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1.
J Indian Soc Pedod Prev Dent ; 38(3): 247-252, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33004722

RESUMO

Background: We aimed to determine the fluoride release and fluoride-recharging ability of a sealant containing surface pre-reacted glass (S-PRG) ionomer filler particles (BeautiSealant) with a fluoride-releasing resin sealant (Helioseal F), and a glass-ionomer sealant (Fuji VII). Methodology: Forty-eight disc-shaped specimens of each material were immersed in deionized water to determine the fluoride release utilizing a fluoride ion-selective electrode. After 21 days, 8 specimens were soaked in 0.22% Sodium Fluoride solution for 2 min; 8 specimens were coated with 1.23% Acidulated Phosphate Fluoride (APF) gel for 4 min, and the fluoride-recharging ability was evaluated for 40 days. Data were analyzed using one way-ANOVA and Bonferroni post hoc tests. Results: Total fluoride release over the 21-day period was: Fuji VII > BeautiSealant > Helioseal F, (P = 0.000). After refluoridation of the specimens with 0.22% Sodium Fluoride solution, the cumulative fluoride release during the 40-day period for each material was: BeautiSealant > Fuji VII > Helioseal (P = 0.000). After exposure to 1.23% APF gel, the cumulative fluoride release during the 40-day period for each material was: BeautiSealant > Fuji VII > Helioseal F (P = 0.000). Conclusion: Glass ionomer-based sealants (Fuji VII) exhibited higher initial fluoride release whilst the surface pre-reacted glass-ionomer filler containing sealant (BeautiSealant) demonstrated superior fluoride recharging properties.


Assuntos
Materiais Dentários , Fluoretos , Fluoreto de Fosfato Acidulado , Eletrodos Íon-Seletivos
2.
J Contemp Dent Pract ; 21(6): 609-614, 2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33025927

RESUMO

AIM: This clinical study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of a toothpaste containing a proprietary REFIX technology (Regenerador + Sensitive DentalClean, Rabbit Corp) against dentin hypersensitivity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifty-three volunteers who fulfilled the inclusion criteria and signed the consent form were included. They were examined for dentin hypersensitivity. The participants received a 1-second blast of air, and the tooth sensitivity, from 0 to 10, was immediately evaluated using a visual analog scale (VAS). Then, the participants brushed their teeth with the multifunctional toothpaste, and dentin hypersensitivity was tested a second time using the same scale. The participants continued to use the toothpaste three times a day for 1 week, after which dentin hypersensitivity was recorded for the third time. Data were statistically analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey's test (α = 0.05). RESULTS: The mean patient age was 40 years, and 70% of the 53 subjects were female. There was a significant reduction in dentin hypersensitivity immediately after using the toothpaste and after 1 week. The baseline mean patient-reported pain score was severe (6.5 ± 2.4). Immediately after the first use of the toothpaste, the mean reported pain significantly decreased to mild pain (2.5 ± 2.5) (p < 0.05). After 1 week of consistent use of the toothpaste, the pain score reduced significantly (0.7 ± 1.2) (p < 0.05), and most participants reported no pain, demonstrating the effectiveness of the REFIX technology against dentin hypersensitivity. CONCLUSION: This clinical trial shows that the use of the phosphate-based desensitizing toothpaste containing REFIX technology significantly reduces dentin hypersensitivity after 1 week of consistent use. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: The absence of pain, a desired clinical condition in patients with dentin hypersensitivity, was reached with the use of desensitizing toothpaste containing REFIX technology after 1 week of use. Such condition positively impacts quality of life, providing a healthier daily routine for patients.


