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1.
Niger J Clin Pract ; 22(11): 1546-1552, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31719276

RESUMO

Objectives: The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effects of casein phosphopeptides (CPP)-ACPF, NovaMin+ fluoride-containing toothpaste and Xylitol+ fluoride containing cream on demineralized areas on the enamel surface. Materials and Methods: A total of 100 enamel slab samples was prepared to investigate in the laboratory experiments. For this purpose, a total of 50 freshly extracted third molar teeth which completed root formation split into two portions in the mesiodistal direction. Enamel surfaces were immersed in a pH cycling protocol as described in the literature to simulate oral conditions for 9 days in order to evaluate the effect of test materials on the artificial enamel lesions. Then the remineralization agents were applied on the enamel surfaces, and we analyzed their effects. Results: We used Vickers Microhardness with the purpose of calculating the amount of lost or acquisition of minerals on the enamel surface qualitatively; inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) to define the calcium and phosphorus ions that dissolved in acid. One-way ANOVA and Tukey's T Post-Hoc tests were performed to distinguish significant differences among groups (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Remineralization was provided in all treated groups, according to the data obtained from all tests. NovaMin was more effective in increasing acid resistance. It was also found that all three experimental groups were effective in increasing the surface hardness, but CPP-ACPF and NovaMin are more effective than Xylitol. However, there was no statistically significant difference between the experimental groups.


Assuntos
Esmalte Dentário/efeitos dos fármacos , Fluoretos Tópicos/uso terapêutico , Fluoretos/uso terapêutico , Vidro , Desmineralização do Dente/tratamento farmacológico , Remineralização Dentária/métodos , Cremes Dentais , Xilitol/uso terapêutico , Cálcio , Caseínas/uso terapêutico , Fluoretos/farmacologia , Dureza , Humanos , Cremes Dentais/farmacologia , Xilitol/administração & dosagem , Xilitol/farmacologia
2.
Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl ; 104: 109940, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31500050

RESUMO

Well-dispersed Ag nanowires and PVP-modified BaGdF5: Yb3+, Er3+ spherical nanoparticles were prepared by simple solvothermal and hydrothermal method, and they were further combined to obtain photo-thermal-magnetic multifunctional Ag/BaGdF5: Yb3+, Er3+ nanocomposites. Under NIR laser irradiation, monodispersed rare-earth fluoride BaGdF5: Yb3+, Er3+ in nanocomposite exhibit good upconversion fluorescent. Meanwhile, under the action of an external magnetic field, the nanocomposite also exhibits good magnetic properties and excellent contrast efficiency by CT/MR imaging. The NCs possess good structure and photothermal stability at multiple cycles due to that Ag nanowires are modified by polyvinyl pyrrolidone and sodium citrate. The biocompatibility and low toxicity of NCs are also remarkable. Importantly, the unique linear morphology of Ag particles can achieve high efficiency conversion between light and heat. Furthermore, in vitro tests also confirm the high efficiency of photothermal therapy for cancer cells.


Assuntos
Fluoretos/química , Fluoretos/uso terapêutico , Nanocompostos/química , Nanopartículas/química , Nanofios/química , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Prata/química , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Corantes Fluorescentes/química , Células HeLa , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Luz , Luminescência , Metais Terras Raras/química , Itérbio/química
3.
Biomed Res Int ; 2019: 1271523, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31317022

RESUMO

Fixed orthodontic treatments often lead to enamel demineralization and cause white spot lesions (WSLs). The aim of this study was to evaluate the mineralization degree of 2 types of WSLs based on ICDAS index and compare the remineralizing efficacy of 3 oral hygiene practices after 1 month and 3 months. 80 mild demineralized and 80 severe demineralized enamel specimens were randomized into three treatments: fluoride toothpaste (FT), fluoride varnish plus fluoride toothpaste (FV+FT), and CPP-ACP plus fluoride toothpaste (CPP-ACP+FT). Microhardness tester, DIAGNODent Pen 2190, and scanning electron microscope were used to evaluate the changes of mineralization degree. Both qualitative and quantitative indicators suggested that the mild and severe white spot lesions were different in the degree of mineralization. Severe WSLs demineralized much more seriously than mild lesions even after 3 months of treatment. Despite the variation in severity, both lesions had the same variation trend after each measure was applied: FT had weak therapeutic effect, FV + FT and CPP-ACP + FT were effective for remineralization. Their remineralizing efficacy was similar after 1 month, and combined use of CPP-ACP plus F toothpaste was more effective after 3 months. In order to fight WSLs, early diagnosis was of great importance, and examination of the tooth surface after air-dry for 5 seconds was recommended. Also, when WSLs were found, added remineralizing treatments were required.


