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1.
J Environ Manage ; 289: 112497, 2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33823410

RESUMO

Forests provide a number of ecological and hydrological services, for instance, contributing to decreased water and sediment yields through increased infiltration and reduced soil erosion. However, forest fires can turn positive forest services into drawbacks, enhancing surface runoff and soil erosion and damaging both hillslopes and downstream aquatic life in rivers. Therefore, appropriate mitigation strategies should be developed to limit these negative effects. Using a runoff and erosion model (the WaterSed model), we proposed forest fire and firebreak scenarios to analyse their respective effects on sediment loads. The model reproduced the measured discharge and sediment loads over an entire hydrological year, including 21 flood events occurring from November 2010 to May 2011 in a 72-km2 Mediterranean catchment (Celone catchment, Puglia, Italy). Eight different forest fire scenarios were then proposed. While the mean burnt areas remained below 2% of the total catchment area, forest fires significantly affected the sediment yield. Indeed, the sediment yield increased over the different forest fire scenarios, from 1.97 to 2.70 t ha-1.yr-1, corresponding to a 37% increase. At the flood-event scale, the sediment load after fire represented up to 324% of the unburnt catchment sediment load in the worst-case scenario. By using realistic firebreaks, the sediment load could be dramatically reduced, from 324% to 165%, in the worst-case scenario. Because rural catchments, such as the Celone catchment, are currently experiencing land abandonment, forested areas are expected to replace crops and expand in the future. This change will likely increase forest ecological services, which may, however, be punctually balanced by negative fire effects. More studies addressing the global impacts of forest growth, fires and firebreaks on sediment transfers are therefore needed in similar environments.


Assuntos
Fogo , Incêndios Florestais , Hidrologia , Itália , Rios
2.
J Environ Manage ; 289: 112508, 2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33831763

RESUMO

Fire is an important ecological disturbance, but anthropogenic wildfires increasingly threaten native ecosystems and human lives. In fire-prone ecosystems, zero-fire policies have been replaced by active fire management to reduce the risk of wildfires and improve ecological outcomes. The environmental drivers of fire behavior are widely known, but climate change and deforestation are changing their roles, making fires less predictable. Thus, reassessing the main determinants of fire behavior is preeminent to allow for safe and adaptive uses of fire in protected areas (PA). We did this research in collaboration with PA managers during the initial implementation of a pilot Integrated Fire Management (IFM) program in the Brazilian savanna. The program mainly aimed to prevent large wildfires in the late-dry season and included prescribed burns during the rainy, early- and mid-dry seasons to create vegetation patch mosaics with different fire histories. We assessed fire behavior and its environmental drivers during prescribed fires in the mid-dry season (MF) and experimental late-dry season fires (LF) (emulating wildfires). We applied Linear Models to test for differences in fire intensity, heat released, combustion factor and flame height between fire seasons and to check the influence of meteorological and fuel conditions in these parameters. LF had a significantly higher fire intensity (3508 vs. 895 kW m-1), heat released (5537 vs. 3329 kW m-2), combustion factor (90 vs. 51%) and flame height (2.5 vs. 1.9 m) than MF. Relative humidity, air temperature, wind speed and fuel load were the best predictors of fire behavior, corroborating previous research. Air temperature and relative humidity pushed the seasonal differences in fire behavior while wind speed and fuel load showed similar effects across seasons. Our results emphasize the importance of considering primarily environmental variables during fire management planning, especially in the current climate changing world where extreme events and seasonal weather fluctuations are constantly defying our knowledge about fire behavior.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Fogo , Brasil , Pradaria , Humanos , Tempo (Meteorologia)
3.
J Environ Manage ; 288: 112462, 2021 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33831636

