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1.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 28(2): 2355-2368, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32880840

RESUMO

Contamination of arsenic and fluoride in drinking water reservoirs is a serious health issue in the Sibi district, Balochistan, Pakistan. The contamination has already been affecting a large population of the district. Dental fluorosis and dermatitis are the most common reported illnesses in the area. This study focused on the evaluation of the root causes and pathway by which it reached to the body. Questioner analysis, simple examination, and pictorial representation were used to study the prevalence of diseases caused by As and F. People of the Sibi district were found to consume both surface and groundwater, which were highly contaminated with arsenic and fluoride. The saturation index, ranging from 1 to 7, showed high enrichment of contaminants in both types of water. Geochemical calculations and the sodium absorption ratio were evaluated. High values of the saturation index of different salts showed high saturation of salts in water. The principal component analysis grouped the data into three clusters, showing that the surface water has no resemblance with the control water. High degree of contamination was observed for most of the samples, whereas, some samples of ground water were closed to the control group; a group of samples within WHO limits. The correlation studies and other calculations also revealed that the F and As reached lethal limits in the drinking water and thus caused severe health damage to the local area population. The diseases found in the area are fluorosis, keratosis, dermatitis, and melanosis.


Assuntos
Arsênico , Água Potável , Fluorose Dentária , Água Subterrânea , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Arsênico/análise , Água Potável/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Fluoretos/análise , Fluorose Dentária/epidemiologia , Fluorose Dentária/etiologia , Humanos , Paquistão , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
2.
Georgian Med News ; (306): 57-61, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33130647

RESUMO

The aim of study was to assess prevalence, severity, and associated risk-factors for Dental Fluorosis in Pre-School children (1-6 years) in Fluoride deficient regions (1) Tbilisi (F=0.08-0.22 mg/l) and (2) Akhaltsikhe, (F<0.4 mg/l) Georgia, having different geographic location and socio-economic conditions. A cross-sectional study was carried out on 570 pre-school aged children (1-6 years) attending public kindergartens of Tbilisi and Akhaltsikhe region. Descriptive analysis was performed for Dental Fluorosis prevalence and severity using Thylstrup-Fejerskov Index (TFI). Correlative analysis was done to assess information about possible acquired risk-factors through questionnaire including biological and social variables. To differentiate genuine Dental fluorosis from other non-carious resembling defects ECEL method was introduced. For Fluoride concentration determination in potable water (2) ISO 10359-1:1992 Electrochemical probe as ion-selective electrode method was used. Information about F concentration in Tbilisi tap water (1) was obtained by GWP. (Georgian Water and Power, 2019). The overall Prevalence of Dental Fluorosis in study group was 6.3% (36 Children) (95% CI;(4.3 - 8.3)). There was no statistically significant difference in the level of Dental Fluorosis prevalence between rural and urban residents (P>0.05). Dental Fluorosis prevalence was similar in both gender groups. 6.0% of girls had dental fluorosis (95% CI 2.2% - 8.8%), whereas DF prevalence in boys was 6.5% (95% CI3.7% - 9.3%), respectively. Regular brushing and dentifrices ingestion were not effecting DF prevalence and severity (p>0.05). Indoor coal-burning environment increasing airborne Fluoride absorption during pregnancy was recognized as a risk-factor for dental fluorosis occurrence in children (OR=5.8 (95% CI; 2.1-15.9)). High tea consumption (≥2 cups/day) was increasing Odds of DF occurrence (OR=17.3 (95% CI; 7.4-40.7)). Exposure to diverse fluoride sources like indoor coal-burning and high tea consumption in non-fluoridated areas is a risk-factor of Dental Fluorosis in study community.


