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1.
Food Chem ; 366: 130572, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34284190

RESUMO

In this study, a fluorine-fluorine interaction approach through fluoridating boron nitride nanosheets (BNNs) for sensing perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in multiple food matrices was developed. Through a facile hydrothermal fluorination modification, the BNNs were transferred into homogeneous fluorinated boron nitride nanoparticles (F-BNNs) with robust networks and specific surface area. After morphological modification, the particles displayed strong adsorption and sensing capabilities on PFAAs in both solid and liquid food matrix. Under the evaluation of mass spectrometry, F-BNNs based microextraction approach exhibited low method detection limits (MDLs) in the ranges of 0.9-3.9 pg mL-1 and 3.6-15.8 pg g-1 for milk and meat matrices, respectively, with satisfactory repeatability (RSD% <13.5%) and recoveries (77.7-110.5%). This work not only depicted a facile approach for preparing F-BNNs based SPME fiber, but also provided a routine analysis protocol for monitoring PFAAs in food systems.


Assuntos
Flúor , Fluorcarbonetos , Cromatografia Líquida , Microextração em Fase Sólida , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
2.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 109: 219-236, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34607670

RESUMO

Certain poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) exhibit significant bioaccumulation/biomagnification behaviors in ecosystems. PFASs, such as perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorohexanesulfonic acid (PFHxS) and related precursors, have elicited attention from both public and national regulatory agencies, which has resulted in worldwide restrictions on their production and use. Apex predators occupy the top trophic positions in ecosystems and are most affected by the biomagnification behavior of PFASs. Meanwhile, the long lifespans of apex predators also lead to the high body burden of PFASs. The high body burden of PFASs might be linked to adverse health effects and even pose a potential threat to their reproduction. As seen in previous reviews of PFASs, knowledge is lacking between the current stage of the PFAS body burden and related effects in apex predators. This review summarized PFAS occurrence in global apex predators, including information on the geographic distribution, levels, profiles, and tissue distribution, and discussed the trophic transfer and ecotoxicity of PFASs. In the case where legacy PFASs were restricted under international convention, the occurrence of novel PFASs, such as 6:2 chlorinated polyfluorinated ether sulfonate (6:2 Cl-PFESA) and perfluoroethylcyclohexane sulfonate (PFECHS), in apex predators arose as an emerging issue. Future studies should develop an effective analytical method and focus on the toxicity and trophic transfer behavior of novel PFASs.


Assuntos
Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos , Fluorcarbonetos , Ecossistema , Fluorcarbonetos/análise , Fluorcarbonetos/toxicidade , Distribuição Tecidual
3.
Nanoscale ; 13(32): 13681-13692, 2021 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34477643

RESUMO

A hypoxic environment in tumors hampers the therapeutic efficacy of radiotherapy. Moreover, radiotherapy, a localized treatment technique, can barely control tumor metastases. Herein, poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) was used to encapsulate perfluorocarbon (PFC) for increasing the oxygen level and a lignan-derived compound (Q1) for enhancing IL-25 secretion from fibroblasts, thereby boosting the radiotherapeutic effect on local and distant tumors. The prepared co-delivery nanoplatform, PFC-Q1@PLGA, has a nano-scale size of around 160 nm and a negative zeta potential (about -13 mV). PFC-Q1@PLGA treatment leads to an arrest of the G2 phase (4n) in the cell cycle and reduces the mitochondria membrane potential. A high expression level of IL-25 in fibroblasts is detected after the cells are treated with PFC-Q1@PLGA, which increases the late apoptosis percentage of 4T1 cells after treatment with IL-25-containing conditional medium from fibroblasts. The oxygen level in tumors is significantly promoted to about 52.3% after injection of oxygen-saturated PFC-Q1@PLGA (O2), which is confirmed from the functional magnetic resonance images of the tumor site in mice. The in vivo study demonstrates that the injection of PFC-Q1@PLGA (O2) into local tumors significantly enhances the radiotherapeutic effect on local tumors and also inhibits the growth of remote tumors by an enhanced abscopal effect. This study presents a novel radiotherapy strategy to enable synergistic whole-body therapeutic responses after localized treatment with PFC-Q1@PLGA (O2).


