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1.
Braz. j. oral sci ; 20: e210971, jan.-dez. 2021. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, BBO - Odontologia | ID: biblio-1252495

RESUMO

Aim: To propose a new method to determine in vitro potentially bioavailable fluoride (F) in diet and toothpaste after ingestion. Methods: Diet samples (D) were obtained from 15 portions of a meal served to children in a day care centre. To simulate the ingestion of toothpaste during brushing after meals, a specific amount of toothpaste was added to the diet samples (D + T). F was determined in D and D + T after incubation in a solution that simulated "gastric juice" (0.01 M hydrochloric acid) at 37oC for 30, 60 and 120 min. Microdiffusion facilitated by HMDS was used to determine the total F concentrations in samples D and D + T. The analyses were performed using an ion specific electrode. Results: For D samples, incubation in "gastric juice" for 30, 60 and 120 min resulted in F concentrations (µg F/mL) of 0.75 ± 0.06c, 0.77 ± 0.07c and 0.91 ± 0.09b, corresponding to 75.3, 77.3 and 90.7% of the total F (1.02 ± 0.12a), respectively (p = 0.0001; ANOVA + Tukey). For D + T samples, these values of F concentrations (µg F/mL) were 2.55 ± 0.46b, 2.83 ± 0.44ab and 3.15 ± 0.37a, corresponding to 86.9, 94.8 and 106.7% of the total F (2.99 ± 0.34a), respectively (p = 0.0023; ANOVA + Tukey). Conclusion: Then, it can be concluded that the proposed method of "gastric juice" is a promising protocol for determining potentially bioavailable fluoride in the diet and toothpaste after ingestion. However, additional studies are desirable


Assuntos
Cremes Dentais , Dentifrícios , Dieta , Fluoretos , Fluorose Dentária
2.
J Hazard Mater ; 416: 125899, 2021 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34492837

RESUMO

Incidental oral ingestion is considered to be an important exposure route for humans to soil contaminants, such as fluoride (F). For 25 soil samples containing 4000 mg F/kg from aluminium smelting site in southwestern China, this study investigated F bioaccessibility in the human gastrointestinal tract in vitro. Fluoride bioaccessibility (2.4-48.8%) in the gastric phase was primarily caused by the dissolution of F-Ca and F-Al compounds (assigned to residual phase), identified by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and sequential extraction. Following modification to the small intestinal phase, the variation in F bioaccessibility (2.5-38.8%) should be the result of concurrent processes, including the formation of F complexes and competitive adsorption, and inversely the precipitation of fluorite and surface adsorption of formed F-Al complexes. The colon incubation with human gut microbiota yielded a 1.3-fold increase in F bioaccessibility (3.9-45.7%), probably due to the dissolution of F bound to Fe (hydr)oxides. Bioaccessibility adjustment can reduce hazard quotient of fluoride, and non-carcinogenic risk for children should be noted that soil F intake contributed 21.7% on average, up to 76.6% of oral reference dose. This will result in better understanding of human health risk assessment associated with F exposures.


Assuntos
Alumínio , Poluentes do Solo , Alumínio/metabolismo , Alumínio/toxicidade , Disponibilidade Biológica , Criança , Fluoretos/toxicidade , Trato Gastrointestinal/metabolismo , Humanos , Medição de Risco , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo
3.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(10): 644, 2021 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34514527

RESUMO

Litho-geochemical characteristics of low and high fluoride (F-) groundwater along with hydrological processes were investigated to delineate its genesis and enrichment mechanism in a watershed sedimentary basin. In this study, groundwater F- concentration ranged from 0 to 20 mg/L with a mean and standard deviation of 2.8 and ± 3.7 mg/L, respectively. Out of N = 87, 63% of samples exceeded the World Health Organization (WHO) limit of 1.5 mg/L. The order of cationic and anionic dominance in groundwater samples with mean was found in decreasing order as Na+ > Mg2+ > Ca2+ > K+ and HCO3- > SO42- > Cl- > PO43- > NO3- measured in milligrams per liter. Groundwater chemistry changed from Ca-HCO3 to Na-HCO3 type and low to high fluoride as we moved from mountain foot towards the synclinal basin. Low fluoride groundwater reflected weathering, recharge, and reverse ion exchange processes with Ca-HCO3- and Ca-Mg-Cl-type water while high fluoride groundwater revealed base ion exchange, mixing, and desorption as dominant hydrological processes with Na-HCO3 and Na-Cl types of water. Gibb's diagram showed rock weathering and mineral dissolution as the major geochemical processes controlling water chemistry with an insignificant role of evaporation in the semi-arid area. Fluoride was undersaturated with mineral fluorite, indicating fluoride in groundwater is released by secondary minerals. However, due to complex geological features, groundwater fluoride enrichment was affected by a broad-scale process across a wide area such as depth, residence time, and most important geomorphological units hosting the aquifer.


