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1.
Chemosphere ; 242: 125208, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31896193

RESUMO

Female fecundity is finely regulated by hormonal signaling, representing a potential target for endocrine-disrupting chemicals. Among the chemicals of most concern are the perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS), widely used in consumer goods, that are associated with adverse effects on reproductive health. In this context, the endometrium clearly represents an important fertility determining factor. The aim of this study was to investigate PFAS interference on hormonal endometrial regulation. This study was performed within a screening protocol to evaluate reproductive health in high schools. We studied a cohort of 146 exposed females aged 18-21 from the Veneto region in Italy, one of the four areas worldwide heavily polluted with PFAS, and 1080 non-exposed controls. In experiments on Ishikawa cells included UV-Vis spectroscopy, microarray analysis and qPCR. We report a significant dysregulation of the genetic cascade leading to embryo implantation and endometrial receptivity. The most differentially-expressed genes upon PFOA coincubation were ITGB8, KLF5, WNT11, SULT1E1, ALPPL2 and G0S2 (all p < 0.01). By qPCR, we confirmed an antagonistic effect of PFOA on all these genes, which was reversed at higher progesterone levels. Molecular interference of PFOA on progesterone was confirmed by an increase in the intensity of absorption spectra at 250 nm in a dose-dependent manner, but not in the presence of ß-estradiol. Age at menarche (+164 days, p = 0.006) and the frequency of girls with irregular periods (29.5% vs 21.5%, p = 0.022) were significantly higher in the exposed group. Our results are indicative of endocrine-disrupting activity of PFAS on progesterone-mediated endometrial function.


Assuntos
Caprilatos/toxicidade , Disruptores Endócrinos/toxicidade , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Fluorcarbonetos/toxicidade , Progesterona/metabolismo , Adolescente , Adulto , Implantação do Embrião , Endométrio , Estradiol/toxicidade , Feminino , Humanos , Itália , Reprodução , Sulfotransferases , Adulto Jovem
2.
Ecotoxicology ; 29(2): 163-174, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31938948

RESUMO

Perfluorooctanoic acid's (PFOA) widespread use, presence and persistence in the aquatic environment has led to an increasing number of studies focusing on its toxicological effects. In Australia, PFOA has been detected in the aquatic environment, however its effects on Australian native fauna are unknown. In this study, male Australian native fish Murray River rainbowfish (Melanotaenia fluviatilis) were exposed to four different concentrations of PFOA (0.01, 0.1, 1 and 10 mg L-1). Variations in thyroid hormones (Triiodothyronine (T3)/Thyroxine (T4)) and the presence of vitellogenin were determined in plasma. Oxidative stress responses were evaluated in gills and liver. Exposure of male fish to PFOA resulted in altered T3/T4 ratios and the presence of vitellogenin in the plasma. Activities of catalase (CAT) and glutathione- S-transferase (GST) were significantly increased in the gills and significantly reduced in the liver. Lipid peroxidation was observed in both tissues showing that vital organs could not neutralize the peroxides generated by oxidative stress resulting from exposure to PFOA. In natural populations exposed to PFOA, such hormonal disturbances can have negative effects, notably through altered capacity to respond to changes in environmental conditions.


Assuntos
Caprilatos/toxicidade , Fluorcarbonetos/toxicidade , Glândula Tireoide/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Austrália , Catalase/metabolismo , Peixes , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo , Glândula Tireoide/fisiologia , Vitelogeninas/metabolismo
3.
Environ Pollut ; 256: 113429, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31706766