Assuntos
Fluoretos , Fluorose Dentária , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Fluoretos/efeitos adversos , Fluoretos/análise , Fluorose Dentária/epidemiologia , Fluorose Dentária/etiologia , República da Geórgia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco
3.
Rev. Cient. CRO-RJ (Online) ; 5(1): 75-79, Jan.-Apr. 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, BBO - Odontologia | ID: biblio-1139961

RESUMO

The presence of white spots due to dental fluorosis can cause aesthetic discomfort, being one of the factors for a search for dental treatment. Objective: Report a clinical case in which the aesthetic complaint was solved through the association of the dental bleaching to the microabrasion technique. Case report: Male patient, 13 years, attended to the Integrated Clinic of the School of Dentistry of the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, with fluorosis, mainly in the antero-superior teeth and aesthetic complaint. Initially, it was made an immediate bleaching with hydrogen peroxide at 35%, in 3 sessions of 15 minutes each, to soften the disparity of shades between tooth-stain. The result was insufficient and the dental microabrasion technique was adopted. A pumice paste was applied together with gel of phosphoric acid at 37% under relative isolation, in a total of 8 applications (1 minute each). At the end of each application, it was made an abundant water washing, microengine mounted fine-grained disc polishing and topical application of neutral NaF2 in gel (4 minutes each application) to eliminate possible postoperative sensitivity. Conclusion: The dental bleaching and the microabrasion technique promoted satisfactory immediate clinical results that increased self-esteem of the patient in a minimally invasive way to dental structure.


Introdução: A presença de manchas brancas por fluorose dentária pode causar desconforto estético, sendo um dos fatores para busca de tratamento odontológico. Objetivo: Relatar um caso clínico em que a queixa estética foi resolvida através da associação do clareamento dentário à técnica de microabrasão. Relato do caso: Paciente do sexo masculino, 13 anos, compareceu a Clínica Integrada da Faculdade de Odontologia da UFRJ, com fluorose, principalmente nos dentes ântero-superiores e queixa estética. Inicialmente, realizou-se clareamento imediato com peróxido de hidrogênio a 35%, em 3 sessões de 15 minutos, para suavizar a disparidade de tons entre mancha-dente. O resultado obtido foi insuficiente e a técnica de microabrasão dentária foi adotada. Uma pasta de pedra pomes foi aplicada juntamente com gel de ácido fosfórico a 37% sob isolamento relativo, perfazendo um total de 8 aplicações (1 minuto cada). Ao final de cada aplicação, foi realizada lavagem abundante com água, polimento com disco de granulação fina montado em micromotor e aplicação tópica de NaF2 neutro em gel (4 minutos cada aplicação) para eliminar possível sensibilidade pós-operatória. Conclusão: O clareamento dentário e a técnica de microabrasão promoveram resultados clínicos imediatos satisfatórios que elevaram a autoestima do paciente, de maneira minimamente invasiva para estrutura dentária.


Assuntos
Clareamento Dental , Microabrasão do Esmalte , Fluorose Dentária , Doenças Dentárias , Doenças Estomatognáticas , Adolescente , Estética Dentária , Peróxido de Hidrogênio
4.
San Salvador; Guillermo Alfonso Aguirre Escobar; Primera Edición; 08.10.2020. 70 p.
Não convencional em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1122047

RESUMO

Introducción: Considerando la revisión bibliográfica realizada y los datos oficiales disponibles, se podría afirmar que El Salvador sufre un analfabetismo epidemiológico en lo referente a las principales afecciones del Sistema Estomatognático, debido entre otras múltiples causas a la carencia o limitado número de estudios con rigor científico-metodológico, que reflejen la situación global de las principales afecciones del Sistema Estomatognático en diferentes grupos etarios. Ante ello, se realiza la primera encuesta de salud bucal a nivel nacional, apegada a lo establecido metodológicamente por la OMS, criterios actualizados y considerando muestras representativas de diferentes edades, zonas geográficas del país y condiciones sociodemográficas. Objetivos: Determinar la condición de salud bucal y las necesidades de tratamiento de la población salvadoreña a través de la aplicación de diferentes indicadores epidemiológicos, caracterizar la población según condición sociodemográfica, identificar sus conocimientos y prácticas en salud bucal. Metodología: El diseño corresponde a un estudio observacional, descriptivo y transversal, característico de una encuesta de salud oral y metodología Pathfinder según OMS. El trabajo de campo se efectuó en 24 municipios de El Salvador, entre 2016 y 2017. La muestra total fue de 3881 salvadoreños, de ambos sexos, distribuidos en seis grupos etarios (2-5, 5-6, 6-12, 13-17,18-30, 31-45 y 60 a más), siguiendo la técnica de muestreo estratificado por conglomerados sugerida por el Manual de Encuestas de Salud Bucodental de la OMS, 2013. Los datos fueron analizados en SPSS V25, donde fueron calculadas las medias, desviaciones estándar y porcentajes de las variables analizadas.