Assuntos
Fluorcarbonetos , Lignanas , Nanopartículas , Neoplasias , Animais , Camundongos , Oxigênio , Microambiente Tumoral
4.
Chemosphere ; 282: 131105, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34470159

RESUMO

Atmospheric wet deposition is an important process for the occurrence of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in polar/remote mountain regions; however, there are limited data on PFASs in precipitation from the Tibetan Plateau (TP). Precipitation (rain from May to October 2017) was therefore collected across the TP to investigate the concentrations, composition profiles, sources, and fluxes of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs). The average ∑PFAA concentrations ranged from 212.3 pg L-1 to 547.7 pg L-1, and perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs) accounted for 87% of the measured PFAAs (mean value). Significant positive associations (p < 0.05) were found for most PFCAs in the southeast TP, indicating that they may come from similar sources. The monthly PFAA deposition flux ranged from 12.6 to 68.9 ng m-2 month-1, decreasing from east to west. As climate of the eastern TP is controlled mainly by the Indian monsoon, indicating that the Indian monsoon plays an important role in delivering PFAAs to the TP. PCA (principal component analysis) combined with back-trajectory analysis was used to estimate the atmospheric transport pathways, and the PSCF (potential source contribution function) model was applied to define the potential source regions of individual PFAAs. The results suggested that northeast India, Bangladesh, and southern Nepal are the potential sources of C4-C7 PFCAs; C8-C10 PFCAs are more influenced by emissions from southern Nepal and Bhutan; while the source regions of long-chain PFCAs (C11-C12) can be attributed to northern India and Pakistan. Specifically, PFOS (perfluorooctane sulfonic acid) has a local contribution from the central TP.


Assuntos
Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos , Fluorcarbonetos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Fluorcarbonetos/análise , Estações do Ano , Tibet , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
5.
J Hazard Mater ; 416: 125857, 2021 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34492806

RESUMO

Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) is persistent in the environment. The activities of microorganisms alone are insufficient for the decomposition of PFOA, but microorganisms can contribute positively to the degradation of PFOA in synergistic systems. Herein, a synergistic system combining photocatalytic decay with microbial degradation of the transformation products was applied to degrade 500.0 µg L-1 PFOA. The microorganisms increased the total removed percentage by 30.7% to a final percentage of 79.7 ± 9.4% in comparison with the photocatalytic method alone. Moreover, an additional 44.2% of removed total organic carbon and additional defluorination percentage of 24.5% were obtained after the synergistic tests. The 16S RNA sequencing analysis indicated that Stenotrophomonas, Bacillus, Pseudomonas, and Brevundimonas were highly enriched in the functional microbial community, which was simultaneously shaped by photocatalysis and substances. This study found it would be feasible to use a synergistic method containing photocatalysis and a microbial community for the degradation of low-concentrations of PFOA, and the results provided a reference to modified the removal efficiency of the synergistic system by looking insight into the relationship between the functional microbial community and PFOA.


Assuntos
Caprilatos , Fluorcarbonetos , Estudos de Viabilidade
6.
Arh Hig Rada Toksikol ; 72(3): 182-190, 2021 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34587672

RESUMO

Even though the endocrine-disrupting potential of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) is well known, the mechanisms underlying its cellular and epigenetic toxicity at the critical stage of hypothalamic development are poorly understood. This is why we studied its effects on the embryonic mouse hypothalamic cell line N46 (mHypoE-N46) with a hope to shed more light on the mechanisms through which PFOA causes embryonic hypothalamic cell damage. To do that, we studied cell viability, global DNA methylation, and gene expression in cells exposed to PFOA. As the PFOA dose increased, cell viability decreased, while global DNA methylation increased. PFOA also significantly altered the expression of genes related to the apoptosis and cell cycle, neurotrophic genes, and the Tet, Dnmt, and Mecp2 genes. Our findings suggest that exposure to PFOA affects cell survival through the reprogramming of embryonic hypothalamic DNA methylation patterns and altering cell homeostasis genes. DNA methylation and changes in the Mecp2 gene expression induced by PFOA also imply wider ramifications, as they alter genes of other major mechanisms of the embryonic hypothalamus. Our study may therefore serve as a good starting point for further research into the mechanisms of PFOA effect of hypothalamic development.


