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1.
J Hazard Mater ; 441: 129826, 2023 01 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36084456

RESUMO

Metastasis includes tumor invasion and migration and underlies over 90% of cancer mortality. The metastatic effects of environmental carcinogens raised serious health concerns. However, the underlying mechanisms remained poorly studied. In the present study, an in vivo RasV12/lgl-/- model of the fruitfly, Drosophila melanogaster, with an 8-day exposure was employed to explore the metastatic effects of 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB126), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and cadmium chloride (CdCl2). At 1.0 mg/L, PCB126, PFOA, and CdCl2 significantly increased tumor invasion rates by 1.32-, 1.33-, and 1.29-fold of the control, respectively. They also decreased the larval body weight and locomotion behavior. Moreover, they commonly disturbed the expression levels of target genes in MAPK and UPR pathways, and their metastatic effects were significantly abolished by the addition of p38 inhibitor (SB203580), JNK inhibitor (SP600125) and IRE1 inhibitor (KIRA6). Notably, the addition of the IRE inhibitor significantly influenced sna/E-cad pathway which is essential in both p38 and JNK regulations. The results demonstrated an essential role of sna/E-cad in connecting the effects of carcinogens on UPR and MAPK regulations and the resultant metastasis.


Assuntos
Carcinógenos Ambientais , Neoplasias , Animais , Cloreto de Cádmio , Caprilatos , Drosophila , Drosophila melanogaster , Fluorcarbonetos , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases , Transdução de Sinais
2.
J Hazard Mater ; 441: 129819, 2023 01 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36084455

RESUMO

Data on the occurrences of legacy and alternative per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in glioma are scarce. It remains unclear if PFASs exposure is related to the prevalence of glioma. A total of 137 glioma and 40 non-glioma brain tissue samples from patients recruited from the Nanfang Hospital, South China were analyzed for 17 PFAS compounds. Perfluorohexanoic acid, perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctane sulfonamide (FOSA), and 6:2 chlorinated polyfluorinated ether sulfonate were frequently detected (> 60 %) in glioma. The total concentrations (range; median) of 17 PFASs in glioma (0.20-140; 3.1 ng g-1) were slightly higher than those in non-glioma (0.35-32; 2.2 ng g-1), but without statistical significance. The PFAS concentrations in males were statistically higher (p < 0.05) than those in females. Elevated glioma grades were associated with higher concentrations of PFOA, PFOS, and FOSA. Positive correlations were observed between PFAS concentrations (especially for PFOA) and Ki-67 or P53 expression, pathological molecular markers of glioma. Our findings suggested that exposure to PFASs might increase the probability to develop glioma. This is the first case study demonstrating associations between PFASs exposure and brain cancer. More evidences and potential pathogenic mechanisms warranted further investigations.


Assuntos
Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos , Poluentes Ambientais , Fluorcarbonetos , Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos/análise , Caprilatos , China , Éteres , Feminino , Fluorcarbonetos/análise , Humanos , Antígeno Ki-67 , Masculino , Sulfonamidas , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53
3.
J Hazard Mater ; 441: 129908, 2023 01 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36115093

RESUMO

Many studies have examined per- and poly-fluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in human blood. However, the distribution of PFASs in human blood remains not well known, especially for perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) precursors. In this study, human blood samples (n = 162) were collected from general Chinese population, and then the isomer-specific partitioning of PFASs between human plasma and red blood cells (RBCs) were investigated. Perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and PFOS were consistently the predominant PFASs in both human plasma and RBCs. In human blood, among C4-C7 perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCAs), the calculated mean mass fraction in plasma (Fp) values increased from 0.76 to 0.82 with the increasing chain length. C7-C13 PFCAs exhibited a trend of gradually decreasing mean Fp with chain length. Among PFAS precursors, 6:2 fluorotelomer phosphate diester had the highest mean Fp value (0.87 ± 0.11). Calculated Fp values of N-methyl perfluorooctanesulfonamide (N-MeFOSA) and N-ethyl perfluorooctanesulfonamide (N-EtFOSA) were 0.66 ± 0.13 and 0.70 ± 0.12, respectively. Individual branched isomers consistently had greater Fp values than their corresponding linear isomers for PFOA, PFHxS, and perfluoroctane sulfonamide. To our knowledge, this study first reports the distribution of N-MeFOSA and N-EtFOSA in human blood, contributing to the better understanding of the occurrence and fate of PFASs in humans.


