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1.
Chemosphere ; 260: 127565, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32758781

RESUMO

The effects of fluoride on endocrine tissues has not been sufficiently explored to date. The current body of knowledge suggest significant effects of that mineral on reducing sex hormone levels, which may consequently impair fertility and disrupt puberty. The majority of studies confirm that sodium fluoride increases TSH levels and decreases the concentrations of T3 and T4 produced by the thyroid. Moreover, a correlation was observed between NaF and increased secretion of PTH by the parathyroid glands, without a significant impact on body calcium levels. Probably, fluoride may exert adverse effects on insulin levels, impairing pancreatic function and resulting in abnormal glucose tolerance. Observations also include decreased levels of cortisol secreted by the adrenal glands. In light of the few existing studies, the mechanism of fluoride toxicity on the endocrine system has been described.


Assuntos
Sistema Endócrino/efeitos dos fármacos , Fluoretos/farmacologia , Glândulas Suprarrenais/metabolismo , Animais , Fluoretos/efeitos adversos , Fluoretos/toxicidade , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/metabolismo , Insulina/análise , Glândulas Paratireoides/efeitos dos fármacos , Glândulas Paratireoides/metabolismo , Fluoreto de Sódio/farmacologia , Fluoreto de Sódio/toxicidade , Glândula Tireoide/efeitos dos fármacos , Glândula Tireoide/metabolismo , Hormônios Tireóideos/metabolismo
2.
Arch Oral Biol ; 117: 104781, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32622258

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore the anti-caries efficacy of three fluoride compounds at increasing maturation of a microcosm biofilm. DESIGN: Microcosm biofilm, obtained from saliva collected from three donors (IRB #1406440799), was grown on enamel samples (n = 18/group) for 24-h (Brain Heart Infusion; 0.2 % sucrose). Then, pH cycling model started. Three maturations were explored (4d, 8d, and 12d). The pH cycling consisted of daily 2 × 5 min treatments (NaF, SnF2, AmF: 287.5 ppm F, and de-ionized water [DIW]), 4 × 10 min remineralization (BHI, no sucrose, pH 7.0), and 3 × 2:15 h demineralization (BHI, 1% sucrose, pH 4.5). We analyzed the enamel (surface microhardness [VHNchange], integrated mineral loss [ΔZ], lesion depth [L]), and the biofilm (viability [log10 CFU/mL], lactic acid production [LDH], and exopolysaccharide [EPS] amount). Data were analyzed using two-way ANOVA (p = 0.05). RESULTS: The interaction between tested variables was significant for VHNchange, viability, LDH, EPS (p = 0.0354, p = 0.0001, p < 0.0001, p < 0.0001), but not for L (p = 0.2412) or ΔZ (p = 0.6811). LDH and EPS analyses exhibited more tolerance of mature biofilm against NaF (LDH and EPS p < 0.0001); NaF-treated groups demonstrated significantly lower results than the control in the 12d group. The effect of SnF2 and AmF continued over time. VHNchange, L, and ΔZ: The effect of SnF2 and AmF was higher than NaF and DIW. L and ΔZ did not result in significant differences over time (all treatments). Within each maturation, fluoride compounds demonstrated statistically significantly lower L and ΔZ values than DIW. CONCLUSIONS: Biofilm's maturation may influence the selection of fluoride compounds to achieve an optimum cariostatic effect.


Assuntos
Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Cariostáticos/farmacologia , Cárie Dentária , Fluoretos/farmacologia , Desmineralização do Dente , Cárie Dentária/tratamento farmacológico , Cárie Dentária/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Minerais , Fluoreto de Sódio/farmacologia , Remineralização Dentária
3.
Dent Mater J ; 39(5): 855-861, 2020 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32461510

RESUMO

This study was evaluating how three desensitizing toothpastes used at home influence the effect associated with desensitizing agents after application in the clinic. Fifty dentine disks measure it permeability and 32 dentine disks with similar permeability levels were selected. Following Dental desensitizer treatment, dentine disks were randomly divided into three subgroups (n=10) that received applications of three toothpastes, respectively. The permeability (Lp) of each specimen was measured after each treatment. One specimen was selected from each group for scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observation. After each treatment, the Lp values decreased significantly for each group (p<0.05) and either completely or partially blocked the dentine tubules upon SEM observation. However, no significant differences in Lp values were observed amongst subgroups (p>0.05). After using the Dental desensitizer, Sensodyne, Crest and Colgate desensitizing toothpastes both can continued to reduce the permeability of the dentine disk, and no significant differences were found amongst them.