RESUMO

Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), a classic environmental pollutant, is reported to accumulate in brain and induce neurotoxicity. However, little is known the route and mechanism of its entrance in brain. In the present study, ICR mice were treated with PFOS for 28 days, the cerebral PFOS were measured and the morphological and ultrastructural changes of blood-brain barrier (BBB) were observed. Also, the expression and localization of the proteins related to the cerebral damages, tight junctions (TJs) and p38 activation were detected. Additionally, U87 cells were used to explore the role of p38 in PFOS-induced damages of astrocytes. PFOS significantly decreased the expression of TJ-related proteins (ZO-1, Claudin-5, Claudin-11, Occludin) in endothelial cells and disrupted BBB, which subsequently led PFOS to astrocytes and increased the expression of the proteins related to astrocytic damages (Aquaporin 4 and S100ß). These results aggravated BBB disruption and further increased the cerebral PFOS levels. Besides, phosphorylated p38 activation was involved into PFOS-induced astrocytic damages in vivo and in vitro. In conclusion, the crosstalk between endothelial cells and astrocytes facilitated the BBB disruption and increased the accumulation of PFOS in brain. Our findings provided a new insight into the toxicological and physiological profiles of PFOS-induced neurotoxicity.


Assuntos
Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos/toxicidade , Barreira Hematoencefálica/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Fluorcarbonetos/toxicidade , Animais , Astrócitos/fisiologia , Transporte Biológico , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Claudina-5 , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Células Endoteliais/fisiologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Ocludina , Junções Íntimas
4.
Environ Pollut ; 256: 113512, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31706779

RESUMO

Growing evidence shows plants are at risks of exposure to various per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), however the phytotoxicity induced by these compounds remains largely unknown on the molecular scale. Here, lettuce exposed to both perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) at different concentrations (500, 1000, 2000 and 5000 ng/L) in hydroponic media was investigated via metabolomics. Under the co-exposure conditions, the growth and biomass were not affected by PFOA and PFOS, but metabolic profiles of mineral elements and organic compounds in lettuce leaves were significantly altered. The contents of Na, Mg, Cu, Fe, Ca and Mo were decreased 1.8%-47.8%, but Zn was increased 7.4%-24.2%. The metabolisms of amino acids and peptides, fatty acids and lipids were down-regulated in a dose-dependent manner, while purine and purine nucleosides were up-regulated, exhibiting the stress response to PFOA and PFOS co-exposure. The reduced amounts of phytol (14.8%-77.0%) and abscisic acid (60.7%-73.8%) indicated the alterations in photosynthesis and signal transduction. The metabolism of (poly)phenol, involved in shikimate-phenylpropanoid pathway and flavonoid branch pathway, was strengthened, to cope with the stress of PFASs. As the final metabolites of (poly)phenol biosynthesis, the abundance of various antioxidants was changed. This study offers comprehensive insight of plant response to PFAS co-exposure and enhances the understanding in detoxifying mechanisms.


Assuntos
Fluorcarbonetos/análise , Alface/química , Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos/análise , Caprilatos/análise , Fluorcarbonetos/toxicidade , Folhas de Planta , Purinas
5.
Environ Pollut ; 256: 113550, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31706782

RESUMO

Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) have been used for decades within industrial processes and consumer products, resulting in frequent detection within the environment. Using zebrafish embryos, we screened 38 PFASs for developmental toxicity and revealed that perfluorooctanesulfonamide (PFOSA) was the most potent developmental toxicant, resulting in elevated mortality and developmental abnormalities following exposure from 6 to 24 h post fertilization (hpf) and 6 to 72 hpf. PFOSA resulted in a concentration-dependent increase in mortality and abnormalities, with surviving embryos exhibiting a >12-h delay in development at 24 hpf. Exposures initiated at 0.75 hpf also resulted in a concentration-dependent delay in epiboly, although these effects were not driven by a specific sensitive window of development. We relied on mRNA-sequencing to identify the potential association of PFOSA-induced developmental delays with impacts on the embryonic transcriptome. Relative to stage-matched vehicle controls, these data revealed that pathways related to hepatotoxicity and lipid transport were disrupted in embryos exposed to PFOSA from 0.75 to 14 hpf and 0.75 to 24 hpf. Therefore, we measured liver area as well as neutral lipids in 128-hpf embryos exposed to vehicle (0.1% DMSO) or PFOSA from 0.75 to 24 hpf and clean water from 24 to 128 hpf, and showed that PFOSA exposure from 0.75 to 24 hpf resulted in a decrease in liver area and increase in yolk sac neutral lipids at 128 hpf. Overall, our findings show that early exposure to PFOSA adversely impacts embryogenesis, an effect that may lead to altered lipid transport and liver development.