Assuntos
Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos , Fluorcarbonetos , Caprilatos , Ácidos Carboxílicos , Humanos , Sulfonamidas
4.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 124: 11-18, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36182121

RESUMO

Many per- and polyfluoralkyl substances (PFASs) may disrupt maternal thyroid hormone homeostasis in pregnancy. Concerns should be raised regarding the PFASs exposure in pregnant women because thyroid hormones are involved in the early development of the fetus. In this study, we measured the concentrations of 13 PFASs, including five novel short-chain PFASs, in serum from 123 pregnant women in Beijing, China. Linear regression models were used to investigate the association between thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) or free thyroxine (FT4) levels and PFASs concentrations under consideration of the impacts of pregnancy-induced physiological factors. We found that perfluorobutanoic acid (PFBA) (ß=0.189, 95%CI=-0.039, 0.417, p=0.10) and perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA) (ß=-0.554, 95%CI=-1.16, 0.049, p=0.071) were suggestive of significant association with TSH in thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb) negative women. No association was observed between all PFASs and FT4 levels after controlling for these confounding factors, such as BMI, gestational weight gain and maternal age. These findings suggest that it should pay more attention to the association between thyroid hormone levels and short-chain PFASs concentrations. Future studies could consider a greater sample and the inclusion of other clinical indicators of thyroid function, such as free T3 and total T3.


Assuntos
Fluorcarbonetos , Feminino , Humanos , Iodeto Peroxidase , Gravidez , Gestantes , Hormônios Tireóideos , Tireotropina , Tiroxina
5.
Sci Total Environ ; 855: 158842, 2023 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36122706

RESUMO

Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are synthetic chemicals that are ubiquitous in environmental and biological systems, including human serum. PFASs are used in many products and industrial processes and are tied to numerous health effects. Due to multiple sources and exposure pathways, methods are needed to identify PFAS sources in communities to develop targeted interventions. We assessed effectiveness of three source apportionment methods (UNMIX, positive matrix factorization [PMF], and principal component analysis - multiple linear regression [PCA-MLR]) for identifying contributors to human serum PFAS concentrations in two highly exposed populations in Colorado and North Carolina where drinking water was contaminated via upstream sources, including a Space Force base and a fluorochemical manufacturing plant. UNMIX and PMF models extracted three to four potential PFAS exposure sources in the Colorado and North Carolina cohorts while PCA-MLR classified two in each cohort. No sources were characterized in NHANES (National Health and Nutrition Examination Study). Results suggest that these three methods can successfully identify sources in highly exposed populations. Future PFAS exposure research should focus on analyzing serum for an expanded PFAS panel, identifying cohorts with other distinct point source exposures, and combining biological and environmental data to better understand source apportionment results in the context of PFAS toxicokinetic behavior.


Assuntos
Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos , Água Potável , Fluorcarbonetos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Humanos , Fluorcarbonetos/análise , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Água Potável/análise , Análise Multivariada , Análise de Componente Principal , Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
6.
J Hazard Mater ; 442: 130003, 2023 01 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36179624

RESUMO

Data remain scarce regarding the occurrence of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in the human brain for better understanding the cerebral disorders. In this study, we measured the concentrations and profiles of 26 traditional and emerging PFASs in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), which is a preferred matrix to monitor pollutants in the human brain. Our results indicated perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorohexanesulfonate (PFHxS) and n-methylperfluorooctanesulfonamidoacetic acid were the most frequently detected congeners (detection frequency >90%). As the predominant congeners, PFOA and PFOS contributed 27.7% and 14.5% of the total amount of PFASs (ΣPFASs), with respective mean concentration of 221 and 115 pg mL-1. In addition, the concentrations of ΣPFASs in CSF of males were generally higher than those of females, which may be related to the different half-lives of PFASs in different sexes. Interestingly, the concentrations of ΣPFASs and several individual congeners (e.g., perfluorohexanoic acid, perfluorodecanoic acid, perfluorononanoic acid, PFHxS and PFOS) increased with age. The highest concentration of ΣPFASs was found in the elderly compared with other age groups, which may be due to the decreased CSF output as age increased. Our data are valuable for further studies regarding the toxic effects of PFASs on the human brain.