Assuntos
Dessensibilizantes Dentinários/farmacologia , Sensibilidade da Dentina/tratamento farmacológico , Sensibilidade da Dentina/prevenção & controle , Dentina , Permeabilidade da Dentina/efeitos dos fármacos , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Fluoreto de Sódio/farmacologia , Cremes Dentais/farmacologia
4.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 15: 2829-2839, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32368057

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the remineralizing and staining effects of sodium fluoride (NaF) solution with polyethylene glycol-coated silver nanoparticles (PEG-AgNPs) on artificial dentine caries. Materials and Methods: Demineralized human dentine blocks were allocated to three groups. The blocks in group 1 underwent a topical application of a 12% silver diamine fluoride (SDF, 14,150 ppm fluoride) solution. The blocks in group 2 received a topical application of a 2.5% NaF (11,310 ppm fluoride) with PEG-AgNPs (400 ppm silver). The blocks in group 3 received deionized water. All blocks were subjected to pH cycling for 8 days. The surface morphology and cross-sectional features were investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The color parameters, crystal characteristics, lesion depth, and collagen degradation of the blocks were assessed using digital spectrophotometry, X-ray diffraction (XRD), micro-computed tomography, and spectrophotometry with a hydroxyproline assay, respectively. Results: The SEM showed that dentine collagen was exposed in group 3 but not in groups 1 and 2. The mean lesion depths in groups 1 to 3 were 118±7 µm, 121±14 µm, and 339±20 µm, respectively (groups1,2<3; p<0.001). The data indicated that fluoridated PEG-AgNPs introduced no significant color effect on dentine, but SDF caused distinct discoloration. The XRD indicated that silver chloride was formed in group 1, and fluorapatite was detected in groups 1 and 2. The concentration of hydroxyproline liberated from collagen was significantly less in groups 1 and 2 than in group 3. Conclusion: The use of NaF solution with PEG-AgNPs can remineralize artificial dentine caries and inhibit collagen degradation without causing significant tooth staining.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária/tratamento farmacológico , Dentina/efeitos dos fármacos , Nanopartículas Metálicas/uso terapêutico , Fluoreto de Sódio/farmacologia , Remineralização Dentária/métodos , Colágeno , Cor , Dentina/metabolismo , Dentina/patologia , Fluoretos/farmacologia , Fluoretos Tópicos/química , Fluoretos Tópicos/farmacologia , Humanos , Hidroxiprolina/metabolismo , Nanopartículas Metálicas/administração & dosagem , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Dente Serotino/efeitos dos fármacos , Dente Serotino/patologia , Dente Serotino/ultraestrutura , Polietilenoglicóis/química , Compostos de Amônio Quaternário/química , Compostos de Amônio Quaternário/farmacologia , Prata , Compostos de Prata/química , Compostos de Prata/farmacologia , Fluoreto de Sódio/administração & dosagem , Difração de Raios X , Microtomografia por Raio-X
5.
Trials ; 21(1): 140, 2020 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32019596

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Silver diamine fluoride (SDF) solution is effective in arresting early childhood caries (ECC). Previous studies have suggested that it might exert a preventive effect in managing ECC. However, no well-designed clinical trials have yet been performed to study the effect of SDF on caries prevention. The objective of this randomised clinical trial is to determine whether 38% SDF solution is superior to 5% sodium fluoride (NaF) varnish in preventing new carious lesions in primary anterior teeth. METHODS/DESIGN: This is a phase II, single-centre, randomised, double-blind, active-controlled, parallel-group pragmatic trial. The hypothesis tested is that 38% SDF would be more effective than 5% NaF in preventing new caries development in primary anterior teeth. Approximately 730 3-year-old children who are generally healthy and with parental consent will be recruited from Hong Kong kindergartens. This sample size will be sufficient for appropriate statistical analysis of a superiority trial with 90% power, allowing for a 20% drop-out rate. Stratified randomisation will be adopted for allocating the intervention. The intervention will either be 38% SDF or 5% NaF (as a positive control) therapy on primary upper anterior teeth. A single trained examiner will conduct a dental examination every 6 months until 30 months in kindergarten. Another operator will provide fluoride therapy immediately after each dental examination. The examiner, children and children's parents will be blinded to the treatment allocation. A questionnaire survey will be conducted to study the children's oral health-related behaviours and socioeconomic backgrounds. Chi-square tests, t tests, regression analyses and survival analyses will be adopted for data analysis. DISCUSSION: The effectiveness of 38% SDF in preventing ECC remains uncertain. If the results are as anticipated, care standards using 5% NaF for ECC prevention will be changed. In addition, the results will be widely available and increase the adoption of SDF in other countries to reduce the global burden of ECC. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04075474. Registered on 30 Aug 2019.