Assuntos
Humanos , Inquéritos de Saúde Bucal , Saúde Bucal , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Índice de Higiene Oral , Índice Periodontal , Cárie Dentária , Fluorose Dentária
5.
Ann Afr Med ; 19(3): 211-214, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32820736

RESUMO

Fluorosis is an endemic disease, prevailing in about 25 countries globally. Dental fluorosis is an acquired defect of enamel due to the exposure of an individual to excessive fluoride levels during tooth development. It could result in mild-to-severe discoloration of teeth, which might necessitate esthetic correction. Bleaching is one of the common treatment modalities used in the esthetic correction of such cases. In-office power bleaching is one of the techniques of tooth bleaching that involves clinical application and activation of the bleaching agent with light to accelerate the bleaching process. This case report describes the esthetic correction of severe dental fluorosis by power bleaching, without any need for invasive treatment. This report suggests that in-office power bleaching is an effective and conservative method for esthetic correction of tooth discoloration in severe dental fluorosis.


Assuntos
Fluorose Dentária/terapia , Clareamento Dental/métodos , Descoloração de Dente/etiologia , Adolescente , Estética , Fluorose Dentária/complicações , Humanos , Masculino , Clareamento Dental/efeitos adversos , Descoloração de Dente/terapia , Resultado do Tratamento
6.
Sci Total Environ ; 744: 140749, 2020 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32721666

RESUMO

The change of serum soluble Klotho (sKlotho) content is related to a variety of osteoarthropathy. However, its association with the severity of skeletal fluorosis (SF) is not clear. Here, the association of tea fluoride exposure with serum sKlotho levels and the severity of SF were investigated and further verified in a rat model of fluorosis. A cross sectional case control study was conducted in residents over 50 years old from brick-tea drinking areas in Qinghai and Xinjiang Provinces, China. Concentrations of fluoride in brick tea water and urine were determined by ion selective electrode method, and the levels of serum sKlotho were determined by ELISA method. Linear regression and ordered logistic regression models were constructed to examine the relationship among fluoride exposure, serum sKlotho levels and the severity of SF. The kidney and small intestine of Wistar rats were isolated for detection of Klotho by immunohistochemistry (IHC), and femoral artery blood was sampled to measure the serum levels of sKlotho. An increase of 1 mg/day in tea fluoride intake (TFI) was associated with a 12.070 pg/mL (95% CI: 0.452-23.689) increase in serum sKlotho levels and a 1.163-fold (95% CI: 1.007-1.342) increase in the severity of SF after adjusting for age, gender, and ethnicity. Serum sKlotho levels were also positively associated with the severity of SF (P < 0.05). The mediation analysis showed that serum sKlotho levels mediated 17.76% of the increase in the severity of SF caused by an increase of 1 mg/day of TFI. Moreover, a significant increase of serum sKlotho levels in fluoride-exposed groups was also seen in the rat model. The present study suggests that serum sKlotho may be a potential mediator of SF in brick tea-type fluorosis endemic areas.


