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1.
J Environ Qual ; 49(1): 163-171, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33016370

RESUMO

Annual and multiyear records of trace element deposition are difficult to develop using monitoring systems but have proven feasible using plant material in several settings. Here, we used material from several tree species (Populus deltoides W. Bartram ex Marshall, Platanus occidentalis L., and Ginkgo biloba L.) to detect atmospheric deposition of trace elements (Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn) in six localities along a transect from near-urban to far-urban in southeastern Indianapolis, IN, and one control site. We captured soil (legacy footprint), bark (multiannual record), and leaves (seasonal record) across a broad swath of the urban landscape and using a multi-metal approach. Tree bark, leaf, and proximal soil samples were collected and analyzed for their trace element content. The highest trace metal concentrations occurred at the near-urban sites, with particularly high Cu and Pb values. The highest Zn values were found at one of the far-urban sites, which is located near a large brownfield that was a former coal and coke storage and processing facility. No correlation was found between soil trace element composition and that of bark and leaves, perhaps indicating a disconnect between legacy inputs recorded in soils and current inputs recorded in the biological materials. Overall, the tree species analyzed served well as trace element bioindicators, although less so for G. biloba, and thus this approach is promising for further understanding the role that airborne pollution and deposition play in urban watersheds.


Assuntos
Oligoelementos/análise , Biomarcadores Ambientais , Monitoramento Ambiental , Solo , Árvores
2.
J Environ Qual ; 49(4): 793-811, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33016486

RESUMO

This review examines the impact of prescribed fire on the water quality variables (a) sediment load and (b) limiting macronutrients in forested environments globally. We aim to characterize the forested environments subject to prescribed fire, to discuss factors of the fire regime that contribute to water quality concerns, and to offer insight into the effect of precipitation timing and study scale on constituent exports. High fuel consumption during fire increases the risk of erosion and constituent export during precipitation, though high fuel consumption during prescribed fire is uncommon in forested environments. Small-scale studies examining sediment yield after prescribed fire may fail to capture the effect of landscape-scale spatial variability, and watershed-scale studies accounting for such variability are lacking. Although small-plot studies confirm that prescribed fire can alter hydrologic inputs, the environmental impact of these increases is minimal, particularly when compared with other land-use systems. Generally, prescribed fire is a beneficial and low-impact disturbance that likely improves fire-adapted forest health. However, gaps in knowledge exist at various spatial and temporal scales; this review suggests two avenues of future research, including (a) greater understanding of fire regime interactions that control surface runoff and erosion at the watershed scale, and (b) monitoring forest health and ecological function after prescribed fire rather than direct nutrient exports.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Fogo , Florestas , Nutrientes , Qualidade da Água
3.
J Environ Qual ; 49(4): 961-972, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33016495

RESUMO

The effects of enhanced acid deposition from the atmosphere, and associated elevated inputs of N, are widely evident, especially for forests where excess N has led to a variety of deleterious effects. These include declines in biodiversity, a response that will likely require considerable time for recovery. The purpose of this study was to determine responses of plant nutrient availability in surface mineral soil to 25 yr of experimental acidification and N addition in a central Appalachian hardwood forest ecosystem. We hypothesized that chronic additions of (NH4 )2 SO4 will increase mineral N, decrease soil pH, P, and base cations, increase micronutrients (Mn2+ and Fe2+ ), and increase levels of Al3+ . Results supported these predictions, although Mn2+ did not vary significantly. Earlier work on these plots found no response of any of the extractable nutrients to 3 yr of treatment, yet after 25 yr, our results suggest that impacts are apparent in the top 5 cm of the A horizon. We surmise that impacts in these soils may have lagged behind the onset of acidification treatments or that several years of treatment were required to overcome preexisting differences in soil ions. Generally, current findings confirm that (NH4 )2 SO4 treatments have lowered the pH, enhanced levels of exchangeable Al3+ , and increased stream-water exports of NO3 - and base cations-a process that further acidifies soil. The combination of these changes in surface soils, with their high proportion of fine roots, may contribute to the reduced growth and competitiveness of some hardwood species at the acidified site.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Solo , Região dos Apalaches , Florestas , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio
4.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(10): 666, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33001295