RESUMO

The design and implementation of pre-fire management strategies in heterogeneous landscapes requires the identification of the ecological conditions contributing to the most adverse effects of wildfires. This study evaluates which features of pre-fire vegetation structure, estimated through broadband land surface albedo and Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data fusion, promote high wildfire damage across several fire-prone ecosystems dominated by either shrub (gorse, heath and broom) or tree species (Pyrenean oak and Scots pine). Topography features were also considered since they can assist in the identification of priority areas where vegetation structure needs to be managed. The case study was conducted within the scar of a mixed-severity wildfire that occurred in the Western Mediterranean Basin. Burn severity was estimated using the differenced Normalized Burn Ratio index computed from Sentinel-2 multispectral instrument (MSI) Level 2 A at 10 m of spatial resolution and validated in the field using the Composite Burn Index (CBI). Ordinal regression models were implemented to evaluate high burn severity outcome based on three groups of predictors: topography, pre-fire broadband land surface albedo computed from Sentinel-2 and pre-fire LiDAR metrics. Models were validated both by 10-fold cross-validation and external validation. High burn severity was largely ecosystem-dependent. In oak and pine forest ecosystems, severe damage was promoted by a high canopy volume (model accuracy = 79%) and a low canopy base height (accuracy = 82%), respectively. Land surface albedo, which is directly related to aboveground biomass and vegetation cover, outperformed LiDAR metrics to predict high burn severity in ecosystems with sparse vegetation. This is the case of gorse and broom shrub ecosystems (accuracy of 80% and 77%, respectively). The effect of topography was overwhelmed by that of the vegetation structure portion of the fire triangle behavior, except for heathlands, in which warm and steep slopes played a key role in high burn severity outcome together with horizontal and vertical fuel continuity (accuracy = 71%). The findings of this study support the fusion of LiDAR and satellite albedo data to assist forest managers in the development of ecosystem-specific management actions aimed at reducing wildfire damage and promote ecosystem resilience.


Assuntos
Queimaduras , Fogo , Incêndios Florestais , Ecossistema , Florestas , Humanos
4.
J Environ Manage ; 288: 112414, 2021 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33831642

RESUMO

Savanna fires occurring in sub-Saharan Africa account for over 60% of global fire extent, of which more than half occurs in the Southern Hemisphere contributing ~29% of global fire emissions. Building on experience in reducing savanna fire emissions in fire-prone north Australian savannas through implementation of an internationally accredited 'savanna burning' emissions abatement methodology, we explore opportunities and challenges associated with the application of a similar approach to incentivise emissions reduction in fire-prone southern African savannas. We first show that for a focal region covering seven contiguous countries, at least 80% of annual savanna large fire (>250 ha) extent and emissions occur under relatively severe late dry season (LDS) fire-weather conditions, predominantly in sparsely inhabited areas. We then assess the feasibility of adapting the Australian emissions abatement methodology through exploratory field studies at the Tsodilo Hills World Heritage site in north-west Botswana, and the Niassa Special Reserve in northern Mozambique. Our assessment demonstrates that application of a savanna burning emissions abatement method focused on the undertaking of strategically located early dry season (EDS) burning to reduce LDS wildfire extent and resultant emissions meets key technical criteria, including: LDS fine fuels tend to be markedly greater than EDS fuels given seasonal leaf litter inputs; LDS fires tend to be significantly more severe and combust more fuels; methane and nitrous oxide emission factors are essentially equivalent in EDS and LDS periods under cured fuel conditions. In discussion we consider associated key implementation challenges and caveats that need to be addressed for progressing development of savanna burning methods that incentivise sustainable fire management, reduce emissions, and support community livelihoods in wildfire-dominated southern African savannas.


Assuntos
Fogo , Pradaria , África Austral , Austrália , Ecossistema , Moçambique
5.
Dermatol Online J ; 27(3)2021 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33865273

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We update and expand our 2010 article in this journal, Patient safety in dermatology: A review of the literature [4][DH1]. METHODS: PubMed at the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), United States National Library of Medicine (NLM) was searched September 2019 for English language articles published between 2009 and 2019 concerning patient safety and medical error in dermatology. Potentially relevant articles and communications were critically evaluated by the authors with selected references from 2020 added to include specific topics: medication errors, diagnostic errors including telemedicine, office-based surgery, wrong-site procedures, infections including COVID-19, falls, laser safety, scope of practice, and electronic health records. SUMMARY: Hospitals and clinics are adopting the methods of high-reliability organizations to identify and change ineffective practice patterns. Although systems issues are emphasized in patient safety, people are critically important to effective teamwork and leadership. Advancements in procedural and cosmetic dermatology, organizational and clinical guidelines, and the revolution in information technology and electronic health records have introduced new sources of potential error. CONCLUSION: Despite the growing number of dermatologic patient safety studies, our review supports a continuing need for further studies and reports to reduce the number of preventable errors and provide optimal care.