Assuntos
Caprilatos , Fluorcarbonetos , Animais , Caprilatos/toxicidade , Epigênese Genética , Fluorcarbonetos/toxicidade , Expressão Gênica , Camundongos
7.
Arch Environ Contam Toxicol ; 81(3): 470-481, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34545443

RESUMO

This study presents a comprehensive application of the probabilistic risk assessment methodology for perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), which are two types of perfluoroalkyl acids frequently studied in recent years. The exposure characteristics of PFOA and PFOS in Chinese surface water on a nationwide scale were summarized. Individual predicted no-effect concentration (PNEC) and the sensitivities for taxonomic groups of primary producers, invertebrates, and vertebrates were derived by the species sensitivity distributions method. Both hazard quotients (HQs) and joint probability curves were calculated to assess the risks to aquatic organisms. Among seven Chinese river basins, the mean concentrations of PFOA and PFOS in the Yangtze River Basin were the highest (58 ng/L and 22 ng/L, respectively), while the lowest concentrations (< 1 ng/L) were in the Songhua River Basin. The acute PNEC value was 2.43 mg/L for PFOA and 0.96 mg/L for PFOS, and the chronic PNEC value was 0.0067 mg/L for PFOA and 0.0012 mg/L for PFOS, respectively. The sensitivities of different taxonomic groups revealed higher sensitivity of primary producers for PFOA and higher sensitivity of invertebrates for PFOS. The acute HQs of PFOA and PFOS were less than 1. The probabilities of exposure concentrations exceeding 5th percentile toxicity value of the chronic data for all aquatic organisms were 1.65% for PFOA and 1.23% for PFOS, respectively, suggesting a low probability of effects to aquatic organisms. Compared with the risk scenarios worldwide, the ecological risks for chronic effects decreased in the order of PFOS (worldwide) > PFOA (China) > PFOS (China) > PFOA (worldwide).


Assuntos
Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos , Fluorcarbonetos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos/análise , Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos/toxicidade , Animais , Caprilatos/toxicidade , China , Fluorcarbonetos/análise , Fluorcarbonetos/toxicidade , Medição de Risco , Água , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
8.
Environ Sci Technol ; 55(18): 12291-12301, 2021 09 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34495656

RESUMO

Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are a diverse class of synthetic chemicals that accumulate in the environment. Many proteins, including the primary human serum transport protein albumin (HSA), bind PFAS. The predictive power of physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling approaches is currently limited by a lack of experimental data defining albumin-binding properties for most PFAS. A novel thermal denaturation assay was optimized to evaluate changes in the thermal stability of HSA in the presence of increasing concentrations of known ligands and a structurally diverse set of PFAS. Assay performance was initially evaluated for fatty acids and HSA-binding drugs ibuprofen and warfarin. Concentration-response relationships were determined and dissociation constants (Kd) for each compound were calculated using regression analysis of the dose-dependent changes in HSA melting temperature. Estimated Kd values for HSA binding of octanoic acid, decanoic acid, hexadecenoic acid, ibuprofen, and warfarin agreed with established values. The binding affinities for 24 PFAS that included perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (C4-C12), perfluoroalkyl sulfonic acids (C4-C8), mono- and polyether perfluoroalkyl ether acids, and polyfluoroalkyl fluorotelomer substances were determined. These results demonstrate the utility of this differential scanning fluorimetry assay as a rapid high-throughput approach for determining the relative protein-binding properties and identification of chemical structures involved in binding for large numbers of structurally diverse PFAS.


Assuntos
Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos , Fluorcarbonetos , Ácidos Carboxílicos , Fluorometria , Humanos , Albumina Sérica Humana , Ácidos Sulfônicos
9.
Water Res ; 204: 117626, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34517266

RESUMO

Recent studies identified fluoroalkyl amides (FAs) transformation to perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) during disinfection as an indirect source of PFASs contamination of drinking water. This paper discerns the position of water disinfection systems (WDSs) as a PFOA exposure pathway. A new mechanistic model incorporating the derived knowledge about the zwitterionic/cationic FAs transformation to PFOA with the unsteady-state hydraulic characteristics of WDSs was developed. The simulation outputs from model application to a WDS from the USA established the significant role of delivery via distribution network in the PFOA formation in drinking water. PFOA exposure risk assessment studies predicted >95% of the system nodes to be at high risk when the existing stringent health-based guideline values are adopted. The 1 to 3 years and 4 to 8 years old age groups were found susceptible to PFOA exposure through drinking water beyond the tolerable limit of 3 ng/kg/day. The model predicted that reducing the chlorine dose from 2±0.2 to 1±0.1 mg/L at the treatment units drops the share of 1 to 3 years old and 4 to 8 years old consumers falling to PFOA exposure from 4.32 to 0.45% and 0.32 to <0.01%, respectively. Besides, 24.9% more, including ∼x223C10% of the consumers of 1 to 3 years old age group, were found exposed to PFOA risks when the organic loading of water was reduced by 60%.