RESUMO

Knowledge of the background activity concentrations of anthropogenic radionuclides before the start of operation of the new nuclear power plant in Belarus, BelNPP, is an issue of great importance for neighbouring countries. In this study, we provide the pilot characterisation of the Lithuanian part of the 30-km zone of the BelNPP, emphasising the forest plants, terrestrial mosses, forest organic and mineral topsoil to describe the preoperational radioecological state of the pine forest ecosystem. Key anthropogenic radionuclides (14C, 3H, 137Cs and 239,240Pu) were analysed. The 14C specific activity varied from 97.80 ± 1.30 to 102.40 ± 0.79 pMC. The 3H specific activity in the tissue-free water tritium form varied from 13.2 ± 2.2 TU to 20.8 ± 2.3 TU, which corresponded to the 3H level of precipitation in this region. The activity concentrations of 239,240Pu in soil and moss samples did not exceed 1 Bq/kg and were mainly due to global fallout after nuclear tests. The 137Cs inventory in the pine forest soils of the Lithuanian part of the BelNPP 30-km zone varied from 930 ± 70 to 1650 ± 430 Bq/m2. High variation of the inventory and uneven distribution in the soil profile conditioned a wide range of 137Сs activity in terrestrial plants from 1.0 ± 0.5 to 40.5 ± 1.8 Bq/kg dry weight. The abundance of microorganisms in different seasons and soil depths do not exceed the natural levels. According to PCA loads, the number of microorganisms and variability of 137Cs specific activity is determined by soil abiotic parameters.


Assuntos
Centrais Nucleares , Poluentes Radioativos do Solo/análise , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental , Florestas , Solo
5.
Zootaxa ; 4779(3): zootaxa.4779.3.1, 2020 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33055775

RESUMO

We conducted a taxonomic revision of the arboreal snakes of the Boiga ceylonensis-group, all inhabiting the Indian subcontinent. Based on 15 characters, recorded from more than 100 specimens, representing eight recognized taxa, we conducted a multivariate morphometric analysis to redefine the taxonomic boundaries. We provide redescriptions of the nominate taxa in this group based on re-examination of the name-bearing types. The types of B. ceylonensis, B. beddomei, B. barnesii, B. dightoni, B. nuchalis and B. andamanensis are redescribed, where appropriate lectotypes are selected, illustrated and their nomenclature, synonymy and distribution are discussed. Status of the nominate taxon Boiga ceylonensis dakhunensis Deraniyagala, 1955 is fixed as an objective junior synonym of Dipsas nuchalis Günther, 1875. An updated key to the species of this group is presented.


Assuntos
Colubridae , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Árvores
6.
Zootaxa ; 4778(3): zootaxa.4778.3.8, 2020 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33055815

RESUMO

Two new species of Megarthrus are described from cloud forests of the Mexican state of Veracruz: M. cavianae Rodríguez, Navarrete-Heredia Arriaga-Varela sp. nov., and Chiapas:  M. chiapas Cuccodoro sp. nov. They differ from the two hitherto known Mexican species M. altivagans Bernhauer, 1929, and M. alatorreorum Rodríguez Navarrete-Heredia, 2015, both from temperate forests of the Transmexican Volcanic Belt, by having synapomorphic features of the M. inaequalis-supergroup of species. This lineage includes all the Central and South American members of the genus, with the inclusion of these species, the distribution of the group is extend by more than 5 degree of latitude to the North. Within this lineage, the two new species share a very peculiar morphology of the male abdominal sternite VIII found elsewhere in the genus only in M. flavosignatus Bierig, 1940, and M. zunilensis Sharp, 1887, with which they form the M. zunilensis-group of species defined here.


Assuntos
Besouros , Distribuição Animal , Estruturas Animais , Animais , Tamanho Corporal , Florestas , Masculino , México , Tamanho do Órgão
7.
Zootaxa ; 4778(3): zootaxa.4778.3.9, 2020 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33055816

RESUMO

A new species of Xenicola Uvarov, 1940 (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae: Phaneropterinae), X. brauni sp. n., is described from the Atlantic Forest of southeastern Brazil. Morphological comparisons with all other known species of Xenicola are presented and discussed. This is the first record of Xenicola in southeastern Brazil, and is also the northernmost record of the genus within the Brazilian Atlantic Forest.