Assuntos
Cariostáticos/uso terapêutico , Ensaios Clínicos Fase II como Assunto , Cárie Dentária/prevenção & controle , Compostos de Amônio Quaternário/uso terapêutico , Compostos de Prata/uso terapêutico , Fluoreto de Sódio/uso terapêutico , Cariostáticos/farmacologia , Pré-Escolar , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Fluoretos Tópicos/farmacologia , Fluoretos Tópicos/uso terapêutico , Seguimentos , Hong Kong , Humanos , Masculino , Ensaios Clínicos Pragmáticos como Assunto , Compostos de Amônio Quaternário/farmacologia , Compostos de Prata/farmacologia , Fluoreto de Sódio/farmacologia , Dente Decíduo/efeitos dos fármacos , Resultado do Tratamento
6.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 523(3): 561-566, 2020 03 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31932035

RESUMO

In this study, we applied protamine, which is an antimicrobial peptide, to oral healthcare in combination with conventional antimicrobial agents. First, we explored the antimicrobial activity of protamine, with or without other antimicrobial agents, against Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans). Co-treatment with protamine and 3-methyl-4-isopropylphenol (IPMP) decreased the viability of S. mutans synergistically within 10 min. Interestingly, sodium fluoride (NaF) did not exhibit synergistic activity with protamine. Next, S. mutans and Streptococcus gordonii (S. gordonii) were co-treated with protamine and IPMP for 5 min to simulate tooth brushing. As a result, this co-treatment killed S. mutans faster than S. gordonii. Therefore, co-treatment with protamine and IPMP could be incorporated into oral healthcare products to prevent dental caries.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Protaminas/farmacologia , Streptococcus gordonii/efeitos dos fármacos , Streptococcus mutans/efeitos dos fármacos , Cárie Dentária/tratamento farmacológico , Cárie Dentária/microbiologia , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Fluoreto de Sódio/farmacologia , Infecções Estreptocócicas/prevenção & controle
7.
Arch Oral Biol ; 111: 104638, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31901573

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of Lemon essential oil (LEO) and Limonene (LIM) in the progress of early caries. DESIGN: LEO and LIM were selected as experimental medicine, while sodium fluoride (NaF) and deionized water (DW) were positive and blank controls, respectively. Bovine incisors were used to establish enamel and dentin early caries models by demineralization method in vitro. Then specimens were subjected to pH cycling. Calcium and phosphate release of demineralizing solution were measured by an automatic biochemical analyzer; Surface microhardness tester and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer were used to detect the surface microhardness recovery and calcium- phosphate ratio on tooth surface; Degraded collagen matrix by collagenase was investigated by assaying hydroxyproline. RESULTS: Calcium release of dentin demineralizing solution of LEO group was lower than DW group's and higher than NaF group's. Both of LEO and LIM groups, the surface microhardness recovery were significantly lower than those of NaF group, which were similar to DW group. Dentin surface calcium- phosphate ratio of LEO and LIM groups were lower than those of NaF group and higher than those of DW group. Hydroxyproline concentration in the remineralizing solution of LEO and LIM groups were lower than DW groups' and higher than NaF groups'. CONCLUSIONS: LEO and LIM have influence on the progress of dentin early caries, which can stabilize its structure by inhibiting collagen degradation. Meanwhile, these medicines may provide a new drug choice for the prevention and treatment of early root caries.


Assuntos
Cariostáticos/farmacologia , Cárie Dentária , Esmalte Dentário/efeitos dos fármacos , Limoneno/farmacologia , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Óleos Vegetais/farmacologia , Animais , Bovinos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Fluoreto de Sódio/farmacologia , Desmineralização do Dente , Remineralização Dentária
8.
Arch Oral Biol ; 110: 104619, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31805483

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the morphological and chemical effect of in-office and at-home desensitising agents containing sodium fluoride (NaF) on eroded root dentine in vitro. METHODS: Fifty bovine dentine samples were pre-eroded and randomised into five groups (n = 10): G1 (Control) - milli-Q water; G2 - fluoride varnish containing NaF 22,500 ppm; G3 - desensitising cream containing NaF 9,000 ppm associated with 20% nanohydroxyapatite; G4 - toothpaste with NaF 5,000 ppm associated to tricalcium phosphate; G5 - toothpaste containing NaF 900 ppm and casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate fluoride (CPP-ACPF). The specimens were submitted to erosive challenge for three days. The analyses were performed using non-contact profilometry for volumetric (Sa) and linear roughness (Ra) followed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectrometry (EDS). The data were analysed by Kruskal-Wallis and Wilcoxon tests (α = 0.05). RESULTS: There was a significant reduction of Ra and Sa for the eroded samples from the G2 and G5 (p < 0.05) after an erosive challenge. The dentine surface topography pattern showed partially or totally occluded dentinal tubules after treatments, except in the control group. The control, G4 and G3 groups showed a reduction in the dentine inorganic content percentage of Ca (Calcium) and P (Phosphorus) minerals. CONCLUSION: The fluoride varnish and CPP-ACPF toothpaste were able to prevent morphological changes and were the only materials that showed the Ca and P content increased after treatment. These materials may be promising alternatives in the clinical control of dentin erosion.