Assuntos
Dermatologia/estatística & dados numéricos , Segurança do Paciente , Acidentes por Quedas/prevenção & controle , Acidentes por Quedas/estatística & dados numéricos , /transmissão , Infecção Hospitalar/prevenção & controle , Fármacos Dermatológicos/efeitos adversos , Erros de Diagnóstico/prevenção & controle , Erros de Diagnóstico/estatística & dados numéricos , Documentação , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Fogo , Humanos , Controle de Infecções , Lasers/efeitos adversos , Erros Médicos/prevenção & controle , Erros Médicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Erros de Medicação/prevenção & controle , Erros de Medicação/estatística & dados numéricos , Equipamento de Proteção Individual , Fatores de Risco
6.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 93(1): e20191405, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33886701

RESUMO

We evaluated the structural and floristic characteristics of a Brazilian savanna fragment occupied by cerradão (CD) and cerrado sensu stricto (CS) in response to the influence of rainfall and long-term fire suppression. We carried out floristic, phytosociological and remote sensing studies in a cerrado fragment located in Corumbataí (SP, Brazil) after 43 years of complete fire suppression. We surveyed 43 plots of 200 m2 each (17 plots in CS and 26 plots in CD) and all individuals ≥ 0.32 cm diameter measured at 30 cm from the ground were included in the sample. We calculated phytosociological parameters for each species and classified them in three ecological groups, namely savanna, generalist and forest species. The remote sensing analysis used aerial photographs and satellite images from 1962 to 2019 (i.e. 59 years). The structural study of community revealed high predominance of forest and generalist species when compared to savanna species. Non-linear correlation between CD expansion rates and total rainfall within the study period indicated a positive influence of the rainfall (R2 = 0.42). Thus, our analysis indicated a tendency of a continuous and fast expansion of CD over areas of CS in the long-term absence of fire combined with periods of heavy rain.


Assuntos
Fogo , Pradaria , Brasil , Ecossistema , Florestas , Humanos , Árvores
7.
Hu Li Za Zhi ; 68(2): 65-74, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33792020

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & PROBLEMS: In case of fire in the hemodialysis room, it is necessary to help patients get away from dialysis machines smoothly and safely and evacuate the room rapidly. Our unit is located on a higher floor. An investigation showed that the accuracy rate for fire response awareness among the staffs in our unit was only 57.9%, while the accuracy rate of fire response skill operations was only 57.4%. Moreover, 62.0% of the staffs were not clear about the task grouping and task content of fire response. Confusion in our unit regarding the definition of patient mobility led to staffs classifying patients based on subjective perceptions and standards. Moreover, the unit also lacked an audit system for fire emergency operations and fire-response-related learning materials. PURPOSE: To improve staff knowledge and skills related to fire emergency response in the hemodialysis room to 100%. RESOLUTION: The project team worked out solutions such as adding a self-defense fire-fighting group to the dialysis information system, producing fire emergency response learning materials, establishing a seed personnel system, organizing on-the-job education, organizing fire response simulation drills, and implementing an audit system. RESULTS: The awareness of fire emergency response and the accuracy of skill operation among the staff were both improved to 100%, and there were statistically significant differences between the pre-test and post-test paired t-test results. Furthermore, consistent implementation of these resolution measures maintained the staff`s fire emergency response skills at 100% between June 2019 and May 2020. CONCLUSIONS: Tabletop simulation, practice drills, and skill operation audits are effective tools for improving the ability of staff in the hemodialysis room to respond to fire emergencies. It is recommended that institutions produce tabletop simulation props and combine regular on-site drills to improve the readiness of their staffs to respond to fire emergencies, which will shorten the response time during incidents.