Assuntos
Ortópteros , Animais , Brasil , Florestas , Registros
8.
Zootaxa ; 4853(2): zootaxa.4853.2.4, 2020 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056375

RESUMO

We transfer Apodemia planeca R. de la Maza E. J. de la Maza E. 2017 to Emesis as Emesis planeca (R. de la Maza E. J. de la Maza E.) n. comb. based on phylogenetic hypotheses estimated with one mtDNA and two nDNA markers. This is a rare and poorly known metalmark, endemic to the central region of Balsas Basin in Michoacán, Mexico, originally described from material collected 23 years ago. Here we analyze new specimens from the type locality not included in the original description. With this new material, we describe the morphological variation of adults, including male and female genitalia. This variation is then discussed and compared with the original description. Emesis planeca n. comb. is restricted to the Tropical Deciduous Forest and the adults fly only in the dry season. Due to the spatial, temporal, and ecological rareness of Emesis planeca n. comb., considering it has not been collected in more than two decades and that the Tropical Deciduous Forest is one of the most threatened habitats in Mexico; we propose assigning a protection status to this species.


Assuntos
Borboletas , Animais , Feminino , Florestas , Masculino , Filogenia , Vômito
9.
Zootaxa ; 4852(5): zootaxa.4852.5.3, 2020 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056395

RESUMO

An integrative taxonomic analysis recovered the new species Cnemaspis selenolagus sp. nov. of the C. siamensis group as the sister species to C. punctatonuchalis. The new species was discovered in mountain evergreen tropical forests of in Suan Phueng District of Ratchaburi Province, western Thailand. Additionally, the analysis recovered a deep genetic divergence between northern and southern clades within the C. siamensis group that occur on opposite sides of the Isthmus of Kra-a well-known biogeographic region of cladogenic turnover. The description of C. selenolagus sp. nov. brings the total number of species of Cnemaspis in Thailand to 16, 11 of which compose the C. siamensis group-a lineage endemic to the Thai-Malay Peninsula. This underscores the physiographic complexity of this narrow peninsula in that it can support a large number of closely related species in only the northern two-thirds of its length.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Lagartos , Animais , Florestas , Tailândia
10.
Zootaxa ; 4836(1): zootaxa.4836.1.1, 2020 Aug 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056841

RESUMO

Data on the subfamily Ichneumoninae Latreille, 1802 (Hymenopera: Ichneumonidae) from the Ukrainian Carpathians is summarized, with 196 species from eight tribes, of which 88 species are recorded from Ukraine for the first time. The new Ukrainian records belong to four tribes, Heresiarchini Ashmead, 1900, Ichneumonini Latreille, 1802, Phaeogenini Förster, 1869, and Platylabini Berthoumieu, 1904. Phaeogenini is the most poorly studied with 75% of species recorded for the country for the first time. High-altitude zone distribution is discussed: oak forest zone is the most species-rich (125 species), while the subalpine zone is the most poorly studied (57% of species found only in this zone are new records for Ukraine). The flying adults of Ichneumoninae were found from April until October, with a maximum number of species and genera collected in July, and with most specimens collected in May. Stenobarichneumon ridibitor Aubert, 1994 is transferred to the genus Baranisobas Heinrich, 1972 (comb. nov.).


Assuntos
Himenópteros , Animais , Florestas , Ucrânia
11.
Zootaxa ; 4763(4): zootaxa.4763.4.9, 2020 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056850

RESUMO

A new Stenampyx, S. viridiflavum n. sp., is described from Tanzania. Stenampyx was monotypic and known from Central to West African forests. As with the genus Pseudotomias Hemp, the newly described species in Stenampyx shows a close relationship to the Central and East African forest fauna.