Assuntos
Fluorcarbonetos/toxicidade , Sulfonamidas/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Embrião não Mamífero/efeitos dos fármacos , Desenvolvimento Embrionário/efeitos dos fármacos , Fluorcarbonetos/metabolismo , Substâncias Perigosas/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Testes de Toxicidade , Peixe-Zebra/embriologia , Peixe-Zebra/metabolismo , Proteínas de Peixe-Zebra/metabolismo
6.
Chemosphere ; 241: 125074, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31627108

RESUMO

Perfluorooctane acid (PFOA), a persistent organic pollutant, is ubiquitously present in the environment and may detrimentally affect male reproductive health. In this study, mature human sperm were in vitro exposed to different concentrations of PFOA (0.25, 2.5 or 25 µg/ml) alone or in combination with progesterone (P4) to evaluate the toxicity and the potential mechanism of action. Exposure to high-dose PFOA (25 µg/ml) alone for 4 h caused a decline in capacity of human spermatozoa to penetrate synthetic mucus, with an increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Furthermore, PFOA treatment (2.5 and 25 µg/ml) evoked a transient rise in intracellular calcium concentration [Ca2+]i by activating the sperm-specific CatSper channel. However, preincubation with PFOA (2.5-25 µg/ml) for 4 h significantly suppressed P4-stimulated extracellular Ca2+ influx in human spermatozoa. Moreover, PFOA pretreatment at all concentrations evaluated markedly compromised P4-induced acrosome reaction and sperm penetration into viscous medium. Taken together, these results suggest that PFOA exposure may impair human sperm function through inducing oxidative stress and disturbing P4-induced Ca2+ signaling.


Assuntos
Canais de Cálcio/metabolismo , Fluorcarbonetos/toxicidade , Substâncias Perigosas/toxicidade , Reação Acrossômica , Cálcio/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Progesterona/farmacologia , Espermatozoides/metabolismo
7.
Chemosphere ; 239: 124810, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31520980

RESUMO

Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) is a dispersive persistent organic pollutant in the environment. Accumulating reports suggest that PFOA is toxic to human lymphocytes; however, the toxicological effects of PFOA on these cells remain largely unclear. In this study, ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC)-based metabolomic analysis was employed to identify metabolites in human peripheral blood lymphocytes and to assess the metabolic alterations caused by PFOA exposure. Our comparative metabolomic analysis results demonstrated that PFOA treatment could increase the level of organic acids and reduce the level of lipid molecules. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) annotation further highlighted the fact that the PFOA treatment interfered with the metabolism of amino acids, carbohydrates and lipids, which may lead to disruption of the immune system.


Assuntos
Caprilatos/farmacologia , Fluorcarbonetos/farmacologia , Linfócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Metabolômica/métodos , Aminoácidos/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Sanguíneas , Caprilatos/toxicidade , Metabolismo dos Carboidratos/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Poluentes Ambientais/farmacologia , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Fluorcarbonetos/toxicidade , Humanos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Lipídeos/deficiência , Linfócitos/metabolismo
8.
Chemosphere ; 239: 124755, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31726523