Assuntos
Dente Pré-Molar/efeitos dos fármacos , Cárie Dentária/prevenção & controle , Fluoretos/uso terapêutico , Dente Pré-Molar/patologia , Fosfatos de Cálcio/uso terapêutico , Cárie Dentária/patologia , Fluoretos Tópicos/uso terapêutico , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Higiene Bucal/métodos , Remineralização Dentária , Cremes Dentais/uso terapêutico
4.
BMC Oral Health ; 19(1): 113, 2019 06 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31200708

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To compare different anti-caries agents on microhardness and micromorphology of irradiated permanent dentin in vitro, and try to find the most effective agent to prevent radiation-dentin-destruction. METHODS: A total of 120 dentin samples were prepared from 60 human teeth and randomly divided into 8 groups (n = 15), [ (1)] blank control [2]; irradiation control [3]; irradiation+ fluoride [4]; irradiation+ casein phosphate polypeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) [5]; irradiation+ CPP-ACP+ fluoride [6]; irradiation+ infiltration resin [7]; irradiation+ infiltration resin+ fluoride [8]; irradiation+ infiltration resin+ CPP-ACP. Seven samples of each groups were chosen randomly for microhardness test and eight for scanning electron microscope observation. RESULTS: A decrease of microhardness (P < 0.05) and an obvious morphological change were presented on dentin surface after radiotherapy. After applications of anti-caries agents, the morphological destructions were effectively restored. The infiltration resin plus fluoride group (56.00 ± 4.02 Kg/mm2), infiltration resin plus CPP-ACP group (56.05 ± 3.69 Kg/mm2), infiltration resin group (54.70 ± 4.42Kg/mm2) and CPP-ACP plus fluoride group (53.84 ± 6.23Kg/mm2) had the highest dentin microhardness value after radiotherapy, and no statistically significant difference were found between them. CONCLUSIONS: Infiltration resin, CPP-ACP, fluoride and their pairwise combination can effectively prevent radiation-dentin-destruction. Among them, infiltration resin with CPP-ACP, infiltration resin with fluoride, CPP-ACP with fluoride, and infiltration resin have the most protective effects on irradiation-dentin-destructions.


Assuntos
Fosfatos de Cálcio/uso terapêutico , Caseínas , Cárie Dentária/prevenção & controle , Dentina/efeitos dos fármacos , Fluoretos/uso terapêutico , Fosfatos de Cálcio/administração & dosagem , Humanos
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31242669

RESUMO

Plaque accumulation and white spot lesions are common adverse effects of fixed orthodontic appliance use. This study compared the effects between enzyme-containing and conventional dentifrices on orthodontic patients. This double-blind randomized controlled trial included 42 orthodontic patients (25 women and 17 men: 22.7 ± 4.2 years) from Taipei Medical University Hospital between 2017 and 2018. The patients were randomly divided into three groups and assigned to dentifrice use during the first 3 months of the orthodontic treatment: group 1 used dentifrices containing enzymes including amyloglucosidase and glucose oxidase, group 2 used dentifrices containing 1450 ppm fluoride, and group 3 used natural dentifrices containing no chemical agent. White spot lesion index (WSL), gingival bleeding index (GBI), and visible plaque index (VPI) were recorded and analyzed. WSL, GBI, and VPI values exhibited no significant difference among the three groups. WSL increased significantly in group 3, GBI decreased significantly in all groups, and VPI decreased significantly in groups 1 and 2. No significant difference was observed between the use of enzyme-containing and conventional dentifrices after fixed orthodontic appliance placement.


Assuntos
Dentifrícios/uso terapêutico , Fluoretos/uso terapêutico , Glucana 1,4-alfa-Glucosidase/uso terapêutico , Glucose Oxidase/uso terapêutico , Adolescente , Adulto , Índice de Placa Dentária , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Gengivite , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde Bucal , Aparelhos Ortodônticos , Índice Periodontal , Adulto Jovem
6.
J Appl Oral Sci ; 27: e20180589, 2019 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31116280

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this in vitro study was to determine the effects of remineralization promoting agents containing casein phosphopeptide-stabilized amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP), or CPP-ACP in combination with fluoride (CPP-ACPF) on artificial white spot lesions (WSLs) after 6 and 12 weeks. METHODOLOGY: White spot lesions were created on 123 sectioned premolars (246 specimens) with a demineralization solution during a 96 hours pH-cycling regime. Two experimental groups were created: a CPP-ACP group (Tooth Mousse™), and a CPP-ACPF group (Mi Paste Plus™). Additionally, two control groups were created, one using only a conventional toothpaste (1450 ppm fluoride) and another one without any working agents. All teeth were also daily brushed with the conventional toothpaste except the second control group. Tooth Mousse™ and Mi Paste Plus™ were applied for 180 seconds every day. The volume of demineralization was measured with transverse microradiography. Six lesion characteristics regarding the lesion depth and mineral content of WSLs were also determined. RESULTS: The application of CPP-ACP and CPP-ACPF had a significant regenerative effect on the WSLs. Compared to Control group 1 and 2 the volume of demineralization after 6 weeks decreased significantly for CPP-ACP (respectively p<0.001 and p<0.001) and CPP-ACPF (respectively p=0.001 and p=0.003). The same trend was observed after 12 weeks. For the CPP-ACPF group, WSL dimensions decreased significantly between 6 and 12 weeks follow-up (p=0.012). The lesion depth reduced significantly after application of CPP-ACP and CPP-ACPF but increased significantly in the Control groups. Mineral content increased for CPP-ACP and CPP-ACPF after an application period of 12 weeks, but this was only significant for CPP-ACP. CONCLUSIONS: Long-term use of CPP-ACP and CPP-ACPF in combination with a conventional tooth paste shows beneficial effects in the recovery of in vitro subsurface caries lesions.


