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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e251438, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345560

RESUMO

Abstract The northwestern portion of the Upper Paraná Atlantic Forest ecoregion is one of the most disturbed and fragmented areas in the Atlantic Forest, and little is known about the local avifauna. In this study, we have described the composition and diversity of the aquatic avifauna of this region and analyzed the patterns of similarity with respect to the seasonal as well as spatial distribution. We used the line transect sampling technique in six distinct humid areas (including lentic and lotic water bodies) during the dry and rainy seasons of 2012 and 2013. A total of 52 species of waterfowl were recorded. The species richness of the studied areas was surprisingly distinct; only seven waterfowl species, namely Cairina moschata (Linnaeus, 1758), Tigrisoma lineatum (Boddaert, 1783), Rosthramus sociabilis (Vieillot, 1817), Aramus guarauna (Linnaeus, 1766), Vanellus chilensis (Molina, 1782), Jacana jacana (Linnaeus, 1766), and Arundinicola leucocephala (Linnaeus, 1764), were common to these six studied areas. This indicated that the other bird species that were observed might be habitat selective. Moreover, the analysis of the composition of birds in the two seasons (dry and rainy) combined with their spatial distributions showed significant dissimilarities between the areas with lotic (river and constructed wetland) and lentic (lagoons) characteristics. Nevertheless, despite the small extent and low total richness of the entire study area, it was found to be home to 1/3 of all freshwater aquatic birds documented in the state of São Paulo, with the record of 5 migratory species and 11 new species added to the northwest of the state. The heterogeneity of local aquatic environments, habitat selection combined with seasonality, and the absence of other humid locations in the surroundings can explain the diversity and distribution of these birds in the water bodies of this uninvestigated Atlantic Forest ecoregion.


Resumo A porção noroeste da ecorregião Floresta Atlântica do Alto Paraná é uma das mais alteradas e fragmentadas da Mata Atlântica, da qual pouco se sabe sobre a avifauna local. Nosso objetivo foi descrever a diversidade e composição da avifauna aquática, bem como analisar os padrões de similaridade quanto a distribuição temporal e espacial destas aves nesta ecorregião. Utilizamos a transecção linear para amostragem em seis áreas úmidas (corpos d'água lênticos e lóticos), nos períodos de seca e chuva entre 2012 e 2013. Registramos 52 espécies de aves aquáticas e as riquezas das áreas mostraram-se distintas, pois apenas Cairina moschata (Linnaeus, 1758), Tigrisoma lineatum (Boddaert, 1783), Rosthramus sociabilis (Vieillot, 1817), Aramus guarauna (Linnaeus, 1766), Vanellus chilensis (Molina, 1782), Jacana jacana (Linnaeus, 1766), and Arundinicola leucocephala (Linnaeus, 1764) foram comuns às seis áreas, o que indica seleção de habitat. Quando analisada a composição das aves nos dois períodos aliada à distribuição espacial, encontramos dissimilaridades temporais acentuadas entre os ambientes com características lóticas (rio e aterro) e lênticas (lagoas). Isto mostra que, além das diferentes épocas sazonais, é necessário analisar separadamente os diferentes tipos de áreas úmidas. Por fim, apesar da extensão pequena e baixa riqueza total, a área amostrada abrigou 1/3 das aves aquáticas de água doce para o estado de São Paulo, cinco espécies migratórias e 11 novas espécies para o noroeste do estado. A heterogeneidade de ambientes aquáticos locais, forte seleção de habitat aliada à sazonalidade e ausência de outros locais úmidos em seu entorno, explicam a diversidade e distribuição destas aves estreitamente relacionadas aos corpos d'água desta desconhecida ecorregião da Mata Atlântica.


Assuntos
Animais , Aves , Biodiversidade , Estações do Ano , Brasil , Florestas , Ecossistema
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e246230, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339369

RESUMO

Abstract Dengue fever vectored by the mosquito Aedes aegypti is one of the most rapidly spreading insect-borne diseases. Current reliance of dengue vector control is mostly on chemical insecticides. Growing insecticide resistance in the primary mosquito vector, Aedes aegypti, limits the effectiveness of vector control through chemical insecticides. These chemical insecticides also have negative environmental impacts on animals, plants and human health. Myco-biocontrol agents are naturally occurring organisms and are found to be less damaging to the environment as compared to chemical insecticides. In the present study, entomopathogenic potential of local strains of fungi isolated from soil was assessed for the control of dengue vector. Local fungal isolates presents better alternative to introducing a foreign biocontrol strain, as they may be better adapted to environmental conditions of the area to survive and may have more entomopathogenic efficacy against target organism. Larvicidal efficacy of Fusarium equiseti and Fusarium proliferatum was evaluated against Aedes aegypti. Local strains of F. equiseti (MK371718) and F. proliferatum (MK371715) were isolated from the soil of Changa Manga Forest, Pakistan by using insect bait method. Larvicidal activity of two Fusarium spp. was tested against forth instar larvae of A. aegypti in the laboratory, using concentrations 105, 106, 107 and 108 conidia /ml. LC50 values for F. equiseti after 24h, 48h, 72h and 96h of exposure were recorded as 3.8x 108, 2.9x107, 2.0x107, and 7.1x106 conidia /ml respectively while LC50 values for F. proliferatum were recorded as 1.21x108, 9.6x107, 4.2x107, 2.6x107 conidia /ml respectively after 24h, 48h, 72h and 96h of exposure. The results indicate that among two fungal strains F. equiseti was found to be more effective in terms of its larvicidal activity than F. proliferatum against larvae of A. aegypti.