Assuntos
Dessensibilizantes Dentinários , Sensibilidade da Dentina , Cremes Dentais , Arginina , Carbonato de Cálcio , Dessensibilizantes Dentinários/uso terapêutico , Sensibilidade da Dentina/tratamento farmacológico , Sensibilidade da Dentina/prevenção & controle , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Fluoretos , Humanos , Qualidade de Vida , Fluoreto de Sódio , Escovação Dentária , Cremes Dentais/uso terapêutico , Resultado do Tratamento
3.
Beijing Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 52(5): 913-918, 2020 Oct 18.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33047729

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To understand the oral health status of children aged 3-12 in Shaoshan area of Hunan province and to evaluate the role of oral health educations based on community such as fluoride varnish, oral hygiene introduction in improving the oral health of children in the area so as to gain expe-rience. METHODS: The study used cluster sampling to select 3 kindergartens and 2 primary schools in different economic development areas of Shaoshan. Oral health status survey and interventions were conducted in December 2014 and September 2016, respectively. The average debris index, decayed missing filled teeth (deciduous teeth: dmft; permanent teeth: DMFT), and caries prevalence rate of children aged 3-6 years and 6-12 years were compared. At the same time, children aged 5 and 12 were used as representative populations to compare the indices as listed before and the caries prevalence rate of the first permanent molar in 12-year-old children was compared as well. Finally, health economic analysis was carried out based on the 2 years' result. RESULTS: In this study, 992 children and 896 children in 2014 and 2016 were included respectively. As for children aged 3-6 years, the average debris index and dmft in 2016 were significantly less than that in 2014 (P < 0.001, P < 0.001), and the difference of DMFT was not significant (P=0.419). Children aged 6-12 years showed the same result, the average debris index and dmft in 2016 were significantly less than those in 2014 (P < 0.001, P=0.013), and the difference in DMFT was not significant (P=0.674). 173 and 179 5-year-old children were included in 2014 and 2016 respectively, and the dmft showed significant difference (P=0.038); the caries prevalence rate was 75.7% and 71.5%, respectively, which was also not significant (P=0.370). With respect to the 12-year-old children, 65 and 104 children were included and the differences in dmft and DMFT were not significant (P=0.133, P=0.171). The caries prevalence of the first permanent molar in the 12-year-old children was 36.9% and 26.9%, whose difference was not significant (P=0.171). CONCLUSION: The application of fluoride varnish and oral health education can significantly reduce the dmft of children aged 3-12 years in Shaoshan area and significantly improve the oral hygiene status. DMFT, the caries prevalence rate of 5-year-old children's deciduous teeth and 12-year-old children's first permanent molar showed a decline.


Assuntos
Fluoretos , Saúde Bucal , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Índice CPO , Humanos , Dente Molar , Prevalência
4.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(11): 712, 2020 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33070268

RESUMO

A major public health concern in Mexico is the natural contamination of groundwater with fluoride and arsenic. Therefore, this work aimed to evaluate the magnitude of human health risk after determining fluoride and arsenic concentrations in groundwater samples (n = 50) from the Metropolitan area of the city of San Luis Potosi, Mexico. Fluoride levels in water were determined via a potentiometric method using an ion-selective electrode. Arsenic concentrations in water samples were determined with an Atomic Absorption technique. Subsequently, a probabilistic health risk assessment was developed (Monte Carlo Analysis). Fluoride levels in water ranged from 0.20 to 3.50 mg/L. For arsenic, the mean level found in the assessed water samples was 15.5 ± 5.50 µg/L (range: 2.50-30.0 µg/L). In addition, when the probabilistic health risk assessment was completed, a mean HI (cumulative hazardous index) of higher than 1 was detected, indicating a high NCR (non-carcinogenic risk) for children and adults. According to the results found in this study, exposure protection campaigns are imperative in the Metropolitan area of the city of San Luis Potosí, Mexico, to successfully diminish exposure to arsenic and fluoride and, as a consequence, decrease the NCR in the population living in that region of Mexico.


Assuntos
Arsênico , Água Potável , Adulto , Arsênico/análise , Criança , Cidades , Água Potável/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Fluoretos/análise , Humanos , México , Medição de Risco
5.
J Oral Sci ; 62(4): 444-448, 2020 Sep 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32879159