Assuntos
Emergências , Fogo , Recursos Humanos de Enfermagem no Hospital , Diálise Renal , Emergências/enfermagem , Fogo/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Recursos Humanos de Enfermagem no Hospital/psicologia , Diálise Renal/enfermagem
8.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(8)2021 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33917891

RESUMO

Firefighter's interventions under dense smoke and flames are hazardous and ideally need an efficient in-advance geo-located actuation plan. The existing communication and sensing technologies should be customized, optimized, and integrated to better know the conditions (flame locations, air condition) before and during the rescue team's interventions. In this paper, we propose a firefighter intervention architecture, which consists of several sensing devices (flame detectors, carbon dioxide air content) a navigation platform (an autonomous ground wheeled robot), and a communication/localization network (BLE IoT network) that can be used before and during an intervention in rescue or fire extinguishing missions even for indoor or confined spaces. The paper's key novelty presents our integrated solution, giving some key implementation details and an intensive experimentation campaign in two real firefighter scenarios with real controlled fires. Results carried out in these real indoor scenarios are presented to demonstrate the feasibility of the system. A fire detection system is proposed to improve fire focus in real time and moving in confined spaces with no visibility and physical references. The results obtained in the experimentation show the proposal's effectiveness in locating the fire focus's position and orientation reducing time and risk exposure. This kind of location-aware fire integrated systems would significantly impact the speed and security of first responder interventions.


Assuntos
Socorristas , Fogo , Humanos , Fumaça
9.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(5)2021 Feb 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33668116

RESUMO

Smoke inhalation poses a serious health threat to firefighters (FFs), with potential effects including respiratory and cardiac disorders. In this work, environmental and physiological data were collected from FFs, during experimental fires performed in 2015 and 2019. Extending a previous work, which allowed us to conclude that changes in heart rate (HR) were associated with alterations in the inhalation of carbon monoxide (CO), we performed a HR analysis according to different levels of CO exposure during firefighting based on data collected from three FFs. Based on HR collected and on CO occupational exposure standards (OES), we propose a classifier to identify CO exposure levels through the HR measured values. An ensemble of 100 bagged classification trees was used and the classification of CO levels obtained an overall accuracy of 91.9%. The classification can be performed in real-time and can be embedded in a decision fire-fighting support system. This classification of FF' exposure to critical CO levels, through minimally-invasive monitored HR, opens the possibility to identify hazardous situations, preventing and avoiding possible severe problems in FF' health due to inhaled pollutants. The obtained results also show the importance of future studies on the relevance and influence of the exposure and inhalation of pollutants on the FF' health, especially in what refers to hazardous levels of toxic air pollutants.


Assuntos
Monóxido de Carbono/análise , Bombeiros , Frequência Cardíaca , Exposição por Inalação/análise , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Fogo , Humanos , Fumaça/análise
10.
J Environ Manage ; 288: 112417, 2021 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33765575

RESUMO

Exotic annual grasses dominate millions of hectares and increase fire frequency in the sagebrush ecosystem of North America. This devastating invasion is so costly and challenging to revegetate with perennial vegetation that restoration efforts need to be prioritized and strategically implemented. Management needs to break the annual grass-fire cycle and prevent invasion of new areas, while research is needed to improve restoration success. Under current land management and climate regimes, extensive areas will remain annual grasslands, because of their expansiveness and the low probability of transition to perennial dominance. We propose referring to these communities as Intermountain West Annual Grasslands, recognizing that they are a stable state and require different management goals and objectives than perennial-dominated systems. We need to learn to live with annual grasslands, reducing their costs and increasing benefits derived from them, at the same time maintaining landscape-level plant diversity that could allow transition to perennial dominance under future scenarios. To accomplish this task, we propose a framework and research to improve our ability to live with exotic annual grasses in the sagebrush biome.


