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1.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 69(4): 987-989, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33727474

RESUMO

A 42-year-old male patient presented with profound impairment of vision in both eyes, just as he was recovering from COVID-19. A known diabetic and hypertensive, he suffered from COVID-19 pneumonia further complicated by ARDS, septicaemia and acute kidney injury. His vision on presentation was finger counting close to face bilaterally with multiple, yellowish lesions at the posterior pole. Based on the clinical findings and previous blood culture report, it was diagnosed as candida retinitis and treated with oral and intravitreal anti-fungals. The lesions were regressing at follow-up. This is a post COVID-19 presumed candida retinitis case report.


Assuntos
/diagnóstico , Candidíase/diagnóstico , Infecções Oculares Fúngicas/diagnóstico , Infecções Oportunistas/diagnóstico , Retinite/diagnóstico , Administração Oral , Adulto , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Candidíase/tratamento farmacológico , Candidíase/microbiologia , Infecções Oculares Fúngicas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Oculares Fúngicas/microbiologia , Fluconazol/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Injeções Intravítreas , Masculino , Infecções Oportunistas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Oportunistas/microbiologia , Retinite/tratamento farmacológico , Retinite/microbiologia , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica , Acuidade Visual/fisiologia , Voriconazol/uso terapêutico
3.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 827, 2020 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33176724

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Candida auris is a new pathogen called "superbug fungus" which caused panic worldwide. There are no large-scale epidemiology studies by now, therefore a systematic review and meta-analysis was undertaken to determine the epidemic situation, drug resistance patterns and mortality of C. auris. METHODS: We systematically searched studies on the clinical report of Candida auris in Pubmed, Embase and Cochrane databases until October 6, 2019. A standardized form was used for data collection, and then statics was performed with STATA11.0. RESULTS: It showed that more than 4733 cases of C. auris were reported in over 33 countries, with more cases in South Africa, United States of America, India, Spain, United Kingdom, South Korea, Colombia and Pakistan. C. auirs exhibited a decrease in case count after 2016. Clade I and III were the most prevalent clades with more cases reported and wider geographical distribution. Blood stream infection was observed in 32% of the cases, which varied depending on the clades. Resistance to fluconazole, amphotericin B, caspofungin, micafungin and anidulafungin in C. auris were 91, 12, 12.1, 0.8 and 1.1%. The overall mortality of C. auris infection was 39%. Furthermore, subgroup analyses showed that mortality was higher in bloodstream infections (45%), and lower in Europe (20%). CONCLUSIONS: Over 4000 cases of C. auris were reported in at least 33 countries, which showed high resistance to fluconazole, moderate resistance to amphotericin B and caspofungin, high sensitivity to micafungin and anidulafungin. The crude mortality for BSI of C. auris was 45% which was similar to some drug-resistant bacteria previously reported. In conclusion, C. auris displayed similar characteristics to some drug resistance organisms. This study depicts several issues of C. auris that are most concerned, and is of great significance for the clinical management.


Assuntos
Candida/efeitos dos fármacos , Candidíase/epidemiologia , Candidíase/mortalidade , Anfotericina B/uso terapêutico , Anidulafungina/uso terapêutico , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Candida/classificação , Candida/genética , Candidíase/tratamento farmacológico , Candidíase/microbiologia , Caspofungina/uso terapêutico , Farmacorresistência Fúngica Múltipla/efeitos dos fármacos , Fluconazol/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Micafungina/uso terapêutico , Prevalência
4.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 681, 2020 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32943003