Assuntos
Ortópteros , Animais , Florestas
12.
Acta amaz ; 50(3): 260-262, jul. - set. 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1118854

RESUMO

The first record of Vanilla labellopapillata is presented for the state of Amazonas, Brazil, in the region of Manaus, now the western limit of the species, which was previously known only from the type locality in the state of Pará. A brief description is provided and taxonomic and ecological aspects of the species are discussed in the light of this new finding. (AU)


Assuntos
Florestas , Classificação , Ecossistema Amazônico , Vanilla
13.
Acta amaz ; 50(3): 252-255, jul. - set. 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1118849

RESUMO

The rare Amazonian snake Eutrachelophis papilio is known from only five individuals, from four localities, belonging to its type-series, the more recent collected over 10 years ago. Here, we expand its distribution and describe its color in life for the first time. We also provide an estimate of its distribution area using the minimum convex polygon method and identify the values of anthropic pressure within its known distribution range with the Human Footprint Index. The new occurrence is located 291 km from the nearest known locality and its distribution is associated with pristine forests. Considering its rarity, and the absence of demographic and biological data, we suggest that the species should be classified as Data Deficient by IUCN criteria. (AU)


Assuntos
Serpentes , Florestas , Distribuição Animal
14.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(16): 3805-3811, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32893574

RESUMO

To clarify the difference of soil moisture characteristics between mixed broad leaf-conifer forest soil and artificial cultivation of Notopterygium incisum, the HYPROP system and the dew point potential meter were used to determine soil water retention curves(SWRC) for samples of two horizons(i.e. 2-7 cm, 10-15 cm). The basic physical and chemical properties of soil and its water characteristic parameters were also determined. The result showed as fllows:①The bulk density of mixed coniferous-broad leaf forest soil was between 0.33 and 0.52 g·cm~(-3), significantly lower than the corresponding value of field soil(1.01-1.18 g·cm~(-3))(P<0.05), While the organic matter content was significantly higher than the corresponding value of field soil(P<0.05). ②The saturated water content(θ_s), field water holding capacity(θ_(FC)) and Water that can be effectively utilized by plants(θ_(PAC)) of mixed coniferous-broadleaved forest soil were significantly higher than the corresponding value of field soil(P<0.05), while the retained water content(θ_r) value that cannot be effectively utilized by plants was significantly lower than that of field soil(P<0.05). ③The values of structural porosity(0.13-0.24 cm~3·cm~(-3)) and Matrix porosity(0.34-0.44 cm~3·cm~(-3)) of mixed coniferous-broadleaved forest soil were higher than the corresponding values of field soil. Therefore, with low bulk density and high content of organic matter, mixed coniferous-broadleaved forest soil can store more water in soil in the form of effective water to meet the needs of plants for water, thus possibly forming high quality medicinal materials of Notopterygii Rhizoma et Radix. In conclusion, the results of this study can provide theoretical basis guidance for soil structure improvement and water management to form high quality medicinal materials in the artificial cultivation of N. incisum.


Assuntos
Apiaceae , Traqueófitas , China , Florestas , Solo , Água/análise
15.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0230404, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32866150

RESUMO

High-throughput SNP genotyping has become a precondition to move to higher precision and wider genome coverage genetic analysis of natural and breeding populations of non-model species. We developed a 44,318 annotated SNP catalog for Araucaria angustifolia, a grandiose subtropical conifer tree, one of the only two native Brazilian gymnosperms, critically endangered due to its valuable wood and seeds. Following transcriptome assembly and annotation, SNPs were discovered from RNA-seq and pooled RAD-seq data. From the SNP catalog, an Axiom® SNP array with 3,038 validated SNPs was developed and used to provide a comprehensive look at the genetic diversity and structure of 15 populations across the natural range of the species. RNA-seq was a far superior source of SNPs when compared to RAD-seq in terms of conversion rate to polymorphic markers on the array, likely due to the more efficient complexity reduction of the huge conifer genome. By matching microsatellite and SNP data on the same set of A. angustifolia individuals, we show that SNPs reflect more precisely the actual genome-wide patterns of genetic diversity and structure, challenging previous microsatellite-based assessments. Moreover, SNPs corroborated the known major north-south genetic cline, but allowed a more accurate attribution to regional versus among-population differentiation, indicating the potential to select ancestry-informative markers. The availability of a public, user-friendly 3K SNP array for A. angustifolia and a catalog of 44,318 SNPs predicted to provide ~29,000 informative SNPs across ~20,000 loci across the genome, will allow tackling still unsettled questions on its evolutionary history, toward a more comprehensive picture of the origin, past dynamics and future trend of the species' genetic resources. Additionally, but not less importantly, the SNP array described, unlocks the potential to adopt genomic prediction methods to accelerate the still very timid efforts of systematic tree breeding of A. angustifolia.


