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1.
Arq. odontol ; 56: 1-10, jan.-dez. 2020. ilus, tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS, BBO - Odontologia | ID: biblio-1052869

RESUMO

Objetivo: O objetivo do estudo foi avaliar o conhecimento de Graduandos da Faculdade de Odontologia da Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (FAO-UFMG) quanto às indicações de uso de fluoretos em crianças. Métodos: Em 2015, dois grupos de estudantes foram convidados a participar do estudo: Grupo 1 (G1): 78 alunos do 1º período e Grupo 2 (G2): 72 alunos do 9º período (baseline). Em 2016, o G1 participou da reaplicação do mesmo questionário e a amostra de alunos recuperada foi de 66 graduandos (tempo 2 ­ T2). Foi realizada análise estatística dos dados usando os Testes Qui-quadrado de Pearson, Exato de Fisher e McNemar. Resultados: Comparando as respostas, houve diferenças de resposta em todas as questões entre G1 em baseline e G2 (p < 0,05). O conhecimento entre G1 no T2 e G2 foi semelhante (p > 0,05). As respostas foram diferentes entre G1 em baseline e G1 em T2 (p < 0,05), mostrando uma melhora do conhecimento para os mesmos alunos. Conclusão: No geral, pode-se dizer que ainda há uma defasagem no conhecimento, visto que muitas questões foram respondidas de maneira insatisfatória. (AU)


Aim: This study s oughtto compare the knowledge of undergraduate students from the Dental School of Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (FOUFMG) regarding the recommendations of fluoride use for children. Methods: In 2015, two groups of students took part in the study: Group 1 (G1): 78 students from the 1stsemester and Group 2 (G2): 72 students from the last semester (baseline). In 2016, G1 answered the same questionnaire, and the sample retrieved was of 66 students (time 2). Pearson's Chi-square, Fisher's exact, and McNemar tests were used for statistical analysis. Results: Comparing the responses, the answers were different between G1 at the baseline and G2 (p < 0.05). The answers of the questionnaire were similar between G1 at time 2 and G2 at the baseline (p > 0.05). The answers were different between G1 at the baseline and G1 at time 2 (p < 0.05), illustrating an improvement in knowledge. Conclusion:In conclusion, there is still a lack of knowledge, as many questions were not properly answered by the students. (AU)


Assuntos
Estudantes de Odontologia , Criança , Odontopediatria , Conhecimento , Dentifrícios , Educação , Fluoretos/administração & dosagem , Flúor , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estudos Longitudinais , Avaliação Educacional
2.
Community Dent Health ; 36(2): 190-194, 2019 Aug 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31436925

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To test the effectiveness of fluoride varnish in preventing caries in early childhood in children at high risk of caries. BASIC RESEARCH DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial. PARTICIPANTS: 504 participants, with mean age of 21 months at baseline randomly allocated into a test and a control group. 427 children remained in the study after two years. INTERVENTION: Fluoride varnish applied four times a year, every three months. The intervention lasted for two years. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Dental status was recorded based on the International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICADS). RESULTS: Mean dmfs was similar in the control and test groups at baseline (1.0 and 1.2 respectively) but was significantly different (10.1 and 5.2, p ⟨ 0.001, ANOVA) at endpoint. The proportion caries free in the two groups was 40% and 69.4% after two years. CONCLUSIONS: The application of fluoride varnish four times a year prevented the incidence and reduced the severity of caries in pre-school children. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: DRKS00013980.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária , Fluoretos Tópicos , Fluoretos , Cariostáticos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cárie Dentária/prevenção & controle , Fluoretos/administração & dosagem , Fluoretos Tópicos/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Lactente , Pintura , Dente Decíduo
3.
Ann Anat ; 225: 48-53, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31271888

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To conduct an in vitro evaluation of the effect of casein-phosphopeptide and amorphous calcium phosphate with fluoride [CPP-ACPF] upon the calcium [Ca] and phosphorus [P] composition and morphology of dental enamel and dentin after the application of two bleaching agents: 37.5% hydrogen peroxide [HP]) and 35% carbamide peroxide [CP]. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The crowns of 40 extracted human teeth were divided into four groups (n=10 each). The crowns were sectioned along the cervical-incisal axis, and each half was embedded in acrylic resin, leaving a window 3mm in diameter to explore the enamel or dentin (according to the study group involved). Groups 1a and 1b corresponded to the two halves belonging to the same tooth and were treated with HP applied to enamel three times for 10min. Afterwards, CPP-ACPF was applied in group 1b for five minutes. The same procedure was carried out in groups 2a and 2b, but application was done on dentin. Groups 3a and 3b were treated with CP applied to enamel once for 30min. Posteriorly, CPP-ACPF was applied in group 3b for five minutes. Groups 4a and 4b were treated in the same way as groups 3a and 3b, but application was done on dentin. The morphological changes were evaluated using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), and the changes in Ca and P composition were assessed by environmental scanning electron microscopy coupled to a microanalytical system (ESEM+EDX). Comparisons between groups were made using the Kruskal-Wallis test, and Duncan test was applied for two-by-two comparisons, with a significance level of p<0.05. RESULTS: Both HP and CP produced similar changes in enamel morphology and produced no changes in dentin. Groups treated with CPP-ACPF after bleaching improved the percentage of Ca and P. Statistical significance was reached only in the case of the percentage of Ca in enamel (group 1b versus group 1a, p=0.01) (group 3b versus group 3a, p=0.03). CONCLUSIONS: The application of CCP-ACPF for five minutes on the enamel surface after tooth bleaching is effective in restoring the Ca lost as a result of the bleaching process, while their effect in dentin could not be demonstrated.