Resumo A dengue transmitida pelo mosquito Aedes aegypti é uma das doenças transmitidas por insetos de propagação mais rápida. A dependência atual do controle do vetor da dengue é principalmente de inseticidas químicos. O aumento da resistência a inseticidas no principal vetor do mosquito, Aedes aegypti, limita a eficácia do controle do vetor por meio de inseticidas químicos. Esses inseticidas químicos também têm impactos ambientais negativos sobre os animais, plantas e saúde humana. Os agentes de micobiocontrole são organismos que ocorrem naturalmente e são menos prejudiciais ao meio ambiente em comparação com os inseticidas químicos. No presente estudo, avaliou-se o potencial entomopatogênico de cepas locais de fungos isolados do solo para o controle do vetor da dengue. Isolados de fungos locais apresentam melhor alternativa para a introdução de uma cepa de biocontrole estrangeira, pois podem ser mais bem adaptados às condições ambientais da área para sobreviver e podem ter maior eficácia entomopatogênica contra o organismo-alvo. A eficácia larvicida de Fusarium equiseti e Fusarium proliferatum foi avaliada contra Aedes aegypti. Cepas locais de F. equiseti (MK371718) e F. proliferatum (MK371715) foram isoladas do solo de Changa Manga Forest, Paquistão, usando o método de isca para insetos. Atividade larvicida de dois Fusarium spp. foi testado contra larvas de quarto ínstar de A. aegypti em laboratório, nas concentrações 105, 106, 107 e 108 conídios / ml. Os valores de LC50 para F. equiseti após 24 h, 48 h, 72 h e 96 h de exposição foram registrados como 3,8x 108, 2,9x107, 2,0x107 e 7,1x106 conídios / ml, respectivamente, enquanto os valores de LC50 para F. proliferatum foram registrados como 1,21x108, 9,6 x107, 4,2x107, 2,6x107 conídios / ml, respectivamente, após 24 h, 48 h, 72 h e 96 h de exposição. Os resultados indicam que entre duas cepas de fungos F. equiseti se mostrou mais eficaz em termos de atividade larvicida do que F. proliferatum contra larvas de A. aegypti.


Assuntos
Humanos , Animais , Aedes , Fusarium , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Paquistão , Solo , Extratos Vegetais , Florestas , Mosquitos Vetores , Larva
4.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e250505, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339347

RESUMO

Abstract The South American fruit fly, Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann, 1830) (Diptera: Tephritidae), is an important pest in the subtropical region of Brazil. This insect has tritrophic relation between wild fruits and parasitoids and is associated with apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) orchards adjacent to the Atlantic Forest in Paraná. We thus investigated the degree of infestation of the fruit fly and natural parasitism in wild and cultivated fruits surrounding apple orchards. For this purpose, we collected fruits of Acca sellowiana (Berg.) Burret, Campomanesia xanthocarpa (Mart), Eugenia uniflora L., Eugenia pyriformis Cambessèdes, Psidium cattleianum Sabine, Psidium guajava (L.), Annona neosericea Rainer and Eriobotrya japonica (Thumb) in apple orchards adjacent to the Atlantic Forest located in Campo do Tenente, Lapa and Porto Amazonas counties. In total, we collected 18,289 fruits during four growing years. The occurrence of A. fraterculus depends on the susceptible period of apple fruits. A. sellowiana and P. cattleianum were considered primary fruit fly multipliers and P. guajava was secondary, all occurring after the apple harvest (IS period). The group of parasitoids with A. fraterculus was Aganaspis pelleranoi (Brèthes, 1924) (Hymenoptera: Figitidae), Opius bellus (Gahan, 1930), Doryctobracon areolatus (Szépligeti, 1911) and Doryctobracon brasiliensis (Szépligeti, 1911) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) all of which are first records in the Atlantic Forest in Paraná. First record of O. bellus occurring in the State of Paraná, as well as, first record of the tritrophic association between host plant A. neosericea, parasitoids D. areolatus and O. bellus and fruit fly A. fraterculus. The host P. cattleianum stood out among the Myrtaceae species in regard to the high diversity of parasitoid species (81% of parasitoids). The total number of Figitidae species (76.5%) was higher than that of Braconidae species. The influence of climatic events in southern Brazil on wild fruit production should be further studied to understand the association of A. fraterculus with the tritrophic relationship.