Assuntos
Água Subterrânea , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Monitoramento Ambiental , Fluoretos/análise , Paquistão , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
4.
BMC Pediatr ; 21(Suppl 1): 351, 2021 09 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34496756

RESUMO

We looked at existing recommendations and supporting evidence on the effectiveness and potential harms of the different fluoride interventions in preventing dental caries in children under 5 years of age.We conducted a literature search up to the 12th of September 2019 by using key terms and manual search in selected sources. We summarized the recommendations and the strength of the recommendation when and as reported by the authors. We summarized the main findings of systematic reviews with the certainty of the evidence as reported.Water fluoridation has been widely implemented worldwide for several decades and evidence shows it reduces the prevalence of dental caries. Salt or milk fluoridation are other collective fluoride interventions that are also effective to prevent dental caries in children. The evidence of effects of oral fluoride supplements for caries prevention is limited and inconsistent. The use of fluoride toothpastes has consistently been proven to be effective in the prevention of dental caries. The evidence for the effects of the different levels of fluoride concentration in toothpastes is more limited. Topical fluorides (gels and varnishes) are effective in preventing dental caries and are mainly recommended to children with high risk of dental caries. Early childhood intake of fluoride supplements and fluoride level of 0.7 ppm (ppm) in drinking water are associated with the risk of dental fluorosis, ranging from minor forms to severe forms that are of aesthetic concerns.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária , Fluoretos , Cariostáticos/efeitos adversos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cárie Dentária/epidemiologia , Cárie Dentária/prevenção & controle , Suscetibilidade à Cárie Dentária , Fluoretos/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto
5.
Cien Saude Colet ; 26(suppl 2): 3647-3655, 2021.
Artigo em Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468659

RESUMO

Fluoridation is considered an effective and wide-ranging measure in combatting dental caries. Despite being mandatory in Brazil since 1974, the implementation continues to be unequal throughout the country. The objective was to describe and analyze fluorine levels in the waters of the public supply grid of the 2nd macro region of the state of Pernambuco in municipalities with 50,000 inhabitants or more. This is a descriptive study based on a comparison of data from Pernambuco Sanitation Company (Compesa), the Vigifluor Project, the Water Quality Surveillance Information System for Human Consumption (Sisagua) the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE) and the National Sanitation Information System (SNIS), on the fluoridation of water in municipalities of the 2nd health macro region of Pernambuco. Although the municipalities studied do not have artificial fluoridation, significant levels of natural fluorine were found in the sources that supply the regions. However, these levels of fluorine do not remain constant in the waters of the supply network of the municipalities studied, therefore there is no effective prevention against caries. Artificial fluoridation is an effective measure in preventing caries and should therefore be expanded in regions that are not yet fluoridated.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária , Fluoretos , Brasil , Cidades , Cárie Dentária/epidemiologia , Cárie Dentária/prevenção & controle , Fluoretação , Fluoretos/análise , Humanos , Abastecimento de Água
6.
Cien Saude Colet ; 26(suppl 2): 3705-3714, 2021.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468664

RESUMO

This article aims to monitor the indicators of outpatient production of Dentistry and to evaluate the association of collective action and extraction indicators with the number of Oral Health Teams (OHT) between 2006 and 2015 in Paraná. In this longitudinal ecological study, consolidated secondary data were analyzed (collective actions of supervised brushing-SB, topical application of fluoride-TAF, fluoride mouthwash-FM, oral examination for epidemiological purposes-OE and extractions of permanent teeth-EX) from the Ambulatory Information System (SIA-SUS) and OHT numbers from the National Registry System of Health Establishments. Descriptive analyzes and Pearson's correlation were performed, with significance level of p<0.05. It was verified the increase of the OHT implantation over time and a strong positive correlation with collective procedures of SB (r=0.78; p=0.007) and FM (r=0.76; p=0.011) and moderate negative correlation with EX (r=-0.53). It was concluded that the evaluated indicators showed that the implementation of Oral Health Teams may have contributed to changes to the healthcare model, with an increase in preventive collective procedures and reduction of tooth loss in Paraná.