Assuntos
Peróxido de Carbamida/administração & dosagem , Caseínas/administração & dosagem , Fluoretos/administração & dosagem , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/administração & dosagem , Clareamento Dental/efeitos adversos , Dente/efeitos dos fármacos , Cálcio/análise , Peróxido de Carbamida/efeitos adversos , Dentina/química , Dentina/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/efeitos adversos , Microscopia Confocal , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Pomadas , Oxirredução , Fósforo/análise
4.
Regul Toxicol Pharmacol ; 106: 68-80, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31028799

RESUMO

Fluoride (F-), a harmful compound if present in high concentration, is typically found in groundwater. It is important to investigate the F- concentrations in groundwaters of areas where individuals use groundwater for drinking purposes. The objectives of this study were: (a) to estimate the F- exposure, and (b) to assess the non-carcinogenic risk through consumption of groundwater among urban population (different age groups) of Agra city. A total of 28 groundwater samples were collected from Agra city in May 2016, which comprised 22 samples from hand pump and 6 samples from tube wells from shallow aquifers at different sites. The F- concentrations varied from 0.90 to 4.12 mg/L with an average value of 1.88 mg/L. The results obtained reveal that about 64% of the samples exceeded the F- permissible limit of 1.5 mg/L. Nevertheless, 32% of the samples were well within the WHO drinking water guidelines and 3.5% of the samples from the groundwater were below the 1.0 mg/L threshold. The maximum estimated exposure doses were 0.69, 0.31 and 0.12 mg/kg/day for infants, children and adults, respectively. A dental fluorosis becomes evident when the results obtained are compared with an oral reference dose of 0.06 mg/kg/day. The hazard quotient (HQ) was found to be more than 1 for infants and children in all the studied areas which indicates that young consumers are more vulnerable to non-carcinogenic risk due to exposure of F-. On the other hand, the adults at about 71% of the sampled sites may be victims of non-carcinogenic risk. From the results obtained in this study, it is recommended that there be implementation of the appropriate remediation for defluoridation of water to circumvent the population from the probable health risks of F-.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Fluoretos/análise , Água Subterrânea/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Administração Oral , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Fluoretos/administração & dosagem , Fluoretos/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Índia , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Medição de Risco , Poluentes Químicos da Água/administração & dosagem , Poluentes Químicos da Água/efeitos adversos
5.
J Clin Pediatr Dent ; 43(3): 181-184, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30964724

RESUMO

Objectives: To compare the in vitro cariogenic potential of two infant formulas (IF, for ages 6-12 months) processed with sterile distilled water with or without 1 ppm fluoride. Study design: Nine specimens in each water type were inoculated with Streptococcus mutans (SM) suspension. The specimens were then divided into one group of samples cultured immediately on Mitis salivarius (MS) agar plates (T0) and another group of specimens cultured on MS agar plates after incubation at 37°C for 4 hours in anaerobic conditions (T4). Six-fold dilutions of each sample were incubated for 48 hours, and colony-forming units (CFUs) of SM were numerated. The pH changes associated with bacterial fermentation of each of the suspensions were measured at T0 and at T4 following incubation. Results: The pH was lower at T4 than at T0 in both IF. The SM colonies increased significantly at T4 compared to T0 in both IF (P < 0.001). There was no significant difference between the CFUs of the mediums at T0 and T4 or relation between SM colonies of IF based on fluoridated and non-fluoridated distilled water. Conclusion: The cariogenic potential was not significantly different between two IF prepared with fluoridated or non-fluoridated distilled water.


Assuntos
Cariogênicos , Fluoretos , Fórmulas Infantis , Streptococcus mutans , Fluoretos/administração & dosagem , Fluoretos/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Lactente , Fórmulas Infantis/efeitos adversos , Streptococcus mutans/efeitos dos fármacos , Streptococcus mutans/crescimento & desenvolvimento
6.
J Oral Sci ; 61(1): 125-132, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30918209

RESUMO

This study investigated the effect of fluoride mouthrinses on bonding of a one-step self-etch adhesive to bovine root dentin. Application of a NaF solution (0, 450, 900, or 9,000 ppm) to bovine root dentin surfaces was performed for 30 s (immediate) or before bonding of an all-in-one adhesive. Microtensile bond strength (µTBS) testing and scanning electron microscopic (SEM) observation of the acid-base resistance zone (ABRZ) were performed. µTBS values and calculated ABRZ areas were analyzed by using two-way ANOVA and the t-test with Bonferroni correction. The significance level was set at P = 0.05 (n = 30). Fracture mode was analyzed with the Mann-Whitney U test with Bonferroni correction. The significance level set at P = 0.00178 (n = 30). µTBS did not significantly differ between the control, 450 ppm F, and 900 ppm F specimens (P > 0.05) but was significantly lower in 9,000 ppm F specimens (P < 0.05). SEM showed a significant increase in acid resistance at the adhesive-dentin interface, including the ABRZ, after fluoride application.


