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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33800362

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, there is interest in assessing if per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) exposures are associated with any increased risk of COVID-19 or its severity, given the evidence of immunosuppression by some PFAS. The objective of this paper is to evaluate at the ecological level if a large area (Red Zone) of the Veneto Region, where residents were exposed for decades to drinking water contaminated by PFAS, showed higher mortality for COVID-19 than the rest of the region. METHODS: We fitted a Bayesian ecological regression model with spatially and not spatially structured random components on COVID-19 mortality at the municipality level (period between 21 February and 15 April 2020). The model included education score, background all-cause mortality (for the years 2015-2019), and an indicator for the Red Zone. The two random components are intended to adjust for potential hidden confounders. RESULTS: The COVID-19 crude mortality rate ratio for the Red Zone was 1.55 (90% Confidence Interval 1.25; 1.92). From the Bayesian ecological regression model adjusted for education level and baseline all-cause mortality, the rate ratio for the Red Zone was 1.60 (90% Credibility Interval 0.94; 2.51). CONCLUSION: In conclusion, we observed a higher mortality risk for COVID-19 in a population heavily exposed to PFAS, which was possibly explained by PFAS immunosuppression, bioaccumulation in lung tissue, or pre-existing disease being related to PFAS.


Assuntos
Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos , Fluorcarbonetos , Teorema de Bayes , Cidades , Fluorcarbonetos/toxicidade , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Pandemias
2.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 214: 112107, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33667734

RESUMO

Perfluorobutanesulfonate (PFBS) pollutant and probiotic bacteria can interact to affect the reproductive outcomes of zebrafish. However, it is still unexplored how the growth and health of offspring are modulated by the combination of PFBS and probiotic. In the present study, adult zebrafish were exposed to 0 and 10 µg/L PFBS for 40 days, with or without dietary supplementation of probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus. After parental exposure, the development, growth and viability of offspring larvae were examined, with the integration of molecular clues across proteome fingerprint, growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor (GH/IGF) axis, calcium homeostasis, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and nutrient metabolism. Parental probiotic supplementation significantly increased the body weight and body length of offspring larvae. Despite the spiking of PFBS, larvae from the combined exposure group still had longer body length. RNA processing and ribosomal assembly pathways may underlie the enhancement of offspring growth by probiotic bacteria. However, the presence of PFBS remarkably increased the concentrations of cortisol hormone in offspring larvae as means to cope with the xenobiotic stress, which required more energy production. As evidenced by the proteomic analysis, the addition of probiotic bacteria likely alleviated the energy metabolism disorders of PFBS, thus allocating more energy for the larval offspring growth from the combined group. It was noteworthy that multiple molecular disturbances caused by PFBS were antagonized by probiotic additive. Overall, the present study elucidated the intergenerational interaction between PFBS and probiotic on offspring growth and health after parental exposure.


Assuntos
Fluorcarbonetos/toxicidade , Lactobacillus rhamnosus , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Probióticos/farmacologia , Ácidos Sulfônicos/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Peixe-Zebra/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Metabolismo Energético/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Masculino , Proteômica
3.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 214: 112081, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33677383

RESUMO

Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), a persistent environmental contaminant, resists environmental degradation and bioaccumulates in food chains. Lots of literatures have proved that PFOA exposure could disrupt detoxifying function in a variety of organisms, however, it still remained poorly known about this in mollusk. Here, we examined physiological, transcriptomic, and metabolomic responses to PFOA in Mytilus edulis, a model organism frequently used in studies of aquatic pollution. We aimed to characterize PFOA-induced stress responses and detoxification mechanisms. PFOA exposure significantly altered antioxidant enzyme activity levels and the abundances of lipid peroxidation products. In addition, transcriptomic analysis indicated that several genes associated with oxidative stress and detoxication were differentially expressed after PFOA exposure. In combination, transcriptomic and metabolomic analyses showed that PFOA exposure disturbed several metabolic processes in M. edulis, including the lipid metabolism, amino acid metabolism, and carbohydrate metabolism etc. Molecular examination and enzymes assay of PFOA-exposed M. edulis after a 7-day depuration period still did not recover to control levels. The Pathway enrichment analysis proved that several pathways related to detoxification, such as c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38-dependent mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway, Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) pathway etc, were obviously affected. The present work verifies firstly PFOA disruption to molluscan detoxification and identifies the key pathways to understand the molecular mechanisms thereof. This study provides new insights into the detoxication disruption invoked in response to PFOA exposure in M. edulis.