Assuntos
Cariostáticos/química , Caseínas/química , Cárie Dentária/tratamento farmacológico , Fluoretos/química , Remineralização Dentária/métodos , Análise de Variância , Cariostáticos/uso terapêutico , Caseínas/uso terapêutico , Esmalte Dentário/efeitos dos fármacos , Fluoretos/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Valores de Referência , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Fatores de Tempo , Cremes Dentais/química , Cremes Dentais/uso terapêutico , Resultado do Tratamento
7.
Oral Health Prev Dent ; 17(2): 139-146, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30968069

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To assess caries prevalence and periodontal condition in adolescents in Poland and investigate the factors related to oral health. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A national survey was carried out among 615 15-year-olds of both sexes living in urban and rural areas. Subjects were selected via cluster sampling. The mean DMFT and its components, the tooth distribution pattern of caries and percentage of subjects with gingival bleeding and gingival pockets were analysed. The information regarding sociodemographic, oral hygiene and nutritional variables was collected via questionnaire to evaluate their relationships with caries and periodontal parameters. The t-test, bivariate and multivariate logistic analyses were conducted to evaluate the differences and dependent variables of caries prevalence and gingivitis. RESULTS: Caries prevalence was 94.0%, and DMFT was 5.75 ± 3.74. Higher DMFT, DT and MT values were found in rural areas. 50% of the subjects carried about 75% of the total caries burden. Severe caries (DMFT ≥7) was associated with toothbrushing less than twice a day, not using a fluoridated dentifrice, frequent consumption of snacks and absence of pit-and-fissure sealants. The prevalence of gingival bleeding was 37.4% and shallow pockets 2.8%, which were higher in males and rural areas. Gingival bleeding was associated with toothbrushing less than a twice a day, not using dental floss and consumption of fresh fruits and vegetables less than once a week. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of oral diseases in Poland is very high. Additional strategies must be implemented to promote oral health early on to improve oral hygiene practices and nutritional habits.


Assuntos
Índice CPO , Cárie Dentária/epidemiologia , Bolsa Gengival/epidemiologia , Índice Periodontal , Escovação Dentária/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Cariostáticos/uso terapêutico , Dieta , Feminino , Fluoretos/uso terapêutico , Frutas , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde Bucal , Higiene Bucal/estatística & dados numéricos , Polônia/epidemiologia , Prevalência , População Rural , Distribuição por Sexo , Cremes Dentais/uso terapêutico , Verduras
8.
J Clin Pediatr Dent ; 43(3): 181-184, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30964724

RESUMO

Objectives: To compare the in vitro cariogenic potential of two infant formulas (IF, for ages 6-12 months) processed with sterile distilled water with or without 1 ppm fluoride. Study design: Nine specimens in each water type were inoculated with Streptococcus mutans (SM) suspension. The specimens were then divided into one group of samples cultured immediately on Mitis salivarius (MS) agar plates (T0) and another group of specimens cultured on MS agar plates after incubation at 37°C for 4 hours in anaerobic conditions (T4). Six-fold dilutions of each sample were incubated for 48 hours, and colony-forming units (CFUs) of SM were numerated. The pH changes associated with bacterial fermentation of each of the suspensions were measured at T0 and at T4 following incubation. Results: The pH was lower at T4 than at T0 in both IF. The SM colonies increased significantly at T4 compared to T0 in both IF (P < 0.001). There was no significant difference between the CFUs of the mediums at T0 and T4 or relation between SM colonies of IF based on fluoridated and non-fluoridated distilled water. Conclusion: The cariogenic potential was not significantly different between two IF prepared with fluoridated or non-fluoridated distilled water.


Assuntos
Cariogênicos , Fluoretos , Fórmulas Infantis , Streptococcus mutans , Fluoretos/administração & dosagem , Fluoretos/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Lactente , Fórmulas Infantis/efeitos adversos , Streptococcus mutans/efeitos dos fármacos , Streptococcus mutans/crescimento & desenvolvimento
9.
Aust Dent J ; 64(2): 175-180, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30883781

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Silver fluoride 40% followed by 10% stannous fluoride (AgF) has been used in dental practice in some parts of Australia for many years. This study compared the effectiveness of application of AgF with atraumatic restorative technique (ART) in managing cavitated carious primary molars. METHODS: The study was a community effectiveness trial in two remote Aboriginal communities where AgF has been used for some time. Children between 4 and 8 years of age with caries on primary molars were randomized by birth date to receive AgF or ART. There were 210 children who were included in the study with 384 eligible teeth. Children were followed up for periods between 9 months and 4 years. Negative outcomes such as dental pain, extraction, use of antibiotics and more extensive restorative treatment were considered as the primary outcomes of the study. RESULTS: Those negative outcomes were infrequent in both treatment groups. The prevalence ratio of negative sequelae for children treated with AgF compared with those treated with ART was lower at 0.18. CONCLUSIONS: Silver fluoride was well accepted, easy to use and at least as effective a treatment as ART for dental caries in primary molars in young Aboriginal children in remote areas.


