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1.
Anim Sci J ; 91(1): e13384, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32462805

RESUMO

To understand the ovarian basis for prolificacy of Bonga sheep, a total of 31 ewes were selected based on litter size (LS) records and divided into two groups: High Prolificacy (HP) (n = 20) with LS ≥ 2 and Low Prolificacy (LP) (n = 11) with LS = 1. At a synchronized estrus, follicular dynamics were determined using transrectal ultrasonography. Plasma estradiol concentrations were also monitored. In total 27 ewes were observed in estrus being 9/11 LP (82%) and 18/20 HP (90%). On the day of estrus (day 0), the mean number of large follicles was higher (p < .05) in HP (1.78 ± 0.19) than in LP (1.0 ± 0.28) ewes. Prior to estrus, more (p < .05) medium follicles were visible for HP compared to LP ewes. Plasma estradiol concentrations were higher in HP compared to LP ewes (18.91 ± 0.41 vs. 14.51 ± 0.65 pg/ml; p < .05) and similarly was ovulation number (2.3 ± 0.15 vs. 1.28 ± 0. 14; p < .05). Higher ovulation rates and litter size in Bonga sheep are evidenced by the previous presence of more large follicles and the existence of co-dominance effects as most likely medium follicles are selected to ovulate.


Assuntos
Tamanho da Ninhada de Vivíparos , Folículo Ovariano/anatomia & histologia , Folículo Ovariano/fisiologia , Ovulação/fisiologia , Ovinos/fisiologia , Animais , Estradiol/sangue , Estro/fisiologia , Feminino
2.
Acta Vet Scand ; 62(1): 16, 2020 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32164737

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Oestrous synchronisation of cattle has been widely applied to accomplish simultaneous ovulation in animals and facilitate timed artificial insemination. The main aim of this study was to investigate the ovarian follicular growth and ovulatory response to oestrus and ovulation synchronisation in Norwegian Red heifers and cows. Oestrous cycles in 34 heifers and 10 cows from 4 herds were synchronised with two PGF2α analogue treatments 11 days apart, followed by GnRH analogue treatment for induction of ovulation. Thereafter, the ovaries were examined by ultrasonography at 3 h intervals until ovulation. RESULTS: The luteolytic effect of the PGF2α analogue was verified in 9 of 10 cows by progesterone contents in milk. Maximum physical activity of the cows occurred on average 69 h after PGF2α analogue treatment. An ovulatory response was recorded in 95.5% (42/44) of the animals. A significant difference in follicle size at ovulation was found between 2 of the herds. Animals with medium sized and large follicles and heifers aged > 16 months ovulated earlier than other animals. CONCLUSIONS: The applied sequence of treatments in the study was shown to be effective in synchronizing and inducing ovulation within a relatively narrow time interval in the Norwegian Red heifers and cows, consistent with findings in other cattle breeds.


Assuntos
Bovinos/fisiologia , Dinoprosta/farmacologia , Sincronização do Estro , Hormônio Liberador de Gonadotropina/farmacologia , Folículo Ovariano/efeitos dos fármacos , Indução da Ovulação/veterinária , Animais , Cruzamento , Dinoprosta/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Hormônio Liberador de Gonadotropina/administração & dosagem , Folículo Ovariano/anatomia & histologia , Folículo Ovariano/diagnóstico por imagem
3.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 40(2): 141-154, Feb. 2020. tab, graf, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1098447

RESUMO

Although Trachemys scripta elegans is an exotic species popular as a pet in Brazil, studies on reproductive biology and capacity are non-existent in the Brazilian Cerrado. This study analyzed ovarian and oviduct characteristics and the egg production capacity of T. scripta elegans grown in this biome. The findings will associate with the size of the specimens and the sexual maturity, aiming at comparisons with native and exotic populations, as well as interspecific and contributing to the understanding of its impact on the invaded ecosystems and the establishment of eradication programs. Thus, 39 females had evaluated the body biometry and the morphology and morphometry of the ovaries and oviducts. G2 (N=20): with Class I (>5-10mm) follicles, with Class I and Class II (>10-fold) follicles, 25mm) and G3 (N=9) with Class I, Class II and Class III (>25mm) follicles. Analysis of variance, Scott-Knott's test, and Pearson's correlation analysis showed that there was no significant difference between the groups in body biometry; in the mean gonadosomatic index and gonadal morphometry, only the width of the oviducts in the right antimer and the mass and width in the left antimer were higher in G3, the only one that presented eggs. There was positive and harmonic development between body mass, carapace, and plastron, and gonadal growth occurred concomitantly with body growth, indicating a higher reproductive potential and a positive relationship between the size of the litter and the female litter. The gonadosomatic index proved to be an excellent reproductive indicator, and the ovarian evaluation was a better indicator of sexual maturity than the maximum carapace length. Ovaries were irregular structures, without delimitation between the cortical and medullary regions and filled with vitelogenic follicles of different diameters, atresic follicles, and corpora lutea, which reflected the ovarian complexity of the species and the presence of follicular hierarchy. In the scarce stroma, two germinative beds were observed per ovary and the presence of gaps very close to the follicles and associated with the blood vessels. Analysis of gonadal tissue revealed three types of oocytes according to cytoplasmic characteristics: homogeneous, vesicular or vesicular in the cortex with apparent granules. Oviducts were functional and separated, joining only in the final portion to form the cloaca and subdivided into infundibulum, tuba, isthmus, uterus, and vagina. The structure of the uterine tube was composed of serosa, muscular and mucous, which was full of glands. The presence of eggs in the oviducts indicated that the specimens can reproduce in the Brazilian Cerrado. This study provides necessary and relevant information on the reproductive biology and capacity of T. scripta elegans in the Brazilian Cerrado and can contribute to the understanding of its impact on the invaded ecosystems and the establishment of eradication programs. The extraction of females with capacity can reduce the annual reproductive yield of the species and decrease its effect on local biodiversity.(AU)