Assuntos
Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos , Poluentes Ambientais , Fluorcarbonetos , Masculino , Feminino , Humanos , Idoso , Fluorcarbonetos/toxicidade , Fluorcarbonetos/análise , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade
7.
J Hazard Mater ; 442: 130125, 2023 01 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36303337

RESUMO

Novel per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) raise global concerns due to their toxic effects on environment and human health. However, researches on analytical methods of novel PFASs are lacking. Here, a kind of selective cationic covalent organic framework (iCOF) was designed and loaded on the surface of cotton as an adsorbent. Then, a simple solid-phase extraction (SPE) method based on the cotton@iCOF was developed for high throughput rapid extraction of six novel PFASs in water samples, coupled with ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) determination. Several important SPE parameters, such as the amount of iCOF, sample pH, desorption conditions and salinity were systematically investigated. Under optimal conditions, the limits of detection and quantification of this SPE-UHPLC-MS/MS method were as low as 0.08-2.14 ng/L and 0.28-7.15 ng/L, respectively. The recoveries were 77.9-117.6 % for the tap water and surface water, and F-53 B in surface water were detected. Notably, this SPE process was rapid (1 h for 500 mL water sample) compared with commercial SPE (normal 2-3 h), owing to little resistance of cotton@iCOF and omission of nitrogen blowing process, and high throughput with 12 samples concurrently extracted. Additionally, various characterization means and density functional theory (DFT) calculations showed that ion-exchange effect, hydrophobic interaction, hydrogen bonding and ordered channel structure synergistically contributed to the PFASs adsorption on cotton@iCOF. The cotton@iCOF-based SPE method with simplicity, rapidity, selectivity and efficiency provided new research ideas for the analysis and control of ionic emerging pollutants in water.


Assuntos
Fluorcarbonetos , Estruturas Metalorgânicas , Humanos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Fluorcarbonetos/análise , Extração em Fase Sólida/métodos , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Água/química
8.
J Hazard Mater ; 442: 130129, 2023 01 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36303356

RESUMO

Transmembrane transport is important for bioaccumulation of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in organisms, but has not yet been well understood. Here, the roles of cluster of differentiation 36 (CD36) in accumulation of PFASs were investigated. CD36 was overexpressed in Escherichia coli to get CD36-BL21 strain, and the binding affinities of 20 PFASs with CD36 were determined by microscale thermophoresis, which grew up to 17.5 µM with increasing carbon chain length. Consequently, the accumulation of most PFASs was remarkably promoted in CD36-BL21 in comparison to the wild strain, and the enhancement was proportional to their binding affinities with CD36 (r = -0.96). However, this effect was depressed greatly as CD36 was inhibited by sulfo-N-succinimidyl oleate (SSO). Additionally, as the mice received SSO pretreatment before they were exposed to perfluorododecanoic acid, its accumulation in the tissues rich in CD36, such as liver, was suppressed, but increased by 1.1 times in the serum. These indicated that CD36 played critical roles in the transmembrane transport and tissue partition of PFASs in organisms. The developed relationship between liver-blood partition of PFASs and their binding affinities with intracellular proteins was distinctly improved by incorporating that with CD36 (r = -0.97).


Assuntos
Fluorcarbonetos , Camundongos , Animais , Transporte Biológico
9.
J Hazard Mater ; 443(Pt A): 130119, 2023 02 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36265386

RESUMO

Chlorinated polyfluoroalkyl ether sulfonate (F-53B) and perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) are used and emitted as fog inhibitors in the chromium plating industry, and they are widely detected worldwide. To study the effects of F-53B and PFOS on the rhizosphere defense system, they were added at two levels (0.1 and 50 mg L-1) to the soil where different plants (Lythrum salicaria and Phragmites communis) were grown. In bulk soils, high concentrations of F-53B/PFOS resulted in significant increases in soil pH, NH4+-N, and NO3--N (the effect of PFOS on NO3--N was not significant). Moreover, the extent of the effects of PFOS and F-53B on the physicochemical properties of bulk soils were different (e.g., PFOS caused an increase of NH4+-N by 8.94%-45.97% compared to 1.63%-25.20% for F-53B). Root exudates and PFASs together influenced the physicochemical properties of rhizosphere soils (e.g., TOC increased significantly in contaminated rhizosphere soils but did not change in non-bulk soils). Under the influence of F-53B/PFOS, the root exudates regulated by plants were changed and weakened the effect of F-53B/PFOS on microbial community of rhizosphere soil. The rhizosphere defense systems of different plants have both similarities and differences in response to different substances and concentrations.