Assuntos
Dentição Permanente , Saúde Bucal , Brasil , Fluoretos , Humanos
7.
Community Dent Health ; 38(3): 158-160, 2021 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34473431

RESUMO

Since the discovery of the caries preventive benefits of fluoride, it has been the cornerstone of preventive programs for children and adults. Water fluoridation, the controlled addition of a precise amount of fluoride to community water systems to the level beneficial for dental health, is one of the most effective and safe means to deliver fluoride (McDonagh et al., 2000; National Health and Medical Research Council, 2017). In 1999, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) named fluoridation of drinking water as one of ten great public health achievements in the 20th Century, alongside vaccination, control of infectious diseases, a decline in death from coronary heart disease and other accomplishments (CDC, 2011). This is a remarkable recognition of the impact of dental conditions and the importance of a dental preventive program.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária , Fluoretação , Adulto , Criança , Cárie Dentária/prevenção & controle , Fluoretos , Humanos , Saúde Pública
8.
Shanghai Kou Qiang Yi Xue ; 30(3): 312-315, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34476452

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of toothpaste containing emulsifier 30 and sodium lauryl sulfate surfactant on the integrity of oral epithelium. METHODS: Sixty individuals equally divided into 2 groups by random number table methods. Group A received toothpaste containing emulsifier 30, while group B received fluoride toothpaste containing sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) surfactant. The exfoliation of oral soft tissue was evaluated before, 30 minutes and 4 days after the test. The fluoride concentration in plaque and saliva was compared between the two groups. The data were processed with SPSS 22.0 software package. RESULTS: The scores of oral soft tissue exfoliation at 30 min and 4 d after the test were increased significantly (P<0.05). The scores of subgingival, supragingival, oral apex and oral soft tissue exfoliation of group A at 30 min after using the paste were significantly lower than those 4 days after using the paste(P<0.05), while no significant change was observed in the score of oral soft tissue exfoliation at the dorsal tongue(P>0.05). The total scores of subgingival, supragingival, dorsal tongue, ventral tongue and oral soft tissue exfoliation in group B 30 min after using the paste were significantly higher than those at 4 d after use, and the score of oral soft tissue exfoliation at oral apex was significantly lower than that at 4 d after use (P<0.05).The total scores of subgingival, supragingival, dorsal tongue, ventral tongue and oral soft tissue exfoliation in group B at 30 min after using the paste were significantly higher than those of group A, while the score of oral soft tissue exfoliation at oral apex was significantly lower than that of group A(P<0.05).The total scores of subgingival, supragingival, ventral tongue and oral soft tissue exfoliation in group B at 4 d after using the paste were significantly higher than those of group A(P<0.05). The scores of oral soft tissue exfoliation at oral apex and dorsal tongue at 4 d after use had no significant difference between the two groups (P>0.05). The fluoride concentration in plaque and saliva was increased significantly in both groups after test(P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Both fluoride toothpaste containing emulsifier 30 and SLS surfactant cause a certain degree of oral soft tissue exfoliation. In comparison, fluoride toothpaste containing emulsifier 30 has less oral soft tissue damage; moreover, the two fluoride toothpastes can effectively inhibit acid production of plaque bacteria and prevent occurrence of caries.