Assuntos
Cariostáticos/uso terapêutico , Cárie Dentária , Fluoretos Tópicos/uso terapêutico , Dente Decíduo , Austrália , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Tratamento Dentário Restaurador sem Trauma , Cárie Dentária/prevenção & controle , Cárie Dentária/terapia , Feminino , Fluoretos/uso terapêutico , Serviços de Saúde do Indígena , Humanos , Masculino , Compostos de Prata/uso terapêutico , Resultado do Tratamento
10.
Methods Mol Biol ; 1922: 379-392, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30838592

RESUMO

As laboratory models are bridges to in vivo caries studies, they must mirror clinical conditions, where demineralization and remineralization alternate constantly (i.e., pH cycling) and are only interrupted during the very short period of application of investigational products, such as toothpaste or mouth rinse. In view of this, models have been developed, based on pH cycling, to study the anticaries or caries remineralizing effects of substances. The pH cycling models have long been accepted and utilized by the scientific community and the toothpaste industry as an appropriate alternative to animal caries testing, particularly for ionic fluoride-based dentifrices. Several pH cycling models have been developed and described in the literature over the years. However, in this chapter, we crudely categorize them into two types: according to what the investigational product is tailored to achieve, i.e., prevention of caries development (net demineralization) or remineralization of early caries (net remineralization). Thus the models are termed "demineralization" or "remineralization" models and are described in details here together with their disadvantages and applications.


Assuntos
Cariostáticos/farmacologia , Cárie Dentária/patologia , Cárie Dentária/prevenção & controle , Dentifrícios/farmacologia , Fluoretos/farmacologia , Animais , Cariostáticos/uso terapêutico , Bovinos , Esmalte Dentário/efeitos dos fármacos , Esmalte Dentário/patologia , Dentifrícios/uso terapêutico , Fluoretos/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Dente/efeitos dos fármacos , Dente/patologia , Desmineralização do Dente/patologia , Desmineralização do Dente/prevenção & controle
11.
Oral Health Prev Dent ; 17(2): 179-185, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30874251

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate the inhibitory effects of different toothpastes on demineralisation of incipient enamel lesions using a toothbrush simulator. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifty enamel specimens were prepared from extracted human molars. The specimens were randomly assigned to the following groups (n = 10/group): 1. no treatment (control); 2. toothpaste containing arginine (ProRelief, Colgate;); 3. fluoride toothpaste (Pronamel, Sensodyne GlaxoSmithKlein); 4. tooth mousse containing casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) (Recaldent, GC); 5. toothpaste (Restore, Dr. Collins) containing bioactive glass (NovaMin, GlaxoSmithKlein). All specimens were exposed to pH cycling. The remineralising agents were applied to the samples with a toothbrush simulator for 2 min twice a day for five days. The weight percentage of mineral changes for the elements calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), sodium (Na) and silica (Si) were measured by SEM energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX). SEM revealed properties of treated enamel surfaces. The data were analysed using one-way ANOVA. RESULTS: Statistically significantly higher levels of Ca and P were found in all groups compared to the control (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The toothpastes' efficacy of inhibiting demineralisation depended on the active ingredients in the respective toothpaste. The demineralisation inhibition efficacy of the tested toothpastes depended on the active ingredients in the toothpaste.


Assuntos
Esmalte Dentário/ultraestrutura , Desmineralização do Dente/tratamento farmacológico , Remineralização Dentária , Cremes Dentais/uso terapêutico , Arginina/uso terapêutico , Cálcio , Cariostáticos/uso terapêutico , Caseínas/uso terapêutico , Esmalte Dentário/química , Fluoretos/uso terapêutico , Vidro , Humanos , Técnicas In Vitro , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Dente Molar , Fósforo , Dióxido de Silício , Espectrometria por Raios X , Escovação Dentária/métodos
12.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 3: CD007868, 2019 03 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30829399