Assuntos
Dentina , Fluoreto de Sódio , Erosão Dentária , Raiz Dentária , Animais , Bovinos , Dentina/efeitos dos fármacos , Fluoretos , Fluoreto de Sódio/farmacologia , Erosão Dentária/tratamento farmacológico , Raiz Dentária/efeitos dos fármacos , Cremes Dentais
9.
Dent Traumatol ; 36(3): 278-284, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31797525

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Lacerations of the oral mucosa and fractures of alveolar processes commonly occur in traumatic dental injuries (TDIs). Impaired wound healing and tissue regeneration have severe consequences on the quality of life. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs) possess the ability of self-renewal and multipotential differentiation. Treatment with low-level sodium fluoride (NaF) has emerged as a promising approach to enhance wound repair. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of low-level NaF on soft tissue healing and on the proliferation, migration and extracellular matrix synthesis of BMMSCs. MATERIAL AND METHODS: BMMSCs derived from mice were treated with 50 µM, 500 µM, or 5 mM NaF for 12, 24, and 48 hours, and cell proliferation was assessed by the MTS assay. Cell motility was detected at 12 and 24 hours by a wound healing assay, and osteoblastic differentiation for 21 days by 1% Alizarin Red S staining in 50 µM NaF-treated BMMSCs. Gene expression of Runx2 and Osteocalcin was evaluated by quantitative real-time PCR. An experimental rat skin wound model was employed, and levels of c-Myc, Ki67, fibronectin, and vimentin were assessed by immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: There was a significant induction in the proliferation and migration of BMMSCs treated with 50 µM NaF. The expression of Ki67 and c-Myc protein was increased in tissues treated with 50 µM NaF, and the expression of fibronectin and vimentin in the 50 µM NaF-treated tissues was stimulated. Alizarin Red staining revealed enhanced mineralization in 50 µM NaF-treated BMMSCs with increased expression of Runx2 and Osteocalcin, indicating their upregulated osteogenic differentiation. CONCLUSION: Low-level NaF could promote soft tissue healing and hard tissue regeneration.


Assuntos
Células-Tronco Mesenquimais , Osteogênese , Animais , Células da Medula Óssea , Diferenciação Celular , Células Cultivadas , Camundongos , Qualidade de Vida , Ratos , Fluoreto de Sódio/farmacologia , Cicatrização
10.
Oral Health Prev Dent ; 18(1): 1069-1076, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33499560

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The use of a mouthwash as an adjunct to mechanical plaque removal may be useful to improve oral hygiene. In this study, cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC)-based mouthwashes containing sodium fluoride and xylitol (X-PUR Opti-Rinse 0.05% NaF and X-PUR Opti-Rinse 0.2% NaF) were evaluated for their antimicrobial activity against important oral pathogens associated with dental caries, periodontal disease, and candidiasis. Moreover, their biocompatibility and anti-inflammatory properties were assessed.
Materials and Methods: Antimicrobial activity was determined using a disk-diffusion assay, a microplate dilution assay, and the European standard protocols for antiseptics. Microbicidal properties were assessed against both planktonic and biofilm cultures. An oral epithelial cell model was used to evaluate the biocompatibility of mouthwashes and their ability to attenuate cytokine secretion.
Results: Using three different antimicrobial assays, the CPC-based mouthwashes were found to be highly active against the tested microorganisms. More specifically, the mouthwashes met the European Standard NF EN 1040 and NF EN 1275 defined as a log10 reduction ≥ 5 (≥ 99.999% killing) for bacteria and log10 reduction ≥ 4 (≥ 99.99% killing) for fungi, respectively. The CPC-based mouthwashes were also bactericidal against biofilms of S. mutans, S. sobrinus, and P. gingivalis. Using an oral epithelial cell model, the CPC-based mouthwashes were found to be less cytotoxic than a chlorhexidine-containing mouthwash used as control. Lastly, the CPC-based mouthwashes decreased the secretion of interleukin-6 and interleukin-8 by lipopolysaccharide-stimulated oral epithelial cells.
Conclusion: The CPC-based mouthwashes supplemented with sodium fluoride (0.05% or 0.2%) and xylitol (10%) were highly active against important oral pathogens. Moreover, using an oral epithelial cell model, these mouthwashes were found to be biocompatible and to exhibit anti-inflammatory activity.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos Locais , Cárie Dentária , Placa Dentária , Anti-Infecciosos Locais/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios , Cetilpiridínio/farmacologia , Cloretos , Cárie Dentária/prevenção & controle , Placa Dentária/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Antissépticos Bucais/farmacologia , Fluoreto de Sódio/farmacologia , Xilitol/farmacologia
11.
J Vis Exp ; (152)2019 10 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31736496

