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1.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2288: 103-111, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34270007

RESUMO

Doubled haploidy technology is a powerful tool to accelerate the breeding of new crop varieties. Protocols are not universal, as even species within the same family require a specific process. Here we describe methods for developing doubled haploids for fennel and dill, both Apiaceae species which are used for food, flavorings, and medicine.


Assuntos
Anethum graveolens/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Anethum graveolens/genética , Foeniculum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Foeniculum/genética , Melhoramento Vegetal/métodos , Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Meios de Cultura/química , Diploide , Haploidia , Homozigoto , Biologia Molecular/métodos , Pólen/genética , Pólen/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Técnicas de Cultura de Tecidos
2.
Can J Microbiol ; 65(5): 377-386, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30657697

RESUMO

This study aimed to harness the benefits of sulfur-oxidizing beneficial bacteria from buffalo dung to improve crop yields of Foeniculum vulgare. A total of 61 bacterial isolates were screened from buffalo dung, of which 40 isolates exhibited plant-growth-promoting attributes, such as phosphate solubilization, indole-3-acetic acid production, and hydrogen cyanide production. Of these 40, four bacterial isolates, viz., BUFF12, BUFF14, BUFF23, and BUFF38, were the most potent, having plant-growth-promoting and sulfur-oxidizing properties. These four isolates produced phytase by solubilizing calcium phytate and sodium phytate. They solubilized potassium besides oxidizing the sulfur, causing an increase in soil fertility and crop production. All four isolates were nonpathogenic in nature, as demonstrated by a negative haemolysis test. According to the 16S rRNA gene sequence, the isolate BUFF14 was identified as Proteus mirabilis. Proteus mirabilis BUFF14 maximized seed germination with enhanced vegetative and reproductive parameters during pot and field trial studies, compared with the other isolates.


Assuntos
Bactérias/metabolismo , Búfalos , Fezes/microbiologia , Foeniculum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Microbiologia do Solo , Animais , Bactérias/genética , Ácidos Indolacéticos/metabolismo , Fosfatos , Desenvolvimento Vegetal , Proteus mirabilis/isolamento & purificação , Proteus mirabilis/metabolismo , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Solo , Enxofre/metabolismo
3.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 115: 25-33, 2017 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28300729

RESUMO

Silicon (Si) fertilization improves crop cultivation and is commonly added in the form of soluble silicates. However, most natural plant-available Si originates from plant formed amorphous SiO2 particles, phytoliths, similar to SiO2-nanoparticles (SiNP). In this work we, therefore, compared the effect by sodium silicate and that of SiNP on Si accumulation, activity of antioxidative stress enzymes catalase, peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, lignification of xylem cell walls and activity of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) as well as expression of genes for the putative silicon transporter (PST), defensive (Tfgd 1) and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) and protein in fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.) grown in hydroponics. The results showed that Si was taken up from both silicate and SiNP treatments and increasing sodium silicate addition increased the translocation of Si to the shoot, while this was not shown with increasing SiNP addition. The silicon transporter PST was upregulated at a greater level when sodium silicate was added compared with SiNP addition. There were no differences in effects between sodium silicate and SiNP treatments on the other parameters measured. Both treatments increased the uptake and accumulation of Si, xylem cell wall lignification, cell wall thickness, PAL activity and protein concentration in seedlings, while there was no effect on antioxidative enzyme activity. Tfgd 1 expression was strongly downregulated in leaves at Si addition. The similarity in effects by silicate and SiNP would be due to that SiNP releases silicate, which may be taken up, shown by a decrease in SiNP particle size with time in the medium.


Assuntos
Foeniculum/efeitos dos fármacos , Nanopartículas/química , Silicatos/farmacologia , Silício/farmacologia , Proteínas de Transporte , Defensinas/genética , Defensinas/metabolismo , Foeniculum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Regulação Enzimológica da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Fosfoenolpiruvato Carboxiquinase (ATP)/genética , Fosfoenolpiruvato Carboxiquinase (ATP)/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas , Brotos de Planta , Silício/química , Solo/química
4.
Appl Biochem Biotechnol ; 180(1): 26-40, 2016 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27080166