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this case report was to report a case of Cryptococcus laurentii infection in the left knee of a previously healthy 29 year old male patient. CASE PRESENTATION: After an initial misdiagnosis and 7 months of failed treatment, the patient received nearly a month of treatment with voriconazole (200 mg IV q12 h) and knee irrigation with amphotericin B until the infection was controlled. The treatment continued with fluconazole for nearly 7 months and approximately 5 weeks of antibiotic treatment for a skin bacterial coinfection. In the end, the patient's symptoms disappeared completely, the left knee recovered well, and there was no recurrence of infection. CONCLUSION: The key points of successful treatment in this case were the thorough debridement, the adequate course of knee irrigation with antifungal drugs and more than 6 months of oral antifungal drugs that were able to eradicate the infection.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Criptococose/tratamento farmacológico , Criptococose/microbiologia , Joelho/microbiologia , Administração Oral , Adulto , Anfotericina B/uso terapêutico , Antifúngicos/administração & dosagem , Artrite Infecciosa/microbiologia , Criptococose/cirurgia , Cryptococcus/isolamento & purificação , Desbridamento , Erros de Diagnóstico , Fluconazol/uso terapêutico , Infecção Focal/tratamento farmacológico , Infecção Focal/microbiologia , Infecção Focal/cirurgia , Humanos , Joelho/diagnóstico por imagem , Joelho/cirurgia , Masculino , Dermatopatias Bacterianas/tratamento farmacológico , Voriconazol/uso terapêutico
6.
Oral Dis ; 26 Suppl 1: 91-102, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32862535

RESUMO

Oral candidiasis (OC) is the most prevalent HIV-related oral lesion in patients on combined anti-retroviral therapy (cART) or without cART. Management is challenged in some patients by development of resistance to azole drugs, such as fluconazole. Recent scientific knowledge about OC pathogenesis, the role of OC in the immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS), the relationship of OC with the microbiome, and novelties in OC treatment was discussed in an international workshop format. Literature searches were conducted to address five questions: (a) Considering the pathogenesis of Candida spp. infection, are there any potential therapeutic targets that could be considered, mainly in HIV-infected individuals resistant to fluconazole? (b) Is oral candidiasis part of IRIS in HIV patients who receive cART? (c) Can management of the oral microbiome reduce occurrence of OC in patients with HIV infection? (d) What are the recent advances (since 2015) regarding plant-based and alternative medicines in management of OC? and (e) Is there a role for photodynamic therapy in management of OC in HIV-infected patients? A number of the key areas where further research is necessary were identified to allow a deeper insight into this oral condition that could help to understand its nature and recommend alternatives for care.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos , Candidíase Bucal , Infecções por HIV , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Candidíase Bucal/tratamento farmacológico , Candidíase Bucal/prevenção & controle , Fluconazol/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos
7.
Mikrobiyol Bul ; 54(2): 334-338, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Turco | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32723288

RESUMO

In this study, a case of candidemia caused by Candida hellenica as the first report in our country was presented. Fluconazole and liposomal amphotericin B treatment was initiated in a 20-year-old male patient in October 2018 due to the diagnosis of candidemia following esophageal surgery. The patient had a history of multiple esophageal operations. The patient was discharged during the last 24 hours due to the lack of fever, improvement in general condition and lack of growth in blood cultures. Germination tube test of the Candida isolate grown in blood culture was negative and the colony morphology in corn meal tween 80 agar was not defining. It was identified as C.hellenica according to the profile obtained from the ID32C® (bioMérieux, France) method based on carbohydrate assimilation. The target ITS regions of the rRNA genes were amplified by polymerase chain reaction and sequenced using suitable primers for the confirmation of the identification on species level. The DNA sequences obtained were searched by using the "National Center for Biotechnology Information (BLAST)" (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/ BLAST/) database and the isolate was identified as C.hellenica with a 99% homology with GenBank sequences. MALDI-TOF (Vitek MS, bioMerieux) could not identify the yeast isolate. The reference microdilution method was performed according to the recommendations of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute in order to test the antifungal susceptibility. The minimal inhibitory concentrations for the isolate, determined after 24-hour incubation were 0.25 µg/ml for amphotericin B, 8 µg/ml for fluconazole, 0.25 µg/ml for voriconazole, and 0.25 µg/ml for itraconazole. As our case had a previous history of gastrointestinal tract surgery it was thought that gastrointestinal tract was the endogenous source of candidemia by leading to mucosal disruption and this mucosal disruption might facilitate the translocation of Candida. The carbohydrate assimilation test ID32C®, was able identify the causative agent of candidaemia at the species level in this case. However, uncommon or previously unrecognized organisms may be misidentified by commercial systems. While the phenotypic definition is sufficient in routine laboratories, it is mandatory to confirm the microorganism species definition by DNA sequence analysis, as done in this case. We have presented a correctly identifed and successfully treated candidemia case. Although the candidemia was not mortal in our patient, the mortality rate of candidemia which is 50%, should be remembered. A total of two C.hellenica infections have been reported in the literature, including one candidaemia and one respiratory tract colonization. Our successfully treated case was presented to draw attention to this rare infectious agent.