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Caries (dental decay) is a disease of the hard tissues of the teeth caused by an imbalance, over time, in the interactions between cariogenic bacteria in dental plaque and fermentable carbohydrates (mainly sugars). Regular toothbrushing with fluoride toothpaste is the principal non-professional intervention to prevent caries, but the caries-preventive effect varies according to different concentrations of fluoride in toothpaste, with higher concentrations associated with increased caries control. Toothpastes with higher fluoride concentration increases the risk of fluorosis (enamel defects) in developing teeth. This is an update of the Cochrane Review first published in 2010. OBJECTIVES: To determine and compare the effects of toothpastes of different fluoride concentrations (parts per million (ppm)) in preventing dental caries in children, adolescents, and adults. SEARCH METHODS: Cochrane Oral Health's Information Specialist searched the following databases: Cochrane Oral Health's Trials Register (to 15 August 2018); the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2018, Issue 7) in the Cochrane Library (searched 15 August 2018); MEDLINE Ovid (1946 to 15 August 2018); and Embase Ovid (1980 to 15 August 2018). The US National Institutes of Health Ongoing Trials Register (ClinicalTrials.gov) and the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform were searched for ongoing trials (15 August 2018). No restrictions were placed on the language or date of publication when searching the electronic databases. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised controlled trials that compared toothbrushing with fluoride toothpaste with toothbrushing with a non-fluoride toothpaste or toothpaste of a different fluoride concentration, with a follow-up period of at least 1 year. The primary outcome was caries increment measured by the change from baseline in the decayed, (missing), and filled surfaces or teeth index in all permanent or primary teeth (D(M)FS/T or d(m)fs/t). DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two members of the review team, independently and in duplicate, undertook the selection of studies, data extraction, and risk of bias assessment. We graded the certainty of the evidence through discussion and consensus. The primary effect measure was the mean difference (MD) or standardised mean difference (SMD) caries increment. Where it was appropriate to pool data, we used random-effects pairwise or network meta-analysis. MAIN RESULTS: We included 96 studies published between 1955 and 2014 in this updated review. Seven studies with 11,356 randomised participants (7047 evaluated) reported the effects of fluoride toothpaste up to 1500 ppm on the primary dentition; one study with 2500 randomised participants (2008 evaluated) reported the effects of 1450 ppm fluoride toothpaste on the primary and permanent dentition; 85 studies with 48,804 randomised participants (40,066 evaluated) reported the effects of toothpaste up to 2400 ppm on the immature permanent dentition; and three studies with 2675 randomised participants (2162 evaluated) reported the effects of up to 1100 ppm fluoride toothpaste on the mature permanent dentition. Follow-up in most studies was 36 months.In the primary dentition of young children, 1500 ppm fluoride toothpaste reduces caries increment when compared with non-fluoride toothpaste (MD -1.86 dfs, 95% confidence interval (CI) -2.51 to -1.21; 998 participants, one study, moderate-certainty evidence); the caries-preventive effects for the head-to-head comparison of 1055 ppm versus 550 ppm fluoride toothpaste are similar (MD -0.05, dmfs, 95% CI -0.38 to 0.28; 1958 participants, two studies, moderate-certainty evidence), but toothbrushing with 1450 ppm fluoride toothpaste slightly reduces decayed, missing, filled teeth (dmft) increment when compared with 440 ppm fluoride toothpaste (MD -0.34, dmft, 95%CI -0.59 to -0.09; 2362 participants, one study, moderate-certainty evidence). The certainty of the remaining evidence for this comparison was judged to be low.We included 81 studies in the network meta-analysis of D(M)FS increment in the permanent dentition of children and adolescents. The network included 21 different comparisons of seven fluoride concentrations. The certainty of the evidence was judged to be low with the following exceptions: there was high- and moderate-certainty evidence that 1000 to 1250 ppm or 1450 to 1500 ppm fluoride toothpaste reduces caries increments when compared with non-fluoride toothpaste (SMD -0.28, 95% CI -0.32 to -0.25, 55 studies; and SMD -0.36, 95% CI -0.43 to -0.29, four studies); there was moderate-certainty evidence that 1450 to 1500 ppm fluoride toothpaste slightly reduces caries increments when compared to 1000 to 1250 ppm (SMD -0.08, 95% CI -0.14 to -0.01, 10 studies); and moderate-certainty evidence that the caries increments are similar for 1700 to 2200 ppm and 2400 to 2800 ppm fluoride toothpaste when compared to 1450 to 1500 ppm (SMD 0.04, 95% CI -0.07 to 0.15, indirect evidence only; SMD -0.05, 95% CI -0.14 to 0.05, two studies).In the adult permanent dentition, 1000 or 1100 ppm fluoride toothpaste reduces DMFS increment when compared with non-fluoride toothpaste in adults of all ages (MD -0.53, 95% CI -1.02 to -0.04; 2162 participants, three studies, moderate-certainty evidence). The evidence for DMFT was low certainty.Only a minority of studies assessed adverse effects of toothpaste. When reported, effects such as soft tissue damage and tooth staining were minimal. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: This Cochrane Review supports the benefits of using fluoride toothpaste in preventing caries when compared to non-fluoride toothpaste. Evidence for the effects of different fluoride concentrations is more limited, but a dose-response effect was observed for D(M)FS in children and adolescents. For many comparisons of different concentrations the caries-preventive effects and our confidence in these effect estimates are uncertain and could be challenged by further research. The choice of fluoride toothpaste concentration for young children should be balanced against the risk of fluorosis.