RESUMO

PURPOSE: High-viscosity glass ionomer cements (HV-GICs) are reinforced with ultrafine, highly reactive glass particles, as well as a higher-molecular-weight polyalkenoic acid component. Silver diammine fluoride (SDF) is an agent with promising activity against active caries. The present study aimed to evaluate the shear bond strength (SBS) and interfacial morphology of a new HV-GIC bonded to dentin after treatment with various adhesive protocols including SDF. METHODS: HV-GIC cylinders were bonded to dentin after various surface treatments (6 groups, n = 22): water; polyalkenoic acid; SDF; SDF + potassium iodide (KI); SDF + KI + polyalkenoic acid; SDF + KI + two weeks of storage in water + polyalkenoic acid. For each group, 20 samples were tested for SBS after 48 h, and 2 samples were cut and subjected to environmental scanning electron microscopy (E-SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis. RESULTS: No significant differences in SBS were found between any of the protocols tested. However, E-SEM and EDX images showed different interfaces when SDF was applied. CONCLUSION: SDF has no influence on the adhesion of HV-GIC to sound dentin and could potentially improve the cario-resistance of the dentin/HV-GIC interface.


Assuntos
Colagem Dentária , Cimentos de Ionômeros de Vidro , Amônia , Dentina , Fluoretos , Teste de Materiais , Resistência ao Cisalhamento , Compostos de Prata , Viscosidade
6.
Chemosphere ; 258: 127387, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32947680

RESUMO

It is well known that serum is an ideal and potential choice to reflect the toxicity of fluoride. However, the effects of fluoride on serum metabolome have not been reported until now. In this study, the models of 3-week-old rats exposed fluoride by breast milk and 11-week-old rats exposed fluoride via breast milk and drinking water containing sodium fluoride (100 mg/L) were established. Using Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry/Mass Spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS), as compared with control group, 28 negative (NEG) and 52 positive (POS) metabolites were significantly up-regulated, meanwhile 30 NEG and 21 POS significantly down-regulated metabolites were found in serum of 3-week-old rats exposed to fluoride. For 11-week-old fluorosis rats, there were 119 NEG and 65 POS metabolites significantly increased, and 7 NEG, 5 POS metabolites were obviously decreased. Importantly, nicotinamide, adenosine, 1-Oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (OGPC), and 1-Stearoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphocholine (SGPC) were shared by two models. The metabolites of urea cycle, such as urea and N2-Acetyl-l-ornithine, betaine as a methyl donor, were regarded to reflect the fluorosis degree. These metabolites could be the potential markers of fluorosis, contributing to the prevention and treatment of fluorosis.


Assuntos
Fluoretos/toxicidade , Metaboloma/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Betaína , Cromatografia Líquida , Água Potável/química , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Metabolômica , Leite/metabolismo , Ratos , Fluoreto de Sódio , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
7.
Sci Total Environ ; 741: 140419, 2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32886984

RESUMO

Fluoride (F) is largely employed in dentistry, in therapeutic doses, to control caries. However, excessive intake may lead to adverse effects in the body. Since F is absorbed mostly from the gastrointestinal tract (GIT), gastrointestinal symptoms are the first signs following acute F exposure. Nevertheless, little is known about the mechanistic events that lead to these symptoms. Therefore, the present study evaluated changes in the proteomic profile as well as morphological changes in the jejunum and ileum of rats upon acute exposure to F. Male rats received, by gastric gavage, a single dose of F containing 0 (control) or 25 mg/Kg for 30 days. Upon exposure to F, there was a decrease in the thickness of the tunic muscularis for both segments and a decrease in the thickness of the wall only for the ileum. In addition, a decrease in the density of HuC/D-IR neurons and nNOS-IR neurons was found for the jejunum, but for the ileum only nNOS-IR neurons were decreased upon F exposure. Moreover, SP-IR varicosities were increased in both segments, while VIP-IR varicosities were increased in the jejunum and decreased in the ileum. As for the proteomic analysis, the proteins with altered expression were mostly negatively regulated and associated mainly with protein synthesis and energy metabolism. Proteomics also revealed alterations in proteins involved in oxidative/antioxidant defense, apoptosis and as well as in cytoskeletal proteins. Our results, when analyzed together, suggest that the gastrointestinal symptoms found in cases of acute F exposure might be related to the morphological alterations in the gut (decrease in the thickness of the tunica muscularis) that, at the molecular level, can be explained by alterations in the gut vipergic innervation and in proteins that regulate the cytoskeleton.