Assuntos
Fluorose Dentária , Animais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , China , Estudos Transversais , Fluoretos/análise , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Chá
7.
Acta Odontol Scand ; 78(6): 463-466, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32619376

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study is to evaluate the association between the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs4284505 within the gene that codifies microRNA17 (miRNA17) and dental fluorosis (DF) in a group of children. METHODS: Children living in a city with fluoridation of public water supplies were included. DF was assessed in erupted permanent teeth by Dean's modified index. The miR-SNP rs4284505 was selected in miRNA17 and genotyping was carried out by real-time PCR. Genotype and allelic distributions between DF and control, and between DF phenotypes (mild, moderate and severe) and control were analysed. RESULTS: Among a total of 527 children enrolled for the study, 383 were DF free and 144 presented DF. In the dominant model analysis (AA + AG vs. GG) the miR-SNP rs4284505 was associated with moderate DF, with carriers of the GG genotype having an increased risk of more than two times for DF (p = 0.031; Odds Ratio = 2.26, Confidence Interval 95%= 1.04-4.73). Allelic distribution showed borderline statistical significance for moderate DF with the carriers of G allele having an increased risk for DF (p = .050; Odds Ratio = 1.75, Confidence Interval 95%= 1.00-3.12). CONCLUSION: The miR-SNP rs4284505 in miRNA17 was associated with an increased risk of DF.


Assuntos
Fluorose Dentária , MicroRNAs/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Alelos , Criança , Fluorose Dentária/genética , Genótipo , Humanos , Fenótipo
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32525728

RESUMO

Groundwater is a major source of drinking water for millions of people around the world. Over 400 million people in Africa depend solely on it as their main source of water supply. Fluoride is a common contaminant in groundwater. In low concentration (0.5-1.0 mg/L), fluoride is needed by humans for healthy development of bones and teeth, however, a concentration >1.5 mg/L has been linked with several fluorosis and non-fluorosis diseases. Dental and skeletal fluorosis are the major fluorosis diseases commonly reported with the consumption of fluoride-rich water. Although fluoride intake through other pathways such as the drinking of tea and eating of vegetables have been reported, the drinking of fluoride-rich water remains the major pathway of fluoride into humans. Cases of high fluoride levels in groundwater have been reported in almost all the sub-Saharan Africa region but it is more prevalent in East African countries, Sudan and South Africa. Although fluoride is present in surface water mostly in the East African Rift Valley across different countries in East Africa, its significant or high levels are usually associated with groundwater. Geogenic sources such as fluorite, apatite, biotite, amphibole, micas, topaz, cryolite, muscovite and fluorspar have been identified as the major sources of fluoride in groundwater. High fluoride levels have been reported across sub Saharan Africa, with generally higher levels in East Africa resulting from the volcanic activities in the rift system. Dental fluorosis has been reported in many sub-Saharan African countries including South Africa, Tanzania, Uganda, Ethiopia, Kenya, Sudan, Niger, Nigeria, Benin, Ghana and Malawi. Geothermal temperature has been regarded as one of the driving forces for high fluoride levels recorded in groundwater from deep aquifers and geothermal springs. The most affected people with the consumption of fluoride-rich water are the poor with low socioeconomic status who live in rural areas. Some of the proposed alternative sources include rainwater and fog water harvesting and blending of water from various sources. Low-cost and sustainable deflouridation technique remains one of the best ways to treat fluoride contaminated water either at communal level or at the point-of-use.


Assuntos
Fluoretos/toxicidade , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Água Subterrânea/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Abastecimento de Água/métodos , África ao Sul do Saara/epidemiologia , Fluoretos/análise , Fluorose Dentária/epidemiologia , Fluorose Dentária/etiologia , Água Subterrânea/normas , Humanos , Prevalência , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Abastecimento de Água/normas
9.
Aust Dent J ; 65 Suppl 1: S47-S51, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32583583

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The use of fluoride involves a balance between protection against caries and risk of dental fluorosis. Prevalence and trend of dental fluorosis in the adult population are not frequently reported. OBJECTIVE: To describe the prevalence of dental fluorosis in the Australian adult population. METHOD: Data from the National Study of Adult Oral Health (NSAOH) 2004-06 and 2017-18 were used. Prevalence of fluorosis was reported using data from the NSAOH 2017-18. Case definitions of fluorosis were as follows: having a TF score of 2+ (TF2+) or a TF score of 3+ (TF3+) on one or more maxillary central incisors. Synthetic cohorts were constructed by year of birth allowing for time trend analysis. RESULTS: One in ten Australian adults were found to have dental fluorosis at TF2+. The prevalence of TF3 + was low. Time trend analysis revealed an increase in the prevalence and severity of fluorosis among those born during 1970s to 1980s decade. Such prevalence declined among those who were born after measures were introduced in early 1990s to reduce exposure to discretionary fluorides. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of dental fluorosis in the Australian adult population was found to be related to population-level changes in fluoride exposure.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária , Fluorose Dentária/epidemiologia , Austrália/epidemiologia , Fluoretos , Humanos , Prevalência , Inquéritos e Questionários
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32492867