Assuntos
Tensoativos , Cremes Dentais , Método Duplo-Cego , Epitélio , Fluoretos , Humanos , Dodecilsulfato de Sódio , Fluoreto de Sódio
9.
Anal Chem ; 93(34): 11686-11691, 2021 08 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34461728

RESUMO

Single-nanoparticle-level sensing allows us to measure individual molecular interactions and probe environmental stimuli at nanometer-scale resolution. Despite these premises, limited success has been met hitherto due to the demanding challenge to distinguish a dimmed signal from a noisy background. Here, we describe an approach for high-sensitivity single-nanoparticle-level sensing of divalent copper (Cu2+) ions through near-infrared-to-visible upconversion luminescence against a near-null background. This nanosensor utilizes ytterbium- (Yb3+) and erbium (Er3+)-doped sodium yttrium fluoride (NaYF4) upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) (maximal emission at 540 nm when excited at 980 nm) as an energy donor, of which the surface attaches Cu2+-dependent DNAzymes labeled with BHQ1 dye (Black Hole Quencher 1, maximal absorption at 548 nm) as energy acceptors. Adding a hint amount of Cu2+ ions resulted in the cleavage of a BHQ1-containing moiety in DNAzymes, thus turning on upconversion luminescence for sensitive detection. Indeed, this approach allows us to perform single-nanoparticle-level detection of Cu2+ ions with extraordinary signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs, >277) for all measured concentrations that cover 3 orders of magnitude (from sub-nM to µM). Importantly, a limit of detection of 220 pM was achieved, about sevenfold lower than the one at the ensemble level. Moreover, a stochastic particle-to-particle sensing behavior was also identified, featuring single-nanoparticle-level detection. This work untaps the usage of UCNPs for high-sensitivity single-nanoparticle-level biosensing.


Assuntos
Cobre , Nanopartículas , Érbio , Fluoretos , Itérbio , Ítrio
10.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 223: 112612, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371455

RESUMO

Excessive fluoride exposure and epigenetic change can induce numerous adverse health outcomes, but the role of epigenetics underneath the harmful health effects induced by fluoride exposure is unclear. In such gap, we evaluated the associations between fluoride exposure and genome-wide DNA methylation, and identified that novel candidate genes associated with fluoride exposure. A total of 931 school-age children (8-12 years) in Tongxu County of Henan Province (China) were recruited in 2017. Urinary fluoride (UF) concentrations were measured using the national standardized ion selective electrode method. Participants were divided into a high fluoride-exposure group (HFG) and control group (CG) according to the UF concentrations. Candidate differentially methylated regions (DMRs) were screened by Infinium-Methylation EPIC BeadChip of DNA samples collected from 16 participants (eight each from each group). Differentially methylated genes (DMGs) containing DMRs associated with skeletal and neuronal development influenced by fluoride exposure were confirmed using MethylTarget™ technology from 100 participants (fifty each from each group). DMGs were verified by quantitative methylation specific PCR from 815 participants. Serum levels of hormones were measured by auto biochemical analyzer. The mediation analysis of methylation in the effect of fluoride exposure on hormone levels was also performed. A total of 237 differentially methylated sites (DMSs) and 212 DMRs were found in different fluoride-exposure groups in the epigenome-wide phase. Methylation of the target sequences of neuronatin (NNAT), calcitonin-related polypeptide alpha (CALCA) and methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase 1 showed significant difference between the HFG and CG. Each 0.06% (95% CI: -0.11%, -0.01%) decreased in NNAT methylation status correlated with each increase of 1.0 mg/L in UF concentration in 815 school-age children using QMSP. Also, each 1.88% (95% CI: 0.04%, 3.72%) increase in CALCA methylation status correlated with each increase of 1.0 mg/L in UF concentration. The mediating effect of NNAT methylation was found in alterations of ACTH levels influenced by fluoride exposure, with a ß value of 11.7% (95% CI: 3.4%, 33.4%). In conclusion, long-term fluoride exposure affected the methylation pattern of genomic DNA. NNAT and CALCA as DMGs might be susceptible to fluoride exposure in school-age children.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA , Fluoretos , Criança , Epigênese Genética , Epigenoma , Fluoretos/toxicidade , Humanos , Instituições Acadêmicas
11.
J Can Dent Assoc ; 87: l3, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34343066