Assuntos
Água Potável , Fluorcarbonetos , Caprilatos , Cloro
10.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 225: 112807, 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34562787

RESUMO

Perfluorooctane sulphonate (PFOS), as a surfactant, is widely applied in the agricultural production activities and has become a potential menace to human health. The mechanism of its effect on the maturation of mammalian oocytes is unclear. This study explored the toxic effect of PFOS on mouse oocyte maturation in vitro. The results revealed that PFOS under a concentration of 600 µM could significantly reduce the polar body extrusion rate (PBE) of mouse oocytes and cause symmetrical cell division. Further experiments showed that PFOS resulted in the abnormal cytoskeleton of the oocytes, causing the abnormal spindles and misplaced chromosomes, as well as the impaired dynamics of actin. Moreover, PFOS exposure inhibited the process of oocyte meiosis, which reflected in the slower spindle migration and continuous activation of spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC), then ultimately increased the probability of aneuploidy. Most importantly, PFOS exposure reduced the quality of oocytes, specifically by disrupting the function of mitochondria, inducing cell oxidative stress, and triggering early apoptosis. Furthermore, the level of methylation of histones is additionally influenced. In summary, our findings showed that PFOS exposure interfered with the maturation of mouse oocytes through affecting cytoskeletal dynamics, meiotic progression, oocyte quality, and histone modifications.


Assuntos
Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos , Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos/metabolismo , Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos/toxicidade , Animais , Apoptose , Fluorcarbonetos , Camundongos , Oócitos/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo
11.
Toxicol Lett ; 351: 155-162, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34517056

RESUMO

Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), a member of the Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances, is a highly persistent "forever" chemicals with increasing concern for its potential health effects. However, the mechanisms of PFOA immunotoxic effects are poorly understood. We assessed the antibody response to a physiological antigen stimulation and associated cytokine response upon PFOA exposure. The significant decrease in the IgM antibody response to the T cell dependent antigen keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) at a dose lower than the previously documented LOAEL was accompanied by a significant reduction of the Th2 serum cytokines IL-5 and IL-13, a non-significant dose-response reduction of IL-4, a significant reduction of the Th1 cytokine IL-12, and a non-significant dose-response increase in IL-2 and IFNγ. PFOA significantly decreased the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-17α and IL-1α, decreased (non-significantly but dose-response) IL-6, and a significantly increased TNFα. Overall, the modulation of serum Th1/Th2 cytokines could explain the reduction in antibody response, pointing to a potential role for T helper cells in the immunotoxicity of PFOA. Further, the higher than anticipated weight loss and increased liver weight, compared to previous studies using similar doses, highlight the potential importance of the route and duration of exposure, contributing to the total accumulated dose, in assessing the toxicity of PFOA.


Assuntos
Caprilatos/toxicidade , Citocinas/metabolismo , Fluorcarbonetos/toxicidade , Imunoglobulina M/metabolismo , Animais , Corticosterona/metabolismo , Citocinas/genética , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Hemocianinas/imunologia , Camundongos
12.
Environ Int ; 157: 106853, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34500361

RESUMO

Developing children are particularly vulnerable to the effects of exposure to per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS), a group of endocrine disrupting chemicals. We hypothesized that early life exposure to PFASs is associated with poor metabolic health in children. We studied the association between prenatal and postnatal PFASs mixture exposure and cardiometabolic health in children, and the role of inflammatory proteins. In 1,101 mothers-child pairs from the Human Early Life Exposome project, we measured the concentrations of PFAS in blood collected in pregnancy and at 8 years (range = 6-12 years). We applied Bayesian Kernel Machine regression (BKMR) to estimate the associations between exposure to PFAS mixture and the cardiometabolic factors as age and sex- specific z-scores of waist circumference (WC), systolic and diastolic blood pressures (BP), and concentrations of triglycerides (TG), high-density lipoprotein (HDL-C) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL-C) cholesterol. We measured thirty six inflammatory biomarkers in child plasma and examined the underlying role of inflammatory status for the exposure-outcome association by integrating the three panels into a network. Exposure to the PFAS mixture was positively associated with HDL-C and systolic BP, and negatively associated with WC, LDL-C and TG. When we examined the independent effects of the individual chemicals in the mixture, prenatal PFHxS was negatively associated with HDL-C and prenatal PFNA was positively associated with WC and these were opposing directions from the overall mixture. Further, the network consisted of five distinct communities connected with positive and negative correlations. The selected inflammatory biomarkers were positively, while the postnatal PFAS were negatively related with the included cardiometabolic factors, and only prenatal PFOA was positively related with the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1beta and WC. Our study supports that prenatal, rather than postnatal, PFAS exposure might contribute to an unfavorable lipidemic profile and adiposity in childhood.