Assuntos
Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos , Fluorcarbonetos , Fluorcarbonetos/toxicidade , Rizosfera , Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos/toxicidade , Solo
10.
J Hazard Mater ; 443(Pt A): 130170, 2023 02 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36265376

RESUMO

Per-and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are omnipresent globally and received increasing attention recently. However, there are limited data on PFASs in the Tibetan Plateau (TP), a remote high-altitude mountain region, which is regard as an important indicator region to study long-range transport behaviors of contaminants. This study investigates the occurrence, distribution, partitioning behavior, and sources of 26 PFASs in water and sediments from the four lakes of TP. The ΣPFAS concentrations ranged from 338 to 9766 pg L-1 in water, and 12.2-414 pg g-1 dry weight in sediments. Perfluorobutanonic acid (PFBA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) were detected in all samples. Qinghai Lake had the highest ΣPFAS concentrations in both water and sediments, while the Ranwu Lake had the lowest. The functional groups and CF2 moiety units were investigated as essential factors influencing the partition behavior. Principal component analysis (PCA) combined back-trajectory was used to infer possible sources of PFASs. The results suggested that the main source of PFASs in Yamdrok Lake, Namco Lake, and Ranwu Lake on southern TP were mainly originated from South Asia via long-range atmospheric transport (LRAT); while for the Qinghai Lake of northern TP, LRAT, local emissions, and tourism activities were the primary sources of PFASs.


Assuntos
Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos , Fluorcarbonetos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Lagos , Fluorcarbonetos/análise , Água/análise , Sedimentos Geológicos , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Tibet , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos/análise , China
11.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 125: 185-193, 2023 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36375904

RESUMO

It is extremely important to analyze the contaminative behaviors of Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) due to their serious threats to urban environments which are closely related to humans. Current study aimed to explore the distribution, source apportionment and ecological risk assessment of PFAAs in surface water from Shijiazhuang, China. The concentrations of ∑PFAAs ranged from 19.5 to 125.9 ng/L in the investigation area. Perfluorobutanesulfonic acid (PFBS) and perfluoropentanoic acid (PFPeA) were the predominant contaminants (mean value: 14.3 ng/L and 16.6 ng/L, respectively). The distribution of PFAAs according to geospatial analysis and hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA) showed that higher levels of ∑PFAAs were detected in the southern surface water of Shijiazhuang and there was a stepwise decrease from the wet season to the dry season. Furthermore, based on source apportionment, the dominant potential sources were found to be wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents and industrial discharge. The risk quotients (RQs) revealed low ecological risks of all PFAAs for aquatic organisms in Shijiazhuang surface water. Collectively, this study provided basic data for regulatory strategies for controlling PFAA pollutions in urban surface water.


Assuntos
Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos , Fluorcarbonetos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Humanos , Fluorcarbonetos/análise , Rios , Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Água/análise , China , Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos/análise
12.
Chemosphere ; 310: 136688, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36202376

RESUMO

Many studies have reported that neonates and infants are exposed to several per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) via breastfeeding; however, these studies have had small sample sizes. This study aimed to determine the concentrations and time-course trend of PFASs in breast milk and identify influencing factors governing PFAS concentrations. Between July and September (2018), 207 low-risk primiparous women were recruited from a lactation counseling clinic in Korea and their breast milk samples were tested for 14 PFASs, including four perfluoroalkyl sulfonic acids. A questionnaire survey, comprising 84 questions covering the women's demographic, obstetrical, dietary, lifestyle, behavioral, and neonatal information, was conducted to investigate associations. Twelve of the 14 PFASs were detectable in breast milk samples. Perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), and perfluorodecanoic acid were detected in 100% of the samples, followed by perfluorohexanesulfonic acid (detection rate: 87%), perfluorononanoic acid (87%), and perfluorohexanoic acid (73%); the median concentrations were 0.05, 0.10, 0.031, 0.007, and 0.033 ng/mL, respectively. The PFAS concentrations in breast milk measured in our study were higher than those reported in other studies or countries. In 12 years, from 2007 to 18, the mean concentration of PFOA in breast milk increased by approximately three times (278%). The major factors associated with PFAS concentrations in the bivariate association analysis were body mass index; living area (non-metropolitan); neonatal age; and frequency of fish, ice cream, and canned food consumption. In the multiple regression model, fish consumption significantly influenced the PFOS concentrations in breast milk (ß = 0.88, p = 0.033). Frequently, fish consumption has been analyzed as the main dietary factor related to PFOS concentration. Our findings suggest the need for a comprehensive cohort study on PFAS exposure and its association with infant health.