Assuntos
Fluoretos , Jejuno , Animais , Íleo , Intestino Delgado , Masculino , Proteômica , Ratos
8.
Sci Total Environ ; 741: 140460, 2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32886997

RESUMO

Too little and too much fluorine are potentially hazardous for human health. In the Jiaokou Irrigation District, ionic concentrations, hydrogeochemistry, and fluoride contaminations were analyzed using correlation matrices, principal component analysis (PCA), and health risk assessment. The patterns for the average cation and anion concentrations were Na+ > Mg2+ > Ca2+ > K+ and SO42- > HCO3- > Cl- > NO3- > CO32-. The fluoride concentrations ranged between 0.29 and 8.92 mg/L (mean = 2.4 mg/L). 5% of the samples displayed lower than the recommended limit of 0.5 mg/L fluoride content, while 69% exceeded the allowable limits of 1.5 mg/L for drinking. The low F- content is distributed in a small part of the southeast, while elevated F- mainly in the central area of the study region. The PCA results indicated three principal components (PC), PC1 having the greatest variance (45.83%) and affected by positive loadings of TDS, Cl-, SO42-, Na+, and Mg2+, PC2 accounting for 17.03% and dominated by Ca2+, pH, HCO3-, and K+, and PC3 representing 12.17% and mainly comprising of CO32-. High fluoride groundwater is of the SO4-Cl-Na type, followed by HCO3-Na type. Evaporation and ion exchange play important roles in producing high fluoride groundwater. Furthermore, saturation index and anthropogenic activities also promote the high fluoride concentrations. The values of the total hazard quotient of 93% groundwater samples were greater than 1 for infants, followed by 85% for children, 68% for teenagers, and 57% for adults. Non-carcinogenic health risks to infants may occur over the entire study area, while for adults, health risks are mainly found in Weinan and Pucheng. High fluorine may have a potential negative influence on neurodevelopment, especially for infants and children. Adults in this region have serious dental fluorosis and skeletal fluorosis because of long-term drinking of high fluoride groundwater. Therefore, measures, including using organic fertilizers, strengthening defluoridation process, and optimizing water supply strategies, are necessary in this area.


Assuntos
Água Subterrânea , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Fluoretos/análise , Humanos , Medição de Risco
9.
Swiss Dent J ; 130(9): 677-683, 2020 09 07.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32893610

RESUMO

This article will provide an overview of the principles and modes of action of fluorides in oral care products, followed by a brief outline of the history and current situation regarding salt fluoridation in Switzerland. Recommendations for the use of fluoridated oral care products, current research results on the use of fluoride-containing dental care products and controversies related to fluorides are presented. Finally, the changes in fluoride concentration for children's toothpastes in Europe and the corresponding implementation in Switzerland as well as changes regarding the use of fluoride in school dentistry are discussed.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária , Fluoretos , Cariostáticos , Criança , Fluoretação , Humanos , Suíça
10.
Braz Dent J ; 31(4): 423-430, 2020 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32901720

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to assess the effect of a newly developed nanocomplex formed of hydroxypropyl-b-cyclodextrin and 1% titanium tetrafluoride (TiF4) after distinct complexation periods (12/72 h) on demineralization of bovine enamel in vitro. Enamel blocks (n=60) were allocated in different groups: Mili-Q water, hydroxypropyl-b-cyclodextrin, 1% TiF4, hydroxypropyl-b-cyclodextrin + 1% TiF4 after 12 h of complexation and hydroxypropyl-b-cyclodextrin + 1% TiF4 after 72 h of complexation. The samples were evaluated by surface microhardness, cross-sectional microhardness and micro-CT. Scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (SEM/EDX) were also obtained. Hydroxypropyl-b-cyclodextrin + 1% TiF4 after 12 h complexation resulted in lower percentage of surface microhardness loss compared to Mili-Q water, hydroxypropyl-b-cyclodextrin, 1% TiF4 and hydroxypropyl-b-cyclodextrin + 1% TiF4 after 72 h of complexation group, with a large effect size (from 1.307 to 2.943) and high power (84.9 to 99%). All groups resulted in similar integrated mineral loss (ΔZ) obtained by both internal microhardness and micro-CT techniques. Enamel treated with TiF4 and TiF4 + hydroxypropyl-b-cyclodextrin groups showed a TiO2 glaze-layer, while EDX evaluation identified Ti. The solution containing the inclusion complex of hydroxypropyl-b-cyclodextrin + TiF4 with 12 h of complexation period demonstrated a significant ability to reduce surface demineralization of sound enamel under an artificial cariogenic challenge.