Assuntos
Cariostáticos/uso terapêutico , Cárie Dentária/prevenção & controle , Fluoretos/uso terapêutico , Cremes Dentais/uso terapêutico , Adolescente , Adulto , Cariostáticos/administração & dosagem , Criança , Índice CPO , Dentição Permanente , Fluoretos/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Metanálise em Rede , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Dente Decíduo , Cremes Dentais/química
13.
J Oral Sci ; 61(1): 19-24, 2019 Mar 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30726799

RESUMO

Minimally invasive treatment protocols may leave a residual layer of carious dentin, which requires treatment for the inhibition of bacterial growth beneath restorations. We aimed to examine the in vivo effect of silver diammine fluoride (SDF) and SDF + potassium iodide (KI) application on bacteria present in deep carious lesions. We studied the in vivo efficacy in five patients, each of which had five carious lesions. Dentin samples taken before and after treatment were subjected to microbial analyses. Following treatment with SDF, the median colony-forming unit (CFU) counts per mg of dentin reduced from 9 × 105 to 1.6 × 102 (P < 0.05), and following that with SDF + KI, the counts decreased from 2.9 × 105 to 9.2 × 10 (P < 0.05). The use of chlorhexidine gluconate (CHX) reduced CFU counts from 1.1 × 105 to 4.8 × 102 (P < 0.05). In four of the five patients, no CFUs were found on mitis salivarius-bacitracin agar with respect to SDF or SDF + KI application. For CHX, the median CFU count before treatment was 1.6 × 103 and that after treatment was 1.1 × 102. SDF completely inhibited mutans streptococci growth in four of the five patients, while the growth of anaerobes was not completely inhibited.


Assuntos
Amônia/uso terapêutico , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Cárie Dentária/tratamento farmacológico , Cárie Dentária/microbiologia , Dentina/patologia , Fluoretos/uso terapêutico , Compostos de Prata/uso terapêutico , Amônia/química , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Fluoretos/química , Humanos , Compostos de Prata/química , Streptococcus mutans/efeitos dos fármacos
14.
J Indian Soc Pedod Prev Dent ; 37(1): 92-98, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30804314

RESUMO

Context: Pits and fissures of teeth have been recognized as the most susceptible areas for initiation of caries. The ability of the resin sealant to thoroughly fill pits, fissures, and/or morphological defects and remain completely intact and bonded to enamel surface is the primary basis for its caries prevention. Aim: The present study evaluated and compared the retention rates and development of caries in permanent molars of children sealed with amorphous calcium phosphate-containing (Aegis™) and moisture-tolerant fluoride-releasing (Embrace WetBond™) sealant over a period of 1 year. Settings and Design: This was a double-blind, split-mouth, randomized controlled trial among children aged 6-9 years. Methods: Sixty-eight permanent mandibular first molars in 34 children were randomly assigned to be sealed with Aegis™ or Embrace Wetbond™ sealant. The follow-up examinations were conducted at 3, 6, and 12 months for evaluating the retention and development of caries. Statistical Analysis: SPSS version 16.0 was used for the analysis. Within-group comparison of retention and development of caries at 3, 6, and 12 months was evaluated using the Friedman's test. Results: The final sample was 32 children with 64 teeth. At 12 months, 23 of 32 (72%) sealants were completely retained in Aegis™, whereas 21 of 32 (65.6%) were retained in Embrace Wetbond™ group. There was no significant difference in the retention rates of Aegis™ and Embrace Wetbond™ sealants at 12 months (P > 0.05). Conclusion: Aegis™ was superior to Embrace Wetbond™ sealant as Aegis™ exhibited higher retention and lower caries scores.


Assuntos
Fosfatos de Cálcio/uso terapêutico , Fluoretos/uso terapêutico , Selantes de Fossas e Fissuras/uso terapêutico , Fosfatos de Cálcio/administração & dosagem , Fosfatos de Cálcio/metabolismo , Criança , Cárie Dentária/epidemiologia , Cárie Dentária/prevenção & controle , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Fluoretos/administração & dosagem , Fluoretos/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Tempo
15.
Arch Oral Biol ; 99: 156-160, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30690411