Assuntos
Araucaria/genética , Brasil , Genoma de Planta/genética , Genômica/métodos , Genótipo , Repetições de Microssatélites/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Traqueófitas/genética , Transcriptoma/genética , Árvores/genética
16.
Sci Total Environ ; 741: 140446, 2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32887013

RESUMO

Soil enzymes play a key role in the circulation of nutrients and the functioning of the ecosystem. The aim of the study was to assess how the tree species of urban agglomerations affect soil quality and enzymatic activity (dehydrogenases DEH, catalase CAT, alkaline AlP and acid AcP phosphatase, protease PR, ß-glucosidase GLU, and urease UR). To this end, soil samples were taken from beneath nine park trees. The risk of soil contamination by selected heavy metals (Pb, Ni, Cd) was also investigated against the background of the selected physicochemical properties. Enzyme activity results were used to calculate multi-parametric indices of soil quality: availability factor (AF), enzymatic pH indicator (AlP/AcP), biological index of fertility (BIF), geometric mean (GMea), alternation index (Al3), biochemical soil activity (BA16 and BA17). The results showed statistically significant differences in physicochemical and enzymatic properties of soil depending on tree species. Correlation analysis showed that the content of total organic carbon (TOC), total nirogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP) and humus (OM) in soil significantly influenced the activity of the studied enzymes and glomalin content. AF coefficient values (1.84%-18.19%) suggest that the bioavailability of available phosphorus (AP) was sufficient. The Pb, Ni, Cd content results were found to be low and did not exceed the permissible concentrations. DEH, CAT and AlP activity were highest under common hawthorn, and AcP, GLU and PR under northern white cedar. The calculated enzymatic indicators proved to be a sensitive and accurate indicator of the dynamics of changes taking place in the city park soil. Based on the results, an attempt can be made to assess the planning of sustainable development of studied areas of urban parks.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados/análise , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Cidades , Ecossistema , Parques Recreativos , Solo , Árvores
17.
Sci Total Environ ; 744: 140996, 2020 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32947762

RESUMO

Rapid urban expansion often leads to substantial encroachment on ecological lands and destruction of natural environments. We developed a new cellular automata model (named CACEO) that uses cross-entropy optimization (CEO) to reproduce and project urban expansion into coastal areas and to assess urban encroachment on ecological lands. The CEO algorithm automatically searches for the near-optimal CA parameters and is capable of objectively parameterizing CA models to predict multi-objective scenarios. We calibrated CACEO by simulating urban expansion at Wenzhou from 1995 to 2005, validated the model from 2005 to 2015 using real data, and then predicted urban expansion for 2025 and 2035. End-state overall accuracies were 93.8% for 2005 and 94.4% for 2015, while figure-of-merit metrics were 27.9% for 2005 and 19.1% for 2015. We predicted four different scenarios to year 2025 and 2035: (1) a business-as-usual (BAU)-scenario using benchmark settings; (2) a District-scenario based on a district-oriented urban development strategy; (3) a Road-scenario based on a road network-oriented urban development strategy; and (4) a Coast-scenario based on a coast-oriented urban development strategy. Each scenario predicts a substantially different pattern of urban encroachment on ecological land and significant loss of farmland, forest, wetland and grassland. These scenarios should be useful in adjusting urban development strategies at Wenzhou and elsewhere.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Reforma Urbana , Algoritmos , China , Entropia , Florestas
18.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 32(4): 384-388, 2020 May 13.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32935513