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study determined the fluoride content of green tea from various parts of Asia, where green tea originates. METHODS: We brewed 2.5 g each of 4 types of green tea (from China, South Korea, Japan and Sri Lanka) using deionized water heated to boiling. Water was cooled to 71°C, then tea was steeped for 2 minutes. This process was repeated 20 times, thus providing 20 samples for each tea type. In addition, 20 control samples of deionized water were brewed to the same specifications. Samples were analyzed using a fluoride probe, and statistical power was calculated. RESULTS: The tea samples from different countries varied in the amount of fluoride they contained. The Chinese sample contained the most fluoride, while the Japanese sample contained the least. Means and interquartile ranges of fluoride concentration were calculated for each sample: Sri Lanka 3.58 ppm (0.1425), Chinese 6.83 ppm (0.140), South Korean 5.36 ppm (0.0975), Japanese 1.88 ppm (0.1375) and control 0.33 ppm (0.0078). CONCLUSION: The origin of tea and environmental factors, such as pollution, groundwater, air and the soil in which it was grown appear to directly affect the amount of fluoride that accumulates in the plants. Considering the fluoride content revealed by this study, green tea consumption habits should be taken into account when prescribing adjunct fluoride therapy as part of a preventative program for patient care.


Assuntos
Fluoretos , Chá , Fluoretos/análise , Humanos , Plantas , Solo , Sri Lanka
12.
Theranostics ; 11(16): 7896-7910, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34335971

RESUMO

Rationale: Small-molecule prodrug nanoassembly is emerging as an efficient platform for chemotherapy. The self-assembly stability plays a vital role on the drug delivery efficiency of prodrug nanoassembly. It is reported that fluoroalkylation could improve the self-assembly stability of amphiphilic polymers by utilizing the unique fluorination effect. But the application of fluoroalkylation on small-molecule prodrug nanoassembly has never been reported. Methods: Here, fluoro-modified prodrug was developed by conjugating paclitaxel with perfluorooctanol (F8-SS-PTX), and the paclitaxel-octanol prodrug (C8-SS-PTX) was used as control. The fluoro-mediated self-assembly mechanisms were illustrated using molecular dynamics simulation. In addition, the impacts of fluoroalkylation on the pharmacy characters, in vivo fate and antitumor effect of small-molecule prodrug nanoassembly were investigated in details. Results: Fluoroalkylation significantly improved the self-assembly stability of F8-SS-PTX NPs both in vitro and in vivo, which could be attributed to the fluoro-mediated hydrophobic force and halogen bonds. The AUC0-24h and tumor accumulation of F8-SS-PTX NPs was 6-fold and 2-fold higher than that of C8-SS-PTX NPs, respectively. As a result, F8-SS-PTX NPs exhibited much better antitumor effect than C8-SS-PTX NPs and Abraxane. Conclusion: Fluoroalkylation could improve the self-assembly stability, in vivo fate, and antitumor efficacy of small-molecule prodrug nanoassemblies, which could be an effective strategy for the rational design of advanced nanomedicines.


Assuntos
Fluoretos/química , Pró-Fármacos/química , Nanomedicina Teranóstica/métodos , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos/métodos , Liberação Controlada de Fármacos/fisiologia , Fluoretação/métodos , Humanos , Camundongos , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Nanomedicina/métodos , Nanopartículas/química , Paclitaxel/uso terapêutico , Polietilenoglicóis/química , Polímeros/química , Pró-Fármacos/farmacologia
13.
J Evid Based Dent Pract ; 21(2): 101542, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34391554

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Reporting of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in dentistry remains suboptimal. Considering the positive impact of the Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) guidelines on the quality of evidence in RCTs, the main objective of this systematic review was to determine whether RCTs on dental caries prevention conform to these guidelines. The secondary objective was to assess the association between CONSORT adherence and the year and impact factor of the journal in which the study was published. METHODS: A systematic search was conducted in different databases using appropriate terms to retrieve RCTs that assessed the caries-preventive effect of at least 2 of the following materials-fluoride varnish, resin-based fissure sealants, and ionomer-based fissure sealants-on the occlusal surfaces of permanent molars. Since the first CONSORT statement was published in 1996, a time frame from 1997 to 2020 was established for the identification of studies. Selected articles were assessed according to their adherence to the CONSORT statement, risk of bias (Cochrane risk of bias tool, RoB 2.0), and journal impact factor based on the InCites Journal Citation Reports. The year of publication and other relevant data were also recorded. SPSS (SPSS Statistics 25.0, IBM©) was used to perform the linear correlation analyses to determine the relationship between the article CONSORT score (previously determined) and the year of publication and journal impact factor. A significance level of 5% was established for all analyses. RESULTS: Of 3196 references retrieved, 30 articles were selected and evaluated. Using RoB 2.0, 8 studies were classified as having a high risk of bias, 16 as having some concerns about the risk of bias assessment, and 6 as having a low risk of bias. Concerning CONSORT adherence, 77% of the studies adequately reported the intervention domain, since the methodology for the application of fluoride varnish or sealant materials was thoroughly described. However, the participants' setting and location, random sequence generation, randomization, and the flowchart description of the losses/exclusions domains were poorly reported. Meanwhile, the allocation concealment process was not reported in 83% of the articles. Correlation analyses indicated a positive relationship between CONSORT adherence and the year of publication, as well as the journal impact factor. CONCLUSION: When assessing clinical trials on the prevention of occlusal caries, most RCTs examined followed the CONSORT statement. However, some methodological domains remain poorly reported, demonstrating the need to improve CONSORT compliance in these RCTs.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária , Selantes de Fossas e Fissuras , Cárie Dentária/prevenção & controle , Fluoretos , Humanos , Dente Molar , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
14.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 384, 2021 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34416854