Assuntos
Ataque Ácido Dentário , Cimentos Dentários/química , Dentina/química , Fluoretos/administração & dosagem , Antissépticos Bucais , Raiz Dentária , Animais , Bovinos , Análise do Estresse Dentário , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Propriedades de Superfície , Fraturas dos Dentes
7.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 3: CD007868, 2019 03 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30829399

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Caries (dental decay) is a disease of the hard tissues of the teeth caused by an imbalance, over time, in the interactions between cariogenic bacteria in dental plaque and fermentable carbohydrates (mainly sugars). Regular toothbrushing with fluoride toothpaste is the principal non-professional intervention to prevent caries, but the caries-preventive effect varies according to different concentrations of fluoride in toothpaste, with higher concentrations associated with increased caries control. Toothpastes with higher fluoride concentration increases the risk of fluorosis (enamel defects) in developing teeth. This is an update of the Cochrane Review first published in 2010. OBJECTIVES: To determine and compare the effects of toothpastes of different fluoride concentrations (parts per million (ppm)) in preventing dental caries in children, adolescents, and adults. SEARCH METHODS: Cochrane Oral Health's Information Specialist searched the following databases: Cochrane Oral Health's Trials Register (to 15 August 2018); the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2018, Issue 7) in the Cochrane Library (searched 15 August 2018); MEDLINE Ovid (1946 to 15 August 2018); and Embase Ovid (1980 to 15 August 2018). The US National Institutes of Health Ongoing Trials Register (ClinicalTrials.gov) and the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform were searched for ongoing trials (15 August 2018). No restrictions were placed on the language or date of publication when searching the electronic databases. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised controlled trials that compared toothbrushing with fluoride toothpaste with toothbrushing with a non-fluoride toothpaste or toothpaste of a different fluoride concentration, with a follow-up period of at least 1 year. The primary outcome was caries increment measured by the change from baseline in the decayed, (missing), and filled surfaces or teeth index in all permanent or primary teeth (D(M)FS/T or d(m)fs/t). DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two members of the review team, independently and in duplicate, undertook the selection of studies, data extraction, and risk of bias assessment. We graded the certainty of the evidence through discussion and consensus. The primary effect measure was the mean difference (MD) or standardised mean difference (SMD) caries increment. Where it was appropriate to pool data, we used random-effects pairwise or network meta-analysis. MAIN RESULTS: We included 96 studies published between 1955 and 2014 in this updated review. Seven studies with 11,356 randomised participants (7047 evaluated) reported the effects of fluoride toothpaste up to 1500 ppm on the primary dentition; one study with 2500 randomised participants (2008 evaluated) reported the effects of 1450 ppm fluoride toothpaste on the primary and permanent dentition; 85 studies with 48,804 randomised participants (40,066 evaluated) reported the effects of toothpaste up to 2400 ppm on the immature permanent dentition; and three studies with 2675 randomised participants (2162 evaluated) reported the effects of up to 1100 ppm fluoride toothpaste on the mature permanent dentition. Follow-up in most studies was 36 months.In the primary dentition of young children, 1500 ppm fluoride toothpaste reduces caries increment when compared with non-fluoride toothpaste (MD -1.86 dfs, 95% confidence interval (CI) -2.51 to -1.21; 998 participants, one study, moderate-certainty evidence); the caries-preventive effects for the head-to-head comparison of 1055 ppm versus 550 ppm fluoride toothpaste are similar (MD -0.05, dmfs, 95% CI -0.38 to 0.28; 1958 participants, two studies, moderate-certainty evidence), but toothbrushing with 1450 ppm fluoride toothpaste slightly reduces decayed, missing, filled teeth (dmft) increment when compared with 440 ppm fluoride toothpaste (MD -0.34, dmft, 95%CI -0.59 to -0.09; 2362 participants, one study, moderate-certainty evidence). The certainty of the remaining evidence for this comparison was judged to be low.We included 81 studies in the network meta-analysis of D(M)FS increment in the permanent dentition of children and adolescents. The network included 21 different comparisons of seven fluoride concentrations. The certainty of the evidence was judged to be low with the following exceptions: there was high- and moderate-certainty evidence that 1000 to 1250 ppm or 1450 to 1500 ppm fluoride toothpaste reduces caries increments when compared with non-fluoride toothpaste (SMD -0.28, 95% CI -0.32 to -0.25, 55 studies; and SMD -0.36, 95% CI -0.43 to -0.29, four studies); there was moderate-certainty evidence that 1450 to 1500 ppm fluoride toothpaste slightly reduces caries increments when compared to 1000 to 1250 ppm (SMD -0.08, 95% CI -0.14 to -0.01, 10 studies); and moderate-certainty evidence that the caries increments are similar for 1700 to 2200 ppm and 2400 to 2800 ppm fluoride toothpaste when compared to 1450 to 1500 ppm (SMD 0.04, 95% CI -0.07 to 0.15, indirect evidence only; SMD -0.05, 95% CI -0.14 to 0.05, two studies).In the adult permanent dentition, 1000 or 1100 ppm fluoride toothpaste reduces DMFS increment when compared with non-fluoride toothpaste in adults of all ages (MD -0.53, 95% CI -1.02 to -0.04; 2162 participants, three studies, moderate-certainty evidence). The evidence for DMFT was low certainty.Only a minority of studies assessed adverse effects of toothpaste. When reported, effects such as soft tissue damage and tooth staining were minimal. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: This Cochrane Review supports the benefits of using fluoride toothpaste in preventing caries when compared to non-fluoride toothpaste. Evidence for the effects of different fluoride concentrations is more limited, but a dose-response effect was observed for D(M)FS in children and adolescents. For many comparisons of different concentrations the caries-preventive effects and our confidence in these effect estimates are uncertain and could be challenged by further research. The choice of fluoride toothpaste concentration for young children should be balanced against the risk of fluorosis.