RESUMO

Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), a global environmental pollutant detected in both wildlife and human populations, has several pathophysiological effects in experimental animals, including hepatotoxicity, immunotoxicity, and developmental toxicity. However, details concerning the tissue distribution of PFOA, in particular at levels relevant to humans, are lacking, which limits our understanding of how humans, and other mammals, may be affected by this compound. Therefore, we characterized the tissue distribution of 14C-PFOA in mice in the same manner as we earlier examined its analogues perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorobutanesulfonate (PFBS) in order to allow direct comparisons. Following dietary exposure of adult male C57/BL6 mice for 1, 3 or 5 days to a low dose (0.06 mg/kg/day) or a higher experimental dose (22 mg/kg/day) of 14C-PFOA, both scintillation counting and whole-body autoradiography revealed the presence of PFOA in most of the 19 different tissues examined, demonstrating its ability to leave the bloodstream and enter tissues. There were no differences in the pattern of tissue distribution with the low and high dose and the tissue-to-blood ratios were similar. At both doses, PFOA levels were highest in the liver, followed by blood, lungs and kidneys. The body compartments estimated to contain the largest amounts of PFOA were the liver, blood, skin and muscle. In comparison with our identical studies on PFOS and PFBS, PFOA reached considerably higher tissue levels than PFBS, but lower than PFOS. Furthermore, the distribution of PFOA differed notably from that of PFOS, with lower tissue-to-blood ratios in the liver, lungs, kidneys and skin.


Assuntos
Caprilatos/farmacocinética , Exposição Dietética/análise , Fluorcarbonetos/farmacocinética , Rim/química , Fígado/química , Pulmão/química , Animais , Caprilatos/toxicidade , Fluorcarbonetos/toxicidade , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Distribuição Tecidual
9.
J Toxicol Sci ; 44(10): 657-666, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31588057

RESUMO

Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), a kind of organic pollutant widely found in the environment and biota, could alter normal brain development and produce cognitive dysfunction. For the past years, the neurotoxic effects of PFOS have been shown. Recent studies have proven that PFOS can induce neuronal apoptosis and cause neurotoxicity, but the regulatory proteins referred to the process have not been clarified. In this study, PC12 cells were used to investigate the changes of the expression of apoptosis-related proteins, forkhead box O3 (FoxO3a) and pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 proteins. We detected that the levels of cleaved caspase-3 and cleaved PARP were up-regulated obviously in PFOS-treated PC12 cells by using Western blotting, and that the apoptotic rate of PC12 cells was increased significantly by using flow cytometry, verifying that PFOS could induce neuronal apoptosis. Western blot analysis and immunofluorescence revealed obvious up-regulation of the expression of FoxO3a and proapoptotic Bcl-2 proteins. In addition, knockdown of FoxO3a gene inhibited Bim expression and apoptosis. According to the data, we believe that FoxO3a may play a crucial role in PFOS-induced neurotoxicity.


Assuntos
Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos/toxicidade , Fluorcarbonetos/toxicidade , Proteína Forkhead Box O3/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/metabolismo , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteína Forkhead Box O3/genética , Células PC12 , RNA Interferente Pequeno/genética , Ratos , Regulação para Cima/efeitos dos fármacos
10.
Environ Int ; 133(Pt B): 105262, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31665679

RESUMO

Hepatotoxicity in zebrafish (Danio rerio) larvae elicited by legacy perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and its three novel chlorinated alternatives, including chlorinated polyfluorooctane sulfonate (Cl-PFOS) and chlorinated polyfluoroalkyl ether sulfonates (6:2 and 8:2 Cl-PFESA analogs), was evaluated in this study. Upon 7-day separate exposure to the four target compounds at 1 µmol/L, significant hepatic steatosis in exposed larvae was evidenced by pathological micro/macro vacuolation, which was presumably attributed to the excess accumulation of lipid, especially the overloaded triglyceride (TG) level. Disruption on gene transcription was subjected to a structure-dependent manner. In general, PFOS, Cl-PFOS and 6:2 Cl-PFESA of the identical carbon chain length (i.e. C8), despite with different substituents, displayed a similar activation mode and comparable disruptive potency on lipid metabolism responsive genes, which particularly promoted fatty acid synthesis (acetyl-CoA carboxylase, acacb) and ß-oxidation (cytochrome P450 enzymes-1A, cyp1a; peroxisomal acyl-CoA oxidase 1, acox1; and acyl-CoA dehy-drogenase, acadm). However, 8:2 Cl-PFESA with a prolonged carbon chain length (i.e. C10), preferentially disturbed fatty acid exportation (apolipoprotein-B100, apob) and triggered a different modulation pattern on fatty acid ß-oxidation against the other three compounds. Molecular docking analysis indicated that 8:2 Cl-PFESA exhibited considerably higher peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) antagonism than others, corresponding to its unique suppression effect on fatty acid ß-oxidation responsive genes. To our knowledge, this is the first in vivo study reporting hepatotoxicity of Cl-PFOS and Cl-PFESAs to aquatic organisms. Although characterized with different toxic mode-of-action, these novel alternatives can elicit hepatic steatosis as strong as PFOS, stressing the biological risks in view of their global contamination.