RESUMO

Reduced seed germination is among the most important factors adversely affecting crop stand and subsequent plant growth. Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill) is an important medicinal plant with poor seed germination rate, occasionally. It is accordingly pertinent to find methods which can enhance fennel seed germination and remove the barriers of dormancy breaking. The present experiments studied the effects of two different priming (cold moist stratification and osmopriming) and 14 dormancy breaking techniques (hormonal, osmopriming, biopriming, chemical priming, and hydropriming) on the seed germination and seedling growth of two different fennel genotypes under growth chamber conditions. In the first and second experiment, the priming techniques including the time lengths of cold moist stratification (0, 15, 30, and 45 days) and the concentrations of polyethylene glycol 6000 (PEG6000, osmopriming at -0.99, -1.35, and -2.33 MPa) were used as the main plots. However, in both experiments, the dormancy breaking techniques and fennel genotypes were factorially combined and used as the subplots. Different seed- and seedling-related parameters including germination (%), plumule, radicle and seedling length, average germination time, rate and homogeneity of germination, and seed vigor index were determined. Both priming techniques were efficient on the enhancement of seed germination and seedling growth. Among the dormancy breaking techniques, Aminol Forte (biopriming), kadostim (biopriming), benzyl adenine + kinetin (biopriming), distilled water (hydropriming), gibberellin + kinetin (hormonal priming), and benzyl adenine + kinetin + gibberellin (biopriming) were the most effective ones. The related concentrations were equal to 100 mg/l, 10(-5) M, and 0.4 %. The fennel genotypes reacted significantly different under priming conditions. It is possible to enhance seed germination and seedling growth of fennel using priming and dormancy breaking techniques, which is useful for the increased production of fennel under different conditions. The results indicate that bio and hydropriming techniques were among the most effective ones, which significantly increased seed germination and seedling growth, and removed the seed dormancy barriers.


Assuntos
Foeniculum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Germinação , Plantas Medicinais/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Análise de Variância , Foeniculum/efeitos dos fármacos , Foeniculum/genética , Genótipo , Germinação/efeitos dos fármacos , Dormência de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Plantas Medicinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Polietilenoglicóis/farmacologia , Plântula/efeitos dos fármacos , Plântula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sementes/efeitos dos fármacos
5.
PLoS One ; 10(8): e0131449, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26241862

RESUMO

Aphids cause significant damage to crop plants. Studies regarding predator-prey relationships in fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.) and cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) crops are important for understanding essential ecological interactions in the context of intercropping and for establishing pest management programs for aphids. This study evaluated the association among Hyadaphis foeniculi (Passerini) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and Cycloneda sanguinea (L.) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) in cotton with coloured fibres, fennel and cotton intercropped with fennel. Association analysis was used to investigate whether the presence or absence of prey and predator species can indicate possible interactions between aphids and ladybugs. Significant associations among both apterous and alate H. foeniculi and C. sanguinea were observed in both the fennel and fennel-cotton intercropping systems. The similarity analysis showed that the presence of aphids and ladybugs in the same system is significantly dependent on the type of crop. A substantial amount of evidence indicates that the presence of the ladybug C. sanguinea, is associated with apterous or alate A. gossypii and H. foeniculi in fennel-cotton intercropping system. We recommend that future research vising integrated aphid management taking into account these associations for take decisions.


Assuntos
Agricultura/métodos , Afídeos/fisiologia , Besouros/fisiologia , Produtos Agrícolas/parasitologia , Foeniculum/parasitologia , Gossypium/parasitologia , Comportamento Predatório/fisiologia , Animais , Biota , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ecossistema , Flores/parasitologia , Foeniculum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Gossypium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Controle Biológico de Vetores , Folhas de Planta/parasitologia , Estações do Ano
6.
J Sci Food Agric ; 93(2): 348-53, 2013 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22740387

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The consequence of misusing chemical biocides in controlling pests and diseases has drawn the attention of policy makers to the development of methods potentially available in nature for this purpose. In the present study the inhibitory effects of black caraway, fennel and peppermint essential oils against Botrytis cinerea were tested at various concentrations in vitro and in vivo. RESULTS: The in vitro results showed that the growth of B. cinerea was completely inhibited by the application of black caraway and fennel oils at concentrations of 400 and 600 µL L⁻¹ respectively. The in vivo results indicated that black caraway, fennel and peppermint oils at all applied concentrations inhibited B. cinerea growth on plum fruits compared with the control. In addition, all three oils at higher concentrations showed positive effects on fruit quality characteristics such as titrable acidity, total soluble solids, carbohydrate content, pH and weight loss percentage. Thus the oils inhibited the infection of plum fruits by B. cinerea and increased their storage life. CONCLUSION: This research confirms the antifungal effects of black caraway, fennel and peppermint essential oils both in vitro and in vivo on plum fruits postharvest. Therefore these essential oils could be an alternative to chemicals to control postharvest phytopathogenic fungi on plum fruits.