Assuntos
Artemisia , Fogo , Ecossistema , América do Norte , Poaceae
11.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 1785, 2021 03 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33741981

RESUMO

Tropical secondary forests sequester carbon up to 20 times faster than old-growth forests. This rate does not capture spatial regrowth patterns due to environmental and disturbance drivers. Here we quantify the influence of such drivers on the rate and spatial patterns of regrowth in the Brazilian Amazon using satellite data. Carbon sequestration rates of young secondary forests (<20 years) in the west are ~60% higher (3.0 ± 1.0 Mg C ha-1 yr-1) compared to those in the east (1.3 ± 0.3 Mg C ha-1 yr-1). Disturbances reduce regrowth rates by 8-55%. The 2017 secondary forest carbon stock, of 294 Tg C, could be 8% higher by avoiding fires and repeated deforestation. Maintaining the 2017 secondary forest area has the potential to accumulate ~19.0 Tg C yr-1 until 2030, contributing ~5.5% to Brazil's 2030 net emissions reduction target. Implementing legal mechanisms to protect and expand secondary forests whilst supporting old-growth conservation is, therefore, key to realising their potential as a nature-based climate solution.


Assuntos
Sequestro de Carbono , Carbono/metabolismo , Mudança Climática , Florestas , Clima Tropical , Algoritmos , Biomassa , Brasil , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Ecossistema , Fogo , Agricultura Florestal , Geografia , Modelos Teóricos , Imagens de Satélites/métodos , Árvores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Árvores/metabolismo
12.
Am J Bot ; 108(3): 432-442, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33686644

RESUMO

PREMISE: Many perennial herbaceous plants develop underground storage organs (USOs) that store carbohydrates, water, and minerals. The resprouting ability of plants is influenced by the availability of these materials and by the type of underground organ and number of viable buds. In this study, we illustrate the diversity of longleaf pine savanna species and their nonstructural carbohydrate (NSC) pools and concentrations. We also determined whether NSC concentrations by USO are good predictors of NSC pools in species with different types of underground structures. METHODS: We excavated in their entirety 1-4 individuals of each of 100 ground-layer pine savanna species, classified their USO types, and measured their NSC concentrations and NSC pools. RESULTS: The NSC concentrations in underground organs varied widely among the 100 species sampled. Surprisingly, the fibrous roots of Pityopsis graminifolia stored higher concentrations of NSCs than many species with USOs. The relationship between NSC concentrations and NSC pools was strong after controlling for underground biomass. CONCLUSIONS: Our results revealed the high diversity of underground organs in pine savannas. It also showed that NSC concentrations in species with USOs reach high levels. Predictions of NSC pool sizes from NSC concentrations are interpretable, when corrections for underground biomass are considered. Research on underground organs would benefit from inclusion of morphological-anatomical analyses and phylogenetic controls to promote use of the data in broad-scale analyses.


Assuntos
Fogo , Pradaria , Carboidratos , Florida , Filogenia
13.
Ecol Lett ; 24(5): 1007-1017, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33694319

RESUMO

Global change is shifting disturbance regimes that may rapidly change ecosystems, sometimes causing ecosystems to shift between states. Interactions between disturbances such as fire and disease could have especially severe effects, but experimental tests of multi-decadal changes in disturbance regimes are rare. Here, we surveyed vegetation for 35 years in a 54-year fire frequency experiment in a temperate oak savanna-forest ecotone that experienced a recent outbreak of oak wilt. Different fire regimes determined whether plots were savanna or forest by regulating tree abundance (r2  = 0.70), but disease rapidly reversed the effect of fire exclusion, increasing mortality by 765% in unburned forests, but causing relatively minor changes in frequently burned savannas. Model simulations demonstrated that disease caused unburned forests to transition towards a unique woodland that was prone to transition to savanna if fire was reintroduced. Consequently, disease-fire interactions could shift ecosystem resilience and biome boundaries as pathogen distributions change.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Fogo , Florestas , Pradaria , Árvores
14.
Molecules ; 26(4)2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33672068

RESUMO

The evaluation and interpretation of the behavior of construction materials under fire conditions have been complicated. Over the last few years, artificial intelligence (AI) has emerged as a reliable method to tackle this engineering problem. This review summarizes existing studies that applied AI to predict the fire performance of different construction materials (e.g., concrete, steel, timber, and composites). The prediction of the flame retardancy of some structural components such as beams, columns, slabs, and connections by utilizing AI-based models is also discussed. The end of this review offers insights on the advantages, existing challenges, and recommendations for the development of AI techniques used to evaluate the fire performance of construction materials and their flame retardancy. This review offers a comprehensive overview to researchers in the fields of fire engineering and material science, and it encourages them to explore and consider the use of AI in future research projects.