Assuntos
Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos/toxicidade , Fluorcarbonetos/toxicidade , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Peixe-Zebra/metabolismo , Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos/química , Animais , Fluorcarbonetos/química , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química
11.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 185: 109699, 2019 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31561076

RESUMO

Perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA) has been widely used in production of many daily necessities because of its special nature. Althoughtoxic effects of PFDA to organisms have been reported, there is little research on the genotoxicity induced by oxidative stress of PFDA on the cellular and molecular levels simultaneously. Thus, we investigated the DNA oxidative damage caused by PFDA in mouse hepatocytes. On the cellular level, an increase in ROS content indicated that PFDA caused oxidative stress in mouse hepatocytes. In addition, after PFDA exposure, the comet assay confirmed DNA strand breaks and an increased 8-OHdG content demonstrated DNA oxidative damage. On the molecular level, the microenvironment of aromatic amino acids, skeleton and secondary structure of catalase (CAT) were varied after PFDA exposure and the enzyme activity was reduced because PFDA bound near the heme groups of CAT. Moreover, PFDA was shown to interact with DNA molecule by groove binding. This study suggests that PFDA can cause genotoxicity by inducing oxidative stress both on the cellular and molecular levels.


Assuntos
Dano ao DNA , Ácidos Decanoicos/toxicidade , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Fluorcarbonetos/toxicidade , Hepatócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Sítios de Ligação , Catalase/química , Catalase/metabolismo , Células Cultivadas , Ensaio Cometa , DNA/química , Hepatócitos/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Oxirredução , Estresse Oxidativo/genética , Cultura Primária de Células , Estrutura Secundária de Proteína , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
12.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 185: 109666, 2019 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31542645

RESUMO

Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are a type of persistent organic pollutants that are widely distributed in multiple environmental media and organisms and have a teratogenic effect on and toxicity to animals and humans. The residual levels of seventeen PFAAs in the tissues of two regular consumption fish species, Culter erythropterus and Aristichthys nobilis in Lake Chaohu were measured by a high-performance liquid chromatograph - mass spectrometer (HPLC-MS). The distributions of PFAAs and the effect of the lipid contents were analyzed, and the health risks of typical PFAAs were evaluated. The results showed that perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA) was the predominant contaminant (80.50 ±â€¯58.31 ng/g and 19.17 ±â€¯12.57 ng/g wet weight, ww), followed by perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) (55.02 ±â€¯34.82 and 14.79 ±â€¯6.24 ng/g, ww) in both fish. The level of total PFAAs was the highest in the liver tissues of Culter erythropterus (359.87 ng/g, ww) and the lowest in the kidney tissues in A. nobilis (10.06 ng/g, ww). Due to the higher trophic level of C. erythropteru, the total PFAA concentrations were significantly higher in all tissues than those in A. nobilis. Liver muscle ratio of C. erythropteru was the highest, indicating the most accumulation in the liver. The concentrations of PFAAs in fish tissues were influenced by the lipid content, resulting in a difference between the lipid-normalized concentrations and the wet weight concentrations of the PFAAs. The non-carcinogenic risks of PFOS were higher than those of PFOA through the ingestion of C. erythropterus and A. nobilis. Both the carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risks of C. erythropterus were greater than those of A. nobilis, and fish tissue intake could cause an increasing of risks up to 60%, indicating that long-term and large amount ingestion of carnivorous fish and related tissues with higher trophic level, such as C. erythropterus should be avoided.