Resumo Mosca-das-frutas sul-americana, Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann, 1830) (Diptera: Tephritidae), é uma importante praga da região subtropical do Brasil. Este inseto tem relação tritrófico entre frutos silvestres e parasitoides e está associado a pomares de macieiras (Malus domestica Borkh.) adjacentes à Mata Atlântica no Paraná. Assim, investigamos o grau de infestação da mosca-das-frutas e o parasitismo natural em frutas silvestres e cultivadas ao redor de pomares de maçã. Para tanto, foram coletados frutos de Acca sellowiana (Berg.) Burret, Campomanesia xanthocarpa (Mart), Eugenia uniflora L., Eugenia pyriformis Cambessèdes, Psidium cattleianum Sabine, Psidium guajava (L.), Annona neosericea Rainer e Eriobotrya japonica (Thumb) em pomares de maçã adjacentes à Mata Atlântica localizados nos municípios de Campo do Tenente, Lapa e Porto Amazonas. No total, coletamos 18.289 frutos durante quatro anos de cultivo. A ocorrência de A. fraterculus depende do período de suscetibilidade dos frutos da maçã. A. sellowiana e P. cattleianum foram considerados multiplicadores primários de mosca-das-frutas e P. guajava foi secundário, todos ocorrendo após a colheita da maçã (período IS). Os parasitóides a associados a A. fraterculus foram Aganaspis pelleranoi (Brèthes, 1924) (Hymenoptera: Figitidae), Opius bellus (Gahan, 1930), Doryctobracon areolatus (Szépligeti, 1911) e Doryctobracon brasiliensis (Szépligeti, 1911) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), todos os quais são primeiros registros na Mata Atlântica no Paraná. Primeiro registro de O. bellus ocorrendo no Estado do Paraná, assim como, primeiro registro da associação tritrófica entre o hospedeiro A. neosericea, parasitoides D. areolatus e O. bellus e mosca-das-frutas A. fraterculus. O hospedeiro P. cattleianum se destacou entre as espécies de Myrtaceae pela alta diversidade de parasitóides associados (81% dos parasitóides). O número total de espécies de Figitidae (76,5%) foi superior ao de espécies de Braconidae. A influência de eventos climáticos no sul do Brasil na produção de frutas silvestres deve ser mais estudada para entender a associação de A. fraterculus com a relação tritrófica.


Assuntos
Animais , Malus , Tephritidae , Himenópteros , Brasil , Florestas
5.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e246002, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285612

RESUMO

Abstract Economic valuation of ecosystem services is a new concept in forest management. Economic valuation provides basis for payment for ecosystem services (PES). Therefore, objective of this study was to evaluate eco-tourism and carbon stock services of the Maindam valley, District Swat, Pakistan. For the carbon stock calculation, a sample size of 155 plots of 0.1 hectare (Ha) was taken using preliminary survey at 95% confidence interval and 10% allowable error. The data for tourism services was collected from owners of all the hotels, 100 tourists and key informants of the area at 10% sampling intensity on pretested questionnaire for twenty years period (1997-2017). Results showed that Miandam valley has carbon stock worth US$ 16,306,000 while the value of eco-tourism was US$ 1,578,458 on annual basis. The results also showed that trend of tourism has drastically declined after the 9/11 incident for foreigners and locals and the situation was further deteriorated during the era of Talibanization or militancy from 2008-2011. This study recommends implementation of PES strategy at the rate of 5%, thus a total of US$ 78,922 can be earned from eco-tourism and carbon crediting in the study area annually, which could play important role in sustainable forest management.


Resumo A valoração econômica dos serviços ecossistêmicos é um novo conceito no manejo florestal. A avaliação econômica fornece base para o pagamento por serviços ecossistêmicos (PES). Portanto, o objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o ecoturismo e os serviços de estoque de carbono do vale de Miandam, distrito Swat, Paquistão. Para o cálculo do estoque de carbono, um tamanho de amostra de 155 parcelas de 0,1 hectare (ha) foi tirado, usando pesquisa preliminar com intervalo de confiança de 95% e erro admissível de 10%. Os dados para serviços de turismo foram coletados de proprietários de todos os hotéis, 100 turistas e informantes-chave da área em 10% de intensidade de amostragem em questionário pré-testado para um período de 20 anos (1997-2017). Os resultados mostraram que o vale de Miandam tem estoque de carbono no valor de US$ 16.306.000, enquanto o valor do ecoturismo foi de US$ 1.578.458 anualmente. Os resultados também mostraram que a tendência do turismo diminuiu drasticamente para estrangeiros e locais após o incidente de 11 de Setembro, e a situação se agravou ainda mais durante a era da talibanização ou militância de 2008-2011. Este estudo recomenda a implementação da estratégia de PES na taxa de 5%, portanto um total de US$ 78.922 pode ser ganho com ecoturismo e crédito de carbono na área de estudo anualmente, o que pode desempenhar um papel importante no manejo florestal sustentável.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Paquistão , Carbono/análise , Florestas
6.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e243245, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278547