Assuntos
Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Poluentes Ambientais , Fluorcarbonetos , Teorema de Bayes , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Feminino , Fluorcarbonetos/toxicidade , Humanos , Inflamação/induzido quimicamente , Gravidez
13.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 225: 112733, 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34478978

RESUMO

Perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA), a widely used emerging alternative for 8-carbon PFAAs, has been detected at a high level in the water environment. While its toxicity and environmental health risk are still largely unknown in aquatic life. The present study aimed to evaluated the possible developmental neurotoxicity induced by PFHxA exposure (0, 0.48, 2.4, and 12 mg/L for 120 h) in the zebrafish embryo. Here, both developmental endpoints, neurotransmitters concentrations, locomotor behavior were analyzed. No significant effects on mortality, malformation rate, and growth delay were detected in the low dose treatment groups except for in the high dose group (12 mg/L). A significant increase in swimming speed were noted in the 0.48 mg/L group. Other changes including neurotransmitters concentrations and green fluorescent protein (GFP) expression in Tg (HuC-GFP) zebrafish larvae were significantly increased in 12 mg/L group. Beyond that, genes related to neurodevelopment were significantly decreased in larvae. Moreover, downregulations of protein expression levels of α1-tubulin, elavl3, and gap43 were identified. These results demonstrate that the PFAAs alternative PFHxA have no significant neurodevelopmental effects on zebrafish larvae under acute low-dose exposure, while, it is important to note that PFHxA perform inhibiting effects on neurotransmitter and central nervous system under a relatively high dose. This in vivo study could provide reliable toxicity information for risk assessments of PFHxA on aquatic ecosystems. CAPSULE: PFHxA have no significant neurodevelopmental effects on zebrafish larvae under acute low-dose exposure, while exposed with relatively high-dose, could induced the alternations of neurotransmitter concentrations as well as the genes involved in the early developmental stages of zebrafish, leading to the impairment of the nervous system in zebrafish larvae.


Assuntos
Fluorcarbonetos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Caproatos , Ecossistema , Embrião não Mamífero , Fluorcarbonetos/toxicidade , Larva , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Peixe-Zebra
14.
Environ Int ; 157: 106856, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34520981

RESUMO

The quality of irrigation water and drainage water is essential for local ecosystem and human health in agricultural regions. In this study, the transport analysis, source identification, and environmental risk assessment of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) were conducted in the largest irrigation area in northern China. The concentrations of the total PFAAs (ΣPFAA) ranged from 41.5 to 263 ng/L in surface water, and the short-chain perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), were dominant with a total contribution of 94%. Generally, the ΣPFAA levels increased from irrigation waters to drainage and receiving lake waters. PFOA showed the highest increase, with potential emission sources located in the catchment of the sub main drainage ditch D5. More PFOA (36.8 kg/y) was outflowed from Ulansuhai Lake to the Yellow River than that inflowed from the Yellow River to the irrigation district (6.15 kg/y). The results of a risk assessment indicated that avian wildlife living in Ulansuhai Lake were threatened by the PFOA and perfluorobutane sulfonate (PFBS) pollution. The estimated daily intakes (EDIs) of the sum of the PFOA, perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS), and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) through aquatic food consumption for people with the different aquatic food preferences accounted for 6-42% (urban) and 4-27% (rural) of the strictest tolerant daily intake (TDI) value. The results of this study highlight the impact of local emissions of PFAS on massive irrigation and drainage systems, and ultimately, the ecosystem and human health.