Assuntos
Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos/toxicidade , Caproatos/toxicidade , Cyprinidae/metabolismo , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Fluorcarbonetos/toxicidade , Lagos/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos/farmacocinética , Animais , Caproatos/farmacocinética , China , Fluorcarbonetos/farmacocinética , Cadeia Alimentar , Humanos , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Rim/metabolismo , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Alimentos Marinhos/análise , Especificidade da Espécie , Distribuição Tecidual , Poluentes Químicos da Água/farmacocinética
13.
Environ Sci Process Impacts ; 21(11): 1980-1990, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31553340

RESUMO

Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are frequently detected in aquatic environments. Longer chained perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs), in particular, have been found to bioaccumulate in a broad range of aquatic biota. PFAAs have a physiochemical similarity to naturally occurring fatty acids and could potentially disrupt metabolic processes, however, there has been limited study in this area, especially in aquatic species. In this study, the associations between PFAAs and metabolite profiles were investigated in crustaceans. Eastern School Prawn (Metapenaeus macleayi) were obtained from three different locations (n = 15 per location) with similar environmental conditions but different levels of PFAA contamination. The concentrations of PFAAs, fatty acids and amino acids were analysed and differences in PFAA and metabolite profiles were evaluated. Different PFAA profiles were mirrored by significant differences in the composition of both fatty acid and amino acid profiles, indicating a potential association between PFAA concentration and the composition of metabolites in prawns. These results highlight a need for further research investigating the impacts of PFAA exposure, with the current study providing a foundation for further investigation of the relationship between PFAA bioaccumulation and organism metabolism.


Assuntos
Organismos Aquáticos/química , Crustáceos/química , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Fluorcarbonetos/toxicidade , Metaboloma/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Animais , Organismos Aquáticos/metabolismo , Crustáceos/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Fluorcarbonetos/análise , Metabolômica , New South Wales , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
14.
Sci Total Environ ; 690: 1162-1169, 2019 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31470479

RESUMO

Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) have been detected at various concentrations in different environment compartments due to their widespread usage. Nowadays, soil environment has become a prominent sink of PFCs from surface runoff and penetration, but few researches have been conducted in the toxicity of PFCs to soil microorganisms. To address the issue, microcalorimetry was applied to investigate the toxicity of six PFCs with different carbon chain length (4, 8, and 10) and functional group (carboxylic and sulfonic) to microbial activities in three Chinese soils varying widely in soil properties. Adsorption of PFCs by soil matrix was a key factor in controlling the toxicity of PFCs to soil microorganisms. The differences of carbon chain length and functional groups of PFCs have different impacts on soil microbial activity while affecting adsorption progress. Particularly, the sulfonic PFCs expressed higher toxicity than the carboxylic. It is also identified that the longer the chain length, the greater the toxicity of PFCs. Soil pH was another relevant factor of soil adsorption, and with the increase of pH, adsorption capability increased. Soil available P, N and K were essential nutrients in soil, and suggested to improve microbial activity under PFCs stress.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Fluorcarbonetos/toxicidade , Microbiologia do Solo , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Carbono , Solo/química
15.
Sci Total Environ ; 697: 134146, 2019 Dec 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31484094

RESUMO

Phytoremediation of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) appears to be a green remediation technique. To understand distribution of PFAS in plant-soil-water systems, eight perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) at three different concentrations were spiked to Juncus effusus grown in a greenhouse for 21 days. Results from this study demonstrated that mass-based plant uptake of PFAAs correlated positively with concentrations and time. On the basis of removal percentages, the higher the initial PFAA concentrations, the less removal by plant was observed. With the low level of PFAA spike, J. effusus roots and shoots accumulated 30-40% of PFAAs (C4 to C8) except PFOS with a lower uptake of approximately 20%. Together with soil sorption, >82.8% of PFAAs were removed from the aqueous solution in 21 days. Uptake of PFAAs also depended on their carbon chain length and plant compartments (roots or shoots). This dependence resulted in different bioaccumulation factors and translocation factors for different PFAAs. Besides physical and chemical distribution, PFAAs, especially those added at the high level led to significant change of soil bacterial communities in terms of composition and structure. Potential impact to the community's functions warrants further investigations.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Fluorcarbonetos/toxicidade , Microbiota/efeitos dos fármacos , Plantas , Solo/química , Água/química
16.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 184: 109579, 2019 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31505405

