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2.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(29): 29570-29584, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31422530

RESUMO

Coal fires are global disasters, and China suffers the most serious coal fire disasters in the world. This paper introduces detailed detection and extinguishing methods for the wide range and complex coal fires at the No. 1 well in the Fukang mining area. First, the characteristics of the large and complex coal fire areas in the No. 1 well in the Fukang mining area are introduced, and 5 large fire areas are detected using the comprehensive detection range method, which detects fire areas before fire engineering practices are implemented. From the characteristics of this large-scale, complex coal fire, the zonal fire extinguishing scheme is formulated, designed, and applied, and the "shallow open fire stripping-construction of the boundary isolation zone-drilling and grouting in the deep fire area" series of events is utilized in the zonal fire extinguishing scheme. A new type of sodium silicate gel in compressive moisturizing plastic packing materials is used, an automatic grouting system is developed, and effective grouting processes are proposed, which can be adjusted according to the grouting effect analysis of the grouting parameters to determine the natural sedimentation and diffusion radius. After the construction was completed, the fire extinguishing effect was tested, revealing that the temperature in the fire zone cooled in a short time, and no subsequent heating phenomenon occurs. The method proposed in this paper provides guidance and a reference for other coal fires in the world.


Assuntos
Minas de Carvão , Fogo , China , Carvão Mineral , Desastres , Fogo/prevenção & controle , Géis , Silicatos , Temperatura Ambiente
3.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(19): 19228-19240, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31069650

RESUMO

The accumulation of desulfurization ash from coal-fired power plants can lead to serious waste of land resources and environmental safety problems. This work presents an experimental study on the feasibility of recycling original desulfurization ash as the main raw materials, and a new green grouting material was prepared. The results indicate that a desulfurization ash-based grouting fire prevention material which was prepared according to the following ingredient design (a water-to-solid ratio of 1.0:1 and a hydroxyethyl cellulose content of 0.09% desulfurization ash, 12% quicklime, 0.6% Na2SO4, and 0.05% triethanolamine, 80 °C curing). The slurry's viscosity meets requirements, and its suspension, liquidity, and consolidation strength are better than those of clay under the same conditions. In addition, the grouting material's inhibitor ratio is increased with temperature increase, which means it has good flame retardancy. Environmental performance tests concluded that when desulfurization ash as-recycled admixture is used for the preparation of grouting fire prevention material, from the technique point of view, the environmental safety of them is very good.


Assuntos
Cinza de Carvão/química , Materiais de Construção/análise , Poluição Ambiental/prevenção & controle , Fogo/prevenção & controle , Reciclagem/métodos , Sulfatos/análise
5.
Nat Hum Behav ; 3(5): 453-461, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30936428

RESUMO

Vulnerability to natural disasters is increasing globally1-3. In parallel, the responsibility for natural hazard preparedness has shifted to communities and individuals4. It is therefore crucial that households increase their preparedness, yet adoption of household preparedness measures continues to be low, even in high-risk regions5-8. In addition, few hazard-preparedness interventions have been evaluated longitudinally using observational measures. Therefore, we conducted a controlled intervention with a 12-month follow-up on adults in communities in the United States and Turkey that focused on improving household earthquake and fire preparedness. We show that this Fix-it intervention, involving evidence-based, face-to-face workshops, increased multihazard preparedness in both cultures longitudinally. Compared to baseline, the primary outcome-overall preparedness-increased significantly in the intervention groups, with more improvement in earthquake preparedness in the Turkish participants and more improvements in fire preparedness in the US participants. High baseline outcome expectancy and home ownership predicted overall preparedness change in both intervention groups longitudinally, implying that a sense of agency influences preparedness. An unintended consequence of observation is that it may increase preparedness, as even the control groups changed their behaviour. Therefore, observation of home preparatory behaviours by an external source may be a way to extend multihazard preparedness across a population.


Assuntos
Prevenção de Acidentes , Defesa Civil/educação , Planejamento em Desastres , Terremotos , Educação , Família , Fogo/prevenção & controle , Prevenção de Acidentes/métodos , Adulto , Comparação Transcultural , Planejamento em Desastres/métodos , Educação/métodos , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Turquia , Estados Unidos
6.
Am J Surg ; 218(2): 237-242, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30885454

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Operating room (OR) fires are a preventable danger. Our aim is to examine the effectiveness of OR fire simulation scenarios as a supplement to classroom-based training for managing OR fires. METHODS: Eighty-two participants were randomly divided into 14 groups. Eight groups (Group S) participated in two simulations: one prior to the classroom-based fire training and another after the classroom. Six groups (Group D) participated in the identical classroom training, but only one simulation, which followed the classroom session. Confidence surveys were completed before classroom training and after the final simulation. All simulations were assessed by a blinded evaluator. RESULTS: Competency scores within Group S were significantly higher after the second simulation. Competency scores for Group S were significantly higher than Group D for the final test scenario. Prior to the classroom-based training, confidence scores regarding fire safety-related OR tasks were significantly higher in S group. CONCLUSIONS: Simulation training significantly improves both the competency and confidence of medical professionals in managing fires in the OR, with more simulation training showing a greater degree of benefit.