RESUMO

Abstract Although richness and distribution of woody species in the Cerrado physiognomies have been extensively studied, the shifts of woody species from savanna physiognomies to dry forests have not yet been addressed. Here, we investigate the effect of soil physical-chemical traits on the woody species turnover between adjacent cerrado stricto sensu and dry forest physiognomies. Woody species were surveyed, and soil and topographic variables measured, in 30 10×40 m plots systematically distributed, with 15 plots in each physiognomy. We found a spatially structured distribution of woody species, and differences of soil traits between cerrado stricto sensu and dry forest areas, mainly related to the aluminum saturation, base saturation, and available phosphorus. Aluminum saturation increased toward the savanna area, while base saturation increased toward the dry forest. Most woody species predominated in one physiognomy, such as Callisthene major in the cerrado stricto sensu and Anadenanthera colubrina in the dry forest. Only 20% of the species were widely distributed across both physiognomies or, not often, restricted to the intermediary values of the soil gradient. General results indicate that contrasting soil traits between cerrado stricto sensu and dry forest produce a strongly spatially organized and sharp transition in terms of species distribution between these physiognomies.


Resumo Embora a distribuição e a riqueza em espécies arbóreas nas fitofisionomias do Cerrado venham sendo bastante estudadas, a transição entre savanas e florestas deciduais ainda não foi abordada. Investigamos o efeito de características físico-químicas do solo sobre a distribuição de espécies arbóreas em região de contato entre cerrado sentido restrito e floresta estacional decidual (FED). As espécies arbóreas foram amostradas sistematicamente, e variáveis de topografia e características do solo foram medidas em 30 parcelas de 10×40 m, sendo 15 parcelas em cada fisionomia. A distribuição das espécies arbóreas foi espacialmente estruturada, e as características do solo diferiram entre as áreas de cerrado sentido restrito e FED, principalmente relacionadas à saturação de alumínio, saturação de bases e teores de fósforo. A saturação de alumínio aumentou em direção ao cerrado sentido restrito, enquanto a saturação de bases aumentou em direção à FED. A maioria das espécies arbóreas predominou em uma das fisionomias, como Callisthene major em cerrado sentido restrito e Anadenanthera colubrina em FED. Apenas 20% das espécies foram amplamente distribuídas em ambas as fisionomias ou, em poucos casos, restritas aos valores intermediários do gradiente de solo. Os resultados indicam um forte contraste de características do solo entre o cerrado sentido restrito e a FED, assim como uma transição acentuada e espacialmente organizada quanto à distribuição de espécies arbóreas.


Assuntos
Solo , Pradaria , Árvores , Brasil , Florestas
7.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e247993, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278544

RESUMO

Abstract Bats are important for the homeostasis of ecosystems and serve as hosts of various microorganisms including bacteria, viruses, and fungi with pathogenic potential. This study aimed to isolate fungi from biological samples obtained from bats captured in the city of Sinop (state of Mato Grosso, Brazil), where large areas of deforestation exist due to urbanization and agriculture. On the basis of the flow of people and domestic animals, 48 bats were captured in eleven urban forest fragments. The samples were processed and submitted to microbiological cultures, to isolate and to identify the fungal genera. Thirty-four (70.83%) of the captured bats were positive for fungi; 18 (37.5%) and 16 (33.33%) of these bats were female and male, respectively. Penicillium sp., Scopulariopsis sp., Fusarium sp., Aspergillus sp., Alternaria sp., Cryptococcus sp., Trichosporon sp., and Candida sp., which may cause opportunistic infections, were isolated. The bat species with the highest number of fungal isolates was Molossus molossus: 21 isolates (43.8%). According to our results, bats captured in urban forest fragments in Sinop harbor pathogenic fungi, increasing the risk of opportunistic fungal infections in humans and domestic animals.


Resumo Os morcegos apresentam grande importância na homeostasia dos ecossistemas e são hospedeiros de uma rica diversidade de micro-organismos como bactérias, vírus e fungos com potencial patogênico. Portanto, este estudo visou isolar fungos presentes em amostras biológicas de morcegos na cidade de Sinop - MT, que possui grandes áreas de desmatamento devido à urbanização e agricultura. Foram capturados 48 morcegos de diferentes espécies, em onze fragmentos florestais urbanos definidos de acordo com fluxo de pessoas e animais domésticos, para obtenção de amostras biológicas. Essas amostras foram processadas e submetidas aos cultivos microbiológicos, para isolamento e identificação dos gêneros dos fungos. Dos 48 morcegos, 34 (70,83%) foram positivos para pelos menos um gênero de fungo, sendo 18 (37,5%) fêmeas e 16 (33,33%) machos, e os gêneros isolados a partir das amostras biológicas foram Penicillium sp., Scopulariopsis sp., Fusarium sp., Aspergillus sp., Alternaria sp., Cryptococcus sp., Trichosporon sp. e Candida sp., que podem ser causadores de infecções oportunistas. Desse total, a espécie que apresentou maior positividade para pelo menos um gênero de fungo foi Molossus molossus com 21 (43,8%). Nossos resultados demonstram que os morcegos capturados nos fragmentos florestais urbanos na cidade de Sinop - MT, podem atuar como agentes veiculadores de fungos com potencial patogênico, aumentando assim o risco de exposição e aquisição de infecções fúngicas oportunistas por pessoas e animais domésticos.