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of Er,Cr:YSGG laser associated or not with acidulated phosphate fluoride (APF) on the control of enamel erosion progression. DESIGN: Enamel slabs (4 mm × 4 mm × 2 mm) from bovine incisors were flattened, polished, and received a tape on their test surfaces, leaving a 4 mm × 1 mm area exposed. Specimens were eroded (10 min in 1% citric acid solution) and randomly assigned into 8 experimental groups (n = 10): Control (no treatment); F (APF gel, 1.23% F, pH 3.6-3.9); Er,Cr:YSGG laser irradiation (P1: 0.25 W, 20 Hz, 2.8 J/cm2, 56 W/cm2); Er,Cr:YSGG laser irradiation (P2: 0.50 W, 20 Hz, 5.7 J/cm2, 1136 W/cm2); Er,Cr:YSGG laser irradiation (P3: 0.75 W, 20 Hz, 8.5 J/cm2, 1704 W/cm2); F + Laser P1; F + Laser P2; F + Laser P3. Specimens were then subjected to erosive cycling (5 min immersion in 0.3% citric acid solution, followed by immersion in artificial saliva for 60 min; 4×/day for 5 days). At the end of cycling, surface loss (SL, in µm) was determined with optical profilometry. Selected specimens were further evaluated by environmental scanning electron microscopy (n = 3). Data were analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis and Tukey tests (α = 0.05). RESULTS: Group F + Laser P2 had the lowest SL value, differing significantly from the control; however, with no significant difference from the other groups. All groups, except F + Laser P2, showed no significant difference in SL when compared with the control. An irregular and rough surface, suggestive of a melting action of laser, was observed on enamel in Laser P2 and F + Laser P2 groups. CONCLUSIONS: Association of the Er,Cr:YSGG laser in parameter 2 with fluoride was the only treatment capable of controlling the progression of enamel erosion.


Assuntos
Esmalte Dentário/efeitos dos fármacos , Esmalte Dentário/efeitos da radiação , Fluoretos/uso terapêutico , Lasers de Estado Sólido/uso terapêutico , Erosão Dentária/radioterapia , Erosão Dentária/terapia , Animais , Bovinos , Ácido Cítrico/efeitos adversos , Esmalte Dentário/patologia , Progressão da Doença , Incisivo , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Saliva Artificial , Propriedades de Superfície , Erosão Dentária/patologia , Erosão Dentária/prevenção & controle , Remineralização Dentária
16.
Clin Oral Investig ; 23(8): 3275-3285, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30488120

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the effects of three different fluoride-releasing agents on preventing white spot lesions that occur during treatment with full coverage rapid maxillary expanders. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 48 patients with transverse maxillary deficiency were randomly assigned to four equal groups. A fluoride-containing agent was applied to teeth before cementation of the full coverage acrylic-bonded rapid maxillary expanders in the three experimental groups (gel, varnish, and sealent in groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively), while the control group received no agent application. Quantitative light-induced fluorescence (QLF) images of the patients were obtained before cementation and after decementation of the appliances. Four parameters (ΔF, ΔFmax, A, and ΔR) were evaluated on maxillary ten anterior teeth. RESULTS: In the fluoride gel group, upper central and lateral incisors, right first and left second premolars showed significant decreases in fluorescence levels indicating demineralization. Right central and left lateral incisors showed significant white spot lesion formation in the fluoride varnish group. Right and left central incisors and left first premolar were the teeth that mineral loss was observed in the sealent group, while all of the teeth except canines and first premolars showed significant demineralization in the control group. CONCLUSIONS: Multifluorid varnish and Proseal sealant were effective on preventing demineralization and should be applied to teeth clinically before appliance cementation. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Demineralization is a major problem during orthodontic treatment. The application of effective fluoride-releasing agents could prevent this major iatrogenic complication.


Assuntos
Cariostáticos , Cárie Dentária , Fluoretos , Desmineralização do Dente , Cariostáticos/uso terapêutico , Cárie Dentária/prevenção & controle , Fluoretos/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Minerais , Pacientes
17.
Lasers Med Sci ; 34(5): 881-891, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30446860

RESUMO

The aim of this in vitro study was to determine the effect of different remineralization agents and laser on caries resistance of primary enamel. In the study, 150 sound primary molars were used. The initial microhardness values were measured and the teeth were randomly assigned to ten treatment groups (n = 15): no treatment/negative control (C), NaF, APF, fluoride varnish (FV), CPP-ACP, laser (L), L + NaF, L + APF, L + FV, L + CPP-ACP. The microhardness values were measured after the treatments and the pH cycle. The obtained data were analyzed statistically. One sample from each group was examined before treatment, after treatment, and after the pH cycle with a scanning electron microscope. While microhardness values after treatment compared to baseline increased, microhardness after the pH cycle decreased compared to after treatment values in all experimental groups (p < 0.05). In regard to the difference in microhardness after the pH cycle and baseline, there were no statistically significant differences between groups C and NaF and between C and CPP-ACP (p > 0.05). There was a significant difference between groups L and L + FV (p < 0.05), while no significant difference was noted between groups L and L + NaF, L + APF, L + CPP-ACP (p > 0.05). As a conclusion, FV is more effective when used in combination with laser than laser alone. NaF, CPP-ACP, and laser may be insufficient in protecting the primary teeth against acid attacks compared to FV used with laser.