Assuntos
Botrytis/efeitos dos fármacos , Conservantes de Alimentos/farmacologia , Frutas/microbiologia , Fungicidas Industriais/farmacologia , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Controle Biológico de Vetores , Prunus/microbiologia , Botrytis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Carum/química , Carum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Carboidratos da Dieta/análise , Foeniculum/química , Foeniculum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Conservantes de Alimentos/química , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Armazenamento de Alimentos , Frutas/química , Frutas/efeitos dos fármacos , Fungicidas Industriais/química , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Irã (Geográfico) , Mentha piperita/química , Mentha piperita/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Óleos Voláteis/química , Componentes Aéreos da Planta/química , Prunus/química , Prunus/efeitos dos fármacos , Sementes/química , Esporos Fúngicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Esporos Fúngicos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Água/análise
7.
Molecules ; 17(7): 8471-82, 2012 Jul 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22797778

RESUMO

Bioassay guided fractionation of an antimycobacterial extract of Foeniculum vulgare var dulce (Apiaceae) led to the isolation and characterization of 5-hydroxyfurano-coumarin. The chemical structure of this compound was elucidated by 1H and 13C (1D and 2D) Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. In addition, the active fractions were analyzed by GC-MS and seventy eight compounds were identified; the major compounds were 1,3-benzenediol, 1-methoxycyclohexene, o-cymene, sorbic acid, 2-hydroxy-3-methyl-2-cyclopenten-1-one, estragole, limonene-10-ol and 3-methyl-2-cyclopenten-1-one. Twenty compounds identified in the active fractions were tested against one sensitive and three MDR strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis using the Alamar Blue microassay. Compounds that showed some degree of antimycobacterial activity against all strains tested were the following: linoleic acid (MIC 100 µg/mL), oleic acid (MIC 100 µg/mL), 1,3-benzenediol (MIC 100-200 µg/mL), undecanal (MIC 50-200 µg/mL), and 2,4-undecadienal (MIC 25-50 µg/mL), the last being the most active compound. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the presence of 5-hydroxy-furanocoumarin in F. vulgare.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Foeniculum/química , Foeniculum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cumarínicos/química , Cumarínicos/farmacologia , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , México , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/efeitos dos fármacos
8.
Pak J Biol Sci ; 15(23): 1126-32, 2012 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24261115

RESUMO

Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.) plant is a medicinal aromatic herb and belongs to Apiaceae family. It has a rich nutritional value and has many medicinal usages. Very limited information is available in the literature about fennel cultivation and production practices. Therefore, this study was carried out to evaluate the effect of planting date and plant spacing and their interactive effects on yield, yield components and growth of Fennel under irrigation. Three planting dates (Oct. 1st, Nov. 1st and Dec. 1st) and four plant spacings (10, 20, 30 and 40 cm with constant row width, 60 cm) were used. Fruit yield was significantly (p<0.05) influenced by plant spacing and planting date and their interaction. Early planting significantly increased the fruit yield combined with higher number of branches per plant, number of umbrella per plant, number of fruit per plant and plant height. The percentage of increases in Oct. 1st were 34.4 and 32.2% in fruit and biological yield respectively compared with Dec. 1st. Harvest index and thousand fruit weight was not significantly affected by planting date. Increase plant spacing to 30 cm led to more than 15% increase in fruit and biological yield. The early planting date with 30 cm plant spacing resulted in higher fruit (4136 kg ha(-1)) and biological yield (10,114 kg ha(-1)).