Assuntos
Humanos , Animais , Masculino , Feminino , Quirópteros , Brasil , Florestas , Cidades , Ecossistema , Fungos
8.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e245386, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278528

RESUMO

Abstract Herbivory is an interaction with great impact on plant communities since relationships between herbivores and plants are fundamental to the distribution and abundance of species over time and space. The aim of this study was to monitor the rate of leaf expansion in the tree fern Cyathea phalerata and evaluate the damage caused by herbivores to leaves of different ages and whether such damage is related to temperature and precipitation. The study was performed in a subtropical Atlantic Forest fragment located in the municipality of Caraá, in the northeast hillside of Rio Grande do Sul state, in southern Brazil. We monitored 24 mature individuals of C. phalerata with croziers in a population of approximately 50 plants. Leaf expansion rate, percentage of damaged leaves and leaf blade consumption rate by herbivory were calculated. Monthly means for temperature and accumulated rainfall were calculated from daily data. Croziers of C. phalerata were found to expand rapidly during the first and second months after emergence (3.98 cm day-1; 2.91 cm day-1, respectively). Damage caused by herbivory was observed in all of the monitored leaves, but none of the plants experienced complete defoliation. The highest percentage (57%) of damaged leaves was recorded at 60 days of monitoring, and also the highest monthly consumption rate of the blade (6.04%) occurred with young, newly-expanded leaves, while this rate remained between 1.50 and 2.21% for mature leaves. Rates of monthly leaf consumption and damaged leaves showed positive and strong relationship with each other and with temperature. The rapid leaf expansion observed for C. phalerata can be considered a phenological strategy to reduce damage to young leaves by shortening the developmental period and accelerating the increase of defenses in mature leaves.


Resumo A herbivoria é uma interação de grande impacto sobre as comunidades de plantas, uma vez que as relações entre herbívoros e plantas são fundamentais para a distribuição e abundância das espécies ao longo do tempo e do espaço. O objetivo deste estudo foi monitorar a taxa de expansão foliar da samambaia arborescente Cyathea phalerata e avaliar o dano causado por herbívoros a folhas de diferentes idades, assim como verificar se este dano está relacionado à temperatura e à precipitação. O estudo foi realizado em um fragmento de Floresta Atlântica subtropical localizado no município de Caraá, na encosta nordeste do estado do Rio Grande do Sul, no sul do Brasil. Nós monitoramos 24 indivíduos maduros de C. phalerata com báculos em uma população de aproximadamente 50 plantas. A taxa de expansão foliar, a porcentagem de folhas danificadas e a taxa de consumo da lâmina foliar por herbivoria foram calculados. Médias mensais de temperatura e precipitação acumulada foram calculadas a partir de dados diários. Báculos de C. phalerata expandiram rapidamente durante o primeiro e o segundo mês após emergência (3,98 cm dia-1; 2,91 cm dia-1, respectivamente). O dano causado por herbivoria foi observado em todas as folhas monitoradas, mas nenhuma das plantas sofreu desfolhação completa. A maior porcentagem (57%) de folhas danificadas foi registrada aos 60 dias de monitoramento, e também a maior taxa de consumo mensal (6,04%) ocorreu em folhas jovens, recém expandidas, enquanto esta taxa permaneceu entre 1,50 e 2,21% em folhas maduras. As taxas mensais de consumo da lâmina foliar e de folhas danificadas mostraram relação positiva e forte entre si e com a temperatura. A rápida expansão foliar observada em C. phalerata pode ser considerada uma estratégia fenológica para reduzir o dano a folhas jovens, abreviando o período de desenvolvimento e acelerando o aumento das defesas em folhas maduras.


Assuntos
Humanos , Gleiquênias , Herbivoria , Brasil , Florestas , Folhas de Planta
9.
PLoS One ; 17(8): e0271545, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35921285

RESUMO

Although once considered a 'counterfeit paradise', the Amazon Basin is now a region of increasing interest in discussions of pre-colonial tropical land-use and social complexity. Archaeobotany, archaeozoology, remote sensing and palaeoecology have revealed that, by the Late Holocene, populations in different parts of the Amazon Basin were using various domesticated plants, modifying soils, building earthworks, and even forming 'Garden Cities' along the Amazon River and its tributaries. However, there remains a relatively limited understanding as to how diets, environmental management, and social structures varied across this vast area. Here, we apply stable isotope analysis to human remains (n = 4 for collagen, n = 17 for tooth enamel), and associated fauna (n = 61 for collagen, n = 28 for tooth enamel), to directly determine the diets of populations living in the Volta Grande do Rio Xingu, an important region of pre-Columbian cultural interactions, between 390 cal. years BC and 1,675 cal. years AD. Our results highlight an ongoing dietary focus on C3 plants and wild terrestrial fauna and aquatic resources across sites and time periods, with varying integration of C4 plants (i.e. maize). We argue that, when compared to other datasets now available from elsewhere in the Amazon Basin, our study highlights the development of regional adaptations to local watercourses and forest types.


