxa.4803.2.6, 2020 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056021

RESUMO

Nine species of Cymothales, one of the most characteristic African antlion genera, are known from the Guineo-Congolian rainforests. A new species, Cymothales massaronei sp. nov. is described here from Gabon. Cymothales massaronei sp. nov. is characterized by the fifth tarsomere equal in length to the first tarsomere, but differs from all of the congeners with this character in the shape and markings of wings, shape of antenna and body pattern.


Assuntos
Holometábolos , Floresta Úmida , Animais , Asas de Animais
16.
Zootaxa ; 4834(3): zootaxa.4834.3.6, 2020 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056117

RESUMO

Dichotomius valoisae new species (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae: Dichotomiini) from Santa Luzia do Itanhi, Sergipe, Brazil, is described based on external differences from its congeners. Diagnostic characters and a brief discussion about its conservation status are provided, as well as an updated identification key to the Dichotomius sericeus (Harold) species group.


Assuntos
Besouros , Animais , Biodiversidade , Brasil , Floresta Úmida
17.
Zootaxa ; 4859(1): zootaxa.4859.1.6, 2020 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056209

RESUMO

The bee genus Nogueirapis Moure is redescribed with the addition of new characters deriving from two new species from the Amazon rainforest. Nogueirapis batistai sp. nov. and N. rosariae sp. nov. are described and included in an identification key that covers all species of the genus. Occurrence records are updated for all species.


Assuntos
Himenópteros , Animais , Abelhas , Florestas , Floresta Úmida , Registros
18.
Zootaxa ; 4828(1): zootaxa.4828.1.1, 2020 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056260

RESUMO

Microcentrini Brunner von Wattenwyl, 1878 is within the subfamily Phaneropterinae and currently comprises 11 genera and 81 species with Neotropical distribution. In this paper, five new genera are described: Boroseiyla gen. nov. (type species Boroseiyla tupeba sp. nov.), Caauara gen. nov. (type species Caauara pinima sp. nov.), Capiguara gen. nov. (type species Capiguara trimaculata sp. nov.), Hyalipenna gen. nov. (type species Hyalipenna tetralineata sp. nov.) and Tuaia gen. nov. (type species Tuaia panacarica sp. nov.) covering a total of seventeen new species registered for the Amazon rainforest. Moreover, Microcentrum nigrolineatum is included in Boroseiyla gen. nov. (Boroseiyla nigrolineatus comb. nov.). Keys to the species of the described genera, maps and observations of natural history are provided.


Assuntos
Ortópteros , Animais , Floresta Úmida
19.
Zootaxa ; 4852(5): zootaxa.4852.5.10, 2020 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056402

RESUMO

The genus Hylodes Fitzinger currently comprises 26 species of Torrent frogs, organized into four morphological taxonomic groups (Heyer 1982; Frost 2020): Hylodes glaber, H. lateristrigatus, H. mertensi, and H. nasus groups. Hylodes lateristrigatus is the most speciose group, comprising today 20 known species (Frost 2020). Nested in this group, a clade has been recovered based on molecular evidence, gathering the only four Hylodes species that are known to have males with nuptial thumb tubercles (de Sá et al. 2015; Malagoli et al. 2017). This well-supported clade includes H. phyllodes Heyer Cocroft, Hylodes fredi Canedo Pombal, H. pipilans Canedo Pombal, and H. caete Malagoli, de Sá, Canedo Haddad. Among these four Torrent frogs, tadpoles are unknown only for the most recently described H. caete (see tadpole descriptions in Heyer et al. 1990; Laia et al. 2010; Nogueira-Costa et al. 2019). With important taxonomic and conservation implications for the family Hylodidae (Laia Rocha 2012), we describe here the tadpole of Hylodes caete, a species endemic to the crests and slopes of Serra do Mar, State of São Paulo, southeastern Brazil (Malagoli et al. 2017). The present description is particularly important because, in its type-locality, H. caete occurs in sympatry and syntopy with H. phyllodes (Malagoli et al. 2017).


Assuntos
Anuros , Floresta Úmida , Animais , Brasil , Larva , Masculino , Simpatria
20.
Zootaxa ; 4801(2): zootaxa.4801.2.5, 2020 Jun 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056660

RESUMO

Gamasellodes lavafesii Castro, Azevedo Castilho sp. nov. is described based on the morphology of adult females collected from litter and soil in a transition region between Cerrado and Amazon Rainforest of Mato Grosso state and in the Caatinga biome of Alagoas state, respectively in midwestern and northeastern Brazil. A key for the separation of females of the 26 recognisable world species of Gamasellodes is provided.


Assuntos
Ácaros , Animais , Brasil , Ecossistema , Feminino , Floresta Úmida , Solo
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