Assuntos
Cariostáticos/uso terapêutico , Cárie Dentária/prevenção & controle , Fluoretos/uso terapêutico , Cremes Dentais/uso terapêutico , Adolescente , Adulto , Cariostáticos/administração & dosagem , Criança , Índice CPO , Dentição Permanente , Fluoretos/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Meta-Análise em Rede , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Dente Decíduo , Cremes Dentais/química
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30857240

RESUMO

This study provides diverse lines of evidence demonstrating that fluoride (F) exposure contributes to degenerative eye diseases by stimulating or inhibiting biological pathways associated with the pathogenesis of cataract, age-related macular degeneration and glaucoma. As elucidated in this study, F exerts this effect by inhibiting enolase, τ-crystallin, Hsp40, Na⁺, K⁺-ATPase, Nrf2, γ -GCS, HO-1 Bcl-2, FoxO1, SOD, PON-1 and glutathione activity, and upregulating NF-κB, IL-6, AGEs, HsP27 and Hsp70 expression. Moreover, F exposure leads to enhanced oxidative stress and impaired antioxidant activity. Based on the evidence presented in this study, it can be concluded that F exposure may be added to the list of identifiable risk factors associated with pathogenesis of degenerative eye diseases. The broader impact of these findings suggests that reducing F intake may lead to an overall reduction in the modifiable risk factors associated with degenerative eye diseases. Further studies are required to examine this association and determine differences in prevalence rates amongst fluoridated and non-fluoridated communities, taking into consideration other dietary sources of F such as tea. Finally, the findings of this study elucidate molecular pathways associated with F exposure that may suggest a possible association between F exposure and other inflammatory diseases. Further studies are also warranted to examine these associations.


Assuntos
Catarata/metabolismo , Fluoretos/administração & dosagem , Glaucoma/metabolismo , Degeneração Macular/metabolismo , Saúde Pública , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Catarata/induzido quimicamente , Catarata/fisiopatologia , Fluoretação , Fluoretos/efeitos adversos , Glaucoma/induzido quimicamente , Glaucoma/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Degeneração Macular/induzido quimicamente , Degeneração Macular/fisiopatologia , Saúde Bucal , Estresse Oxidativo , Abastecimento de Água
9.
Acta Odontol Scand ; 77(5): 386-393, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30784350

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The present study addresses the effect of fluoride and sodium lauryl sulphate content of toothpaste on oral epithelial cells in vivo conditions. SUBJECTS AND METHOD: Forty volunteers were assigned into two experimental groups, each of them applying the different brand of toothpaste. Every group has been using three different types of toothpaste (non-fluoride and non-SLS, fluoride and non-SLS, and the fluoride and SLS) of the same brand for 6 months, each for 2 months. The buccal epithelial cells were sampled at baseline and 30, 60, 90, 120, 150 and 180 days after the beginning of the research. Effect on DNA damage was analyzed by micronucleus assay Results: After 60 days of use, for both tested kinds of toothpaste with fluoride and without SLS, all studied parameters were not significantly different from the results obtained at the time when the participants used a non-fluoride toothpaste. While, after 60 days of use, for one kind of toothpaste with SLS and fluoride, was observed significantly higher incidence of pyknotic cells (2.20 ± 0.95, 0.00 ± 0.00 vs. 0.05 ± 0.22, respectively; p = .001), cells with karyorrhexis (2.35 ± 1.14, 0.85 ± 0.93 vs. 0.40 ± 0.68, respectively; p = .001), and nuclear buds (1.35 ± 0.68, 0.45 ± 0.51 vs. 0.45 ± 0.60, respectively; p = .001), compared to toothpastes of the same brand with fluoride and without SLS, and without fluoride and without SLS, for the same period. CONCLUSIONS: Based on the results, can be concluded that there is no fluorine-dependent cytotoxic or genotoxic effect, while SLS dentifrice increases the number of nuclear morphological changes in buccal epithelial cells.