RESUMO

This study was intended to evaluate the fluoride concentration in drinking water and its effect on dental fluorosis in Southwest Saudi Arabia. Water samples were gathered rom wells, filtration plants and commercial brands (bottled water) in distinct urban and rural areas of Asir region of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). Overall, 63 water samples were collected from 12 locations and 9 brands of bottled water. ExStik® FL700Fluoridemeter was used in the analysis of water samples for fluoride levels. The total number of screened patients for dental fluorosis, aged between 9 and 50 years, was 1150; among them, 609 were males and 541 were females. Dean's index criteria were used to examine the patients for dental fluorosis. The results revealed that fluoride levels varied between 0.03 and 3.8 ppm. People who drank well water displayed increased fluoride levels (>0.81 ppm). The prevalence of dental fluorosis was established to be 20.43% among the total number of examined patients. The findings of this study show very mild to moderate dental fluorosis prevail among the patients who consume well water in the Asir region.


Assuntos
Água Potável , Fluorose Dentária , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Feminino , Fluoretos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Arábia Saudita , Abastecimento de Água , Adulto Jovem
11.
Zhonghua Kou Qiang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 55(5): 296-301, 2020 May 09.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32392970

RESUMO

Dental fluorosis is the most common and prominent symptom in the early stage of chronic fluorosis, which is caused by excessive fluorine intake during tooth development. In severe cases, it may be accompanied by skeletal fluorosis. There are also systemic damages to the nervous system, cardiovascular system, endocrine system and so on. The pathogenesis of dental fluorosis is not totally clear, which may be a complex pathological process involving both genetic and environmental factors. The prevalence of dental fluorosis has an upward trend arround the world, thus certain public prevention and treatment strategies need to be taken. This article focuses on the prevalence, etiology, diagnosis and scoring system, as well as the public prevention and treatment strategies, of dental fluorosis, so that to provide reference for the research and prevention of the disease.


Assuntos
Fluorose Dentária/diagnóstico , Fluorose Dentária/prevenção & controle , Fluorose Dentária/terapia , Flúor/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Prevalência
12.
Int Dent J ; 70(5): 340-346, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32358889

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study investigates the impact of dental fluorosis on the oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) among 11- to 14-year-old school children in endemic fluoride areas of Haryana (India). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 2,200 school children in endemic fluoride areas of Haryana. Using cluster random sampling, three districts out of 14 endemic fluoride districts were selected, and children 11-14 years of age were examined. A child perception questionnaire (CPQ11-14 ) (Hindi version) evaluated the impact of dental fluorosis on OHRQoL. The Thylstrup-Fejerskov index (TFI) was used for assessing dental fluorosis. The data were analysed using SPSS version 18, and non-parametric tests were used to assess the significance. The regression analysis was used to determine the effect of change in CPQ scores with dental fluorosis at P < 0.05. RESULTS: The study participants included 45.3% males and 54.7% females among which mild to moderate level of dental fluorosis was identified with mean mean TFI Scores being 3.19 ± 1.55. Children without dental fluorosis had 1.17 times more odd of percieving their oral health as excellent/good when compared to children with dental fluorosis (P < 0.05). Study subjects with dental fluorosis did not have higher mean CPQ11-14 domain and total scores when compared with subjects without dental fluorosis. CONCLUSION: It can be concluded that mild dental fluorosis did not affect the OHRQoL of the children in the endemic fluoride areas of Haryana in India.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária , Fluorose Dentária/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Fluoretos/análise , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Saúde Bucal , Prevalência , Qualidade de Vida
13.
Actual. osteol ; 16(1): 35-46, Ene - abr. 2020. graf, ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1139966