Assuntos
Candidemia , Esôfago , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Adulto , Anfotericina B/uso terapêutico , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Candida/isolamento & purificação , Candidemia/tratamento farmacológico , Candidemia/etiologia , Esôfago/cirurgia , Fluconazol/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Masculino , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/microbiologia , Adulto Jovem
8.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 506, 2020 Jul 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32660641

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We evaluated the epidemiology, clinical characteristics, microbiology, outcomes, and risk factors for mortality of candidemia in adult surgical patients in Shenyang from 2012 to 2018. METHODS: We designed a retrospective observational study of adult patients with candidemia in a teaching hospital including three hospital campuses. Data regarding clinical and demographic characteristics were collected from the patient's medical records. RESULTS: Of the 236 cases of candidemia, 172 (72.9%) were identified in surgical patients, including 146 (84.9%) general surgeries, 11 (6.4%) urologic surgeries, 6 (3.5%) thoracic surgeries, and others. Higher proportions of solid tumors, total parenteral nutrition, the presence of a urinary catheter, and the presence of a gastric tube were observed in surgical patients with candidemia versus non-surgical ones, whereas the percentages of hematological malignancy, diabetes mellitus, and renal replacement therapy were relatively lower in surgical patients. Renal failure, leukopenia, and thrombocytopenia were less common laboratory findings in surgical patients with candidemia than compared to non-surgical ones. Among surgical patients with candidemia, Candida parapsilosis was the predominant species (43%), followed by C. albicans (33.7%), C. glabrata (11%), C. tropicalis (8.1%), and others (4.1%). Overall susceptibility, susceptible dose dependent or intermediate susceptibility, and resistance to fluconazole were detected in 73.3, 19.8, and 3.5% Candida isolates from surgical patients, respectively, but no resistance to amphotericin B was observed. Overall, the 30-day mortality in surgical patients was 19.2%. At multivariable analysis, independent risk factors for death in surgical patients with candidemia were ICU stay, thrombocytopenia, and C. albicans infection. CONCLUSIONS: Surgical patients account for the majority of candidemia cases. Among patients with recent surgery, risk factors for species distribution, antifungal sensitivity patterns of Candida isolates causing candidemia, and independent risk factors for mortality should be evaluated and considered for a better outcome in the antifungal treatment.


Assuntos
Candida albicans/isolamento & purificação , Candida parapsilosis/isolamento & purificação , Candidemia/epidemiologia , Candidemia/mortalidade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/microbiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Anfotericina B/uso terapêutico , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Candidemia/tratamento farmacológico , Candidemia/microbiologia , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Fluconazol/uso terapêutico , Hospitais de Ensino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento
9.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 438, 2020 Jun 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32571233

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Candida sp. osteoarticular infection is rare and most often due to hematogenous seeding during an episode of candidemia in immunocompromised patients. However, the diagnosis can be delayed in patients with subtle symptoms and signs of joint infection without a concurrent episode of candidemia. CASE PRESENTATION: A 75-year-old woman presented with a three-year history of pain and swelling of the left knee. Candida pelliculosa was detected from the intraoperative tissue when the patient had undergone left total knee arthroplasty 32 months ago, but no antifungal treatment was performed. One year after the total knee arthroplasty, C. pelliculosa was repeatedly isolated from the left knee synovial fluid and antifungal treatment comprising amphotericin B deoxycholate and fluconazole was administered. However, joint infection had extended to the adjacent bone and led to progressive joint destruction. The patient underwent surgery for prosthesis removal and received prolonged antifungal treatment with micafungin and fluconazole. CONCLUSIONS: This case shows that C. pelliculosa, an extremely rare non-Candida albicans sp., can cause fungal arthritis and lead to irreversible joint destruction owing to delayed diagnosis and treatment.