Assuntos
Irrigação Agrícola , Foeniculum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Biomassa , Frutas , Jordânia , Estações do Ano , Fatores de Tempo
9.
Carbohydr Polym ; 90(1): 407-12, 2012 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24751059

RESUMO

Irradiated carrageenan (IC) elicits an array of plant defense responses and biological activities in plants. An experiment was carried out in the naturally illuminated conditions of net house in order to assess the effects of foliar spray of IC on agricultural performance of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.), which is a high-value essential oil bearing medicinal crop used in pharmaceutical, food and cosmetic industries. There were applied four IC concentrations (40, 60, 80 and 100 mg L(-1)) as foliar sprays. Application of IC significantly improved the growth attributes, physiological and biochemical parameters, essential oil yield and the contents of main components of essential oil of fennel. IC applied at 80 mg L(-1) enhanced these parameters maximally. Unirradiated carrageenan and deionized water had no effect on the attributes studied. Moreover, GLC analysis revealed a significant increase in the components of essential oil, viz. fenchone (4.48-7.82%) and anethole (78.38-86.08%) compared to the control.


Assuntos
Carragenina/química , Foeniculum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Óleos Voláteis/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Carragenina/farmacologia , Foeniculum/efeitos dos fármacos , Folhas de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Polimerização
10.
J Basic Microbiol ; 51(1): 33-9, 2011 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21259287

RESUMO

Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) is a very important plant in the family of Apiaceae. Effects of inoculation of two endophytic fungi (Piriformospora indica and Sebacina vermifera) in growth, yield and composition of the essential oil of fennel (F. vulgare) were evaluated in pot cultures. Dry fruits were ground with an electric grinder and oil was extracted by hydrodistillation, and their composition was determined by GC/MS. In pot experiment, the maximum dry weight of the green tissue and root and plant height were obtained with P. indica, and maximum number of umbels per plant and dry weight of 1000 fruits were produced with S. vermifera. The P. indica and S. vermifera inoculation significantly increased oil yield as compared to non-inoculated control plants. GC and GC/MS studies revealed that the level of anethole was increased with P. indica and S. vermifera.


Assuntos
Basidiomycota/fisiologia , Foeniculum/microbiologia , Óleos Voláteis/metabolismo , Anisóis/análise , Anisóis/metabolismo , Biomassa , Foeniculum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Foeniculum/metabolismo , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Óleos Voláteis/análise , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento
11.
Rev. bras. plantas med ; 13(spe): 527-532, 2011. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: lil-618326

RESUMO

Com o objetivo de avaliar a produtividade e qualidade do funcho (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.) produzido nas condições edafoclimáticas de Sergipe, foi conduzido cultivo orgânico de funcho em Frei Paulo-SE. Em junho de 2008 e de 2009, início do período de chuvas, foram instalados plantios por meio de mudas. Adicionalmente, em dezembro de 2010 foi realizada colheita de frutos a partir de plantas obtidas após poda drástica e rebrota. Foi realizada colheita de frutos e determinação da produtividade de dezembro a janeiro de 2008, 2009 e em dezembro de 2010. Verificou-se produtividade de 720 Kg.ha-1, no primeiro plantio e de 349 Kg.ha-1 no plantio de 2009. As plantas obtidas por rebrota em 2010 resultaram em produtividade de 589 Kg.ha-1. Sugere-se que a maior produtividade verificada no primeiro ano seja decorrente da maior precipitação média e conseqüente maior disponibilidade de água. A produtividade verificada nas plantas que rebrotaram em 2010 foi também superior a verificada em 2009, o que pode ser explicado tanto em função da maior precipitação, quanto em função do provável maior desenvolvimento das raízes e maior número de ramos após poda, devido à quebra da dominância apical. Esses dados sugerem importância da disponibilidade hídrica na determinação da produtividade na região e explicam a variação na produtividade verificada. A massa seca dos frutos (5, 29 g para 1000 frutos) e o alto teor de óleo essencial verificado (3,2 por cento), assim como a composição do óleo, revelam a alta qualidade dos frutos produzidos na região.