Assuntos
Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos , Fluorcarbonetos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos/análise , Caprilatos/toxicidade , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental , Fluorcarbonetos/análise , Fluorcarbonetos/toxicidade , Humanos , Lagos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
15.
Environ Int ; 157: 106876, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34534787

RESUMO

Water purification from per- and poly-fluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), as a group of persistent and mobile fluoro-organic contaminants, is receiving increasing attention worldwide due to the ubiquitous presence of these highly toxic compounds. To reduce the risk of exposure of human life to PFASs and their dispersion in the environment, various techniques, primarily based on membrane technologies, have been rapidly developed. Here we critically review and analyze the current state-of-the-art of membrane-based techniques for PFASs removal, including direct membrane filtrations, adsorption-based membranes, and hybrid membrane processes. Membranes performance, treatment efficiencies, characteristic parameters and mechanisms for PFASs removal are discussed in detail. We highlight and discuss advantages and limitations, as well as challenges and prospects of individual membrane-based PFASs treatments, pointing towards the practical and sustainable application of these technologies.


Assuntos
Fluorcarbonetos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Purificação da Água , Adsorção , Fluorcarbonetos/análise , Humanos , Água , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
16.
Environ Int ; 157: 106843, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34479135

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies have shown Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) to be associated with diseases of dysregulated lipid and sterol homeostasis such as steatosis and cardiometabolic disorders. However, the majority of mechanistic studies rely on single chemical exposures instead of identifying mechanisms related to the toxicity of PFAS mixtures. OBJECTIVES: The goal of the current study is to investigate mechanisms linking exposure to a PFAS mixture with alterations in lipid metabolism, including increased circulating cholesterol and bile acids. METHODS: Male and female wild-type C57BL/6J mice were fed an atherogenic diet used in previous studies of pollutant-accelerated atherosclerosis and exposed to water containing a mixture of 5 PFAS representing legacy, replacement, and alternative subtypes (i.e., PFOA, PFOS, PFNA, PFHxS, and GenX), each at a concentration of 2 mg/L, for 12 weeks. Changes at the transcriptome and metabolome level were determined by RNA-seq and high-resolution mass spectrometry, respectively. RESULTS: We observed increased circulating cholesterol, sterol metabolites, and bile acids due to PFAS exposure, with some sexual dimorphic effects. PFAS exposure increased hepatic injury, demonstrated by increased liver weight, hepatic inflammation, and plasma alanine aminotransferase levels. Females displayed increased lobular and portal inflammation compared to the male PFAS-exposed mice. Hepatic transcriptomics analysis revealed PFAS exposure modulated multiple metabolic pathways, including those related to sterols, bile acids, and acyl carnitines, with multiple sex-specific differences observed. Finally, we show that hepatic and circulating levels of PFOA were increased in exposed females compared to males, but this sexual dimorphism was not the same for other PFAS examined. DISCUSSION: Exposure of mice to a mixture of PFAS results in PFAS-mediated modulation of cholesterol levels, possibly through disruption of enterohepatic circulation.


Assuntos
Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos , Poluentes Ambientais , Fluorcarbonetos , Animais , Colesterol , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Feminino , Fluorcarbonetos/toxicidade , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Fígado , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
17.
Sci Total Environ ; 794: 148987, 2021 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34426018

RESUMO

Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are synthetic organic molecules used to manufacture various consumer and industrials products. In PFAS, the CF bond is stable, which renders these compounds chemically stable and prevents their breakdown. Several PFAS treatment processes such as adsorption, photolysis and photocatalysis, bioremediation, sonolysis, electrochemical oxidation, etc., have been explored and are being developed. The present review article has critically summarized degradative technologies and provides in-depth knowledge of photodegradation, electrochemical degradation, chemical oxidation, and reduction mineralization mechanism. Also, novel non-degradative technologies, including nano-adsorbents, natural and surface-modified clay minerals/zeolites, calixarene-based polymers, and molecularly imprinted polymers and adsorbents derived from biomaterials are discussed in detail. Of these novel approaches photocatalysis combined with membrane filtration or electrochemical oxidation via a treatment train approach shows promising results in removing PFAS in natural waters. The photocatalytic mineralization mechanism of PFOA is discussed, leading to recommendations for future research on novel remediation strategies for removing PFAS from water.