RESUMO

DNA methylation have been suggested as possible mediators of long-term health effects of environmental stressors. This study aimed to evaluate the potential therapy of methylation of S-adenosyl-l-methionine (SAM) on PFOS induced trangeneral reproductive toxicity. In this study, postnatal 5d Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups: control, PFOS, PFOS + SAM, and PFOS + Decitabine (DAC). The F0 rats were exposed to 5 mg/kg PFOS and SAM or DAC until PND60. The development of the offsprings were monitored without PFOS exposure. The fertility in F0, F1 rats, and change in F1 testes were observed. The results were as follows. The significant increase in F0 pregnancy rate, and survival rate in F1 offspring in PFOS + SAM relative to PFOS group were observed. Changes of birth weights and physical development in F1 offspring with SAM were approached as a corresponding variation of the control after the deparation period. No pregnant in F1 maternal rats in the PFOS and DAC groups were found, but pregnant in the SAM group. Significantly decrease in the percentage of abnormal seminiferous tubules and increase in expression of promyelocytic leukemia zinc finger (PLZF+) spermatogonial stem cells in F1 testis compared with the PFOS group. Taken together, Methyl donor SAM improve PLZF + spermatogonia stem cell proliferation, attenuate damage in testicular tissue structure, which subsequently improve the transgenerational growth retard and infertility induced by PFOS chronic stress.


Assuntos
Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos/toxicidade , Fluorcarbonetos/toxicidade , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/prevenção & controle , Reprodução/efeitos dos fármacos , S-Adenosilmetionina/uso terapêutico , Animais , Peso ao Nascer , Decitabina/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Masculino , Gravidez , Taxa de Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/induzido quimicamente , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/mortalidade , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/patologia , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Espermatogônias/citologia , Espermatogônias/efeitos dos fármacos , Taxa de Sobrevida , Testículo/citologia , Testículo/efeitos dos fármacos
17.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 183: 109499, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31398581

RESUMO

Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are anthropogenic compounds used globally in a variety of commercial products. Perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), a member of PFAAs, is detected in human blood and this has been reported to cause hepatotoxic, immunotoxic, and developmental and testicular toxic effects in laboratory animals. We have recently shown that the acute exposure to PFNA in prepubertal Parkes (P) mice impairs spermatogenesis by inducing oxidative stress and inhibiting testosterone biosynthesis in the testis. The present study was aimed to examine the effect of acute exposure to PFNA in prepubertal P mice on germ cell dynamics and to understand the possible mechanisms of action of this compound on testicular functions. PFNA (2 and 5 mg/kg body weight) was orally administered to male mice for 14 days from postnatal day 25-38. The treatment caused a decrease in overall germ cell transformation. The results also reveal that impairment in testicular functions in treated mice is associated with alterations in cholesterol and glucose homeostasis; further, an inhibition in expressions of growth hormone receptor (GHR), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R), androgen receptor (AR), phosphorylated mammalian target of rapamycin (p-mTOR) and peroxisome proliferator activated receptor α (PPAR α) in the testis is also implicated in this action. The findings thus suggest involvement of multiple factors which altogether contribute to the alterations in spermatogenic process and testosterone production following acute exposure to PFNA in prepubertal mice.