Assuntos
Células Epiteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Fluoretos/efeitos adversos , Mucosa Bucal/efeitos dos fármacos , Dodecilsulfato de Sódio/administração & dosagem , Tensoativos/efeitos adversos , Cremes Dentais/administração & dosagem , Dentifrícios , Feminino , Fluoretos/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Masculino , Dodecilsulfato de Sódio/efeitos adversos , Tensoativos/administração & dosagem , Cremes Dentais/efeitos adversos , Adulto Jovem
10.
J Indian Soc Pedod Prev Dent ; 37(1): 92-98, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30804314

RESUMO

Context: Pits and fissures of teeth have been recognized as the most susceptible areas for initiation of caries. The ability of the resin sealant to thoroughly fill pits, fissures, and/or morphological defects and remain completely intact and bonded to enamel surface is the primary basis for its caries prevention. Aim: The present study evaluated and compared the retention rates and development of caries in permanent molars of children sealed with amorphous calcium phosphate-containing (Aegis™) and moisture-tolerant fluoride-releasing (Embrace WetBond™) sealant over a period of 1 year. Settings and Design: This was a double-blind, split-mouth, randomized controlled trial among children aged 6-9 years. Methods: Sixty-eight permanent mandibular first molars in 34 children were randomly assigned to be sealed with Aegis™ or Embrace Wetbond™ sealant. The follow-up examinations were conducted at 3, 6, and 12 months for evaluating the retention and development of caries. Statistical Analysis: SPSS version 16.0 was used for the analysis. Within-group comparison of retention and development of caries at 3, 6, and 12 months was evaluated using the Friedman's test. Results: The final sample was 32 children with 64 teeth. At 12 months, 23 of 32 (72%) sealants were completely retained in Aegis™, whereas 21 of 32 (65.6%) were retained in Embrace Wetbond™ group. There was no significant difference in the retention rates of Aegis™ and Embrace Wetbond™ sealants at 12 months (P > 0.05). Conclusion: Aegis™ was superior to Embrace Wetbond™ sealant as Aegis™ exhibited higher retention and lower caries scores.


Assuntos
Fosfatos de Cálcio/uso terapêutico , Fluoretos/uso terapêutico , Selantes de Fossas e Fissuras/uso terapêutico , Fosfatos de Cálcio/administração & dosagem , Fosfatos de Cálcio/metabolismo , Criança , Cárie Dentária/epidemiologia , Cárie Dentária/prevenção & controle , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Fluoretos/administração & dosagem , Fluoretos/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Tempo
11.
Pesqui. bras. odontopediatria clín. integr ; 19(1): 3986, 01 Fevereiro 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, BBO - Odontologia | ID: biblio-998045

RESUMO

Objective: To identify the commercially available toothpastes intended for children and their total soluble fluoride concentrations (TSF). Material and Methods: Twelve brands of toothpastes intended for children marketed in supermarkets and pharmacies were found and analyzed: Bitufo®; Colgate Smile®; Lilica Ripilica®; Even Baby®; Turma da Mônica Baby®; Loney Tunes®; Loney Tunes Baby®; Malvatrikds Baby®; Oral B Stages®; Sanifil Kids®; Tandy®; Tra-lálá Baby®. Duplicate samples of each toothpaste were weighed (+/- 90 to 110 mg) and diluted in 10 mL of distilled water under stirring. To evaluate soluble fluoride, duplicate aliquots of supernatant suspensions were evaluated on specific ion fluoride electrode calibrated with fluoride standard solutions and results expressed in ppm F according to established protocol. Results: According to information provided by manufacturers, 5 non-fluoridated toothpastes, 3 toothpastes with less than 1000 ppm F and 4 toothpastes with conventional fluoride concentration (1100 ppm F) were identified. After analysis of soluble fluoride of fluoridated toothpastes, only 02 presented TSF concentration equal to or greater than 1000 ppm F. The TSF concentration (mean ± SD) for all samples ranged from 8.2 ± 0.1 to 1065.9 ± 24.7 ppm F. Conclusion: Few toothpastes intended for children presented soluble fluoride concentrations capable of preventing dental caries. Additionally, regulatory measures need to be implemented for the marketing of toothpastes intended for children with at least 1000 ppm of soluble fluoride, especially in locations without other sources of fluoride (fluoridated water) for the population.


Assuntos
Humanos , Criança , Cremes Dentais , Dentifrícios/administração & dosagem , Fluoretos/administração & dosagem , Flúor/administração & dosagem , Flúor/uso terapêutico , Brasil , Interpretação Estatística de Dados , Cárie Dentária/prevenção & controle
12.
Environ Geochem Health ; 41(2): 761-768, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30109528

RESUMO

The decision whether to fluoridate drinking water continues to be controversial in some communities. Dental and skeletal fluorosis in response to chronic fluoride overexposure are cited as reasons to avoid community water fluoridation in spite of evidence of the oral and skeletal health benefits fluoridation confers. Community fluoridation of ~ 1 mg/L fluoride has not been found to be associated with primary bone cancer but is associated with improved bone strength. No studies have examined fluoride exposure and secondary bone cancer, a common metastasis with significant morbidity. We hypothesize that fluoridation could diminish the likelihood of secondary bone cancer due to its role in bone fortification. We examined the association between community water fluoridation category and prevalence of secondary bone cancer from 2008 to 2010 among cancer patients of 18 years of age or older in counties in New York State. Relative to counties with less than 25% of the water supply fluoridated, we report no association between secondary bone cancer among cancer patients in counties with 25-75% of the water supply fluoridated (ß = 0.02, p = 0.96) and among those in counties with > 75% fluoridated (ß = 0.02, p = 0.97). We found no evidence of an association between community water fluoridation category and secondary bone cancer from 2008 to 2010 at the county level in New York State.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Ósseas/epidemiologia , Fluoretação , Fluorose Dentária/epidemiologia , Água Potável , Feminino , Fluoretos/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Masculino , New York/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Abastecimento de Água
13.
Int J Dent Hyg ; 17(1): 3-15, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29512317