Assuntos
Caprilatos/toxicidade , Fluorcarbonetos/toxicidade , Mytilus edulis/fisiologia , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Metabolômica , Mytilus edulis/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , PPAR gama/metabolismo , Transcriptoma
4.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 214: 112121, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33721578

RESUMO

Perfluorooctane sulfonate is related to male reproductive dysfunction in rats and humans. However, the underlying mechanism remains unknown. Here, we reported the effects of short-term exposure to perfluorooctane sulfonate on the regeneration of Leydig cells in vivo and investigated possible mechanisms in vitro. After adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were gavaged perfluorooctane sulfonate (0, 5 or 10 mg/kg/day) for 7 days and then injected intraperitoneally ethane dimethane sulfonate next day to eliminate Leydig cells, the Leydig cell regeneration process was monitored. Perfluorooctane sulfonate significantly lowered serum testosterone levels, reduced the number of regenerated Leydig cells, down-regulated the expression of Lhcgr, Scarb1, Star, Cyp11a1, Hsd3b1, Cyp17a1, and Dhh) and their proteins at doses of 5 and 10 mg/kg 35 and 56 days after ethane dimethane sulfonate. Using a 3D seminiferous tubule culture system to study the development of stem Leydig cells, we found that perfluorooctane sulfonate inhibited stem Leydig cell proliferation and differentiation and hedgehog signaling pathway. In conclusion, a short-term exposure to perfluorooctane sulfonate can inhibit the development of stem Leydig cells into the Leydig cell lineage via direct suppression of hedgehog signaling pathway and indirect inhibition of desert hedgehog section by Sertoli cells.


Assuntos
Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos/toxicidade , Fluorcarbonetos/toxicidade , Testículo/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Hedgehog/metabolismo , Masculino , Mesilatos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Regeneração , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Testículo/citologia , Testículo/metabolismo , Testículo/fisiologia , Testosterona/sangue
5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(4)2021 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33670069

RESUMO

Endocrine disruptors are a group of chemical compounds that, even in low concentrations, cause a hormonal imbalance in the body, contributing to the development of various harmful health disorders. Many industry compounds, due to their important commercial value and numerous applications, are produced on a global scale, while the mechanism of their endocrine action has not been fully understood. In recent years, per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) have gained the interest of major international health organizations, and thus more and more studies have been aimed to explain the toxicity of these compounds. PFASs were firstly synthesized in the 1950s and broadly used in the industry in the production of firefighting agents, cosmetics and herbicides. The numerous industrial applications of PFASs, combined with the exceptionally long half-life of these substances in the human body and extreme environmental persistence, result in a common and chronic exposure of the general population to their action. Available data have suggested that human exposure to PFASs can occur during different stages of development and may cause short- or/and long-term health effects. This paper synthetizes the current literature reports on the presence, bioaccumulation and, particularly, endocrine toxicity of selected long- and short-chain PFASs, with a special emphasis on the mechanisms underlying their endocrine actions.


Assuntos
Disruptores Endócrinos/toxicidade , Fluorcarbonetos/toxicidade , Animais , Biotransformação/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenômenos Químicos , Disruptores Endócrinos/química , Fluorcarbonetos/sangue , Fluorcarbonetos/química , Fluorcarbonetos/urina , Humanos , Modelos Biológicos
6.
Sci Total Environ ; 770: 145346, 2021 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33736417