Assuntos
Artrite Infecciosa/tratamento farmacológico , Artrite Infecciosa/microbiologia , Candida/patogenicidade , Candidíase/microbiologia , Idoso , Anfotericina B/uso terapêutico , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Artroplastia do Joelho/efeitos adversos , Candida/isolamento & purificação , Candidemia/tratamento farmacológico , Candidemia/etiologia , Candidíase/tratamento farmacológico , Ácido Desoxicólico/uso terapêutico , Remoção de Dispositivo , Combinação de Medicamentos , Feminino , Fluconazol/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Cuidados Intraoperatórios , Prótese Articular , Joelho/microbiologia , Joelho/cirurgia , Micafungina/uso terapêutico , Osteomielite/tratamento farmacológico , Osteomielite/microbiologia
10.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 15: 3681-3693, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32547022

RESUMO

Background: Fungal infections are becoming more prevalent and threatening because of the continuous emergence of azole-resistant fungal infections. The present study was aimed to assess the activity of free Methylglyoxal (MG) or MG-conjugated chitosan nanoparticles (MGCN) against fluconazole-resistant Candida albicans. Materials and Methods: A novel formulation of MGCN was prepared and characterized to determine their size, shape and polydispersity index. Moreover, the efficacy of fluconazole or MG or MGCN was determined against intracellular C. albicans in macrophages and the systematic candidiasis in a murine model. The safety of MG or MGCN was tested in mice by analyzing the levels of hepatic and renal toxicity parameters. Results: Candida albicans did not respond to fluconazole, even at the highest dose of 20 mg/kg, whereas MG and MGCN effectively eliminated C. albicans from the macrophages and infected mice. Mice in the group treated with MGCN at a dose of 10 mg/kg exhibited a 90% survival rate and showed the lowest fungal load in the kidney, whereas the mice treated with free MG at the same dose exhibited 50% survival rate. Moreover, the administration of MG or MGCN did not induce any liver and kidney toxicity in the treated mice. Conclusion: The findings of the present work suggest that MGCN may be proved a promising therapeutic formulation to treat azole-resistant C. albicans infections.


Assuntos
Candidíase/tratamento farmacológico , Quitosana/química , Farmacorresistência Fúngica , Fluconazol/uso terapêutico , Nanopartículas/química , Aldeído Pirúvico/uso terapêutico , Animais , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Candida albicans/efeitos dos fármacos , Candida albicans/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Candidíase/microbiologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Farmacorresistência Fúngica/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Fluconazol/farmacologia , Hifas/efeitos dos fármacos , Hifas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Nanopartículas/ultraestrutura , Tamanho da Partícula , Aldeído Pirúvico/farmacologia
12.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 399, 2020 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32503446

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Disseminated cryptococcosis is a well-characterized complication in immunocompromised patients with cryptococcal pneumonia or meningitis; however, isolated cryptococcal osteomyelitis is a rare entity that occurs in approximately 5% of patients with cryptococcosis. Cryptococcal osteomyelitis in the head and neck region is extremely rare. To the best of our knowledge, no cases of cryptococcal osteomyelitis affecting only the zygomatic bone have been reported to date. CASE PRESENTATION: A 78-year-old man without other comorbidities presented with progressive swelling of the right cheek along with pain and trismus. Clinical examination revealed a tender swelling in the right zygomatic region; the maximal mandibular opening was about 2 cm. Laboratory data showed mildly elevated inflammatory indices (C-reactive protein: 0.45 mg/dL; erythrocyte sedimentation rate: 35 mm/h). Computed tomography showed a 30-mm-diameter lesion at the right zygomatic arch. A part of the lesion has extended to the subcutaneous area of the cheeks with signs of bone destruction and surrounding contrast effects. Histopathological examination of fine-needle aspirate and needle biopsy showed cryptococcus. Furthermore, culture of the aspirate showed growth of Cryptococcus neoformans. No evidence of any other site involvement was observed. Therefore, the patient was diagnosed with isolated cryptococcal osteomyelitis and was initiated on fluconazole therapy. The treatment was effective, and all symptoms were resolved in 4 weeks. Fluconazole therapy was stopped after 6 months. There are no signs of recurrence as of 15-month follow-up. The patient has no cosmetic abnormalities or sequelae. CONCLUSIONS: Fine-needle aspiration cytology, needle biopsy, and fungal culture were useful for definitive diagnosis. Immunocompetent patients with isolated osteomyelitis may be cured with oral fluconazole alone.