RESUMO

La erupción dental es un proceso estrictamente regulado y programado espacial y temporalmente. El objetivo del trabajo fue estudiar el efecto de la exposición prenatal a fluoruro de sodio (NaF) sobre los eventos morfológicos y celulares que ocurren en el hueso supracoronal del primer molar de crías de rata durante la etapa preeruptiva. Se emplearon crías (n=6-8 por grupo) provenientes de madres que bebieron crónicamente agua con diferentes concentraciones de F- en forma de NaF durante la gestación y lactancia: control y NaF (50 mg/L). En cortes histológicos de la mandíbula de crías de 3 y 10 días se analizaron parámetros de histomorfometría estática en la zona supracoronal de la canastilla ósea a la altura del primer molar inferior: volumen óseo trabecular [BV/TV (%)], número de osteoclastos por milímetro (N.Oc/mm) y las variables indirectas: número de trabéculas [Tb.N (1/mm)], espesor [Tb.Th (µm)] y separación trabecular [Tb.Sp (µm)]. En crías de 15 días se midió el grado de erupción [TED (µm)] del primer molar inferior. Los resultados se analizaron con el test "t" de Student considerando diferencias significativas a p<0,05. El análisis histomorfométrico demostró un incremento en el BV/TV (%) del hueso supracoronal (p<0,01) asociado con disminución del N.Oc/mm (p<0,01) en crías de 3 y 10 días expuestas prenatalmente al F-. El grado de erupción dental fue menor en animales expuestos prenatalmente al F- en comparación con los controles (p<0,01). En conclusión, los resultados observados en la mandíbula de crías expuestas durante la etapa prenatal y posnatal temprana al F- sugieren un efecto disruptivo sobre la actividad resortiva necesaria para formación del canal eruptivo. (AU)


Tooth eruption is a tightly regulated and spatially and temporally programmed process. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of prenatal NaF exposure on the morphological and cellular events that occur in the supracoronal area of bony crypt of the first rat molar during the preeruptive stage. Offspring from two groups of rats were used (6-8 per group): Control and 50 mg/L NaF. The treatment was performed during pregnancy and lactation. Suckling pups were euthanized at 3-, 10- and 15-days-old by cervical dislocation. Mandibles were removed and histologically processed to obtain buccolingual sections stained with H&E. In sections of first mandibular molar of 3- and 10-days-old pups, the following static histomorphometric parameters were evaluated: trabecular bone volume [BV/TV (%)] and number of osteoclasts (N.Oc/mm). Also, indirect parameters were obtained: trabecular number [Tb.N (1/mm)], trabecular thickness [Tb.Th (µm)], and trabecular separation [Tb.Sp (µm)]. The degree of tooth eruption [TED (µm)] was determined. Results are expressed as mean ± SE and analyzed by Student t-test. Histomorphometric analysis showed an increase in the BV/TV (%) of the bone crypt of 3- and 10- days-old pups exposed to NaF (p <0.01); this increase was associated with a decrease in the N.Oc/mm (p <0.01). TED of mandibular first molar was lower in prenatal NaF exposed group than in control group (p<0.01). In conclusion, the increased BV/TV and the lower N.Oc observed in the bone crypt of 3- and 10- days-old pups from mothers treated with NaF suggested a disruptive effect triggered by F- on the formation events of the eruptive pathway in the offspring. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Animais , Masculino , Feminino , Lactente , Pré-Escolar , Ratos , Fluoreto de Sódio/efeitos adversos , Erupção Dentária , Osteoclastos/citologia , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Fluoreto de Sódio/administração & dosagem , Fluoreto de Sódio/metabolismo , Fluoreto de Sódio/urina , Fluoreto de Sódio/síntese química , Ratos Wistar , Mandíbula/anatomia & histologia , Dente Molar/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fluorose Dentária/diagnóstico
15.
Sci Total Environ ; 724: 138316, 2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32272415