Assuntos
Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos , Poluentes Ambientais , Fluorcarbonetos , Animais , Feminino , Fluorcarbonetos/análise , Leite Humano/química , Estudos de Coortes , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos/análise
13.
Chemosphere ; 310: 136780, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36241122

RESUMO

Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) levels in Indo-Pacific finless porpoises (Neophocaena phocaenoides) in the Pearl River Estuary (PRE), near the most economically developed region in China, have not been characterized. We measured the hepatic concentrations of twelve PFASs, including nine perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs) and three perfluoroalkane sulfonic acids (PFSAs) in the finless porpoises (n = 21) collected from the PRE between 2007 and 2020. The average level of PFSAs was more than 2-times higher than that of PFCAs. The order of six dominant PFASs was perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) > perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUdA) > perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA) > perfluorotridecanoic acid (PFTrDA) > perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) > perfluorododecanoic acid (PFDoDA). The levels of Hepatic PFOS of 29% samples exceeded the no observable adverse effect level (NOAEL) values. The concentration of PFASs in males was significant higher than in females. PFASs levels were significantly negatively correlated with body length in males and positively correlated in females. PFASs levels in the PRE finless porpoises were lower than in humpback dolphins possibly due to different foraging habitat toward the coast and the consumption of less fish. PFCAs levels in finless porpoises from the western PRE were higher compared to Hong Kong, possibly due to the high-intensity sources of terrestrial anthropogenic pollutants. Significant increasing spatiotemporal trends of PFSAs, PFCAs and PFASs were found in finless porpoises from 2007 to 2020, suggesting a continuously increased risk of PFASs exposure for PRE cetaceans in the last decade.


Assuntos
Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos , Golfinhos , Fluorcarbonetos , Toninhas , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Masculino , Animais , Feminino , Monitoramento Ambiental , China , Ácidos Sulfônicos , Ácidos Carboxílicos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
14.
Chemosphere ; 310: 136765, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36241119

RESUMO

Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are a class of anthropogenic chemicals used to provide water and stain resistance in many consumer products. Their widespread use, nearly ubiquitous presence across multiple environments, and growing list of adverse health effects has raised concerns among communities. PFAS have been frequently detected and quantified globally in wastewater, groundwater, surface and drinking water; however, the presence of PFAS in swimming pool water - a unique matrix in which constituents may concentrate through evaporation and which also may present a high risk of direct human exposure - has not been reported. Here, ultra-high performance liquid chromatography - tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) was used to monitor 92 PFAS in 54 water samples collected from city, apartment, hotel, and personal swimming pools in six Florida cities. In total, 14 PFAS were detected with six perfluoroalkyl acids - perfluorobutanoic acid (PFBA), perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA), perfluoroheptanoic acid (PFHpA) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), and perfluorobutane sulfonate (PFBS) - detected in every sample. PFHxA accounted for 49% of all PFAS quantified in this study. PFAS profiles were compared between sites as a function of pool type, rate of use, and geographic location. Total ΣPFAS concentrations were similar across pool types, with both the highest (633 ng/L) and lowest (1.9 ng/L) measurements found in public city pools. Between sites, higher PFAS levels were observed in city pools in Miami, Melbourne and Tampa compared to Naples, Orlando and Gainesville. Our findings highlight the potential exposure of PFAS in an underexplored and yet important exposure pathway in communities.


Assuntos
Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos , Água Potável , Fluorcarbonetos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Humanos , Fluorcarbonetos/análise , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Natação , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Água Potável/química , Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos/análise
15.
Chemosphere ; 310: 136797, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36244416