RESUMO

Exposure to certain perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) can have considerable effects on the endocrine and immune systems, although such effects remain largely uncharacterized in wildlife. Using an apex avian predator, we investigated possible relationships of thyroid hormones (THs), specifically free (F) and total (T) thyroxine (FT4; TT4) and triiodothyronine (FT3; TT3), and the expression of an immune-related microRNA biomarker (i.e., miR-155), with the concentrations of 11 PFAAs in nestling peregrine falcons (Falco peregrinus). Nestling peregrines (n = 56; usually two chicks of each sex per nest) were blood sampled when 23 ± 4 days old in urban and rural regions of the Laurentian Great Lakes Basin (Ontario, Canada) in 2016 and 2018. The circulating concentrations of several PFAAs were significantly associated with THs and estimated thyroid gland activity (TT3:TT4; FT3:FT4), including PFHxS (FT3; FT3:FT4), PFDS (TT3; TT3:TT4), PFOA (TT4; FT3:FT4), PFTeDA (TT4; FT3:FT4), PFHxDA (TT4; TT3:TT4) and ΣPFCAs (TT4). Our novel evaluation of miR-155 in peregrine nestlings identified significantly negative relationships of plasma miR-155 counts with PFHxS and PFOA concentrations, indicating potential down-regulation of miR-155 expression and impaired immunity. Several PFAA homologues significantly predicted the variation in THs and miR-155 in conjunction with year (e.g., inter-annual differences in weather, ambient temperature, rainfall), region (urban/rural), nestling age, and/or diet (trophic position; δ15N), which suggests that multiple environmental and biological stressors, including PFAA exposure, influenced thyroid activity and immune function in these nestlings. Further research is warranted to identify the mechanisms and additional impacts of PFAA-related thyroid and immune disruption on the growth, development, and health risks in developing birds.


Assuntos
Falconiformes , Fluorcarbonetos , MicroRNAs , Animais , Fluorcarbonetos/toxicidade , Ontário , Hormônios Tireóideos , Tiroxina , Tri-Iodotironina
7.
Sci Total Environ ; 766: 142365, 2021 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33601665

RESUMO

Emerging evidence suggests associations between Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) exposure and asthma, but the findings are inconsistent. The current study sought to investigate whether perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) could contribute to asthma exacerbation and to clarify the underlying biological mechanisms. The objectives are a) to determine whether PFOS or PFOA could aggravate the mouse asthma and pulmonary inflammation b) to investigate whether PFOS and PFOA regulate the balance of Th1/Th2 through the JAK-STAT signaling pathway and aggravated asthma. Ovalbumin (OVA) induced asthmatic mice were exposed to PFOS or PFOA by gavage. PFOS and PFOA serum level and toxicity in organs were assessed; and the impacts on respiratory symptoms, lung tissue pathology, T helper cell (Th2) response, and STAT6 pathway activity were also evaluated. In vitro Jurkat cells were used to study the mechanisms of PFOS and PFOA mediated Th1 and Th2 responses. Both PFOS and PFOA exacerbated lung tissue inflammation (greater number of eosinophils and mucus hyperproduction), upregulated Th2 cytokine production (IL-4 and IL-13), and promoted Th2 cells and STAT6 activation. Furthermore, PFOS and PFOA enhanced the Th2 response in Jurkat cells via STAT6 activation; and the effect of PFOS exposure on GATA-3, IL-4 and IFN-γ was blocked after the expression of STAT6 was suppressed in Jurkat cells, however, the effects of PFOA exposure were only partially blocked. PFOS and PFOA aggravated inflammation among OVA-induced asthmatic mice, by promoting the Th2 response in lymphocytes and disturbing the balance of Th1/Th2 through the JAK-STAT signaling pathway.


Assuntos
Asma , Fluorcarbonetos , Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos , Animais , Asma/induzido quimicamente , Caprilatos , Fluorcarbonetos/toxicidade , Inflamação/induzido quimicamente , Pulmão , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C
8.
Environ Pollut ; 274: 116550, 2021 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33549840

RESUMO

The co-contamination by perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) and heavy metals (HMs) is ubiquitous in the surface environment subjected to sewage irrigation and land application of sludge. However, the joint effects of HMs and PFAAs on plant roots are not well clarified. This study explored the root uptake and acropetal translocation behaviors of C2-C8 PFAAs by wheat (Triticum acstivnm L.) under the co-exposure of copper (Cu). The underlying uptake mechanisms of PFAAs were verified in a defective root system. The results showed that excessive Cu (100-400 µmol/L) damaged the cell membrane of wheat root to increase electrolytic leakage. In the defective root system, the root concentrations of PFAAs decreased by 6%-73% and the decrease rates were negatively associated with the carbon chain length of PFAAs. Along with the decrease in root concentrations of PFAAs, the amount of ultrashort-chain (C2-C3) and short-chain (C4-C6) PFAAs translocated to the shoot also decreased by 45%-84%. In contrast, the acropetal translocation of long-chain (C8) PFAAs, perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), was enhanced under Cu exposure due to the increase in root permeability as observed by increased electrolytic leakage. The shoot concentrations of PFOA and PFOS under Cu exposure were up to 5.5 and 11 times higher than those in the control, respectively. These results suggested that PFOA and PFOS could enter wheat root more easily through the breaks caused by Cu exposure and thereby their acropetal transportation to shoot was enhanced. Therefore, the risk of plant accumulation of long-chain PFAAs can be potentially underestimated if without considering the co-contamination with HMs in the environment.