Assuntos
Inteligência Artificial , Materiais de Construção/análise , Fogo/prevenção & controle , Retardadores de Chama/análise , Aprendizado de Máquina , Redes Neurais de Computação
15.
J Emerg Manag ; 19(1): 47-56, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33735435

RESUMO

The current study analyzes information-seeking tendencies, preparation, and mitigation behavior among those impacted by the 2018 Camp Fire and Woolsey Fire in California. Similar to previous work, results suggest that socio-economic status was a strong positive predictor of having an emergency kit and evacuation plan in place. The internet and television were the two preferred sources of information, while the relative lack of importance of radio, inter-personal communication, and social media runs counter to past research in the area. Implications for emergency management are discussed.


Assuntos
Fogo , Mídias Sociais , Incêndios Florestais , California , Humanos , Televisão
16.
Sci Total Environ ; 771: 144813, 2021 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33736160

RESUMO

Wildfires are an important environmental problem in forested watersheds and can significantly alter water quality. Besides the reported ecotoxicological effects on pelagic species, the accumulation of post-fire contaminants in river sediments can also impair the benthic species. In this study, three sediment-dwelling species, Chironomus riparius, Atyaephyra desmarestii and Echinogammarus meridionalis, with different sensitivities, habitats, behaviours and/or feeding strategies, were exposed to water and sediments, in in-situ and in laboratory. Four sites were selected in a partially burnt basin (Alfusqueiro river basin), within and upstream the burnt area. The sites within the burnt area showed higher metal burden in both water and sediment, as well as changes in water physico-chemistry, consistently with the typical effects of incoming post-fire runoff. Both in-situ and laboratory exposures to water and sediments affected by the wildfire induced post-exposure feeding inhibition in the three tested macroinvertebrates. In fact, laboratory and field bioassays have produced generally consistent post-exposure feeding inhibition responses, but the most impactful response could be recognised after in-situ bioassays at the river site within the burnt area, where the species respond to the physico-chemical fluctuations during the exposure period. This comparative perspective supports the importance of using in-situ bioassays as a more realistic approach when dealing with complex and intermittent natural samples such as those affected by post-fire runoff. Overall, our results reinforce the awareness about the negative effects of wildfires on benthic biota, with significant feeding depression and consequent reduction in the available energy budget to ensure successful detoxification, growth and reproduction signalling potential trophic and functional disruption at the ecosystem level. In addition, the duality conditions of sediments as a sink and source of contaminants reinforce concerns, as the exposure of benthic organisms may persist in the long term, even after runoff income ceases due to the resuspension of contaminated sediments.


Assuntos
Chironomidae , Fogo , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Incêndios Florestais , Animais , Ecossistema , Sedimentos Geológicos , Rios , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
17.
Sci Total Environ ; 771: 144647, 2021 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33736177

RESUMO

Humid tropical forests are increasingly exposed to devastating wildfires. Major efforts are needed to prevent fire-related tipping points and to enable the effective recovery of fire-affected areas. Here, we provide a synthesis of the most common forest restoration strategies, thereby focusing on post-fire forest dynamics in the humid tropics. A variety of restoration strategies can be adopted in restoring humid tropical forests, including natural regeneration, assisted natural regeneration (i.e. fire breaks, weed control, erosion control, topsoil replacement, peatland rewetting), enrichment planting (i.e. planting nursery-raised seedlings, direct seeding) and commercial restoration (i.e. plantation forests, agroforestry). Our analysis shows that while natural regeneration can be effective under favourable ecological conditions, humid tropical forests are often ill-adapted to fire, and therefore less likely to recover unassisted after a wildfire event. Active restoration practices may be more effective, but can be costly and challenging to implement. We also identify gaps in knowledge needed for effective restoration of humid tropical forests after fire, hereby taking into account the ecosystems and socio-economic conditions in which these fires occur. We suggest to incorporate fire severity in future studies, to better understand and predict post-fire ecosystem responses. In addition, as fire poses a recurring and intensifying threat throughout the recovery process, more emphasis should be placed on post-restoration management and the prevention of fire throughout the different phases of the restoration process. Furthermore, as tropical wildfires are increasing in scale, establishing collaborative capacity and setting priorities for efficient resource allocation should become a major priority for restoration practitioners in the humid tropics. Finally, as global fire regimes are changing and expected to intensify in the context of climate change, land use and land cover change, we suggest to put continuous effort into fire monitoring and modelling to inform the development of effective restoration strategies in the long-run.