Assuntos
Isótopos , Rios , Colágeno , Dieta , Florestas , Humanos , Rios/química
10.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 13321, 2022 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35922649

RESUMO

Over the past few decades, many countries have attempted to carry out forest landscape restoration over millions of hectares of degraded land. Such efforts, however, have met with limited success because of several factors, including a lack of adequate emphasis on ectomycorrhization of the nursery seedlings. A similar scenario is seen in the Kashmir Himalaya, where the natural regeneration of degraded forests is poor despite ample restoration efforts by forest managers. To overcome this challenge, we identified two promising ectomycorrhizal species, namely Clitocybe nuda and Cortinarius distans, for their use in ectomycorrhization of seedlings of three common conifers, namely Abies pindrow, Cedrus deodara, and Picea smithiana. Laboratory studies were carried out to investigate the requirements for optimum mycelial growth of these ectomycorrhizal fungi. Best ECM mycelial growth was obtained in the basic MMN medium containing glucose as the source of carbon and nitrogen in ammonium form. C. distans showed higher growth than C. nuda across all the treatments and also proved significantly more effective in enhancing the survival and growth of the conifer host plant seedlings. The present study resulted in standardizing the requirements for mass inoculum production of the two mycobionts which could help in successful forest restoration programmes.


Assuntos
Recuperação e Remediação Ambiental , Florestas , Traqueófitas , Recuperação e Remediação Ambiental/métodos , Micorrizas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plântula
11.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 119: 1-10, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35934454

RESUMO

Understanding atmospheric mercury (Hg) accumulation in remote montane forests is critical to assess the Hg ecological risk to wildlife and human health. To quantify impacts of vegetation, climatic and topographic factors on Hg accumulation in montane forests, we assessed the Hg distribution and stoichiometric relations among Hg, carbon (C), and nitrogen (N) in four forest types along the elevation of Mt. Gongga. Our results show that Hg concentration in plant tissues follows the descending order of litter > leaf, bark > root > branch > bole wood, indicating the importance of atmospheric Hg uptake by foliage for Hg accumulation in plants. The foliar Hg/C (from 237.0 ± 171.4 to 56.8 ± 27.7 µg/kg) and Hg/N (from 7.5 ± 3.9 to 2.5 ± 1.2 mg/kg) both decrease along the elevation. These elevation gradients are caused by the heterogeneity of vegetation uptake of atmospheric Hg and the variation of atmospheric Hg° concentrations at different altitudes. Organic soil Hg accumulation is controlled by forest types, topographic and climatic factors, with the highest concentration in the mixed forest (244.9 ± 55.7 µg/kg) and the lowest value in the alpine forest (151.9 ± 44.5 µg/kg). Further analysis suggests that soil Hg is positively correlated to C (r2 = 0.66) and N (r2 = 0.57), and Hg/C and Hg/N both increase with the soil depth. These stoichiometric relations highlight the combined effects from environmental and climatic factors which mediating legacy Hg accumulation and selective Hg absorption during processes of organic soil mineralization.


Assuntos
Mercúrio , Poluentes do Solo , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Florestas , Humanos , Mercúrio/análise , Plantas , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise
12.
Science ; 377(6606): 594-598, 2022 08 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35926035

RESUMO

Grasslands, which constitute almost 40% of the terrestrial biosphere, provide habitat for a great diversity of animals and plants and contribute to the livelihoods of more than 1 billion people worldwide. Whereas the destruction and degradation of grasslands can occur rapidly, recent work indicates that complete recovery of biodiversity and essential functions occurs slowly or not at all. Grassland restoration-interventions to speed or guide this recovery-has received less attention than restoration of forested ecosystems, often due to the prevailing assumption that grasslands are recently formed habitats that can reassemble quickly. Viewing grassland restoration as long-term assembly toward old-growth endpoints, with appreciation of feedbacks and threshold shifts, will be crucial for recognizing when and how restoration can guide recovery of this globally important ecosystem.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Pradaria , Animais , Biodiversidade , Florestas , Objetivos , Humanos
13.
Science ; 377(6606): 586-587, 2022 08 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35926051
14.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 13372, 2022 Aug 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35927453