Assuntos
Fogo/prevenção & controle , Salas Cirúrgicas , Treinamento por Simulação , Humanos , Método Simples-Cego
7.
J Inj Violence Res ; 11(1): 81-92, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30770524

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Building fires can be a great threat to the safety of residents, and can lead to economic and social damage. Exploring the views of stakeholders is a great source for understanding the factors that affect fires. The purpose of this study was to explore stakeholders' experiences of unintentional fire-related injuries in residential buildings in Iran. METHODS: This qualitative study was carried out using grounded theory. The study was conducted in Iran, in 2017. The study participants consisted of 25 people including stakeholders who had practical experience/or were knowledgeable in the field of preventing and fighting building fires. Purposeful and theoretical sampling were used for data collection. Data were analyzed based on constant comparative analysis and according to recommendations by Strauss and Corbin. RESULTS: "Lack of a comprehensive approach to prevention of fire-related injury" emerged as a core variable which impacted on residents' safety against fires. The findings were classified into four groups of challenges related to the structure of building, socio-economic challenge, residents of the building and rescue services. CONCLUSIONS: Based on participants` experiences, unintentional fire-related injuries in residential buildings are affected by cultural context and economic, social and geographical factors. Improving the safety against unintentional fire-related injuries in residential buildings requires multidisciplinary operations including both change and improvement of the building construction and change in the beliefs and practices of residents to increase safety against fires.


Assuntos
Queimaduras/etiologia , Queimaduras/prevenção & controle , Planejamento de Cidades , Indústria da Construção , Fogo/prevenção & controle , Habitação , Segurança , Acessibilidade Arquitetônica , Indústria da Construção/legislação & jurisprudência , Demografia , Socorristas , Feminino , Humanos , Decoração de Interiores e Mobiliário , Irã (Geográfico) , Masculino , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Melhoria de Qualidade , Trabalho de Resgate , Assunção de Riscos , Segurança/legislação & jurisprudência , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Participação dos Interessados
8.
Burns ; 45(4): 905-913, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30808527

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Oil tanker truck disasters have been reported worldwide; however, the circumstances, causes, and health effects of these disasters have not been described. To address this gap, we performed a systematic review using PRISMA criteria to better understand this public health problem and identify prevention targets. METHODS: The academic and lay literatures were systematically searched for terms related to oil tanker truck disasters. Reports about civilian oil tanker truck disasters that occurred from 1997-2017 were included. Details about the disasters were summarized, including circumstances, identifiable causes, and health effects. RESULTS: The search yielded 4713 Nexis Uni articles, 199 Google results, and one PubMed article; 951 records met inclusion criteria, describing 224 oil tanker truck explosions or fires. At least 2909 people died as a result of these disasters, and 3038 additional people were hospitalized. Almost all deaths (94%) occurred in low- and low-middle-income countries (LMIC). This may largely be due to scooping - the practice of collecting spilled oil from disabled tanker trucks for use or resale. Using the Haddon matrix, potential targets for future disaster prevention were identified. CONCLUSIONS: These data highlight the circumstances, causes, and health burden related to oil tanker truck disasters. Most began as collisions or rollovers, but nearly half of the fatalities involved scooping. The findings suggest opportunities to promote road safety, improve scene safety and security protocols used by drivers and first responders, and promote public understanding of the dangers of scooping to prevent mass casualty disasters from disabled tanker trucks, particularly in LMIC.