Aiming to evaluate the productivity and quality of fennel fruits produced in the countryside of Sergipe, with no irrigation, they were evaluated organic crops in Frei Paulo-SE. They were installed crops in 2008 and 2009 from seeds, on beginning rainy time. Seedlings obtained from seeds were transplanted in June 2008 and 2009. Besides, after the last harvest of the plants, grown in 2009, it was done a drastic pruning on plants, on May, 2010. The plants were held on the area until their fruits harvest, on december and January of 2008, 2009 and December 2010. The fennel fruits yield was 720 Kg ha -1 in the first crop (2008) and 349 Kg ha -1 at following crop (2009), while the fruits yield obtained from pruned plants was 589 Kg.ha-1. It is suggested that the higher yield at the first year has been due to the higher average rainfall and its greater availability of water. The observed yield in sprouted plants was higher (at 2010) than fennel yield of 2009. It can be explained as a function of precipitation, likely as a function of greater root development and increased number of branches and umbels after pruning and breaking of apical. These results reveal water availability importance to fennel yield. The dried mass of fruits (5.29 g to 1000 fruits), high content of essential oil in fruits (3.2 percent) and the essential oil composition reveal good quality of fennel fruits of Sergipe.


Assuntos
Eficiência/classificação , Foeniculum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Gestão da Qualidade , Agricultura Orgânica/instrumentação , Pimpinella/classificação , Plantas Medicinais , Zona Semiárida
12.
J Environ Biol ; 26(2 Suppl): 335-40, 2005 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16334263

RESUMO

A pot experiment was conducted with the objectives to assess the adaptation potential of fennel crop grown at 10, 20, 25, 35 and 40 ESP (exchangeable sodium percentage) levels. Results showed that the rate of seed germination, plant growth including branching pattern, umbels per plant and 1000 test seed weight were adversely affected by sodic soils. Assuming that fifty percent reduction in seed yield and Na+/K+ ratio in leaf tissue as an index of alkali tolerance revealed that fennel was tolerant up to 25 ESP. The cell sap pH and EC reflected optimum osmoticum maintenance to withstand sodicity stress at this level and beyond this leaf water potential decreased (negatively) more to impede water uptake.


Assuntos
Foeniculum/efeitos dos fármacos , Foeniculum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Foeniculum/metabolismo , Sódio/toxicidade , Solo/análise , Biomassa , Cátions/metabolismo , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Germinação/efeitos dos fármacos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Sementes/efeitos dos fármacos , Água/metabolismo , Equilíbrio Hidroeletrolítico/efeitos dos fármacos
13.
Sci Total Environ ; 324(1-3): 201-10, 2004 May 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15081706

RESUMO

Results are reported concerning a 2-year field investigation on municipal wastewater reclamation for the irrigation of two experimental crops: tomato and fennel. Throughout the investigation, approximately 500 m(3) of tertiary membrane filtered wastewater without further disinfection was supplied to one of two parcels (500 m(2) each) of a test field located in Southern Italy. The second parcel was comparatively irrigated with 500 m(3) of conventional well water. Objectives of the investigation were (i) the evaluation of the performance of a membrane filtration pilot plant (productivity=0.7 m(3)h(-1)) for tertiary treatment and (ii) the comparison between agronomic results (features of soil and crops) after irrigation with reclaimed wastewater versus conventional groundwater. Over long term operation, the pilot plant performance resulted very good in terms of suspended solids and bacterial removal. Referring to the agronomic results, no substantial differences were observed after 2 years, both in terms of microbiological quality of the crops and characteristics of the soil. The whole results indicate membrane filtered municipal effluent as a viable alternative water resource for irrigation.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos , Purificação da Água/métodos , Abastecimento de Água , Filtração , Foeniculum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Itália , Lycopersicon esculentum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Membranas Artificiais , Controle de Qualidade , Microbiologia da Água
14.
Bioresour Technol ; 93(3): 307-11, 2004 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15062827

RESUMO

Two arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi Glomus macrocarpum and Glomus fasciculatum significantly improved growth and essential oil concentration of Foeniculum vulgare Mill. However, AM inoculation of plants along with phosphorus fertilization significantly enhanced growth, P-uptake and essential oil content of plants compared to either of the components applied separately. Among the two fungal inoculants, G. fasciculatum registered the highest growth at both levels of phosphorus used with up to 78% increase in essential oil concentration of fennel seeds over non-mycorrhizal control. The essential oil characterization by gas liquid chromatography revealed that the level of anethol was significantly enhanced on mycorrhization.


Assuntos
Foeniculum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Foeniculum/microbiologia , Fungos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Agricultura/métodos , Análise de Variância , Anisóis/análise , Cromatografia Gasosa , Cromatografia Líquida , Gorduras Insaturadas na Dieta/análise , Fertilizantes , Fósforo
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