RESUMO

Spatiotemporal distribution of fluoride in drinking water has been posing serious health concerns worldwide. However, in Bangladesh, to date, there is a very limited study reported the probabilistic health risks from fluoride content in drinking water. Therefore, we investigate the spatiotemporal distribution of fluoride concentration in drinking water and associated health risks in the coastal districts of Bangladesh based on randomly collected 840 groundwater samples (Dry-season = 302 and Wet-season = 538). Probabilistic health risk appraisal from fluoride was performed using the Monte-Carlo simulation and sensitivity analysis. Fluoride concentration in 11.89% (Wet-season) and 24.50% (Dry-season) of the samples exceeded the acceptable level of 1.0 mg/L, while 3.90% (Wet-season) and 7.28% (Dry-season) samples surpassed the maximum permissible limit (fluoride: 1.5 mg/L. The deficiency of fluoride content in groundwater (<0.50 mg/L) in Wet-season (60.41%) and in Dry-season (55.63%) was identified from the study area. The seasonality to the spatial change of fluoride concentration in drinking water has been explored. The mean non-carcinogenic risks e.g., hazard quotient (HQ) from the consumption of high fluoride-containing water for infants and children were mostly exceeded the threshold value 1 (HQ > 1) in both seasons. However, the risk of children and infants at the 95th percentile crossed the safe level (SL: 1) in the wet season and the risk of infants, children, teens and adults at the 95th percentile surpassed 1 in the dry season, indicating the potential adverse health effects. Apart from the high exposure, fluoride deficiency might be a severe problem in this region due to the very low concentration of fluoride (<0.50 mg/L) in drinking water. Sensitivity analyses indicate high fluoride-containing drinking water was the most contributing variables affecting the model outcome. Finally, the case-control study should be performed to examine further the health effects from the ingestion of high/low fluoride-bearing groundwater in the study area.


Assuntos
Água Potável/análise , Fluorose Dentária , Água Subterrânea , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Adolescente , Adulto , Bangladesh , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Fluoretos/análise , Indicadores Básicos de Saúde , Humanos , Lactente , Medição de Risco
16.
Community Dent Health ; 37(3): 216-222, 2020 08 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32338469

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Examine the association between marginalization and fluorosis with caries experience in Mexican rural children aged 8-12, in Oaxaca, Mexico. METHODS: Cross-sectional study of 283 rural schoolchildren selected from two locations with high and medium levels of marginalization where the water fluoride concentration ranged from 2.0 to 2.5 ppm/F. Caries was evaluated using the DMFT index and dental fluorosis with the Thylstrup-Fejerskov Index (TFI). Socioeconomic data were collected from participants' parents, with data on the children's characteristics collected from them via a questionnaire. RESULTS: The prevalence of caries was 72.4% (DMFT ≥1) in the permanent dentition. The prevalence of fluorosis was 98.0% (TFI ≥4=71.4%). 54.8% of the children brushed their teeth two or more times daily. In logistic regression children living in high levels of marginalization were more likely to present caries (OR=2.11, 95% CI 1.13 - 3.93) than children living in medium levels. Children with severe fluorosis (TFI ≥4) (OR=1.93, 95% CI 1.06 - 3.53) were more likely have caries than those with TFI ⟨3. CONCLUSION: Rural children with a high level of marginalization and fluorosis (TFI ≥4) were more likely to present caries. Poor oral hygiene and low dental service levels were found in both marginalized areas. Populations with medium/high marginalization are more susceptible to caries.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária , Fluorose Dentária , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Índice CPO , Fluoretos/análise , Humanos , México , Prevalência
17.
Gen Dent ; 68(3): 34-39, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32348241

RESUMO

This case report describes the treatment of a patient who had molar-incisor hypomineralization associated with dental fluorosis, a diagnosis established through a comprehensive review of the clinical record, an intraoral clinical examination, and assessment of photographic records. First, dental hypersensitivity was treated with fluoride varnish, which was applied separately to each dental quadrant. Subsequently, the functional and esthetic reconstruction of the permanent maxillary central incisors was completed in a single session through the placement of direct composite resin veneers. After the treatment, the patient was reexamined monthly for 12 months to evaluate the durability of the restorations. At the 12-month follow-up, no fractures or pigmentations were observed, and only a slight loss of brightness of the restorations was noted. The dental hypersensitivity had been eliminated. When an adhesive restorative technique with composite resin is well executed, it is possible to obtain satisfactory and long-lasting esthetics and relief of painful symptoms.