Assuntos
Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos , Fluorcarbonetos , Metais Pesados , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Carbono , Cobre/toxicidade , Fluorcarbonetos/análise , Fluorcarbonetos/toxicidade , Triticum , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
9.
Environ Pollut ; 275: 116644, 2021 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33581636

RESUMO

Perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) is a persistent environmental contaminant previously found in consumer surfactants and industrial fire-fighting foams. PFOS has been widely implicated in metabolic dysfunction across the lifespan, including diabetes and obesity. However, the contributions of the embryonic environment to metabolic disease remain uncharacterized. This study seeks to identify perturbations in embryonic metabolism, pancreas development, and adiposity due to developmental and subchronic PFOS exposures and their persistence into later larval and juvenile periods. Zebrafish embryos were exposed to 16 or 32 µM PFOS developmentally (1-5 days post fertilization; dpf) or subchronically (1-15 dpf). Embryonic fatty acid and macronutrient concentrations and expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) isoforms were quantified in embryos. Pancreatic islet morphometry was assessed at 15 and 30 dpf, and adiposity and fish behavior were assessed at 15 dpf. Concentrations of lauric (C12:0) and myristic (C14:0) saturated fatty acids were increased by PFOS at 4 dpf, and PPAR gene expression was reduced. Incidence of aberrant islet morphologies, principal islet areas, and adiposity were increased in 15 dpf larvae and 30 dpf juvenile fish. Together, these data suggest that the embryonic period is a susceptible window of metabolic programming in response to PFOS exposures, and that these early exposures alone can have persisting effects later in the lifecourse.


Assuntos
Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos , Fluorcarbonetos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Adiposidade , Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos/metabolismo , Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos/toxicidade , Animais , Embrião não Mamífero/metabolismo , Fluorcarbonetos/metabolismo , Fluorcarbonetos/toxicidade , Larva , Obesidade/metabolismo , Pâncreas , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo , Peixe-Zebra
10.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 208: 111625, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33396145

RESUMO

Data for US adults aged ≥20 years from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for the years 2003-2014 were analyzed to evaluate how adjusted (N = 8481) and unadjusted (N = 9080) levels of selected perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAA) vary across the different stages of glomerular function (GF) among those who did not have diabetes, anemia, or albuminuria as compared to those who had diabetes only, anemia only, and albuminuria only. PFAAs selected for analyses were: perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA), perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS), and perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA). Irrespective of GF stage, there was no noticeable evidence to suggest that adjusted levels of PFAA for those with diabetes only are any lower than those with no diabetes, no anemia, and no albuminuria. Those who had anemia only were found to have lower adjusted levels of at least PFOA, PFOS, PFDA, and PFHxS than those who had no diabetes, no anemia, and no albuminuria. These results were seen in the presence (eGFR < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2) as well as the absence of chronic kidney disease. For GF-1 (eGFR > 90 mL/min/1.73 m2), GF-2 (60 ≤ eGFR ≤ 90 mL/min/1.73 m2), and GF-3B/4 (15 < eGFR ≤ 45 mL/min/1.73 m2), those who had albuminuria only had lower adjusted levels of PFOA, PFOS, and PFHxS than those who had no diabetes, no anemia, and no albuminuria. In general, adjusted levels of those who had albuminuria only were lower than those who had anemia only at GF-3 and more often than not at GF-1 and GF-2. Rise in adjusted levels of PFAA from GF-1 to GF-3A (45 < eGFR < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2) was faster for those with anemia only than any other comparison group for the total population and females.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Fluorcarbonetos/toxicidade , Rim/fisiologia , Adulto , Albuminúria/epidemiologia , Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos/toxicidade , Anemia/epidemiologia , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Caprilatos/toxicidade , Ácidos Decanoicos/toxicidade , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Ácidos Sulfônicos
11.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 208: 111770, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33396088