Assuntos
Fluorcarbonetos/toxicidade , Células Germinativas/efeitos dos fármacos , Homeostase/efeitos dos fármacos , Testículo/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Glicemia/metabolismo , Colesterol/sangue , Fluorcarbonetos/administração & dosagem , Células Germinativas/metabolismo , Células Germinativas/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Testículo/metabolismo , Testes de Toxicidade Aguda
19.
Sci Total Environ ; 695: 133828, 2019 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31419689

RESUMO

There is increasing concern about the effects of releasing emerging contaminants (i.e. endocrine-disrupting chemicals, pharmaceuticals, personal-care products and flame retardants) into the environment. Particular attention is being paid to perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) because of their persistence and bioaccumulation, especially in the aquatic environment. In this paper, we present results of a study aimed at evaluating the effects of different perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) concentrations (2, 20 and 200 µg/L) on morpho-physiological traits in Lemna minor L. plants. The accumulation of PFOA in the plant's tissues was also monitored. L. minor was selected as a model plant for ecotoxicological studies, and we performed a seven-day assay for this investigation. The results highlight the lack of inhibitory effects on biometric parameters such as mean frond area, total frond number, multiplication rate, doubling time of frond number and average specific growth rate, for each of tested PFOA concentrations. Also, at photosynthetic level, physiological measurements showed that chlorophyll content and electron transport rate (ETR) were not affected by the exposure to PFOA. Remarkably, the chlorophyll fluorescence images, used for the first time in a study on PFOA, evidenced no impairment to the photosynthetic efficiency, measured by the maximum quantum yield of photosystem II (PSII) photochemistry (Fv/Fm), the quantum efficiency of PSII photochemistry (ΦPSII) and the non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) over the leaf surface of PFOA-treated plants, in comparison to control. Quantification of PFOA in the growth medium at the end of the seven-day test revealed no statistically different concentrations in plates with or without L. minor plants. We detected increasing PFOA accumulation in plant tissues, in accordance with the PFOA concentrations in the medium. Therefore, the L. minor plants were capable of taking up and accumulating PFOA. The ecological impact of the environmentally relevant PFOA concentrations tested in this work on biological organisms of the aquatic environment is discussed.


Assuntos
Araceae/fisiologia , Caprilatos/toxicidade , Fluorcarbonetos/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Araceae/efeitos dos fármacos , Ecotoxicologia
20.
Environ Sci Process Impacts ; 21(11): 1915-1925, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31454014

RESUMO

Aqueous film forming foams (AFFF) can contain gram per liter concentrations of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) and are often released in large quantities directly to the environment as they are used to fight fires. AFFF composition is complex and contains many unknown PFAS in addition to ingredients such as hydrocarbons, solvents, and corrosion inhibitors. While biological effects of single PFAS have been studied, the effects of PFAS-containing mixtures, such as AFFF, are unknown. The effect of PFAS on microorganisms is also not well understood; nevertheless, we rely on microorganisms in locations containing elevated PFAS concentrations to perform certain functions, such as carbon cycling and co-contaminant degradation. This study focused on determining the functional consequences of AFFF and PFAS exposure in a microbial community in both the presence and the absence of a co-contaminant. AFFF, select PFAS, and a PFAS mixture were tested to determine the effect of AFFF on an anaerobic microbial community and the characteristics of the PFAS that drive toxicity in such mixtures. To study this, anaerobic digester communities were exposed to PFAS and a co-contaminant (2,4-dichlorophenol, DCP); methane production, as an indicator of toxicity and the community's ability to cycle carbon, and co-contaminant degradation were monitored. Results showed that PFAS and AFFF can alter the toxicity of DCP, inhibit DCP degradation, decrease the number of methanogens present, and change the microbial community structure. DCP was also able to decrease the toxicity of the PFAS perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), possibly by changing the sorption of PFOS to the microorganisms present. Additionally, it was determined that while PFOS was responsible for AFFF toxicity, no single PFAS or simple PFAS mixture accurately accounted for the inhibition of DCP degradation caused by AFFF exposure.


Assuntos
Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos/toxicidade , Retardadores de Chama/toxicidade , Fluorcarbonetos/toxicidade , Metano/análise , Microbiota/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Anaerobiose
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