Assuntos
Ciclodextrinas , Fluoretos , Animais , Bovinos , Estudos Transversais , Esmalte Dentário , Titânio
11.
J Environ Manage ; 263: 110415, 2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32883481

RESUMO

Drinking water containing excess fluoride is a major health concern across the globe. The present study reports the feasibility of zirconium impregnated hybrid anion exchange resin (HAIX-Zr) for treating fluoride contaminated groundwater. The HAIX-Zr resin was prepared by impregnating ZrO2 nanoparticles on polymeric anion exchanger resin. Fluoride uptake by HAIX-Zr was quite rapid, 60% removal was obtained within 30 min. Kinetics of fluoride uptake by HAIX-Zr resin followed the pseudo-second-order kinetic model and adsorption data fitted best to Freundlich adsorption isotherm model. Maximum fluoride uptake capacity was observed as 12.0 mg/g. The defluoridation capacity of the resin decreases with increase in solution pH. The co-existing anions like chloride, phosphate, bicarbonate, nitrate, and sulphate at 100 mg/L concentration significantly affected fluoride removal and bicarbonate showed the highest interference. Continuous flow packed bed experiments were performed with real groundwater. To maintain a lower pH, weak acid cation exchange resin (INDION-236) was used before HAIX-Zr. It was observed that reducing the pH of the sample water to 4-4.5, increased the number of treated bed volumes fifteen times. Regeneration of fluoride-containing resin was done by passing 3% NaOH and 3% NaCl solution through an exhausted resin bed. The results revealed that HAIX-Zr can effectively remove fluoride from groundwater.


Assuntos
Água Subterrânea , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Purificação da Água , Adsorção , Resinas de Troca de Ânions , Fluoretos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Cinética , Zircônio
12.
Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract ; 36(3): 581-620, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32948413

RESUMO

Water is the most important nutrient for rangeland livestock. However, competition with municipalities, industry, and other water users often results in grazing livestock being forced to use water supplies that are less than perfect. Surface water in western rangleands are often contaminated by mineral extraction, irrigation runoff and other human activities. Mineral contaminants in drinking water are additive with similar contaminants in feedstuffs. The goal of this article is to provide producers and veterinarians with the basic background to make informed decisions about whether a given water supply is "safe" for livestock.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/induzido quimicamente , Doenças dos Bovinos/prevenção & controle , Metais/análise , Metais/envenenamento , Qualidade da Água , Água/normas , Animais , Arsênico/análise , Intoxicação por Arsênico/prevenção & controle , Intoxicação por Arsênico/veterinária , Bovinos , Intoxicação por Flúor/prevenção & controle , Intoxicação por Flúor/veterinária , Fluoretos/análise , Humanos , Água/análise , Abastecimento de Água/normas
13.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 203: 111031, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32888610

RESUMO

Bone mineral density (BMD) changes were reported to be associated with excessive fluoride exposure and abnormal expression of RUNX2. However, whether the alteration of methylation status, a most commonly used marker for the alteration of gene expression in epidemiological investigation, of RUNX2 is associated with low-to-moderate fluoride exposure and BMD changes has not been reported. Our study aims to explore the role of RUNX2 promoter methylation in BMD changes induced by low-to-moderate fluoride exposure. A total of 1124 adults (413 men and 711 women) were recruited from Kaifeng City in 2017. We measured BMD using ultrasound bone densitometer. Concentrations of urinary fluoride (UF) were measured using ion-selective electrode, and the participants were grouped into control group (CG) and excessive fluoride group (EFG) according to the concentration of UF. We extracted DNA from fasting peripheral blood samples and then detected the promoter methylation levels of RUNX2 using quantitative methylation-specific PCR. Relationships between UF concentration, RUNX2 promoter methylation and BMD changes were analyzed using generalized linear model and logistic regression. Results showed in EFG (UF concentration > 1.6 mg/L), BMD was negatively correlated with UF concentration (ß: -0.14; 95%CI: -0.26, -0.01) and RUNX2 promoter methylation (ß: -0.13; 95%CI: -0.22, -0.03) in women. The methylation rate of RUNX2 promoter increased by 2.16% for each 1 mg/L increment in UF concentration of women in EFG (95%CI: 0.37, 3.96). No any significant associations between UF concentration, RUNX2 promoter methylation, and BMD were observed in the individuals in CG. Mediation analysis showed that RUNX2 promoter methylation mediated 18.2% (95% CI: 4.2%, 53.2%) of the association between UF concentration and BMD of women in EFG. In conclusion, excessive fluoride exposure (>1.6 mg/L) is associated with changes of BMD in women, and this association is mediated by RUNX2 promoter methylation.