Assuntos
Fogo , Incêndios Florestais , Mudança Climática , Ecossistema , Florestas , Árvores
18.
Chemosphere ; 271: 129824, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33736211

RESUMO

Black carbon (BC) is a pyrolyzed product derived from incomplete combustion. A major fraction of BC produced by landscape fires is initially deposited onto onsite soils. Atmospheric deposition of soot is known to be an important source of soil BC, especially in watersheds that are not affected by landscape fires. The transport of the dissolved fraction of oxidized BC in soil, defined as dissolved black carbon (DBC), to streams is considered one of the important loss pathways of BC in soil, but the mechanism is not well documented. We measured the quantity and quality of DBC, determined by a benzenepolycarboxylic acid method, and the quantitative and qualitative parameters of bulk dissolved organic matter (DOM) in streams in Hokkaido, northern Japan, whose catchments were not affected by landscape fire for at least 110 years. DBC with relatively low polycondensed signatures occurred in the streams, irrespective of differences in watershed characteristics and seasons, suggesting that atmospheric deposition of soot into the catchment is probably a major source of stream DBC. The DBC concentration was linearly related to the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration, irrespective of the differences in watershed characteristics and seasons. Furthermore, the polycondensation degree of DBC was observed to correlate with the qualitative parameters of bulk DOM. Such quantitative and qualitative relationships between DBC and bulk DOM imply that the transfer mechanism from soils to streams of soot-derived polycondensed DBC is linked with that of higher plant-derived, high-molecular-weight aromatic DOM.


Assuntos
Fogo , Fuligem , Carbono , Japão , Solo , Fuligem/análise
19.
New Phytol ; 230(2): 406-407, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33729594

Assuntos
Fogo , Poaceae , Ecossistema
20.
Int J Pharm Pract ; 29(2): 186-188, 2021 Mar 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33729532

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The nation was recovering from the aftermath of the catastrophic 2019-2020 bushfires when the first cases of the COVID-19 pandemic emerged in Australia. During the peak of the pandemic, Australia closed both its state and international borders to all travelers and interstate travel was very tightly regulated. Community pharmacists and pharmacy staff were one of the very few primary healthcare workers still serving their communities during these periods of strict lockdown. In this personal view article, the challenges and their toll on the mental health and wellbeing of these "essential workers" are described. KEY FINDINGS: Community pharmacists and pharmacy staff were under immense pressure to remain open and serve their communities amidst rapidly changing legislation and, at times, conflicting advice from the range of Australian health agencies. Rapid changes to workload and workflow were combined with the dilemma of balancing professional obligations with the personal duty of keeping themselves and their sometimes geographically distant families safe. Fluctuating demands and traumatic situations found community pharmacy staff often feeling distressed and underprepared. SUMMARY: Despite a global pandemic following a season of extraordinary bushfires, it has barely been acknowledged that community pharmacy staff are one of the highest risk groups for long-term psychological impacts. To our knowledge, very little research has addressed the toll of these cataclysmic events on this group of essential healthcare workers.


Assuntos
/psicologia , Fogo , Saúde Mental/tendências , Pandemias , Farmácias , Farmacêuticos , Austrália , Serviços Comunitários de Farmácia , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Angústia Psicológica , Fluxo de Trabalho , Carga de Trabalho
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