Assuntos
Queimaduras/prevenção & controle , Explosões/prevenção & controle , Fogo/prevenção & controle , Incidentes com Feridos em Massa/prevenção & controle , Veículos Automotores , Indústria de Petróleo e Gás , Acidentes de Trânsito , Humanos , Poluição por Petróleo , Roubo
9.
Nurse Educ ; 44(2): 88-92, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29847356

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prelicensure nursing students seeking to enter perioperative nursing need preparatory fire safety knowledge and skills training to participate as a member of an operating room (OR) team. PURPOSE: This pilot study examined the effectiveness of the Virtual Electrosurgery Skill Trainer (VEST) on OR fire safety skills among prelicensure nursing students. METHODS: An experimental pretest-posttest design was used in this study. Twenty nursing students were randomized to a control or an intervention group. Knowledge and skills acquisition of OR fire safety were assessed. RESULTS: There were no statistically significant findings in knowledge for either group. Fisher exact test demonstrated significant relationships between the skills performance criteria of following emergency procedures for a fire and demonstrating PASS (pull-aim-squeeze-sweep) technique (P = .001). CONCLUSIONS: Academic and hospital educators may consider incorporating virtual reality simulation to teach fire safety education or reinforce general fire safety practices to nursing students and novice nurses.


Assuntos
Competência Clínica/estatística & dados numéricos , Fogo/prevenção & controle , Treinamento por Simulação , Estudantes de Enfermagem/psicologia , Realidade Virtual , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pesquisa em Educação de Enfermagem , Pesquisa em Avaliação de Enfermagem , Salas Cirúrgicas , Projetos Piloto , Estudantes de Enfermagem/estatística & dados numéricos
10.
Otolaryngol Clin North Am ; 52(1): 163-171, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30241765

RESUMO

Otolaryngologists are at high risk of surgical fire. During surgery in the head and neck region there is close proximity of 3 essential elements: an ignition source, a fuel, and an oxidizing agent. In this article, the authors highlight the scenarios where fire may occur and offer steps that surgeons can take to minimize risk for their patients. By understanding the elements of the fire triad, otolaryngologists can decrease the risk of surgical fire, through careful control of oxidizers, ignition sources, and potential fuels in the operating room.


Assuntos
Fogo/prevenção & controle , Salas Cirúrgicas/normas , Otolaringologia , Segurança do Paciente , Humanos , Salas Cirúrgicas/organização & administração , Fatores de Risco
11.
J Pediatr ; 205: 250-256.e1, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30482491

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To test maternal voice alarm effectiveness under residential conditions and determine whether personalizing the maternal voice alarm message with the child's first name improves effectiveness. STUDY DESIGN: Using a randomized, nonblinded, repeated measures design, we compared 3 maternal voice smoke alarms with respect to their ability to awaken 176 children 5-12 years old from stage 4 slow-wave sleep and prompt their performance of an escape procedure. A conventional residential high-frequency tone smoke alarm was used as a comparative reference. Children's sleep stage was monitored in a residence-like research setting. RESULTS: Maternal voice alarms awakened 86%-91% of children and prompted 84%-86% to escape compared with 53% awakened and 51% escaped for the tone alarm. A sleeping child was 2.9-3.4 times more likely to be awakened by each of the 3 voice alarms than the tone alarm. The median time to awaken was 156 seconds for the tone alarm and 2 seconds for each voice alarm. The proportions of children who awakened and escaped differed significantly between the tone alarm and each voice alarm, but no significant differences were found between each pair of the voice alarms, regardless of whether the child's first name was included in the alarm message. CONCLUSIONS: The maternal voice alarms significantly outperformed the tone alarm under residential conditions. Personalizing the alarm message with the child's first name did not increase alarm effectiveness. These findings have important implications for development of an effective and practical smoke alarm for children. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01169155.


Assuntos
Queimaduras/prevenção & controle , Fogo/prevenção & controle , Utensílios Domésticos/instrumentação , Habitação , Equipamentos de Proteção/normas , Sono/fisiologia , Lesão por Inalação de Fumaça/prevenção & controle , Queimaduras/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Eletroencefalografia , Feminino , Fogo/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Polissonografia , Fumaça , Lesão por Inalação de Fumaça/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
12.
J Inj Violence Res ; 11(1): 1-14, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30416192

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Every year, a large number of people lose their lives or become injured seriously as a result of fires. Fires in buildings pose a great threat to resident safety. The aim of this systematic review is to identify preventive measures for fire-related injuries in residential buildings, taking into account associated risk factors. METHODS: In this study, a systematic review was performed of all studies conducted in the field of residential building fires, influencing factors and available safety procedures. From the earliest record up to 7 July 2017, databases of PubMed, Web of Science/Knowledge, and Scopus were searched and selected articles included in the study. RESULTS: A total of 5,613 published articles were examined, of which 30 were finally found to meet the inclusion criteria. The findings of the study were included in two main groups of preventive measures and risk factors for residential building fires and related injuries. Regarding preventive measures, the factors to reduce the risk of fire-related injuries raised in the studies under review included rule amendments, changes and modification of the environment, behavior change such as emergency evacuation during fire occurrence, improvements to emergency medical services, and awareness-raising. Also, many of the studies showed that areas with a large number of young children, older people, people with physical and mental disabilities, alcohol and drug addicts, smokers, single-family households and low-income families were particularly at risk of fire-related injuries and deaths. CONCLUSIONS: There are features in residential buildings and attributes among residents that can be related to fire hazard and fire-related injuries and deaths. The most important point of this study is to focus on preventive strategies including environmental modification, promotion of safety rules and changes in risk behavior among residents. Policy makers should pay more attention to these important issues in order to promote safety and injury prevention in relation to building fires.