RESUMO

Toxicity of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in soils towards bacteria shows an impact on its ecosystem function. This study aims to obtain insight into the effect of hydrolase (e.g. α-amylase) in soil on metabolism adaptions of bacteria (e.g. Bacillus substilis) against PFOS exposure. Results show that exogenous α-amylase alleviates PFOS toxicity to bacteria growth, disturbance to membrane permeability and stimulation to reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. The mechanisms were owing to that α-amylase strongly influences the strategies of metabolism adaptions of bacteria against PFOS stress. In details, α-amylase prompts bacteria to regulate the secretion of extracellular polymeric substances (EPSs) and the production of metabolic signal (acetic acid), which leads to changes in the physicochemical properties (hydrophilicity, surface charge) of the bacterial surface and the inactivation of the interaction with PFOS, thereby reducing the PFOS toxicity. Molecular simulations show that PFOS combines with Srt A at Gly 53 and Trp 171, which may induce the increase of permeability and changes of surface characteristics. Meanwhile, α-amylase competes with Srt A to bind PFOS at Arg 125 and Lys 176. This competition changes the physicochemical characteristics of PFOS and its bioavailability, further improving the metabolism adaptions of bacteria against PFOS. Altogether, this work provides direct evidences about α-amylase buffering effect of PFOS and demonstrates that the presence of α-amylase affects the essential but complex metabolic response in bacteria triggered by PFOS.


Assuntos
Fluorcarbonetos/toxicidade , Microbiologia do Solo , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Solo/química , alfa-Amilases/fisiologia , Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos/toxicidade , Bactérias , Ecossistema , Poluentes do Solo/análise
12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(3)2021 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33498193

RESUMO

Due to their unique chemical properties, per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) have been used extensively as industrial surfactants and processing aids. While several types of PFAS have been voluntarily phased out by their manufacturers, these chemicals continue to be of ecological and public health concern due to their persistence in the environment and their presence in living organisms. Moreover, while the compounds referred to as "legacy" PFAS remain in the environment, alternative compounds have emerged as replacements for their legacy predecessors and are now detected in numerous matrices. In this review, we discuss the historical uses of PFAS, recent advances in analytical techniques for analysis of these compounds, and the fate of PFAS in the environment. In addition, we evaluate current biomonitoring studies of human exposure to legacy and emerging PFAS and examine the associations of PFAS exposure with human health impacts, including cancer- and non-cancer-related outcomes. Special focus is given to short-chain perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) and ether-substituted, polyfluoroalkyl alternatives including hexafluoropropylene oxide dimer acid (HFPO-DA; tradename GenX), 4,8-dioxa-3H-perfluorononanoic acid (DONA), and 6:2 chlorinated polyfluoroethersulfonic acid (6:2 Cl-PFESA; tradename F-53B).


Assuntos
Carcinógenos Ambientais/toxicidade , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Fluorcarbonetos/toxicidade , Animais , Biodegradação Ambiental , Carcinógenos Ambientais/química , Poluentes Ambientais/química , Fluorcarbonetos/química , Humanos
13.
Chemosphere ; 272: 129585, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33465609

RESUMO

This study was conducted to explore the effects of maternal exposure to perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) on testicular development of male offspring mice. 20 pregnant Kunming mice were randomly divided into control group and PFOA exposure group with 10 mice of each. In PFOA exposure group, pregnant mice were given 5 mg/kg BW PFOA daily by gavage during gestation. Male offspring mice were killed to separate serum and collect testis at postpartum day 21, then tested the experimental indicators. The results showed that compared with control group, the content of PFOA in the serum of PFOA-exposed mice increased significantly and testosterone content is significantly reduced. Histological observations revealed architectural damages in testis in PFOA exposed groups and the apoptosis was increased. Transcriptome sequencing results showed that the U4/U6 snRNA coding genes snu13 and prp19 complex coding genes HSP73 were up-regulated and the U5 snRNA coding genes Brr2, Prp8 and EJC/TREX coding THOC genes were down-regulated after PFOA exposure Real-time PCR confirmed this result. These results indicate that the exposure of pregnant mice to perfluorooctanoic acid will have a damaging effect on the development of testes in male offspring mice, which may be due to blocked activation of the shear body, changes in structural functions, and inability to perform shear functions.