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the efficiency of various agroforestry systems for snail control in plateau hilly schistosomiasis-endemic areas of Yunnan Province, so as to provide insights into the construction of agroforestry schistosomiasis control projects in plateau hilly regions. METHODS: The pilot areas of snail control forests with various agroforestry systems were built in snail-breeding farmlands in Eryuan County, Yunnan Province in 2010, and the economic benefits and snail control effect were investigated in 2018. In addition, a fuzzy comprehensive evaluation model was created to screen the agroforestry system with high comprehensive benefits. RESULTS: A total of 14 types of pilot areas of snail control forests with various agroforestry systems were built. Economic benefit analysis showed that the"walnut + garlic"pattern had the best economic benefit, with annual economic benefits of 270 000 Yuan/hm2, followed by the"walnut + chili"pattern (annual economic benefits of 120 000 Yuan/hm2) and the "walnut + vegetables"pattern (annual economic benefits of 105 000 Yuan/hm2). No snails were detected in 8 types of the agroforestry systems, including the"walnut + chili"pattern, the"walnut + tobacco"pattern and the"walnut + garlic"pattern; however, there were snail found with various densities in other types of systems. Fuzzy comprehensive evaluation showed that the"walnut + garlic"pattern had the best comprehensive control effect, followed by the"walnut + chili"pattern and the"walnut + tobacco" pattern, while the pure grassland pattern showed no effect on snail control. CONCLUSIONS: The agroforestry system is a preferential approach of forestry schistosomiasis control in plateau hilly schistosomiasis-endemic areas, which not only achieves snail control effects, but also promotes economic development and ecological construction in poor hilly areas.


Assuntos
Agricultura Florestal , Controle de Pragas , Caramujos , Animais , China , Agricultura Florestal/métodos , Florestas , Humanos , Controle de Pragas/economia , Controle de Pragas/métodos , Controle de Pragas/normas , Esquistossomose/prevenção & controle , Caramujos/fisiologia
19.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4461, 2020 09 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32929068

RESUMO

Protected areas (PAs) are the cornerstones of global biodiversity conservation efforts, but to fulfil this role they must be effective at conserving the ecosystems and species that occur within their boundaries. Adequate monitoring datasets that allow comparing biodiversity between protected and unprotected sites are lacking in tropical regions. Here we use the largest citizen science biodiversity dataset - eBird - to quantify the extent to which protected areas in eight tropical forest biodiversity hotspots are effective at retaining bird diversity. We find generally positive effects of protection on the diversity of bird species that are forest-dependent, endemic to the hotspots, or threatened or Near Threatened, but not on overall bird species richness. Furthermore, we show that in most of the hotspots examined this benefit is driven by protected areas preventing both forest loss and degradation. Our results provide evidence that, on average, protected areas contribute measurably to conserving bird species in some of the world's most diverse and threatened terrestrial ecosystems.


Assuntos
Aves/fisiologia , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Florestas , Animais , Biodiversidade , Geografia , América do Sul , Especificidade da Espécie
20.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4451, 2020 09 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32934202

RESUMO

Large brains and behavioural innovation are positively correlated, species-specific traits, associated with the behavioural flexibility animals need for adapting to seasonal and unpredictable habitats. Similar ecological challenges would have been important drivers throughout human evolution. However, studies examining the influence of environmental variability on within-species behavioural diversity are lacking despite the critical assumption that population diversification precedes genetic divergence and speciation. Here, using a dataset of 144 wild chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) communities, we show that chimpanzees exhibit greater behavioural diversity in environments with more variability - in both recent and historical timescales. Notably, distance from Pleistocene forest refugia is associated with the presence of a larger number of behavioural traits, including both tool and non-tool use behaviours. Since more than half of the behaviours investigated are also likely to be cultural, we suggest that environmental variability was a critical evolutionary force promoting the behavioural, as well as cultural diversification of great apes.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal , Pan troglodytes/psicologia , Animais , Ecossistema , Meio Ambiente , Feminino , Florestas , Masculino , Pan troglodytes/fisiologia , Comportamento de Utilização de Ferramentas
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