Assuntos
Fluorcarbonetos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Adsorção , Argila , Fluorcarbonetos/análise , Água , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
18.
Sci Total Environ ; 790: 148165, 2021 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34380241

RESUMO

As an alternative to perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), 6:2 chlorinated polyfluorinated ether sulfonate (F53B) has emerged in the Chinese market in recent years and has been frequently detected in the aquatic environment, but its ecological risk assessment is limited. In this study, zebrafish embryos and larvae were separately exposed to F53B, and their 96-h LC50 values were estimated to be 15.1 mg/L and 2.4 mg/L, respectively, suggesting that embryos were more resistant to F53B than larvae. The bioconcentration factor in larvae was basically higher than that of embryos, and the body growth of larvae was significantly affected by F53B rather than embryos, indicating that F53B may cause more severe toxicity to larvae. In addition to the excessive production of ROS and NO, the expression of many immune-related genes was increased in both embryos and larvae, but the number of dysregulated genes in larvae was more than that in embryos. Finally, the results of Point of Departure (PoD) indicated that the immunotoxicity of F53B was more sensitive to larvae than embryos at the molecular level. Our findings revealed the ecological risk of F53B by exploring the adverse effects of immunoregulation at different early life stages of zebrafish and indicated that the zebrafish larvae were more sensitive than embryos.


Assuntos
Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos , Fluorcarbonetos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos/toxicidade , Animais , Embrião não Mamífero/química , Fluorcarbonetos/toxicidade , Larva , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Peixe-Zebra
19.
Sci Total Environ ; 790: 148160, 2021 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34380288

RESUMO

Perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA), one of the short-chain perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs), is considered as a substitute of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS). This emerging organic pollutant is persistent and highly bioavailable to humans, raising concerns about its potential health risks. There are currently few researches on the toxicity of PFHxA. Liver has been suggested to be the main target of PFHxA toxicity, and the mechanism remains unclear. Herein, we investigated the transcriptomic, proteomic, and metabolomic landscape in PFHxA-exposed mice. Using these approaches, we identified several valuable biological processes involved in the process of liver injury, comprising fatty acid biosynthesis and degradation pathways, which might be induced by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) signaling pathway. These processes further promoted oxidative stress and induced liver injury. Meanwhile, abnormalities in purine metabolism and glutathione metabolism were observed during the liver injury induced by PFHxA, indicating the production of oxidative stress. Finally, our present multi-omics studies provided new insights into the mechanisms involved in PFHxA-induced liver injury.


Assuntos
Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos , Poluentes Ambientais , Fluorcarbonetos , Animais , Caproatos/toxicidade , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Fluorcarbonetos/análise , Fluorcarbonetos/toxicidade , Camundongos , Proteômica
20.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 223: 112613, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34388656

RESUMO

Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) are a type of ubiquitous contaminants spreading in the estuarine and coastal areas. Anadromous fish should deal with hypoosmotic challenge with PFCs stress during their migration from seawater to estuaries. However, few studies have been carried out to investigate the adverse impact of PFCs on fish osmoregulation and the underlying mechanism. In this study, Oryzias melastigma, an euryhaline fish model, were exposed to four representative PFC congeners including perfluorobutane sulfonate (PFBS), perfluorooctane sulfonates (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), and perfluorododecanoic acid (PFDoA) separately under both seawater and freshwater conditions. Histopathological changes in gills, ion homeostasis, Na+/K+-ATPase (NKA) activity, as well as the expression of related genes was detected upon exposure. Results showed that PFCs induced morphological changes in gills, disturbed the levels of major ions (Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+), and inhibited the NKA activity. Transcriptome analysis in fish gills during the acclimation to freshwater revealed that PFCs influenced the osmoregulation mainly by interfering with the endocrine system, signal transduction, as well as cellular community and motility. Validation with qRT-PCR confirmed that the mRNA expressions of osmoregulatory genes encoding hormones and receptors, as well as ion transmembrane transporters were disturbed by PFCs. Longer chain homolog (PFOS) showed a greater impact on osmoregulation than the shorter chain homolog (PFBS). Within the same carbon chain, sulfonic congener (PFOS) induced more serious injury to gills than carboxylic congener (PFOA). The interaction between PFCs and salinity varied in different adverse outcome. These results help to further understand the mechanism of how PFCs influence osmoregulation and elicit the need to assess the ecological risk of PFCs and other pollutants on anadromous migration.


Assuntos
Fluorcarbonetos , Oryzias , Aclimatação , Animais , Fluorcarbonetos/análise , Brânquias/metabolismo , Osmorregulação , Água do Mar
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