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: C. sinensis is an important economic crop with fluoride over-accumulation in its leaves, which poses a serious threat to human health due to its leaf consumption as tea. Recently, our study has indicated that cell wall proteins (CWPs) probably play a vital role in fluoride accumulation/detoxification in C. sinensis. However, there has been a lack in CWP identification and characterization up to now. This study is aimed to characterize cell wall proteome of C. sinensis leaves and to develop more CWPs related to stress response. A strategy of combined cell wall proteomics and N-glycoproteomics was employed to investigate CWPs. CWPs were extracted by sequential salt buffers, while N-glycoproteins were enriched by hydrophilic interaction chromatography method using C. sinensis leaves as a material. Afterwards all the proteins were subjected to UPLC-MS/MS analysis. RESULTS: A total of 501 CWPs and 195 CWPs were identified respectively by cell wall proteomics and N-glycoproteomics profiling with 118 CWPs in common. Notably, N-glycoproteomics is a feasible method for CWP identification, and it can enhance CWP coverage. Among identified CWPs, proteins acting on cell wall polysaccharides constitute the largest functional class, most of which might be involved in cell wall structure remodeling. The second largest functional class mainly encompass various proteases related to CWP turnover and maturation. Oxidoreductases represent the third largest functional class, most of which (especially Class III peroxidases) participate in defense response. As expected, identified CWPs are mainly related to plant cell wall formation and defense response. CONCLUSION: This was the first large-scale investigation of CWPs in C. sinensis through cell wall proteomics and N-glycoproteomics. Our results not only provide a database for further research on CWPs, but also an insight into cell wall formation and defense response in C. sinensis.


Assuntos
Camellia sinensis/química , Parede Celular/química , Fluoretos/análise , Glicoproteínas/análise , Folhas de Planta/química , Proteínas de Plantas/análise , China , Produtos Agrícolas/química , Proteômica
15.
Trials ; 22(1): 519, 2021 Aug 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34348775

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Silver diamine fluoride (SDF) and sodium fluoride (NaF) are widely used for caries management. The objectives of this study are (i) to compare the caries-arresting and caries-preventive effects of SDF and NaF in young children, (ii) to determine children's and parents' acceptance of these fluoride therapies and (iii) to investigate the short-term (1 day) and long-term (1 year) adverse effects of these fluoride therapies. METHODS/DESIGN: This is a randomised, double-blind, active-controlled clinical trial to be conducted in Hong Kong kindergartens. The study has received approval from the local institutional review board. Written consent will be obtained from the parents/guardians before the study. The study will recruit at least 688 healthy 3-year-old children. This sample size is sufficient for an appropriate statistical analysis. Stratified randomisation will be performed for intervention allocation. The two intervention groups are 38% SDF and 5% NaF varnish applied on six primary upper anterior teeth. At baseline, one trained examiner will perform clinical examinations of the children in the kindergartens. The caries experience and oral hygiene status of each child will be recorded using the decayed, missing (due to caries) and filled primary tooth index and visual plaque index, respectively. Then, an independent operator will apply the assigned fluoride after the dental examinations. The examiner, the children and their parents will be blinded to the intervention allocation. In addition, a research assistant will evaluate the child's acceptance using interval rating scales for children's uncooperative behaviour. The examiner will then visit the children the next day to study the short-term potential adverse effects of the fluoride therapies. The same examiner will perform a follow-up examination after 1 year to evaluate the children's caries experiences, their oral hygiene statuses and the adverse effects of the fluoride. Parental questionnaires will be used to assess parental satisfaction and concerns about the fluoride therapies. DISCUSSION: This study provides essential information about using SDF in an outreach kindergarten service for caries management from different aspects, which include the caries-arresting and caries-preventive effects, the adverse effects and children's and parents' acceptance. The success of the service can help to increase the adoption of SDF to reduce the global burden of early childhood caries. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04399369 . Registered on May 2020.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária , Fluoretos , Cariostáticos/efeitos adversos , Pré-Escolar , Cárie Dentária/diagnóstico , Cárie Dentária/prevenção & controle , Suscetibilidade à Cárie Dentária , Método Duplo-Cego , Fluoretos Tópicos/efeitos adversos , Hong Kong , Humanos , Compostos de Amônio Quaternário , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
16.
Braz Oral Res ; 35: e058, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34346946