Assuntos
Queimaduras/prevenção & controle , Fogo/legislação & jurisprudência , Fogo/prevenção & controle , Habitação , Segurança/legislação & jurisprudência , Comportamento , Indústria da Construção/legislação & jurisprudência , Serviços Médicos de Emergência , Humanos , Fatores de Risco
13.
Environ Monit Assess ; 190(11): 670, 2018 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30357475

RESUMO

Fires are a major disturbance to forest ecosystems and socioeconomic activities in Mazandaran province, northern Iran, particularly in the Hyrcanian forest sub-region. Mapping the spatial distribution of fire hazard levels and the most important influencing factors is crucial to enhance fire management strategies. In this research, MODIS hotspots were used to represent fire events covering Mazandaran Province over the period 2000-2016. We applied the ecological niche theory through the maximum entropy (MaxEnt) method to estimate fire hazard potential and the association with different anthropogenic and biophysical conditions, by applying different modeling approaches (heuristic, permutation, and jackknife metrics). Our results show that higher fire likelihood is related to density of settlements, distance to roads up to 3 km and to land cover types associated with agricultural activities, indicating a strong influence of human activities in fire occurrence in the region. To decrease fire hazard, prevention activities related to population awareness and the adjustment of farming practices need to be considered.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Fogo/prevenção & controle , Agricultura , Florestas , Atividades Humanas , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico) , Árvores
17.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 25(32): 32515-32523, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30238260

RESUMO

The Cerrejón mine has identified fires in its coal production seams for a few years in its operation. Fires are produced as a result of spontaneous combustion phenomena. Coal spontaneous combustion is a phenomenon that occurs naturally during coal oxidation when exposed to atmospheric conditions, due to erosion processes, geological and mining practices. This phenomenon is a subject of great concern in the world's coal mines, as it causes environmental problems, generating emissions of polluting gases into the atmosphere and economic losses due to reserve consumption. In this work, we seek to optimize the prevention and extinction processes used by the company. In terms of prevention, the current state was evaluated and alternatives, such as diluted bitumen and brine (combustion inhibitor), cement/slaked lime, fine sand cement, and clinker/slaked lime were developed to avoid ignition. As far as extinction is concerned, an additional methodology for medium magnitude fires was determined, in order to improve extinction times through the use of cooling. It was determined that the bitumen/brine has better adhesion and durability properties in the coal seam. Extinction through reagent cooling is quicker, thus improving the backhoe's productivity and minimizing costs.


Assuntos
Minas de Carvão/métodos , Carvão Mineral , Poluição Ambiental/prevenção & controle , Fogo/prevenção & controle , Combustão Espontânea , Colômbia , Oxirredução
18.
PLoS One ; 13(7): e0199747, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29975723

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hospitals are vulnerable to fires and the evacuation process is challenging. However, face-to-face fire prevention and evacuation training may take healthcare workers' time away from patient care; therefore, effective on-line training may be warranted. We carried out and examined the effectiveness of an on-line education and training of fire prevention and evacuation training for healthcare workers in China by a randomized controlled trial using convenience sampling from five public hospitals in China. METHODS: A total of 128 participants were recruited between December 2014 and March 2015. The authors built a webpage that included the informed consent statement, pre-test questionnaire, video training, and post-test questionnaire. After completing the pre-test questionnaire, participants were randomly assigned to watch the intervention video (basic response to a hospital fire) or the control video (introduction to volcanic disasters). A 45-item questionnaire on knowledge of fire prevention and evacuation was administered before and after the video watching. This questionnaire were further divided into two subscales (25-item generic knowledge of fire response and 20-item hospital-specific knowledge of fire prevention and evacuation). One point was awarded for each correct answer. RESULTS: Half of the participants (n = 64, 50%) were randomized into the intervention group and the remaining 64 (50%) were randomized into the control group. For generic knowledge of fire prevention and evacuation, those in the intervention group improved significantly (from 16.16 to 20.44, P < 0.001) while the scores of those in the control group decreased significantly (from 15.27 to 13.70, P = 0.03). For hospital-specific knowledge of fire prevention and evacuation, those in the intervention group (from 10.75 to 11.33, P = 0.15) and the control group (from 10.38 to 10.16, P = 0.54) had insignificant change. For total score, those in the intervention group improved significantly (from 26.91 to 31.77, P < 0.001) while those in the control group decreased insignificantly (from 25.64 to 23.86, P = 0.07). After the intervention, the difference between the scores of the intervention group and the control group on all three knowledge areas of fire prevention and evacuation (generic, hospital-specific, and total) were significant (all Ps < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: An on-line fire training program delivered via educational video can effectively improve healthcare workers' knowledge of fire prevention and evacuation. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov NCT02438150.