RESUMO

FOCUS QUESTION: What is the efficacy of a chlorhexidine (CHX) mouthwash (MW) containing sodium fluoride (NaF) compared to a CHX - MW alone on the parameters of plaque, gingivitis and discoloration? MATERIAL AND METHODS: MEDLINE-PubMed, Cochrane-CENTRAL, and EMBASE were searched for papers from inception to December 2017. The inclusion criteria were (randomized) controlled clinical trials conducted in human subjects with good general health and without removable prosthesis. Papers evaluating the effect of a MW containing CHX + NaF compared to a CHX alone were included. From the eligible studies, data were extracted, a descriptive analysis was performed and a meta-analysis when feasible. RESULTS: Independent screening of 412 unique papers resulted in 9 eligible publications presenting 10 clinical trials comparing the effect of CHX + NaF to CHX - MW and provided 13 comparisons. Five evaluated the MW as an adjunct to brushing and 8 were non-brushing comparisons of which 4 used an experimental gingivitis model. No significant difference was observed for plaque score reduction in the brushing studies the end scores (diffM; -0.04, P = .36; 95%CI: [-0.13, 0.05]) nor the differences (diffM; 0.11, P = .33; 95%CI: [-0.12, 0.24]). In the descriptive analysis, none of the experiments demonstrated a statistical significant difference regarding Gingival Index (GI), Bleeding Score and Discoloration Scores. For the GI, a meta-analysis of the difference of Means was not significant when included experimental gingivitis model studies end scores (0.01, P = .78; 95%CI: [-0.08, 0.11]) and the difference (0.01, P = .81; 9 5%CI: [-0.08, 0.10]) either for the end scores of brushing studies (diffM; -0.01, P = .82; 95%CI: [-0.10, 0.08]). CONCLUSION: From this study, it can be concluded that NaF and CHX may be present in the same MW without reducing CHX efficacy with respect to plaque and gingivitis scores. Moreover, no difference in the development of tooth discoloration was observed.


Assuntos
Clorexidina/administração & dosagem , Placa Dentária/prevenção & controle , Fluoretos/administração & dosagem , Gengivite/prevenção & controle , Antissépticos Bucais/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Bases de Dados Bibliográficas , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Adulto Jovem
14.
Biol Trace Elem Res ; 187(1): 107-119, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29705835

RESUMO

Appropriate doses of fluoride (F) have therapeutic action against dental caries, but higher levels can cause disturbances in soft and mineralized tissues. Interestingly, the susceptibility to the toxic effects of F is genetically determined. This study evaluated the effects of F on the liver proteome of mice susceptible (A/J) or resistant (129P3/J) to the effects of F. Weanling male A/J (n = 12) and 129P3/J (n = 12) mice were housed in pairs and assigned to two groups given low-F food and drinking water containing 15 or 50 ppm F for 6 weeks. Liver proteome profiles were examined using nano-LC-ESI-MS/MS. Difference in expression among the groups was determined using the PLGS software. Treatment with the lower F concentration provoked more pronounced alterations in fold change in liver proteins in comparison to the treatment with the higher F concentration. Interestingly, most of the proteins with fold change upon treatment with 15 ppm F were increased in the A/J mice compared with their 129P3/J counterparts, suggesting an attempt of the former to fight the deleterious effects of F. However, upon treatment with 50 ppm F, most proteins with fold change were decreased in the A/J mice compared with their 129P3/J counterparts, especially proteins related to oxidative stress and protein folding, which might be related to the higher susceptibility of the A/J animals to the deleterious effects of F. Our findings add light into the mechanisms underlying genetic susceptibility to fluorosis.


Assuntos
Água Potável/química , Fluoretos/farmacologia , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteoma/efeitos dos fármacos , Administração Oral , Animais , Fluoretos/administração & dosagem , Fígado/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos , Proteoma/metabolismo
15.
Eur J Orthod ; 41(1): 59-66, 2019 01 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29722800

RESUMO

Background: Caries is an undesirable side-effect of treatment with fixed orthodontic appliances. Therefore, it is crucial to understand how orthodontic treatment and different fluoride regimens affect caries risk and individual risk factors. Objective: To evaluate the effects of orthodontic treatment and different fluoride regimens on caries risk and caries risk factors, including cariogenic bacteria. Trial design: Three-armed, parallel group, randomized, controlled trial. Methods: Patients referred to the Specialist Clinic of Orthodontics, Mölndal Hospital, Sweden, were distributed randomly into the following groups: group I (Control group), 1450 ppm fluoride (F) toothpaste; group II, 1450 ppm F toothpaste plus 0.2 per cent sodium fluoride (NaF) mouth rinse; and group III, 5000 ppm F toothpaste. The inclusion criteria were: age 12-20 years; and bimaxillary treatment with fixed appliances. The primary outcome variables were: caries risk; and the numbers of cariogenic bacteria. Radiographs were taken before treatment to determine the caries status. Data were collected before treatment and after 1 year with a fixed appliance. The variables were compiled into a Cariogram to assess the caries risk. Comparisons were made over time within and between the groups. The generation of randomization sequence was performed in blocks of 30. Blinding was employed during the data analysis and the caries registration. Recruitment: The clinical study duration was from October 2010 to December 2012. Results: Overall, 270 patients were randomized, of which 15 were excluded from the study. Therefore, 255 patients were included in the analyses. The caries risk increased significantly during orthodontic treatment in group I (P < 0.0001), whereas groups II and III had unchanged caries risks. All the groups showed statistically significant increases in the numbers of cariogenic bacteria. Harms: No harms were reported during the trial. Conclusions: To avoid an increased risk of caries during orthodontic treatment, everyday use of high-fluoride toothpaste (5000 ppm F) or mouth rinse (0.2% NaF) in combination with ordinary toothpaste is recommended. Registration: The trial was not registered.