RESUMO

In Germany, Austria, and Switzerland, over 90% of ocularists still manufacture customized prostheses using cryolite glass from Thuringia. The present manuscript demonstrates this long-forgotten technique in detail. This manuscript shows some major advantages of manufacturing prosthetic eyes using cryolite glass in comparison to poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA). These advantages include a lighter weight of the prosthesis, higher levels of patient satisfaction, and only one appointment necessary for the customized manufacturing. Potential risk of breakage seems not to be a critical disadvantage for glass prosthetic eye wearers. However, in some patients, manufacturing a well-fitting prosthetic eye is not possible or reasonable due to anophthalmic socket complications such as post nucleation socket syndrome, scarred fornices, or an orbital implant exposure. This article gives ophthalmologists a better insight into ocularistic care in order to improve the essential interprofessional collaboration between ocularists and ophthalmologists.


Assuntos
Olho Artificial , Vidro/química , Fluoreto de Sódio/farmacologia , Enucleação Ocular , Humanos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Desenho de Prótese , Implantação de Prótese
12.
Eur J Oral Sci ; 127(6): 508-514, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31584713

RESUMO

The study aimed to apply micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) and transverse microradiography (TMR) to measure dentine demineralization and to test the preventive effect of titanium tetrafluoride (TiF4 ) under microcosm biofilm. Sound dentine specimens from bovine root were treated for 6 h with: (i) 4.0% titanium tetrafluoride (TiF4 ) varnish [pH 1.0, 2.45% fluoride (F-); (ii) 5.42% sodium fluoride (NaF) varnish (pH 5.0, 2.45% F); (iii) 2% chlorhexidine (CHX) gel (pH 7.0); (iv) placebo varnish (pH 5.0); or (v) no agent (untreated). Dentine specimens were then exposed to human saliva mixed with McBain saliva for 8 h. Thereafter, McBain saliva containing 0.2% sucrose was applied daily, for 5 d, onto dentine specimens to stimulate formation of microcosm biofilm. Although a high correlation was found between the results of both methods regarding integrated mineral loss, the results of the methods did not show good agreement in Bland-Altman plots, with significant biases in calculations of lesion depth. Fluoride varnishes were able to reduce dentine demineralization (P < 0.05), while CHX failed to do so. Fluorides are still the best option to reduce dentine demineralization. Micro-CT may be used to measure dentine mineral loss, but not the lesion depth, for which TMR is superior.


Assuntos
Biofilmes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cariostáticos/farmacologia , Dentina , Fluoretos Tópicos/farmacologia , Microrradiografia , Desmineralização do Dente , Microtomografia por Raio-X , Animais , Bovinos , Cárie Dentária/prevenção & controle , Fluoretos , Humanos , Fluoreto de Sódio/farmacologia
13.
Arch Oral Biol ; 106: 104482, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31325718

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to determine demineralisation inhibition and remineralisation potential of poly-γ-glutamic acid with its possible mechanism of action on human dental enamel. METHODOLOGY: Three sodium-fluoride(NaF) concentration(0.01%w/v,0.1%w/v and 0.5%w/v respectively)and two poly-γ-glutamic acid(PGGA)concentration(1%w/v and 2%w/v respectively)were prepared in 0.1 M acetic acid(pH4.0)and deionized distilled water.For de/re-mineralisation study, tooth samples (18 teeth varnished, leaving a 2 mm2 window on the mid-buccal surfaces) were immersed in respective acidified NaF and PGGA solutions. The Ca2+ release/uptake was monitored with ISE over 72-hr with increasing pH every 24-h from 4.0 to 6.0.These teeth were later subjected to cross-sectional microhardness to determine integrated mineral recovery of enamel on increasing pH of respective acidified solution.In order to determine mechanism of PGGA,two concentrations of PGGA in deionized-water-solutions were used for tooth samples immersion followed by overnight drying then later subjected to Fourier Transform Infra-Red(FT-IR) analysis.The FT-IR analysis was also carried out on PGGA powder.For control,the experiment was repeated using hydroxyapatite(HAp)pellets.The density of PGGA solutions(1%and2%)was also measured to determine their dynamic viscosities. RESULTS: The ISE and microhardness testing revealed statistically significant (ρ ≤ 0.05) dissolution inhibition and remineralisation potential for tooth sample treated with acidified 2%PGGA. From the FT-IR spectra, it was observed that the profiles of the enamel and HAp surfaces treated with 1%-and 2%-PGGA solutions were similar to those of PGGA powder.It was found that the viscosity of PGGA increases with increasing concentration. CONCLUSION: The study implies that 2% PGGA is more effective than NaF as forms a coating layer to protect from demineralisation and promote remineralisation of the tooth surface.