Assuntos
Cryptococcus neoformans/isolamento & purificação , Osteomielite/diagnóstico , Idoso , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Biópsia por Agulha Fina , Fluconazol/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido , Masculino , Osteomielite/tratamento farmacológico , Osteomielite/microbiologia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Zigoma/diagnóstico por imagem , Zigoma/patologia
13.
BMJ ; 369: m1494, 2020 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32434758

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine the risk of congenital malformations associated with exposure to oral fluconazole at commonly used doses in the first trimester of pregnancy for the treatment of vulvovaginal candidiasis. DESIGN: Population based cohort study. SETTING: A cohort of pregnancies publicly insured in the United States, with data from the nationwide Medicaid Analytic eXtract 2000-14. PARTICIPANTS: Pregnancies of women enrolled in Medicaid from three or more months before the last menstrual period to one month after delivery, and infants enrolled for three or more months after birth. INTERVENTIONS: Use of fluconazole and topical azoles was established by requiring one or more prescriptions during the first trimester of pregnancy. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Risk of musculoskeletal malformations, conotruncal malformations, and oral clefts (primary outcomes), associated with exposure to oral fluconazole, diagnosed during the first 90 days after delivery, were examined. RESULTS: The study cohort of 1 969 954 pregnancies included 37 650 (1.9%) pregnancies exposed to oral fluconazole and 82 090 (4.2%) pregnancies exposed to topical azoles during the first trimester. The risk of musculoskeletal malformations was 52.1 (95% confidence interval 44.8 to 59.3) per 10 000 pregnancies exposed to fluconazole versus 37.3 (33.1 to 41.4) per 10 000 pregnancies exposed to topical azoles. The risks of conotruncal malformations were 9.6 (6.4 to 12.7) versus 8.3 (6.3 to 10.3) per 10 000 pregnancies exposed to fluconazole and topical azoles, respectively; risks of oral clefts were 9.3 (6.2 to 12.4) versus 10.6 (8.4 to 12.8) per 10 000 pregnancies, respectively. The adjusted relative risk after fine stratification of the propensity score was 1.30 (1.09 to 1.56) for musculoskeletal malformations, 1.04 (0.70 to 1.55) for conotruncal malformations, and 0.91 (0.61 to 1.35) for oral clefts overall. Based on cumulative doses of fluconazole, the adjusted relative risks for musculoskeletal malformations, conotruncal malformations, and oral clefts overall were 1.29 (1.05 to 1.58), 1.12 (0.71 to 1.77), and 0.88 (0.55 to 1.40) for 150 mg of fluconazole; 1.24 (0.93 to 1.66), 0.61 (0.26 to 1.39), and 1.08 (0.58 to 2.04) for more than 150 mg up to 450 mg of fluconazole; and 1.98 (1.23 to 3.17), 2.30 (0.93 to 5.65), and 0.94 (0.23 to 3.82) for more than 450 mg of fluconazole, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Oral fluconazole use in the first trimester was not associated with oral clefts or conotruncal malformations, but an association with musculoskeletal malformations was found, corresponding to a small adjusted risk difference of about 12 incidents per 10 000 exposed pregnancies overall.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/efeitos adversos , Candidíase Vulvovaginal/tratamento farmacológico , Fluconazol/efeitos adversos , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/tratamento farmacológico , Anormalidades Induzidas por Medicamentos/epidemiologia , Administração Oral , Adulto , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Candidíase Vulvovaginal/etnologia , Fissura Palatina/induzido quimicamente , Fissura Palatina/epidemiologia , Anormalidades Congênitas/epidemiologia , Anormalidades Congênitas/etiologia , Síndrome de DiGeorge/induzido quimicamente , Síndrome de DiGeorge/epidemiologia , Feminino , Fluconazol/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Anormalidades Musculoesqueléticas/induzido quimicamente , Anormalidades Musculoesqueléticas/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Primeiro Trimestre da Gravidez , Risco , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
14.
Ann Hematol ; 99(10): 2455-2456, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32451706
17.
Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis ; 97(2): 115024, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32253071