Assuntos
Fluorcarbonetos , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Animais , Caprilatos/toxicidade , Feminino , Fluorcarbonetos/toxicidade , Humanos , Masculino , Exposição Materna , Camundongos , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/induzido quimicamente , Testículo
14.
Sci Total Environ ; 765: 144431, 2021 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33387923

RESUMO

Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and its substitute GenX are toxic chemicals that are widespread in the aquatic environment. However, there is little information about their toxicity mechanisms to aquatic organisms. In this study, Chlorella pyrenoidosa (C. pyrenoidosa) was treated with two concentrations (100 ng L-1 and 100 µg L-1) of PFOA or GenX for 12 days. The results showed that these two concentrations of PFOA and GenX began to inhibit the growth of algae after 6 days of treatment, and the Chlorophyll content and photosynthetic activity of C. pyrenoidosa were also negatively affected by these two chemicals. The transcriptomic results indicated that most of the genes related to the photosynthetic metabolism of C. pyrenoidosa were down-regulated (in 100 ng L-1 treatment groups) on the 12th day. Besides, GenX and PFOA showed similar effects on algae photosynthesis including physical damage and metabolic disorders. According to this study, GenX might not be an ideal substitute for PFOA, and more attention should be paid on the management of emerging perfluoroalkyl substances.


Assuntos
Chlorella , Fluorcarbonetos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Caprilatos , Fluorcarbonetos/toxicidade , Fotossíntese , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33467168

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Infants whose mothers experience greater psychosocial stress and environmental chemical exposures during pregnancy may face greater rates of preterm birth, lower birth weight, and impaired neurodevelopment. METHODS: ECHO.CA.IL is composed of two cohorts, Chemicals in Our Bodies (CIOB; n = 822 pregnant women and n = 286 infants) and Illinois Kids Development Study (IKIDS; n = 565 mother-infant pairs), which recruit pregnant women from San Francisco, CA and Urbana-Champaign, IL, respectively. We examined associations between demographic characteristics and gestational age, birth weight z-scores, and cognition at 7.5 months across these two cohorts using linear models. We also examined differences in biomarkers of exposure to per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS), measured in second-trimester serum, and psychosocial stressors by cohort and participant demographics. RESULTS: To date, these cohorts have recruited over 1300 pregnant women combined. IKIDS has mothers who are majority white (80%), whereas CIOB mothers are racially and ethnically diverse (38% white, 34% Hispanic, 17% Asian/Pacific Islander). Compared to CIOB, median levels of PFOS, a specific PFAS congener, are higher in IKIDS (2.45 ng/mL versus 1.94 ng/mL), while psychosocial stressors are higher among CIOB. Across both cohorts, women who were non-white and single had lower birth weight z-scores relative to white women and married women, respectively. Demographic characteristics are not associated with cognitive outcomes at 7.5 months. CONCLUSIONS: This profile of the ECHO.CA.IL cohort found that mothers and their infants who vary in terms of socioeconomic status, race/ethnicity, and geographic location are similar in many of our measures of exposures and cognitive outcomes. Similar to past work, we found that non-white and single women had lower birth weight infants than white and married women. We also found differences in levels of PFOS and psychosocial stressors based on geographic location.


Assuntos
Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos/toxicidade , Caprilatos/toxicidade , Poluentes Ambientais/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Fluorcarbonetos/toxicidade , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Complicações na Gravidez/psicologia , Nascimento Prematuro/induzido quimicamente , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/induzido quimicamente , Criança , Poluentes Ambientais/administração & dosagem , Poluentes Ambientais/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Illinois , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez , Fatores de Risco , São Francisco
16.
Sci Total Environ ; 769: 144577, 2021 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33482550