RESUMO

This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of non-invasive and micro-invasive treatments on the arrest of occlusal enamel carious lesions in erupting permanent molars. This two-arm randomized clinical trial included 27 subjects, aged 5-11 years, with 64 erupting permanent molars presenting active occlusal enamel carious lesions (as assessed by the International Caries Detection and Assessment System [ICDAS]; scores 1-3). The sample was randomly assigned into two treatment groups: 1) resin-modified glass ionomer cement sealant (Clinpro XT Varnish; 3M ESPE) and 2) 4-week topical fluoride varnish application (Duraphat; Colgate). All children and parents received oral hygiene and dietary instructions. Teeth were evaluated at baseline and 3, 6, 9, and 12 months regarding the eruption stage, biofilm accumulation, as well as severity and activity of the carious lesions. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to evaluate the survival estimates for inactivation of the carious lesions for both treatment groups. Multivariate Cox regression models with shared frailty were performed to identify factors associated with the outcome (p < 0.05). After 12 months, 22% and 3% of the lesions treated with topical fluoride varnish and sealant, respectively remained active. The adjusted model demonstrated that younger children had a higher probability of active enamel carious lesions arresting (hazard ratio [HR] 0.42, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.22-0.78; p=0.01). However, the probability of active enamel carious lesions arresting after sealant application was 8.85 times higher compared with fluoride varnish applications (p=0.01). Sealing is a more effective approach than fluoride varnish for arresting occlusal enamel carious lesions in erupting permanent molars.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária , Selantes de Fossas e Fissuras , Criança , Cárie Dentária/terapia , Fluoretos , Fluoretos Tópicos/uso terapêutico , Cimentos de Ionômeros de Vidro , Humanos , Dente Molar , Selantes de Fossas e Fissuras/uso terapêutico
17.
Am J Dent ; 34(4): 191-194, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34370910

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate the in vitro protective effect of a mint formulation containing (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCg-mint) on root dentin exposed to a highly erosive environment in the presence and absence of proteolytic challenge. METHODS: Root dentin specimens were subjected to an erosion-remineralization cycling model (6×/day; 5 days) that included 5-minute immersion in 1% citric acid and 60-minute immersion in remineralization solution (RS). At the remineralization half-time, the specimens were treated (n= 20) with EGCg-mint, RS (negative control) or sodium fluoride (1,000 ppm of NaF; positive control). Half of the specimens were kept overnight in RS (pH cycling) and the other half in RS with Clostridium histolyticum collagenase (pH-proteolytic cycling). Erosion depth was measured using optical profilometry and data analyzed by two-way ANOVA and Tukey tests (α= 0.05). RESULTS: Under pH-cycling, NaF resulted in statistically lower erosion depth compared to EGCg-mint (P= 0.020) and RS (P= 0.005). Under pH-proteolytic cycling, EGCg-mint and NaF significantly decreased the tissue loss (erosion depth, P< 0.001) compared to the RS. The EGCg-mint exhibited an anti-erosion property on root dentin under a proteolytic challenge. NaF presented an anti-erosion property regardless of the erosive cycling model. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: The anti-erosive action of an over-the-counter mint, containing active ingredients, including epigallocatechin-3-gallate, is likely by the protective mechanisms of the dentin extracellular matrix.