RESUMO

Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs), a subset of per- and poly-fluoroalkyl substances (PFAS), are environmentally stable, mobile and bioaccumulative compounds. This leads to high concentrations in wildlife species essential to the cultural identity and subsistence of Arctic populations. Our objective was to characterize the distribution and exposure determinants of PFAAs among Nunavik Inuit adults. The study included up to 1322 Nunavik residents aged 16-80 years who participated in the Qanuilirpitaa? 2017 Nunavik Inuit Health Survey (Q2017). Plasma concentrations were compared to those the general Canadian population using data from the Canadian Health Measures Survey Cycle 5 (2016-2017). Associations between plasma concentrations of nine PFAAs, determined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, and sociodemographic factors and traditional activity participation were examined using multiple linear regression models. Overall exposure to PFAAs was twice as high compared to the general Canadian population and less regulated perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) and perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnDA) concentrations were 7-fold higher, and perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA) concentrations were 4-fold higher. Males had higher concentrations of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS), whereas females had higher concentrations of PFDA and PFUnDA. PFAAs concentrations increased with age and were highest among those aged 60+ years. PFNA and PFOA concentrations followed a J-shaped pattern: those aged 16-29 years had higher concentrations than those aged 20-29 and 30-39 years. Ungava Bay generally had lower concentrations of all PFAAs congeners compared to Hudson Bay and Hudson Strait, with the exception of PFNA, which tended to have the lowest concentration in Hudson Strait. PFAAs concentrations were highly associated with hunting activity, omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, and drinking water from environmental sources. The results highlight the importance of characterizing PFAAs exposure sources in Arctic communities and provide further evidence for the long-range transport of long-chain PFAAs and their precursors that necessitate international action.


Assuntos
Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos , Poluentes Ambientais , Fluorcarbonetos , Adulto , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Canadá
16.
Chemosphere ; 310: 136869, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36272629

RESUMO

Foam fractionation is one solution to recover per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) from aqueous sources. The separation process is based on the sorption of PFASs to the air-water interface of bubbles. In many practical cases, the PFAS concentration in the polluted liquid is too low to sustain foam formation and requires the support of a cosurfactant not only to act as a collector of PFAS but also to produce and sustain foam for effective separation. However, there is a lack of information regarding the appropriate choice of cosurfactant and its quantitative effect on the interfacial partitioning of PFASs on the air bubbles. This study is directed to (i) evaluate the effectiveness of four cosurfactants with different-charged headgroups (i.e., anionic, cationic, zwitterionic and nonionic) for foam fractionation of PFASs, and (ii) estimate the air-water interfacial partitioning (Ki) of PFASs in the presence of four different types of cosurfactants. The Ki values span over 4 orders of magnitude with good correlation with PFASs molar volume. All of the cosurfactants were effective for the removal of the long chain PFASs (1.2-4 logs). The cationic and zwitterionic surfactants have oppositely charged head groups with respect to the anionic PFASs and therefore facilitate increased separation due to charge interactions. Some short chain PFASs (e.g., Perfluorobutanesulfonic acid (PFBS), Perfluoropentanesulfonic acid (PFPeS)) can be effectively removed using cationic and zwitterionic cosurfactants.


Assuntos
Fluorcarbonetos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Fluorcarbonetos/análise , Tensoativos , Água
17.
Food Chem ; 401: 134135, 2023 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36108383

RESUMO

Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are ubiquitous environmental pollutants with the ability to uptake to food and feed. Among food, fish, fruits and eggs are considered as major contributors to human dietary exposure. A new method was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of 18 PFASs in eggs using isotope dilution followed by ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry. The analysis of 132 samples (organic, barn and caged eggs) was performed. Levels were always close to the detection limits and no significant difference emerged among the 3 groups. The highest PFAS concentration in eggs was used to estimate the dietary exposure of different Italian population groups. As expected, children were more highly exposed than adults due to lower body weight. This data suggests that the recent tolerable weekly intake of 4.4 ng kg-1b.w. could be exceeded when the cumulative intake arising from other food products is considered.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Fluorcarbonetos , Animais , Criança , Humanos , Fluorcarbonetos/análise , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Cromatografia Líquida , Ovos/análise , Poluentes Ambientais/análise
18.
Sci Total Environ ; 856(Pt 1): 158943, 2023 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36155042

RESUMO

The adverse health effects of phthalate esters (PAEs) and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) in drinking water have attracted considerable attention. Our study investigated the effects of PAEs and PFAS on the bacterial community and the growth of potential human pathogenic bacteria in rural drinking water distribution systems. Our results showed that the total concentration of PAEs and PFAS ranged from 1.02 × 102 to 1.65 × 104 ng/L, from 4.40 to 1.84 × 102 ng/L in rural drinking water of China, respectively. PAEs concentration gradually increased and PFAS slowly decreased along the pipeline distribution, compared to concentrations in the effluents of rural drinking water treatment plants. The co-occurrence of higher concentrations of PAEs and PFAS changed the structure and function of the bacterial communities found within these environments. The bacterial community enhanced their ability to respond to fluctuating environmental conditions through up-regulation of functional genes related to extracellular signaling and interaction, as well as genes related to replication and repair. Under these conditions, co-occurrence of PAEs and PFAS promoted the growth of potential human pathogenic bacteria (HPB), therefore increasing the risk of the development of associated diseases among exposed persons. The main HPB observed in this study included Burkholderia mallei, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter calcoaceticus, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Contaminants including particles, microorganisms, PAEs and PFAS were found to be released from corrosion scales and deposits of pipes and taps, resulting in the increase of the cytotoxicity and microbial risk of rural tap water. These results are important to efforts to improve the safety of rural drinking water.