Assuntos
Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Cariostáticos/administração & dosagem , Cárie Dentária/prevenção & controle , Fluoretos/administração & dosagem , Aparelhos Ortodônticos Fixos/efeitos adversos , Cremes Dentais/química , Adolescente , Cariostáticos/uso terapêutico , Criança , Assistência Odontológica/métodos , Cárie Dentária/etiologia , Cárie Dentária/microbiologia , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Fluoretos/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Masculino , Antissépticos Bucais/química , Antissépticos Bucais/uso terapêutico , Método Simples-Cego , Fluoreto de Sódio/uso terapêutico , Suécia , Adulto Jovem
16.
Caries Res ; 53(1): 41-48, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29879711

RESUMO

Knowledge about fluoride delivery to oral fluids from foods cooked with fluoridated water and salt is scarce, and no study has evaluated fluoride concentrations in saliva or biofilm during meal consumption. In this randomized double-blind crossover study, 12 volunteers ingested meals (rice, beans, meat, and legumes) prepared with nonfluoridated water and salt (control group), fluoridated water (0.70 mg F/L; water group), and fluoridated salt (183.7 mg F/kg; salt group). Whole saliva was collected before meal ingestion, during mastication, and up to 2 h after meal ingestion. Dental biofilm was collected before and immediately after meal ingestion. Fluoride concentrations in saliva and dental biofilm were determined by an ion-specific electrode. The mean (±standard deviation; n = 4) fluoride concentrations in meals prepared for the control, water, and salt groups were 0.039 ± 0.01, 0.43 ± 0.04, and 1.71 ± 0.32 µg F/g, respectively. The three groups had significantly different fluoride concentrations in saliva collected during mastication (p < 0.0001) and after meal ingestion (p < 0.04; salt > water > control). The fluoride concentration in saliva returned to baseline 30 min after meal ingestion in the water group but remained high for up to 2 h in the salt group (p = 0.002). The fluoride concentration in biofilm fluid differed only between the salt and control groups (p = 0.008). The mastication of foods cooked with fluoridated water and salt increases fluoride concentrations in oral fluids and may contribute to the local effect of these community-based fluoride interventions on caries control.


Assuntos
Biofilmes , Cariostáticos/administração & dosagem , Culinária/métodos , Ingestão de Alimentos , Fluoretação , Fluoretos/administração & dosagem , Saliva/química , Adolescente , Adulto , Análise de Variância , Desjejum , Estudos Cross-Over , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Concentração Osmolar , Adulto Jovem
17.
Int Dent J ; 69(1): 58-66, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30028021

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Non-invasive treatment of root caries lesions (RCLs) may impact oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL), but no evidence is available. The purpose of the study was to assess changes in OHRQoL among patients exposed to non-invasive treatment of RCLs with conventional or high-fluoride dentifrices. METHODS: To be eligible, subjects had to be ≥60 years of age, independently living, with at least five teeth and one RCL. The 14-item Oral Health Impact Profile for adults in Spanish (OHIP-14Sp), oral examination and sociodemographic data were documented at the beginning of the study (T0). The presence and activity of RCLs were detected and diagnosed. Subjects were randomly assigned to either the control (1,450 ppm fluoride) or the experimental (5,000 ppm fluoride) treatment group. A new set of measurements was obtained at 12 months (T1). Mean comparisons were carried out using the Student's t-test for total OHIP-14Sp scores. To determine whether T1 OHRQoL scores were different regarding sex, age, educational level and socio-economic status, mean OHIP-14Sp scores were obtained and compared with those variables at 12 months. RESULTS: An overall improvement in OHRQoL after the non-invasive treatment of RCLs was verified when T1 was compared with T0 (P < 0.0001). Regarding treatment type, no significant differences were detected between groups (P = 0.114). Subjects with higher income and more years of formal education had better OHRQoL than those with a lower salary (P < 0.0001) and with fewer years of education (P = 0.0006). CONCLUSIONS: Non-invasive treatment for RCLs in community-dwelling elders appears to cause a positive impact on OHRQoL. Better OHRQoL was associated with higher socio-economic status and educational level. No significant differences were detected regarding the fluoride concentration in the dentifrices.