RESUMO

Widespread environmental contamination of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) is well established. Nevertheless, few studies have reported on the aquatic toxicity of PFAS, especially in indicator species such as Daphnia. In this study, the toxicity of two major PFAS, namely perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS), was investigated on water flea (Daphnia carinata) using a battery of comprehensive toxicity tests, including a 48 h acute and a 21-day chronic assays. The survival, growth, and reproduction of D. carinata were monitored over a 21-day life cycle. PFOS exhibited higher toxicity than PFOA. The 48 h LC50 values (confidence interval) based on acute toxicity for PFOA and PFOS were 78.2 (54.9-105) mg L-1 and 8.8 (6.4-11.6) mg L-1, respectively. Chronic exposure to PFOS for 21 days displayed mortality and reproductive defects in D. carinata at a concentration as low as 0.001 mg L-1. Genotoxicity assessment using comet assay revealed that exposure for 96 h to PFOS at 1 and 10.0 mg L-1 significantly damaged the organism's genetic makeup. The results of this study have great implications for risk assessment of PFOS and PFOA in aquatic ecosystems, given the potential of PFOS to pose a risk to Daphnia even at lower concentrations (1 µg L-1).


Assuntos
Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos , Fluorcarbonetos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos/toxicidade , Animais , Caprilatos/toxicidade , Daphnia , Ecossistema , Fluorcarbonetos/análise , Fluorcarbonetos/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
17.
Sci Total Environ ; 770: 144726, 2021 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33513490

RESUMO

Eliminating the critical knowledge gaps of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) effects in planta is the imperative target to accomplish accurate and meaningful exposure-risk assessment in the environment. Here, we investigated the effect of environmentally relevant concentrations of PFOA on the oxidative stress and metabolic regulation in lettuce (Lactuca sativa) root. Under the exposure to 5 and 50 µg/L PFOA for 10 days, 137.5 and 1275.0 ng PFOA/g dry weight were accumulated to roots, respectively. H2O2, the dominant reactive oxygen species, was slightly over-generated by 4.7%-9.5%. No signs of oxidative damage, such as lipid peroxidation, cell membrane integrity and soluble protein content, were observed. To deal with PFOA stress, the activities of ascorbate peroxidase and peroxidase and the contents of glutathione were dose-dependently up-regulated. Partial least-squares discriminant analysis revealed metabolite profiles were significantly altered by PFOA, involving the primary metabolism (e.g., sucrose, glucose, fructose-6-phosphate, methionine, γ-aminobutyric acid), and the biosynthesis of (poly)phenol (e.g., shikimate, naringenin) and alkaloid (e.g., geranyl diphosphate, dopamine). Our findings showed that environmentally relevant concentrations of PFOA significantly perturbed metabolisms in plant roots albeit no remarkable cell damage was induced.


Assuntos
Fluorcarbonetos , Doenças Metabólicas , Caprilatos/toxicidade , Fluorcarbonetos/toxicidade , Humanos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Alface , Estresse Oxidativo
18.
Toxicol Lett ; 338: 85-96, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33309997

RESUMO

Disruption of neurite outgrowth is a marker for neurotoxicity. Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are potential developmental neurotoxicants. We investigated their effect on neurite outgrowth in PC12 rat pheochromocytoma cells, in absence or presence of nerve growth factor (NGF), an inducer of neuronal differentiation. Cells were exposed for 72 h to a defined mixture of POPs with chemical composition and concentrations based on blood levels in the Scandinavian population. We also evaluated perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) alone, the most abundant compound in the POP mixture. Only higher concentrations of POP mixture reduced tetrazolium salt (MTT) conversion. High-content analysis showed a decrease in cell number, but no changes for nuclear and mitochondrial cellular health parameters. Robust glutathione levels were observed in NGF-differentiated cells. Live imaging, using the IncuCyte ZOOM platform indicated ongoing cell proliferation over time, but slower in presence of NGF. The pollutants did not inhibit neuritogenesis, but rather increased NGF-induced neurite length. PFOS induced neurite outgrowth to about 50 % of the level seen with the POP mixture. Neither the POP mixture nor PFOS affected neurite length in the absence of NGF. Our observations indicate that realistic complex mixtures of environmental pollutants can affect neuronal connectivity via NGF-induced neurite outgrowth.