RESUMO

The ecological environment of the hilly and gully area of the Loess Plateau in northern Shaanxi is fragile and the soil fertility is low. As a result, the yield and quality of Pear-jujube which constitute one of the dominant economic forests in this region, have been severely restricted. At present, the scientific application of fertilizer is important for comprehensively improving the quality of fruit trees, and for devising the optimal management of fruit trees. In particular, the application of organic fertilizers plays an important role in improving soil and improving fruit quality. In this experiment, a field study was conducted to understand the effects of different organic fertilizer applications on physiological growth, photosynthetic characteristics, reproductive growth and nutritional quality of Pear-jujube in the Loess Plateau. The results showed that organic fertilizer significantly promoted the physiological growth of Pear-jujube. The Pear-jujube bearing branch and leaf area under the soybean cake fertilizer (SC) treatment were 20.17 cm and 1246 mm2/leaf, respectively, which are increased by 34% and 44.46% compared with the no fertilizer treatment, which was a control check (CK). The total chlorophyll content of fertilization treatment was significantly higher than that of CK (P < 0.05). The maximum of chlorophyll content was 10.90 mg/dm2 under the biogas fertilizer (BM). The content of LAI was in the order BM > conventional fertilizer (CF) > sheep manure (SM) > SC > CK. The changing trend of gap fraction was opposite to that of LAI, and the density of light was consistent with that of LAI. The density of light BM was the largest, reached 38.06 mol/(m2 d), which was 15.13% higher than that of CK. Organic fertilizer significantly improved the net photosynthetic rate (Pn) and water use efficiency (WUEp) of Pear-jujube. The WUEp of SC was up to 3.30%. Organic fertilizer significantly promoted the reproductive growth and improved the nutritional quality of Pear-jujube. The yield under the SC was 19,177 kg/hm2, increased by 138.5% compared with that of CK. The fruit water content (FWC), total soluble solids (TSS), solid-acid ratio (TSS/TA), Vc and total flavonoids content improved, and the maxima of FWC, TSS, TSS/TA, Vc and total flavonoids content under the SC treatment were 86.30%, 18.48%, 40.17, 46.18 mg/kg and 14.35 mg/kg, respectively, which were significantly different from those of CK (P < 0.05). Organic fertilization effectively promotes the growth, development, yield and fruit quality of Pear-jujube in the Loess Plateau and the effect of the soybean cake fertilizer is the most significant.


Assuntos
Pyrus , Ziziphus , Agricultura/métodos , Animais , China , Clorofila , Fertilizantes , Flavonoides , Florestas , Frutas , Nitrogênio , Ovinos , Solo , Água
15.
Arch Microbiol ; 204(9): 540, 2022 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35927484

RESUMO

During the investigation, soil actinomycetes were isolated from Kathlekanu swamp forest and the crude ethyl acetate extract from the potent isolate KF15 was analysed with GC-MS and HPTLC to identify bioactive metabolites. The crude extract was examined for in-vitro antifungal activity on pathogens of chilli; MTT cytotoxicity assay was performed against HeLa cell line to determine the anticancer potential. The isolate Streptomyces sp. strain KF15 exhibited antagonistic activity against fungal pathogens by inhibiting growth and altering growth pattern with increased antimicrobial activity in dose-dependent manner. GC-MS revealed many bioactive compounds and HPTLC depicted metabolite fingerprint. The IC50 of 99.85 µg/ml indicated the high potential of KF15 extract to prevent proliferation of HeLa cells. Therefore, the findings of this study indicate that the crude extract from Streptomyces sp. strain KF15 contains antifungal and anticancer metabolites; further study on purification could help in controlling many fungal diseases as well as cervical cancer in humans.


Assuntos
Streptomyces , Antifúngicos , Misturas Complexas/metabolismo , Florestas , Células HeLa , Humanos , Áreas Alagadas
16.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 13452, 2022 Aug 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35927554

RESUMO

Reversing large-scale habitat degradation and deforestation goes beyond what can be achieved by site-level ecological restoration and a landscape ecology perspective is fundamental. Here we assess the relative importance of tree cover and its configuration on forest-dependent birds and late-successional tree seedlings in restoration sites in southern Costa Rica. The abundance and species richness of birds increased in landscapes with more corridors, higher tree cover, and lower levels of fragmentation, highlighting the importance of riparian corridors for connectivity, and continuous tree cover as suitable habitat. Landscape variables affected abundance and species richness of seedlings similarly, but effects were weaker, possibly because seedlings face establishment limitation in addition to dispersal limitation. Moreover, the scale of landscape effects on seedlings was small, likely because proximal individual trees can significantly influence recruitment in restoration plots. Results underscore the importance of incorporating landscape-level metrics to restoration projects, as knowing the extent, and how the landscape may affect restoration outcomes can help to infer what kind of species will arrive to restoration plots.


Assuntos
Florestas , Clima Tropical , Animais , Aves , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Ecossistema , Plântula , Árvores
17.
PLoS One ; 17(8): e0272406, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35951615

RESUMO

Mapping and valuing of forest recreation is time-consuming and complex, hampering its inclusion in forest management plans and hence the achievement of a fully sustainable forest management. In this study, we explore the potential of crowdsourced social media data in tackling the mapping and valuing of forest recreation demand. To do so, we assess the relationships between crowdsourced social media data, acquired from over 350,000 Flickr geotagged pictures, and demand for forest recreation in British Columbia (BC) forests. We first identify temporal and spatial trends of forest recreation demand, as well as the countries of origin of BC forests visitors. Second, we estimate the average number of annual recreational visits with a linear regression model calibrated with empirically collected secondary data. Lastly, we estimate recreational values by deriving the average consumer surpluses for the visitors of BC forested provincial parks. We find that annually, on average, over 44 million recreational experiences are completed in BC forests, with peaks during the summer months and during the weekends. Moreover, a crowdsourced travel cost approach allowed us to value the recreational ecosystem service in five forested provincial parks ranging from ~2.9 to ~35.0 million CAN$/year. Our findings demonstrate that social media data can be used to characterize, quantify and map the demand for forest recreation (especially in peri-urban forests), representing a useful tool for the inclusion of recreational values in forest management. Finally, we address the limitations of crowdsourced social media data in the study of forest recreation and the future perspectives of this rapidly growing research field.