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is commonly stated that Candida in the vagina prefers a low pH to develop infection. However, mixed infections of Candida with bacterial vaginosis (BV) and aerobic vaginitis (AV) are rather common and may challenge the rule that Candida should only be looked for in low vaginal pH settings. In this study we tested whether the vaginal pH in acute vaginal candidosis is lower than in women successfully treated to prevent Candida recurrences. METHODS: Vaginal pH and microscopy findings of vaginal microbiota were recorded during 12 visits over 1.5 years in 117 patients medically monitored during a degressive fluconazole maintenance regimen for proven recurrent vulvovaginal candidosis (ReCiDiF trial). The fluctuation of the mean pH of and microscopic findings of the vaginal smears were studied before, during and after the treatment. RESULTS: The mean vaginal pH of women with acute infection before or after ending maintenance treatment was (4.7±0.8 and 4.8 ±1.0, respectively, p>0.05). During maintenance treatment with fluconazole, the pH dropped significantly to 4.5±0.8 (p=0.01). Depression of Lactobacilli spp. (increased lactobacillary grades) was more frequent during the acute, pre-treatment period (30.0%) than during the treatment period (23.1%, p=0.03). Aerobic vaginitis type flora was also more prevalent pre-treatment than during treatment (30.0% vs 22.2%, OR=0.7 (95%CI 0.5-0.9), p=0.01). DISCUSSION: In women with RVVC, acute vaginal Candida infection is associated with an increased pH, and disturbed vaginal bacterial microbiota. During fluconazole maintenance treatment, the pH drops to normal levels and the lactobacillary grade improves. CONDENSATION: Acute Candida vulvovaginitis can be associated with a disturbance of the vaginal microbiota. In patients with recurrent vulvovaginal candidosis, decrease of pH, and increase of Lactobacilli spp. were observed during fluconazole maintenance treatment. This pH drop was seen in all response groups. This contradicts the common belief that active vaginal Candida infection is related to low pH.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Candidíase Vulvovaginal/prevenção & controle , Fluconazol/uso terapêutico , Microbiota/efeitos dos fármacos , Vagina/efeitos dos fármacos , Vagina/microbiologia , Doença Aguda , Adolescente , Adulto , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Candida/efeitos dos fármacos , Candidíase Vulvovaginal/tratamento farmacológico , Candidíase Vulvovaginal/microbiologia , Disbiose , Feminino , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Quimioterapia de Manutenção , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva , Vagina/química , Adulto Jovem
18.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 103(2): 713-718, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32342852

RESUMO

Clinical worsening or new manifestation of cryptococcal disease following initiation of anti-retroviral therapy (ART) in an HIV patient is a hallmark of cryptococcal immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (C-IRIS). However, it can be difficult to distinguish IRIS from worsening or new infection. Here, we present a case of severe C-IRIS involving multiple cerebellar, spinal, and intradural abscesses and spinal arachnoiditis 7 months after ART initiation in an AIDS patient with uncertain prior ART compliance. He had multiple prior episodes of cryptococcal meningitis with complications necessitating ventriculoperitoneal shunt placement and was on suppressive fluconazole when he developed worsening brain manifestations. He received empiric anti-cryptococcal re-induction without improvement. All cerebrospinal fluid cultures remained sterile, with negative Cryptococcus PCR testing, and his condition continued to worsen prior to corticosteroid initiation. Ultimately, C-IRIS was diagnosed by brain biopsy. This case demonstrates an extreme in severity of C-IRIS and in the timeline of presentation after ART initiation.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/tratamento farmacológico , Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Abscesso Encefálico/diagnóstico por imagem , Empiema Subdural/diagnóstico por imagem , Síndrome Inflamatória da Reconstituição Imune/diagnóstico por imagem , Meningite Criptocócica/tratamento farmacológico , Anfotericina B/uso terapêutico , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Aracnoide-Máter/patologia , Aracnoidite/congênito , Aracnoidite/diagnóstico por imagem , Aracnoidite/tratamento farmacológico , Biópsia , Encéfalo/patologia , Abscesso Encefálico/tratamento farmacológico , Edema Encefálico/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças Cerebelares/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças Cerebelares/tratamento farmacológico , Empiema Subdural/tratamento farmacológico , Fluconazol/uso terapêutico , Flucitosina/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Síndrome Inflamatória da Reconstituição Imune/tratamento farmacológico , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prednisona/uso terapêutico , Recidiva
19.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 4: CD013594, 2020 04 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32343003