Assuntos
Água Potável , Fluorcarbonetos , Humanos , Ésteres/análise , Fluorcarbonetos/toxicidade , Dibutilftalato/análise , Bactérias
19.
Sci Total Environ ; 856(Pt 1): 159026, 2023 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36167123

RESUMO

The Tibetan Plateau (TP) is home to the headwaters of major rivers in Asia, yet their water quality security on a large spatial scale is scarcely studied, especially in regard to emerging organic pollutants. In this study, a systematic field campaign was carried out along Yarlung Tsangpo River, Nu River, Lancang River and Jinsha River, and 13 perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) were analyzed. The total concentrations of PFAAs in the river waters of the TP were in the range of 0.58-7.46 ng/L, containing a high proportion of perfluorobutanoic acid (PFBA) and perfluorobutane sulfonate (PFBS) with average values of 56.7 %. Elevated PFAA loadings were found for the midstream of Yarlung Tsangpo River in central Tibet. Geodetector results indicated that precipitation, solar radiation and vegetation type were the top three influential factors contributing to the observed spatial heterogeneity. When interactions with human activities were taken into account, the explanatory power was significantly enhanced and rose above 0.70, highlighting the increased risks for TP rivers from the combined effects of natural environments and anthropogenic activities. Risk assessments suggest a low risk is posed to the alpine aquatic ecosystems and human health. The discharge fluxes of PFAAs via riverine export were estimated at 94-425 kg/year, which is one to two orders of magnitude lower than their mass loadings in major rivers worldwide. Our study underlined the need for further attention to the increased risk of water resource quality on the central TP in the context of long-range transport, increased cryosphere melting and local emission.


Assuntos
Fluorcarbonetos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Humanos , Fluorcarbonetos/análise , Tibet , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Ecossistema , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Medição de Risco
20.
Sci Total Environ ; 856(Pt 2): 159144, 2023 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36183770

RESUMO

Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are a large group of chemicals reported in global environment and are responsible for various adverse impacts on humans and environment. We report a comprehensive study on occurrence of PFASs, including legacy, substitute and emerging ones, from Pakistan. Surface water samples were collected from five ecologically important freshwater reservoirs in Pakistan, namely, Head Panjnad (HP), Head Trimmu (HT), Chashma Barrage (CB), Head Blloki (HB), and Head Qadirabad (HQ). The detection frequencies of PFASs ranged between 37 %-100 %. The highest concentration of ∑15PFASs was detected at HP (114.1 ng L-1), whereas the lowest at HQ (19.9 ng L-1). Among the analyzed PFASs, 6:2 fluorotelomer sulfonic acid (6:2 FTS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) showed maximum mean concentrations of 9.1 ng L-1 and 7 ng L-1 at HP, followed by Perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) with level of 0.99 ng L-1 at HT. The ecological risk assessment for selected species i.e., daphnid, mysid, fish and green algae showed that PFOS, perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA) exhibited moderate risk i.e., Hazard Quotients (HQs) < 1 to the modeled organisms, whereas perfluorobutane sulfonic acid (PFBS) showed the high risk to green algae (HQs = 8.6) and PFOA presented a high risk to all the organisms (HQs ranged between 1.04 and 7.38). The level of ∑PFASs at HP (114.1 ng L-1) exceed the EU guideline value of ∑PFASs in water (100 ng L-1), however the risk quotient (RQmix) values of all age groups were < 1 implying that the detected PFASs in water do not pose risk to human health. Source apportionment through Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) showed that industrial effluent is the main source of PFASs in freshwater reservoirs. Comparable concentrations of legacy and substitute PFASs in this study indicate that legacy PFASs are still in use adjacent to ecologically important water reservoirs.


Assuntos
Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos , Fluorcarbonetos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Humanos , Fluorcarbonetos/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Paquistão , Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos/análise , Água Doce , Ácidos Sulfônicos , Água , China
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