Assuntos
Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos/toxicidade , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Fluorcarbonetos/toxicidade , Fator de Crescimento Neural/farmacologia , Neuritos/efeitos dos fármacos , Crescimento Neuronal/efeitos dos fármacos , Síndromes Neurotóxicas/etiologia , Animais , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Glutamato-Cisteína Ligase/genética , Glutamato-Cisteína Ligase/metabolismo , Glutationa/metabolismo , Neuritos/metabolismo , Neuritos/patologia , Síndromes Neurotóxicas/metabolismo , Síndromes Neurotóxicas/patologia , Células PC12 , Ratos , Fatores de Tempo
19.
Chemosphere ; 263: 128242, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33297189

RESUMO

Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) is a persistent pollutant that can induce toxic effects, including leukemia, on blood cells. Vitamin C (VC), a functional nutrient, has been found to possess potent cytoprotective effects. However, there are currently no reports on its ability to treat PFOS-associated leukemia. This study used a molecular networking analysis to reveal the functional action and pharmacological mechanism of VC against PFOS-associated leukemia. The biological informatics findings revealed a total of 17 intersection targets against PFOS-associated leukemia. In addition, seven core-functional targets, including tumor protein p53 (TP53), mitogen-activated protein kinase 1 (MAPK1), estrogen receptor 1 (ESR1), sirtuin 1 (SIRT1), nitric oxide synthase 3 (NOS3), myeloid cell leukemia-1 (MCL1), and telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT), were screened and identified. Notably, the molecular docking findings indicated that TP53, MAPK1, and ESR1 were potent pharmacological targets of VC against PFOS-associated leukemia. Moreover, the pharmacological functions including biological processes, cell components, and molecular pathways of VC against PFOS-associated leukemia were determined. According to the computational findings, we conclude that VC protects against PFOS-associated leukemia action by suppressing leukemia-associated cell proliferation and tumor growth. The validated genes of TP53, MAPK1, ESR1 may become potential biomarkers for monitoring and treating PFOS-associated leukemia.


Assuntos
Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos , Fluorcarbonetos , Leucemia , Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos/toxicidade , Ácido Ascórbico , Fluorcarbonetos/toxicidade , Humanos , Leucemia/induzido quimicamente , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Transdução de Sinais
20.
Chemosphere ; 262: 128012, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33182161

RESUMO

Due to global restriction on perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), the use of long-chain perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs, C > 8) and their environmental occurrences have increased. PFOS and PFOA have been known for thyroid disruption, however, knowledge is still limited on thyroid disrupting effects of long-chain PFASs (C > 10). In this study, two long-chain perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs), i.e., perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnDA) and perfluorotridecanoic acid (PFTrDA), were chosen and investigated for thyroid disrupting effects, using zebrafish embryo/larvae and rat pituitary cell line (GH3). For comparison, PFOA was also added as a test chemical and also investigated for its thyroid disruption potential. Following a 5 d exposure to PFTrDA, zebrafish larvae showed upregulation of the genes responsible for thyroid hormone synthesis (tshß, nkx2.1, nis, tpo, mct8) and (de)activation (dio1, dio2). In contrast, both PFUnDA and PFOA induced no regulatory changes except for upregulation of a thyroid metabolism related gene (ugt1ab). Morphological changes such as decreased eyeball size, increased yolk sac size, or deflated swim bladder, occurred following exposure to PFUnDA, PFTrDA, and PFOA. In GH3 cells, exposure to PFUnDA and PFTrDA upregulated Tshß gene, suggesting that these PFCAs increase thyroid hormone synthesis through stimulation by Tsh. In summary, both long-chain PFCAs could cause transcriptional changes of thyroid regulating genes that may lead to increased malformation of the zebrafish larvae, but the pathway of thyroid disruption appears to be different by the chain length. Confirmation and validation in adult fish following long term exposure are warranted.


Assuntos
Ácidos Decanoicos/toxicidade , Disruptores Endócrinos/toxicidade , Ácidos Graxos/toxicidade , Fluorcarbonetos/toxicidade , Hipófise/efeitos dos fármacos , Glândula Tireoide/efeitos dos fármacos , Hormônios Tireóideos/metabolismo , Peixe-Zebra/metabolismo , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Embrião não Mamífero/efeitos dos fármacos , Embrião não Mamífero/metabolismo , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Larva/metabolismo , Hipófise/metabolismo , Ratos , Glândula Tireoide/metabolismo , Hormônios Tireóideos/genética
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