Assuntos
Mentha , Erosão Dentária , Ácido Cítrico , Dentina , Fluoretos , Humanos , Fluoreto de Sódio/farmacologia , Erosão Dentária/prevenção & controle
18.
Radiat Prot Dosimetry ; 195(2): 69-74, 2021 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34341830

RESUMO

A radioluminescence (RL) study of dose characteristics of tissue-equivalent LiF:Mg,Ti was carried out to determine the possible application as a real-time dosemeter. An RL measurements system based on LiF:Mg,Ti coupled with optical fiber was developed, and a blank fiber was set to remove the stem effect generated by the optical fiber due to direct radiation. A slight increase of RL sensitivity with accumulated dose and the afterglow effect due to shallow traps in LiF:Mg,Ti were observed, thus a set of algorithms was adopted to correct measured dose rate. A good linearity of dose-rate response using RL in LiF:Mg,Ti over more than four orders of magnitude (from 0.76 mGy/h to 8.02 Gy/h) was shown, and the deviation of calibrated dose rate is within 20%. Moreover, a satisfactory reproducibility (1.45%) of the measured dose rate after correction was represented. The results indicated that LiF:Mg,Ti might be promising for real-time dose monitoring.


Assuntos
Dosimetria Termoluminescente , Titânio , Algoritmos , Fluoretos , Compostos de Lítio , Doses de Radiação , Dosímetros de Radiação , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
19.
Eur J Pharm Sci ; 166: 105985, 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34455087

RESUMO

Non-ideal behaviour of mixed ions is disclosed in skin absorption experiments of mixed halide anions in excised pig skin. Comparison of skin absorption of pure and mixed ions shows enhanced penetration of chaotropic ions from mixed solutions. An experimental design and statistical analysis using a Scheffé {3,2} simplex-lattice allows investigating the full ternary diagram of anion mixtures of fluoride, bromide and iodide. Synergism in mixed absorption is observed for chaotropic bromide and iodide anions. A refined analysis highlighting specific interactions is made by considering the ratio of the absorbed amount to the ion activity instead of the directly measured absorbed amount. Statistical analysis discards non-significant effects and discloses specific interactions. Such interactions between bromide and iodide cause an absorption enhancement of their partner by a factor of 2-3 with respect to the case of ideal mixing. It is proposed that enhanced absorption from mixed solution involves the formation of neutral complex species of mixed bromide and iodide with endogenous magnesium or calcium inside stratum corneum.


Assuntos
Absorção Cutânea , Água , Animais , Ânions/metabolismo , Fluoretos/metabolismo , Pele/metabolismo , Soluções , Suínos , Água/metabolismo
20.
Braz Oral Res ; 35: e083, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34431848

RESUMO

For fluoride to be effective in controlling caries, it should be bioavailable in commercial products, so that it can be released into the mouth in the products it contains. We chemically determined the available fluoride and pH in nine mouth rinses marketed in Chile, and eleven, in Brazil, and then discussed the legislation in force in both countries, regarding the anticaries potential of these oral hygiene products. The fluoride was analyzed with an ion-selective electrode (F-ISE), using the direct technique. The determinations were made in duplicate, and the results were expressed in ppm F (µg F/mL). The total fluoride concentration found in all the mouth rinses evaluated ranged from 94.7 to 233.5 ppm F, and closely matched what was declared by the manufacturers (100.0 to 226.2 ppm F). However, some mouth rinses showed lower fluoride concentrations (90 and 180 ppm F) in both countries. A Na2FPO3-formulated mouth rinse was found only in Chile, with 216.8 ppm F as the FPO32- ion, and 4.9 ppm F as the F-. The findings show that fluoride was potentially bioavailable in all the mouth rinses evaluated. Regarding the national legislations, although the mouthwashes sold in Brazil comply with the Brazilian legislation, discrepancies were found for Chile. However, neither country had a legislation matching the best available evidence on fluoride mouthwash efficacy for caries control. Thus, some products with low fluoride concentrations (below 226 ppm F), or manufactured with a fluoride salt other than NaF (Na2FPO3) are being sold in the Brazilian and Chilean markets.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária , Fluoretos , Brasil , Chile , Cárie Dentária/prevenção & controle , Fluoretos/análise , Humanos , Antissépticos Bucais
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