Assuntos
Esmalte Dentário/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácido Poliglutâmico/farmacologia , Remineralização Dentária , Cariostáticos , Humanos , Técnicas In Vitro , Fluoreto de Sódio/farmacologia , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Desmineralização do Dente
14.
Chemosphere ; 237: 124437, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31356994

RESUMO

Fluoride is known to affect the inflammatory process and autoregulation of immune responses, but the molecular mechanism by which fluoride causes innate immune injury remain largely unknown. Also, studies on sodium fluoride (NaF)-caused alteration of TLR signaling are still lacking. In the present study, we examined the effects of NaF on the mRNA and protein expression levels of TLR2/MyD88 signaling pathway molecules in the mouse spleen by using the methods of qRT-PCR and Western blotting. Consequently, we elucidated the mechanism underlying the effects of NaF on innate immunity. Two hundred and forty ICR mice were randomly divided into 4 groups with intragastric administration of distilled water in the control group and 12, 24, 48 mg/kg of NaF treatment in the experiment groups for 42 days. The findings revealed that NaF impaired splenic innate immunity in mice via inactivation of TLR2/MyD88 signaling pathway. NaF-inactivated TLR2/MyD88 signaling pathway was identified by prominently downregulated mRNA and protein expression levels of TLR2/MyD88, IRAK4, IRAK1, TRAF6, TAK1, MKK4/MKK7 and c-Jun, which ultimately altered the expression levels of IL-1ß, IL-4, IL-6 and IL-8 to attenuate innate immunity.


Assuntos
Imunidade Inata/efeitos dos fármacos , Fator 88 de Diferenciação Mieloide/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Fluoreto de Sódio/farmacologia , Baço/imunologia , Receptor 2 Toll-Like/metabolismo , Animais , Citocinas/sangue , Camundongos , Proteínas/análise , RNA Mensageiro/sangue , Baço/metabolismo
15.
Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces ; 181: 77-84, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31125921

RESUMO

The aim of the present study was to formulate toothpastes containing biosurfactants and either fungal chitosan or sodium fluoride and evaluate the cytotoxicity, antimicrobial action and inhibition potential against biofilm formed by Streptococcus mutans. Chitosan was extracted from the biomass of the fungus Mucorales. We tested biosurfactants produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa UCP 0992 (PB), Bacillus metylotrophicus UCP 1616 (BB) and Candida bombicola URM 3718 (CB). Fractional inhibitory concentration analysis was performed to determine the type of interaction between the compounds. Six toothpaste were prepared, the active ingredients of which were the biosurfactants, chitosan or sodium fluoride. The cytotoxicity tests were performed using the 3-[4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl]-2,5-diphenyl-2-H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay for the L929 (mouse fibroblast) and RAW 264.7 (mouse macrophage) cell lines. The toothpastes were tested with regard to pH, consistency and foaming capacity. The inhibition of biofilm was investigated by applying the toothpaste to biofilm formed in modified artificial saliva for 24 h at 37 °C in anaerobiosis. All substances had a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for S. mutans. The combinations of CB and PB with chitosan had an additive effect against S. mutans, whereas BB combined with chitosan had an indifferent effect. The toothpastes were non-toxic. The formulations had pH around 9, spreading capacity between 8 and 17 mm and foaming capacity between 63 and 95%. All formulations inhibited the cellular viability of S. mutans in the biofilm, with similar results compared to the commercial toothpaste tested. The present results show that the formulations suggested are promising when compared to a commercial tooth paste.


Assuntos
Quitosana/farmacologia , Streptococcus mutans/efeitos dos fármacos , Tensoativos/farmacologia , Cremes Dentais/química , Cremes Dentais/farmacologia , Animais , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Quitosana/química , Quitosana/isolamento & purificação , Fibroblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Tamanho da Partícula , Células RAW 264.7 , Fluoreto de Sódio/química , Fluoreto de Sódio/isolamento & purificação , Fluoreto de Sódio/farmacologia , Propriedades de Superfície , Tensoativos/química , Tensoativos/isolamento & purificação , Cremes Dentais/isolamento & purificação
16.
J Mech Behav Biomed Mater ; 97: 7-12, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31082715