Assuntos
Crowdsourcing , Mídias Sociais , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Ecossistema , Florestas , Humanos , Parques Recreativos , Recreação
18.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 13692, 2022 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35953627

RESUMO

Recreation is a crucial contribution of nature to people, relevant for forest ecosystems. Large carnivores (LCs) are important components of forests, however, their contribution to forest recreational value has not yet been evaluated. Given the current expansion of LC populations, the ongoing forest conservation debate, and the increasing use of nature for recreational purposes, this is a timely study. We used discrete choice experiments and willingness-to-travel to determine people' preferences for both forest structural characteristics and presence of four LC species in Poland (N = 1097 respondents) and Norway (N = 1005). In both countries, two-thirds of the respondents (termed 'wildness-positive') perceived LCs as contributing positively to forest recreational value and preferred to visit old forests with trees of different species and ages and presence of dead wood (i.e. natural forests). Respondents with negative preferences towards LCs preferred more intensively managed forest ('wildness-negative'); their preferences were stronger than in wildness-positive respondents and in Norway. Preferences towards wild nature were highly polarized and there were hardly neutral people. Our results showed a strong link between preferences for LC presence and forest structure, and reflected the dualism of human-nature relationships. This study highlights the need to consider the contribution of forests and LCs to human recreation services in ecosystem management policies.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Ecossistema , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Florestas , Humanos , Recreação , Árvores
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35954940

RESUMO

High-intensity urban development and economic exploitation have led to the fragmentation and isolation of regional habitat patches, and biodiversity is under serious threat. Scientific identification and effective optimization of ecological networks are essential for maintaining and restoring regional ecosystem connectivity and guiding sustainable socio-economic development. Taking the mountainous areas of southwest Hubei Province (MASHP) in central China as an example, this study first developed a new integrated approach to identify ecological sources based on a quantitative assessment of ecosystem services and the morphological spatial pattern analysis (MSPA) method; it then used the Linkage Mapper tool to extract ecological corridors, applied the principle of hydrological analysis to identify ecological nodes, evaluated each ecological element to quantify its importance, and finally constructed the ecological network and further proposed some optimization countermeasures. The results show that the ecological network in the MASHP is dominated by ecological resources composed of forestland. Connectivity in the central region is significantly better than in other regions, including 49 ecological sources with an area of 3837.92 km2, 125 ecological corridors with a total length of 2014.61 km, and 46 ecological nodes. According to the spatial distribution of crucial ecological landscape elements, a complete and systematic ecological framework of "two verticals, three belts, three groups, and multiple nodes" was proposed. The internal optimization of the ecological network in mountainous areas should focus on improving ecological flow, and strategies such as enhancing the internal connectivity of ecosystems, unblocking ecological corridors, and dividing ecological functional zones can be adopted. Based on the above analyses, this study also made recommendations for ecological protection and development and construction planning in mountainous areas. This study can provide realistic paths and scientific guidelines for ecological security and high-quality development in the MASHP, and it can also have implications for the construction of ecological networks and comprehensive ecological management in other mountainous areas.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Ecossistema , China , Ecologia , Florestas
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35955104

RESUMO

The analysis of land use change (LUC) characteristics and the impact of policies related to urban ecological space is required to improve spatial planning and to support decision making regarding green infrastructure (GI) investment. This study employed Geo-informatic Tupu analysis and Fluctuation Potential Tupu analysis methods to analyze the characteristics of LUC in an urban ecological corridor (EC). To help understand the influence of land use policy on GI governance and support the optimization of spatial planning, we proposed a situation-structure-implementation-outcome (SSIO) policy cascade analysis framework. SSIO takes "place" as its starting point, then couples the local policy with the governance structure to promote the sustainability of urban commons governance. The results show that the land use type within an EC in the city is mainly cultivated land. However, between 2009 and 2019, cultivated land, construction land, and facility agricultural land all showed a decreasing trend, while forest land and garden land types underwent increasing trends. The LUC Tupu unit highlights the transition from cultivated land to forest land. Forest land has the greatest increase in area and accounts for 52.34% of the area of increasing land use. Cultivated land shows the greatest decrease in area and accounts for 70.30% of the area of decreasing trends. Based on the local policy situation of the metropolis, a land policy governance mechanism can be constructed by the establishment of a governance structure with local government as the core, using land consolidation as the platform, taking ecological spatial planning and inefficient construction land reduction as typical policy tools, and experimentally integrating the concept of Nature-based Solutions (NbS). In general, these findings may be applicable to other rapidly urbanizing cities around the world that are developing complex land use policies for ecological space governance.


Assuntos
Florestas , Políticas , Agricultura , China , Cidades , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Ecossistema
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