Assuntos
Densidade Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Subunidade alfa 1 de Fator de Ligação ao Core/genética , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Fluoretos/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Absorciometria de Fóton , Adulto , Idoso , Densidade Óssea/genética , China , Subunidade alfa 1 de Fator de Ligação ao Core/metabolismo , Estudos Transversais , Metilação de DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Fluoretos/urina , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Inquéritos e Questionários , Poluentes Químicos da Água/urina
14.
Evid Based Dent ; 21(3): 90-91, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32978536

RESUMO

Data sources Medline, Embase, CINAHL and PubMed.Study selection Studies published in peer-reviewed journals focusing on dental caries of primary teeth and risk and/or protective factors, in healthy children aged equal to or less than six years, including randomised controlled trials (RCTs) with an intervention period of at least one year for caries, other intervention studies, and observational studies (such as cohort, case-control, ecologic and cross-sectional studies); risk and/or protective factors included: breastfeeding beyond one year of age, breastfeeding beyond two years of age, consumption of liquids that contain free sugars from an infant feeding bottle, consumption of complementary drinks that contain free sugars, consumption of complementary foods that contain free sugars, oral hygiene provided by a parent/caregiver, oral health education for caregivers, water with an optimum concentration of fluoride, consumption of fluoridated milk and salt fluoridation.Data extraction and synthesis Five reviewers independently screened the title and abstract of the identified citations and 5% of them were screened by all reviewers. Data extraction was undertaken by two reviewers. The evidence was classified into 12 groups in accordance with the 12 review questions. Eligible studies were synthesised and meta-analysis performed where appropriate. Risk of bias was tested by the Cochrane 'risk of bias' tool for RCTs and the ROBINS-I for non-randomised trials. The quality of evidence related to each of the 12 review questions was assessed by the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE).Results After initial search of 13,831 studies, 137 eligible studies were included in the systematic review and grouped into 10 out of 12 review questions (no eligible study was identified for two review questions). Among those ten review questions, only two review questions had RCTs to address the answers; others were answered by observational studies and/or quasi-experimental studies. A prospective cohort study displayed no significant difference was found in severity of caries among five-year-old children inbetween those breastfed for nearly 23 months and those breastfed up to one year. Observational studies showed increased risk of early childhood caries (ECC) was associated with consumption of sugar in both bottles and complementary foods. Results of meta-analysis of three RCTs stated that children of caregivers who received oral health education had lower chance of having ECC than those who had never received oral health education (OR 0.39, 95% CI 0.19 to 0.79, P = 0.009). Another result from meta-analysis demonstrated that lower pooled mean dmft was found in children living in areas with fluoridated water than those who lived in non-fluoridated areas (-1.25, 95% CI -2.14 to -0.36, P = 0.016). Children who consumed fluoridated milk and fluoridated salt reduced the risk of ECC compared to those who did not. No publication bias was observed in the meta-analysis.Conclusions Evidence with moderate quality demonstrated that children with access to fluoridated water and fluoridated supplements could lower their risk of ECC; children with caregivers who had received oral health education had lower levels of ECC. Evidence with low quality suggested that breastfeeding up to two years old did not increase the risk of ECC; consumed sugars in bottles and complementary foods increased the risk of ECC.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária , Animais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Fluoretação , Fluoretos , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos
15.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 204: 111058, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32739676