Assuntos
Caseínas/uso terapêutico , Cárie Dentária/cirurgia , Esmalte Dentário/efeitos da radiação , Fluoretos/uso terapêutico , Lasers de Estado Sólido , Dente Decíduo/efeitos dos fármacos , Dente Decíduo/efeitos da radiação , Esmalte Dentário/efeitos dos fármacos , Esmalte Dentário/ultraestrutura , Fluoretos/farmacologia , Dureza , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio
18.
Dent Clin North Am ; 63(1): 119-128, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30447787

RESUMO

The objective of this article was to provide a summary of evidence-based recommendations for the assessment of caries risk and management of dental caries. The goal is to help clinicians manage the caries disease process using personalized interventions supported by the best available evidence, taking into account the clinician's expertise and the patient's needs and preferences, to maintain health and preserve tooth structure.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária/diagnóstico , Cárie Dentária/terapia , Gerenciamento Clínico , Odontologia Baseada em Evidências , Anti-Infecciosos/uso terapêutico , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Disbiose/tratamento farmacológico , Fluoretos/uso terapêutico , Fluoretos Tópicos/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Selantes de Fossas e Fissuras/uso terapêutico , Medição de Risco , Desmineralização do Dente
19.
Biol Trace Elem Res ; 190(1): 157-171, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30328034

RESUMO

The effect of duration of chronic treatment with fluoride (F, 50 mg/L as NaF) on the lipid profile, lipid droplets and triglycerides (TG) in liver was evaluated in mice with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) previously induced by hyperlipidic diet and in animals fed normocaloric diet. In addition, the effect of F administered for a short period (20 days) was evaluated on de novo lipogenesis, by nuclear magnetic resonance. GRP78, Apo-E, and sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP) were quantified by Western blotting. Our data indicate that F interferes in lipid metabolism and lipid droplets, having a different action depending on the exposure time and type of diet administered. F improved lipid parameters and reduced steatosis only when administered for a short period of time (up to 20 days) to animals fed normocaloric diet. However, when NAFLD was already installed, lipid parameters were only slightly improved at 20 days of treatment, but no effect was observed on the degree of steatosis. In addition, lipid profile was in general impaired when the animals were treated with F for 30 days, regardless of the diet. Moreover, F did not alter de novo lipogenesis in animals with installed NAFLD. Furthermore, hyperlipidic diet increased F accumulation in the body. GRP78 increased, while Apo-E and SREBP decreased in the F-treated groups. Our results provide new insights on how F affects lipid metabolism depending on the available energy source.


Assuntos
Fluoretos/uso terapêutico , Lipogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/metabolismo , Animais , Apolipoproteínas E/metabolismo , Western Blotting , Proteínas de Choque Térmico/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/sangue , Proteínas de Ligação a Elemento Regulador de Esterol/metabolismo , Triglicerídeos/sangue
20.
Eur J Orthod ; 41(1): 59-66, 2019 01 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29722800

RESUMO

Background: Caries is an undesirable side-effect of treatment with fixed orthodontic appliances. Therefore, it is crucial to understand how orthodontic treatment and different fluoride regimens affect caries risk and individual risk factors. Objective: To evaluate the effects of orthodontic treatment and different fluoride regimens on caries risk and caries risk factors, including cariogenic bacteria. Trial design: Three-armed, parallel group, randomized, controlled trial. Methods: Patients referred to the Specialist Clinic of Orthodontics, Mölndal Hospital, Sweden, were distributed randomly into the following groups: group I (Control group), 1450 ppm fluoride (F) toothpaste; group II, 1450 ppm F toothpaste plus 0.2 per cent sodium fluoride (NaF) mouth rinse; and group III, 5000 ppm F toothpaste. The inclusion criteria were: age 12-20 years; and bimaxillary treatment with fixed appliances. The primary outcome variables were: caries risk; and the numbers of cariogenic bacteria. Radiographs were taken before treatment to determine the caries status. Data were collected before treatment and after 1 year with a fixed appliance. The variables were compiled into a Cariogram to assess the caries risk. Comparisons were made over time within and between the groups. The generation of randomization sequence was performed in blocks of 30. Blinding was employed during the data analysis and the caries registration. Recruitment: The clinical study duration was from October 2010 to December 2012. Results: Overall, 270 patients were randomized, of which 15 were excluded from the study. Therefore, 255 patients were included in the analyses. The caries risk increased significantly during orthodontic treatment in group I (P < 0.0001), whereas groups II and III had unchanged caries risks. All the groups showed statistically significant increases in the numbers of cariogenic bacteria. Harms: No harms were reported during the trial. Conclusions: To avoid an increased risk of caries during orthodontic treatment, everyday use of high-fluoride toothpaste (5000 ppm F) or mouth rinse (0.2% NaF) in combination with ordinary toothpaste is recommended. Registration: The trial was not registered.


Assuntos
Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Cariostáticos/administração & dosagem , Cárie Dentária/prevenção & controle , Fluoretos/administração & dosagem , Aparelhos Ortodônticos Fixos/efeitos adversos , Cremes Dentais/química , Adolescente , Cariostáticos/uso terapêutico , Criança , Assistência Odontológica/métodos , Cárie Dentária/etiologia , Cárie Dentária/microbiologia , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Fluoretos/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Masculino , Antissépticos Bucais/química , Antissépticos Bucais/uso terapêutico , Método Simples-Cego , Fluoreto de Sódio/uso terapêutico , Suécia , Adulto Jovem
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