Assuntos
Hipoplasia do Esmalte Dentário , Fluorose Dentária/terapia , Resinas Compostas , Restauração Dentária Permanente , Facetas Dentárias , Estética Dentária , Humanos , Incisivo , Dente Molar
18.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(16): 20281-20291, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32239411

RESUMO

Endemic fluorosis is widespread in China, especially in the arid and semi-arid areas of northwest China, where endemic fluorosis caused by consumption of drinking water high in fluorine content is very common. We analyzed data on endemic fluorosis collected in Ningxia, a typical high-fluorine area in the north of China. Fluorosis cases were identified in 539 villages in 1981, in 4449 villages in 2010, and in 3269 villages in 2017. These were located in 19 administrative counties. In 2017, a total of 1.07 million individuals suffered from fluorosis in Ningxia, with more children suffering from dental fluorosis and skeletal fluorosis. Among Qingshuihe River basin disease areas, the high incidence of endemic fluorosis is in Yuanzhou District and Xiji County of Guyuan City. The paper holds that the genesis of the high incidence of endemic fluorosis in Qingshui River basin is mainly caused by chemical weathering, evaporation and concentration, and dissolution of fluorine-containing rocks around the basin, which is also closely related to the semi-arid geographical region background, basin structure, groundwater chemical characteristics, and climatic conditions of the basin. The process of mutual recharge and transformation between Qingshui River and shallow groundwater in the basin is intense. There is a close coupling relationship between the power of central and southern Ningxia disease areas and Qingshui River watershed of excess fluorine water. Because the traditional drinking water source of the residents in the basin is shallow groundwater, the underground water is the main cause of the high incidence of endemic fluorosis. The results show that Xiji County and Yuanzhou District were the areas of high incidence of endemic fluorosis which gradually decreased to the middle and lower reaches of Qingshui River. In space, distribution characteristics are Qingshui River source area > Qingshui River valley basin area, tributary area > trunk stream area, upstream area > middle reaches area> downstream area of Qingshui River. This is relatively consistent with the spatial distribution of fluoride ion content in Qingshui River groundwater.


Assuntos
Água Potável , Fluorose Dentária , Água Subterrânea , Criança , China , Fluoretos/análise , Flúor , Humanos
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32178265

RESUMO

The ENAM gene is important in the formation of tooth enamel; an alteration can affect the lengthening of the crystals, and the thickness in enamel. The objective was to determine the presence of the single nucleotide variant (SNV) rs12640848 of the ENAM gene in students exposed to different concentrations of fluoride. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted on students exposed to high concentrations of fluoride in the city of Durango which were divided according to the severity of fluorosis and dental caries. Genotype determination was performed by DNA sequencing. The relationship between the severity of dental fluorosis and the allele distribution was determined by the Fisher's exact and Kruskal-Wallis tests. RESULTS: Seventy-one students were included for the sequencing. In the different allelic variations, for the normal genotype AA/TT, the control group presented 75%, for the AG/TC variation, 70.8% in the TF ≤ 4 group, 65% in TF ≥ 5, and 16.7% in TF = 0; with respect to GG/CC variation, 12.5% in TF ≤ 4, 22% in TF ≥ 5, and 8.3% in TF = 0 group (p = 0.000). CONCLUSION: The ENAM gene showed an association in the population exposed to different concentrations of fluoride.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária , Proteínas da Matriz Extracelular , Fluoretos , Fluorose Dentária , Alelos , Estudos Transversais , Cárie Dentária/genética , Proteínas da Matriz Extracelular/genética , Fluorose Dentária/genética , Humanos , Estudantes
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