RESUMO

Skeletal fluorosis causes growth plate impairment and growth retardation during bone development. However, the mechanism of how fluoride impairs chondrocyte is unclear. To explore the effect of fluoride on chondrocyte differentiation and the regulation of circadian clock signaling pathway during chondrogenesis, we treated ATDC5 cells with fluoride and carried out a series of experiments. 10-3 M fluoride inhibited cell viability and significantly decreased the expression of Sox9 and Col2a1 (P < 0.05). Fluoride inhibited proteoglycan synthesis and decreased significantly the expression of Aggrecan, Ihh and Col10a1 (P < 0.05). Meanwhile, fluoride significantly inhibited the expression of Bmal1 and disrupted circadian clock signaling pathway (P < 0.05). Furthermore, fluoride disrupted the time-dependent expression of circadian clock molecules and stage-specific differentiation markers. Overexpression of Bmal1 by lentivirus reversed the adverse effects of fluoride on chondrogenesis. These results suggested that fluoride inhibited chondrocyte viability and delayed chondrocyte differentiation. Fluoride delayed chondrogenesis partly via interfering with Bmal1 and circadian clock signaling pathway. Nevertheless, the specific mechanism of circadian clock in fluoride-induced cartilage damage needs to be further studied.


Assuntos
Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Condrócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Condrogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Relógios Circadianos , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Fluoretos/toxicidade , Animais , Técnicas de Cultura de Células , Linhagem Celular , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Condrócitos/citologia , Condrócitos/metabolismo , Condrogênese/fisiologia , Colágeno Tipo X/genética , Colágeno Tipo X/metabolismo , Lâmina de Crescimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Lâmina de Crescimento/metabolismo , Camundongos , Fatores de Transcrição SOX9/genética , Fatores de Transcrição SOX9/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais
17.
Indian J Dent Res ; 31(3): 338-342, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32769263

RESUMO

Introduction: The foundation for healthy permanent teeth in children and teenagers is laid during the first years of life. Poor diet, poor habits of food intake, and inadequate toothbrushing habits during the first 2 years of life have been shown in several studies to be related to tooth decay in children. The development of caries in primary teeth further increases the risk of developing caries in permanent teeth. Materials and Methods: A survey was conducted with 787 school children aged between 5 years and 12 years in Chennai city on their perspective of toothpaste color, smell, and flavor. Results: Of 787 children, 222 chose red as the color they want in their toothpaste whereas only 61 children preferred white as their toothpaste color. The survey showed that 50% of the children wanted their toothpaste to taste sweet, followed by minty (20%), sour (14%), and spicy (11%). When asked about what they would like their toothpaste to smell like, majority (41%) of children opted for fruity, followed by sweet (23%), minty (18%), and fragrant (16%). Conclusion: Based on the responses made by 787 children aged between 5 and 12 years, it can be concluded that children prefer red color, fruity smell, and sweet flavor.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária , Cremes Dentais , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Fluoretos , Humanos , Índia , Olfato , Paladar , Escovação Dentária
18.
Environ Pollut ; 265(Pt A): 114734, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32806408

RESUMO

Excess fluoride in drinking water is an environmental issue of increasing worldwide concern, because of its adverse effect on human health. Skeletal fluorosis caused by chronic exposure to excessive fluoride is a metabolic bone disease characterized by accelerated bone turnover accompanied by aberrant activation of osteoblasts. It is not clear whether Wnt/ß-catenin signaling, an important signaling pathway regulating the function of osteoblasts, mediates the pathogenesis of skeletal fluorosis. A cross-sectional case-control study was conducted in Tongyu County, Jilin Province, China showed that fluoride stimulated the levels of OCN and OPG, resulting in accelerated bone turnover in patients with skeletal fluorosis. To investigate the influence of fluoride on Wnt/ß-catenin signaling pathway, 64 male BALB/c mice were allotted randomly to four groups and treated with deionized water containing 0, 55, 110 and 221 mg/L NaF for 3 months, respectively. The results demonstrated that fluoride significantly increased mouse cancellous bone formation and the protein expression of Wnt3a, phospho-GSK3ß (ser 9) and Runx2. Moreover, partial correlation analysis indicated that there was no significant correlation between fluoride exposure and Runx2 protein levels, after adjusting for ß-catenin, suggesting that ß-catenin might play a crucial role in fluoride-induced aberrant osteogenesis. In vivo, viability of SaoS2 cells was significantly facilitated by 4 mg/L NaF, and fluoride could induce the abnormal activation of Wnt/ß-catenin signaling, the expression of its target gene Runx2 and significantly increased Tcf/Lef reporter activity. Importantly, inhibition of ß-catenin suppressed fluoride-induced Runx2 protein expression and the osteogenic phenotypes. Taken together, the present study provided in vivo and in vitro evidence reveals a potential mechanism for fluoride-induced aberrant osteoblast activation and indicates that ß-catenin is the pivot molecule mediating viability and differentiation of osteoblasts and might be a therapeutic target for skeletal fluorosis.