Assuntos
Planejamento em Desastres , Eficiência Organizacional , Fogo/prevenção & controle , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Pessoal de Saúde/educação , Sistemas On-Line , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
19.
Environ Manage ; 62(5): 845-857, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30046845

RESUMO

Natural resources across the United States are increasingly managed at the landscape scale through cooperation among multiple organizations and landowners. United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service (USFS) agency leaders have widely promoted this approach since 2009 when Secretary of Agriculture Vilsack called for "all lands" management. Landscape scale projects have been undertaken to address multiple goals such as single species conservation, resilience to fire, invasive species eradication, and others. The West Virginia Restoration Venture (WVRV)-one of five landscape scale conservation projects funded 2014-2016 across the Northeast and Midwest and known as "Joint Chiefs'" projects-was evaluated by an interdisciplinary team of USFS employees to gain insight into how cross-boundary landscape scale conservation projects are implemented in the region. In this paper, the team used qualitative interview data from project participants to explore processes related to developing a shared vision for the landscape, implementation priorities, and methods to work across institutional and property ownership boundaries. Grounded in the landscape and collaborative resource management literatures, the report shows how established inter-organizational networks, flexible approaches to management, and a "shelf-stock" of ready-to-implement projects led to on-the-ground success. The authors provide insight about factors that constrain and facilitate the implementation of landscape scale conservation projects that have multiple goals, landowners, and organizational partners.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Agricultura Florestal/organização & administração , Recursos Naturais , Região dos Apalaches , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/legislação & jurisprudência , Comportamento Cooperativo , Fogo/prevenção & controle , Agricultura Florestal/legislação & jurisprudência , Órgãos Governamentais , Propriedade , Resolução de Problemas , Estados Unidos , West Virginia
20.
Anaesthesist ; 67(6): 426-447, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29766207

RESUMO

Surgically induced fire is a life-threatening hazard; this topic has received little attention, although only 3 factors, the so-called fire triad, are needed for surgical fires to occur: an oxidizer, fuel and an ignition source. This systematic review aims to determine the impact of each component and to delegate every staff member an area of responsibility, thus ensuring patient health through prevention or protection. The trial was registered in Prospero CRD42018082656. A database search of eligible, preferably evidence-based studies was conducted. The Robins-I tool for assessing the risk of bias revealed a moderate risk of bias. Due to insufficient data, the main findings of these studies could not be summarized through a quantitative synthesis; therefore, a qualitative synthesis is outlined. The results are summarized according to the roles of the fire triad and discussed. (1) Role of the oxidizer: oxygen is the key component of the triad. Safe oxygen delivery is important. An oxygen-enriched environment (ORE) is caused by draping and is preferably prevented by suctioning. Fuel characteristics are affected by varying oxygen concentrations. (2) Role of the ignition source: electrocauterization is the most common ignition source, followed by lasers. Less common ignition sources include fiberoptic cables and preparative solutions, petrol or acetone. (3) Role of the fuel: surgical drapes are one of the most common fuels for surgical fires followed by the patient's hair and skin. Skin preparation solutions are among the less common fuels. Many fire-resistant materials have been tested that do not remain fire resistant in ORE. It was concluded that the main problem is defining the real extent of this hazard. Exact numbers and exact condition protocols are needed; therefore, standardized registration of every fire and future studies with much evidence are needed. Immediate prevention consists of close attention to patient safety to prevent surgical fires from happening.


Assuntos
Fogo/prevenção & controle , Salas Cirúrgicas/organização & administração , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/efeitos adversos , Queimaduras/etiologia , Humanos , Oxigênio/química , Oxigenoterapia , Risco
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