Assuntos
Fluoretos/administração & dosagem , Vida Independente , Saúde Bucal , Qualidade de Vida , Cárie Radicular/prevenção & controle , Cremes Dentais/administração & dosagem , Idoso , Inquéritos de Saúde Bucal , Status Econômico , Escolaridade , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Autoadministração
18.
Community Dent Oral Epidemiol ; 47(1): 49-57, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30211440

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To test the hypothesis that parental factors in early childhood influence approximal caries experience in young adults. METHODS: A cohort of 494 individuals was followed longitudinally from 1 to 20 years of age. Data were retrieved from parental interviews and questionnaires when the child was 1 and 3 years of age. At age 20, the participants underwent bitewing radiographic examination. Based on the number of approximal caries lesions (Da), stratified into initial (Di ) or manifest caries (Dm ) and approximal fillings (Fa), the participants were divided into two main groups: those with: (a) 0 Dim Fa (n = 244) and (b) >0 Dim Fa (n = 250). A subgroup was also created (≥8 Dim Fa; n = 33). RESULTS: Toothbrushing with fluoride toothpaste at 3 years of age less than twice a day (OR 1.6, 95% CI 1.0-2.6) and the participants' mothers' self-estimation of their oral health care as "less than optimal" were important risk factors for developing caries (>0 Dim Fa OR 2.0, 95% CI 1.3-3.1). An interaction effect between toothbrushing at 3 years of age less than twice a day and consumption of caries risk products > 3 times a day further increased the caries experience in young adults (≥8 Dim Fa OR 8.3, 95% CI 1.8-37.8) together with maternal anxiety about dental treatment (OR 7.4 95% CI 1.6-34.6). CONCLUSIONS: Parental factors in early childhood are associated with caries experience at 20 years of age.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária , Pais/psicologia , Escovação Dentária , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cárie Dentária/epidemiologia , Cárie Dentária/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Fluoretos/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Lactente , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Higiene Bucal/estatística & dados numéricos , Poder Familiar , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Cremes Dentais , Adulto Jovem
19.
Dent Mater J ; 38(1): 61-67, 2019 Feb 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30298859

RESUMO

The aim of the present study was to evaluate microhardness, mineral recovery and the enamel surface after the application of topical fluoride to artificial dental caries. Twenty-five bovine enamel blocks were prepared for artificial caries-like lesions and randomly divided into five groups (n=5): untreated (C control), 1.23% acidulated phosphate fluoride gel (APG), 2% neutral fluoride gel (NFG), 1.23% acidulated fluoride mousse (AFM) and fluoride varnish (5% Duraphat, DFV). Knoop microhardness (KHN) was evaluated after 7 and 14 days of treatment as well as 1 week after 28 days of treatment. Electron and confocal microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy were performed. KHN data were treated with two-way ANOVA (material×time) and Tukey's test at a 5% significance level. Differences were found among groups over time (p<0.001). Microhardness varied after 7 and 14 days of treatment and remained stable 1 week after 28 days of treatment. Mineral recovery and enamel topography varied among groups, with the fluoride varnish achieving the most uniform topography.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária/prevenção & controle , Esmalte Dentário/química , Esmalte Dentário/efeitos dos fármacos , Fluoretos/administração & dosagem , Fluoretos/química , Fluoreto de Fosfato Acidulado , Animais , Bovinos , Fluoretos Tópicos , Dureza , Técnicas In Vitro , Teste de Materiais , Microscopia Confocal , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Distribuição Aleatória , Fluoreto de Sódio , Propriedades de Superfície , Desmineralização do Dente/prevenção & controle
20.
Br J Nutr ; 121(1): 74-81, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30394246

RESUMO

Limited knowledge is available on total fluoride exposure, excretion and retention in infants, despite the first year of human life being the critical period for dental development and risk of dental fluorosis. This study investigated total daily fluoride intake (TDFI), excretion (TDFE) and retention (TDFR) in infants living in fluoridated and non-fluoridated water areas at pre- and post-weaning stages of development. Healthy infants, aged 0-12 months, were recruited and their TDFI (mg/kg body weight (BW) per d), from diet and toothpaste ingestion, was assessed over a 3-d period using a dietary diary and tooth-brushing questionnaire. TDFE (mg/kg BW per d) was estimated by collecting 48-h urine and faeces. TDFR (mg/kg BW per d) was estimated by subtracting TDFE from TDFI. A total of forty-seven infants completed the study: sixteen at pre-weaning and thirty-one at post-weaning stages, with a mean age of 3·4 and 10·0 months, respectively. TDFI was lower in the non-fluoridated area (P<0·001) and at the pre-weaning stage (P=0·002) but higher in formula-fed infants (P<0·001). TDFE was mainly affected by type of feeding, with higher excretion in formula-fed infants (P<0·001). TDFR was lower in the non-fluoridated area (P<0·001) and at the pre-weaning stage (P<0·001) but higher in formula-fed infants (P=0·001). In conclusion, a relatively large proportion of fluoride intake is retained in the body in weaned infants. This is an important consideration in fluoride-based prevention programmes, with goals to maximise caries prevention while minimising the risk of dental fluorosis.


Assuntos
Fluoretação/efeitos adversos , Fluoretos/administração & dosagem , Fluoretos/análise , Desmame , Dieta , Exposição Ambiental , Fezes/química , Fluoretos/urina , Fluorose Dentária/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Lactente , Fórmulas Infantis , Recém-Nascido , Escovação Dentária/estatística & dados numéricos
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