Assuntos
Osteogênese , beta Catenina , Animais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , China , Estudos Transversais , Fluoretos , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Osteoblastos
19.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 202: 110962, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32800233

RESUMO

Chronic exposure to fluoride (F) beyond the permissible limit (1.5 ppm) is known to cause detrimental health effects by induction of oxidative stress-mediated DNA damage overpowering the DNA repair machinery. In the present study, we assessed F induced oxidative stress through monitoring biochemical parameters and looked into the effect of chronic F exposure on two crucial DNA repair genes Ogg1 and Rad51 having important role against ROS induced DNA damages. To address this issue, we exposed Swiss albino mice to an environmentally relevant concentration of fluoride (15 ppm NaF) for 8 months. Results revealed histoarchitectural damages in liver, brain, kidney and spleen. Depletion of GSH, increase in lipid peroxidation and catalase activity in liver and brain confirmed the generation of oxidative stress. qRT-PCR result showed that expressions of Ogg1 and Rad51 were altered after F exposure in the affected organs. Promoter hypermethylation was associated with the downregulation of Rad51. F-induced DNA damage and the compromised DNA repair machinery triggered intrinsic pathway of apoptosis in liver and brain. The present study indicates the possible association of epigenetic regulation with F induced neurotoxicity.


Assuntos
Dano ao DNA , DNA Glicosilases/genética , Reparo do DNA , Epigênese Genética/efeitos dos fármacos , Fluoretos/toxicidade , Rad51 Recombinase/genética , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Encéfalo/patologia , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos
20.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 204: 111071, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32784015

RESUMO

The main objective of the study is to assess the groundwater quality based on water quality index and health threats associated with fluoride contamination in the Tiruppur region of southern India. Totally 40 groundwater samples were collected and analyzed for various physicochemical parameters such as pH, EC, TDS, Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+, Cl-, HCO3-, SO42-, NO3- and F-. The dominance of major cations and anions conforms to the following order Ca2+> Na+> K+> Mg2+ and Cl- > HCO3- > SO42-> NO3- > F-, respectively. About 48% of the groundwater samples indicated Ca-Mg-Cl water type in the Piper trilinear diagram. The Gibbs plot indicated that all the water samples fell under rock dominance. Water quality index (WQI) results showed that 22.5, 75 and 2.5% of the samples represented good, poor and very poor quality water types, respectively. The fluoride ions in groundwater of this region ranged from 0.1 to 2.70 mg/L with a mean of 1.33 mg/L. About 50% of the groundwater samples experienced fluoride concentration exceeding the permissible limit of 1.5 mg/l. Hazard quotient (HQ) and total hazard index (THI) were computed based on the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) guidelines to evaluate the health threats for infants, children, teens, women and men. The THI ranged from 0.14 to 3.76, 0.11 to 3.01, 0.07 to 1.93, 0.06 to 1.64 and 0.06 to 1.50 for infants, children, teens, women and men, respectively. The percentages of risks in terms of THI were respectively 78, 75, 55, 33 and 23% for infants, children, teens, women and men respectively. The health risk assessment indicated that infants are most vulnerable to fluoride intake in this region. Therefore, proper treatment should be done by the government organizations to provide safe groundwater for the inhabitants.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Fluoretos/análise , Água Subterrânea/química , Indústria Têxtil , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Qualidade da Água/normas , Adolescente , Criança , Humanos , Índia , Lactente , Medição de Risco
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