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to evaluate the mechanical resistance of dentin and restorative materials submitted to erosive/abrasive challenges with different dentifrices. The dentin was restored using a resin-modified glass-ionomer (RMGIC) or a composite resin (RC). One hemiface of the sample was protected, and the other was subdivided according to the applied dentifrice (n = 10): without fluoride (SF), sodium fluoride (NaF) and stannous fluoride (SnF). The specimens were submitted to erosive/abrasive cycles, the varnish was removed, and the Martens hardness (HMV) and elastic modulus (Eit) were evaluated. The data were analyzed by repeated two-way ANOVA measurements and Tukey tests (alpha = 0.05). When analyzing the HMV on the test side, there was no influence of the dentifrices in the dentin; however, the orders of NaF < SnF = SF in RC and SnF > NaF = SF in RMGIC were observed. Comparing the treated surfaces, there were no differences in the dentin, and only the SF since CR presented an HMV superior to that of RMGIC. Comparing control and test sides, both dentins obtained a decreased HMV after the erosive/abrasive challenge; for the restorative materials, superior values were found only for SnF in the RMGIC. The Eit values were influenced more by the dentifrices on the test side for the dentin adjacent to the RMGIC, with the lowest values shown for the SF, and for both materials, the highest values were shown for the SnF group. No differences were found when comparing each dentin treated with the same dentifrice; however, the RMGIC presented a superior Eit than the CR when brushed with both dentifrices with a fluoride. Comparing the control and test sides, the same results were obtained for the HMV. The dentifrices showed little influence on the dentin substrate, whereas the dentifrice with SnF enhanced the mechanical properties of the restorative materials, which was more evident in the RMGIC.


Assuntos
Resinas Acrílicas/química , Dentifrícios/farmacologia , Dentina/química , Dentina/efeitos dos fármacos , Dióxido de Silício/química , Fluoreto de Sódio/farmacologia , Fluoretos de Estanho/farmacologia , Animais , Bovinos , Resinas Compostas/química , Módulo de Elasticidade , Dureza , Técnicas In Vitro , Teste de Materiais , Pressão , Estresse Mecânico , Propriedades de Superfície
17.
Microsc Res Tech ; 82(7): 1065-1072, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30884045

RESUMO

The objective of this in vitro study was to analyze and compare the biomimetic remineralizing efficacy of the self-assembling peptide (P11-4) with agents containing casein phoshopeptide-amorhous calcium phosphate fluoride (CPP-ACFP) and sodium fluoride (NaF) on artificial caries lesions using DIAGNOdent and micro-computed tomography (µCT). Artificial enamel lesions were prepared on extracted impacted sound mandibular third molars. The samples were randomly allocated to four groups (n = 8): Group 1, P11-4 (Curodont Repair, Credentis AG, Switzerland); Group 2, CPP-ACFP (MI Varnish, GCCo., Japan); Group3, NaF (Duraphat Varnish, Colgate, Colgate-Palmolive, NY, USA); Group 4, artificial saliva (control). The agents were applied to demineralized surfaces according to manufacturers' instructions; all specimens were stored in artificial saliva for 1 month. Demineralization and remineralization on enamel surfaces were analyzed and quantified by DIAGNOdent (KaVo, Germany) and µCT (SkyScan1174, Belgium) for lesion depth/area/volume/mineral density (MD). The remineralization efficacy of the agents was evaluated by DIAGNOdent on 1st, 7th, 30th days and by µCT on 30th day. Data were statistically analyzed by ANOVA, Kruskal-Wallis, T test, and Wilxocon tests. The highest remineralization efficacy findings in all periods were determined in Group 1, followed by Groups 2, 3, and 4. The remineralization findings for fluorescence, MD, lesion depth in Group 1 were found significantly higher (p < 0.01) than Group 3; and no significant differences (p > 0.05) were found between Groups 1-2 and Groups 2-3. The area and volume change values in Groups 1, 2, and 3 have shown no significancy (p > 0.05). A significant correlation (p < 0.01) was found between µCT and DIAGNOdent methods. The data of this study have demonstrated that P11-4 has showed the best remineralization efficacy, followed by CPP-ACFP and NaF. It is concluded that self-assembling peptide-based remineralization agent can be used successfully for biomimetic remineralization of enamel subsurface lesions.


Assuntos
Materiais Biomiméticos/farmacologia , Esmalte Dentário/efeitos dos fármacos , Esmalte Dentário/patologia , Peptídeos/farmacologia , Remineralização Dentária/métodos , Materiais Biomiméticos/química , Caseínas/farmacologia , Cárie Dentária , Fluoretos Tópicos , Humanos , Dente Molar/efeitos dos fármacos , Fluoreto de Sódio/farmacologia , Microtomografia por Raio-X
18.
Acta Odontol Scand ; 77(6): 419-425, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30905242

RESUMO

Objective: The objective of this study was to compare the remineralizing effect of sodium fluoride (NaF) mouth rinse or NaF gel as an adjunct to NaF dentifrice on incipient caries-like lesions in an in situ cross-over design study, with three sessions of 30 days each. Materials and methods: Orthodontic brackets with artificial demineralized enamel slabs were attached to the upper first molars of 12 participants. A set of 3 test specimens from the same tooth was randomly assigned to each participant and allocated into three 30-day sessions: 1) brushing with 0.22% NaF dentifrice 2 times/day (F dentifrice), 2) brushing with 0.22% NaF dentifrice 2 times/day+ rinsing with 0.05% NaF before bedtime (F mouth rinse), 3) brushing with 0.22% NaF dentifrice 2 times/day + brushing with 1.1% NaF gel before bedtime (F brush-on gel). The mineral gain and lesion depth of the specimens were evaluated by micro-computed tomography. Results: The mean mineral gain from the NaF mouth rinse and the NaF brush-on gel was similar, but greater than that from the NaF dentifrice (p < .05). The NaF brush-on gel yielded the greatest mean depth of remineralization (168 µm), followed by the NaF mouth rinse (144 µm). Both depths were significantly greater than that of the NaF dentifrice (84 µm) (p < .05). Conclusions: Both 0.05% NaF mouth rinse and 1.1% NaF brush-on gel, used at bedtime, increased incipient caries-like lesion remineralization in situ in combination with brushing with NaF dentifrice twice a day.