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Progressive disseminated histoplasmosis (PDH) is a serious fungal infection that affects people living with HIV. The best way to treat the condition is unclear. OBJECTIVES: We assessed evidence in three areas of equipoise. 1. Induction. To compare efficacy and safety of initial therapy with liposomal amphotericin B versus initial therapy with alternative antifungals. 2. Maintenance. To compare efficacy and safety of maintenance therapy with 12 months of oral antifungal treatment with shorter durations of maintenance therapy. 3. Antiretroviral therapy (ART). To compare the outcomes of early initiation versus delayed initiation of ART. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register; Cochrane CENTRAL; MEDLINE (PubMed); Embase (Ovid); Science Citation Index Expanded, Conference Proceedings Citation Index-Science, and BIOSIS Previews (all three in the Web of Science); the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, ClinicalTrials.gov, and the ISRCTN registry, all up to 20 March 2020. SELECTION CRITERIA: We evaluated studies assessing the use of liposomal amphotericin B and alternative antifungals for induction therapy; studies assessing the duration of antifungals for maintenance therapy; and studies assessing the timing of ART. We included randomized controlled trials (RCT), single-arm trials, prospective cohort studies, and single-arm cohort studies. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors assessed eligibility and risk of bias, extracted data, and assessed certainty of evidence. We used the Cochrane 'Risk of bias' tool to assess risk of bias in randomized studies, and ROBINS-I tool to assess risk of bias in non-randomized studies. We summarized dichotomous outcomes using risk ratios (RRs), with 95% confidence intervals (CI). MAIN RESULTS: We identified 17 individual studies. We judged eight studies to be at critical risk of bias, and removed these from the analysis. 1. Induction We found one RCT which compared liposomal amphotericin B to deoxycholate amphotericin B. Compared to deoxycholate amphotericin B, liposomal amphotericin B may have higher clinical success rates (RR 1.46, 95% CI 1.01 to 2.11; 1 study, 80 participants; low-certainty evidence). Compared to deoxycholate amphotericin B, liposomal amphotericin B has lower rates of nephrotoxicity (RR 0.25, 95% CI 0.09 to 0.67; 1 study, 77 participants; high-certainty evidence). We found very low-certainty evidence to inform comparisons between amphotericin B formulations and azoles for induction therapy. 2. Maintenance We found no eligible study that compared less than 12 months of oral antifungal treatment to 12 months or greater for maintenance therapy. For both induction and maintenance, fluconazole performed poorly in comparison to other azoles. 3. ART We found one study, in which one out of seven participants in the 'early' arm and none of the three participants in the 'late' arm died. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Liposomal amphotericin B appears to be a better choice compared to deoxycholate amphotericin B for treating PDH in people with HIV; and fluconazole performed poorly compared to other azoles. Other treatment choices for induction, maintenance, and when to start ART have no evidence, or very low certainty evidence. PDH needs prospective comparative trials to help inform clinical decisions.


Assuntos
Anfotericina B/uso terapêutico , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Histoplasmose/tratamento farmacológico , Anfotericina B/efeitos adversos , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Antifúngicos/efeitos adversos , Estudos de Coortes , Ácido Desoxicólico , Esquema de Medicação , Fluconazol/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Histoplasmose/mortalidade , Humanos , Quimioterapia de Indução , Itraconazol/uso terapêutico , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Lipossomos , Quimioterapia de Manutenção , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
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