Assuntos
Cariostáticos/farmacologia , Cárie Dentária , Dentifrícios , Fluoreto de Sódio/farmacologia , Remineralização Dentária/métodos , Cremes Dentais , Microtomografia por Raio-X/métodos , Estudos Cross-Over , Fluoretos , Humanos , Minerais , Antissépticos Bucais
19.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 1942, 2019 02 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30760851

RESUMO

The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the ability of two nanoscaled metal fluorides (NMF) to remineralize shallow (SL) and deep (DL) artificial enamel caries lesions. NMF are synthesized via a non-aqueous fluorolytic sol-gel-synthesis and dissolve low fluoride concentration in aqueous solutions (n-CaF2: 7 ppm, n-MgF2: 70 ppm), whilst containing a nominal fluoride concentration of 3,400 ppm. For comparison, an aqueous sodium fluoride solution (NaF: 3,400 ppm), a sodium fluoride containing varnish (Duraphat: 22,600 ppm) and a fluoride-free negative control were investigated. Bovine enamel specimens with SL (n = 86, 4649-4795 vol%xµm) or DL (n = 145, 9091-9304 vol%xµm) were prepared and allocated to five groups each. In each group the respective agent was applied and pH-cycling was performed for 14 days (SL) and 90 days (DL), respectively. Mineral loss and lesion depth were assessed by transversal microradiography. For SL, all fluoride agents significantly remineralized the specimens compared to baseline (p > 0.05; Mann-Whitney test) to a similar extent. For DL, both NMF showed significantly higher mineral gain compared to the other fluoride agents (p < 0.05). In conclusion, the novel NMF- showing relatively low free fluoride concentrations- bear at least the similar potential for remineralization of early caries lesions as highly fluoridated agents being commonly used.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária/tratamento farmacológico , Esmalte Dentário/efeitos dos fármacos , Fluoretos/farmacologia , Animais , Bovinos , Fluoretos Tópicos/farmacologia , Nanopartículas Metálicas/uso terapêutico , Metais , Microrradiografia , Minerais , Fluoreto de Sódio/farmacologia , Remineralização Dentária/métodos
20.
Biol Trace Elem Res ; 191(2): 419-425, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30600503

RESUMO

The effect of fluoride on osteoclasts is still controversial. In the past, researchers thought that the effects of fluoride on osteoclast and osteoblast formation occurred in a dose-dependent pattern. However, our previous in vitro study showed fluoride elicited a notably different effect on osteoclast formation. To further verify the relationship between fluoride and osteoclast formation in vivo, 60 male C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into three groups: two treatment groups consuming water supplemented with 50 and 100 mg/L of fluoride, and a third control group with nonsupplemented water. Ion selective electrode method analysis was used to detect bone fluoride content, and the effects of fluoride on bone tissue were assessed with hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining. Additionally, the expression of BGP and ALP were examined by Western blot analysis, and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) was assessed with immunohistochemistry. Osteoclasts in bone tissue were identified with a combination method of TRAP staining and cell morphology assessment. Results showed increasing expression of BGP among treatment groups as fluoride exposure increased, and ALP expression in the 100 mg/L treatment group was significantly higher than that for both the 50 mg/L treatment and control groups. The number of osteoclasts in the 50 mg/L group was highest amongst the three groups, followed by the 100 mg/L treatment and then by the control group, with the latter showing significantly fewer osteoclasts than in either treatment group. These results suggest that fluoride enhances bone formation at increasing levels of fluoride exposure. However, the inverted U-curve association was found between fluoride exposure and osteoclast formation, with the higher dose of fluoride having slightly reduced osteoclast formation. The results from this study may provide key insights towards understanding the role of osteoclasts in the progression of skeletal fluorosis.


Assuntos
Fluoretos/farmacologia , Osteoblastos/citologia , Osteoblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Osteoclastos/citologia , Osteoclastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Biomarcadores , Western Blotting , Imuno-Histoquímica , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Distribuição Aleatória , Fluoreto de Sódio/farmacologia , Fosfatase Ácida Resistente a Tartarato/metabolismo
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