Embora Trachemys scripta elegans seja uma espécie exótica popular como animal de estimação no Brasil, estudos sobre biologia e capacidade reprodutivas são inexistentes no Cerrado brasileiro. Este estudo analisou características ovarianas e do oviduto e a capacidade de produção de ovos em T. scripta elegans criadas neste bioma, correlacionando estes achados ao tamanho dos espécimes e a maturidade sexual, visando comparações com populações nativas e exóticas, bem como interespecíficas e contribuir para a compreensão de seu impacto nos ecossistemas invadidos e com o estabelecimento de programas de erradicação. Assim, 39 fêmeas tiveram avaliadas a biometria corporal e a morfologia e morfometria dos ovários e ovidutos. De acordo com o tamanho dos folículos ovarianos as fêmeas foram separadas em G1 (N= 10): com folículos Classe I (>5-10 mm), G2 (N= 20): com folículos Classe I e Classe II (>10-25 mm) e G3 (N= 9) com folículos Classe I, Classe II e Classe III (>25 mm). À análise de variância, teste de Scott-Knott e à análise de correlação de Pearson verificou-se que não houve diferença significativa entre os grupos na biometria corporal; no índice gonadossomático médio e na morfometria gonadal, apenas a largura dos ovidutos no antímero direito e a massa e a largura no antímero esquerdo foram maiores no G3, o único que apresentou ovos. Houve desenvolvimento positivo e harmônico entre massa corporal, carapaça e plastrão e o crescimento gonadal ocorreu concomitante ao crescimento corporal, indicando maior potencial reprodutivo e relação positiva entre o tamanho da ninhada de ovos e o da fêmea. O índice gonadossomático mostrou-se um bom indicador reprodutivo e a avaliação ovariana um melhor indicador da maturidade sexual que o comprimento máximo da carapaça. Ovários foram estruturas irregulares, sem delimitação entre a região cortical e medular e repletos de folículos vitelogênicos de diferentes diâmetros, folículos atrésicos e corpos lúteos, que refletiram a complexidade ovariana da espécie e a presença de hierarquia folicular. No estroma escasso foram observados dois leitos germinativos por ovário e a presença de lacunas muito próximas aos folículos e associadas aos vasos sanguíneos. A análise do tecido gonadal revelou três tipos de oócitos de acordo com as características do citoplasma: homogêneo, vesicular ou vesicular no córtex com grânulos aparentes. Ovidutos eram funcionais e separados, unindo-se apenas na porção final para formar a cloaca e subdividiam-se em infundíbulo, tuba uterina, istmo, útero e vagina. A estrutura da tuba uterina era constituída de serosa, muscular e mucosa, a qual era repleta de glândulas. A presença de ovos nos ovidutos indicou que os espécimes podem se reproduzir no cerrado brasileiro. Este estudo fornece informações básicas e relevantes da biologia e capacidade reprodutivas de T. scripta elegans no Cerrado brasileiro e pode contribuir com a compreensão de seu impacto nos ecossistemas invadidos e com o estabelecimento de programas de erradicação, uma vez que a extração de fêmeas com capacidade reprodutiva pode contribuir com a diminuição do rendimento reprodutivo anual da espécie e diminuir seu efeito sobre a biodiversidade local.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Ovário/anatomia & histologia , Oviductos/anatomia & histologia , Tartarugas/anatomia & histologia , Tubas Uterinas/anatomia & histologia , Maturidade Sexual , Corpo Lúteo/anatomia & histologia , Pradaria , Folículo Ovariano/anatomia & histologia
4.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 19668, 2019 12 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31873164

RESUMO

Slow freezing (SF) is the reference method for ovarian tissue cryopreservation. Vitrification (VT) constitutes an alternative but controversial method. This study compares SF and VT (open [VTo] and closed [VTc] systems) in terms of freezing damage and fertility restoration ability. In vitro analyses of C57Bl/6 SF or VTo-ovaries, immediately after thawing/warming or after culture (cult), revealed that event though follicular density was similar between all groups, nuclear density was decreased in VTo-ovaries compared to CT-ovaries (CT = 0.50 ± 0.012, SF = 0.41 ± 0.03 and VTo = 0.29 ± 0.044, p < 0.01). Apoptosis was higher in VTo-cult ovaries compared to SF-cult ovaries (p < 0.001) whereas follicular Bmp15 and Amh gene expression levels were decreased in the ovaries after culture, mostly after VTo (p < 0.001). Natural mating after auto-transplantation of SF, VTo and VTc-ovaries revealed that most mice recovered their oestrous cycle. Fertility was only restored with SF and VTo ovaries (SF: 68%; VTo: 63%; VTc: 0%; p < 0.001). Mice auto-transplanted with SF and VTo-ovaries achieved the highest number of pregnancies. In conclusion, in vitro, no differences between SF and VTo were evident immediately after thawing/warming but VTo ovaries displayed alterations in apoptosis and follicular specific proteins after culture. In vivo, SF and VTo ovary auto-transplantation fully restored fertility whereas with VTc-ovary auto-transplantation no pregnancies were achieved.


Assuntos
Criopreservação/métodos , Congelamento , Ovário , Vitrificação , Animais , Apoptose , Autoenxertos , Estro/fisiologia , Feminino , Fertilidade , Preservação da Fertilidade/métodos , Congelamento/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Folículo Ovariano/anatomia & histologia , Folículo Ovariano/fisiologia , Ovário/anatomia & histologia , Ovário/fisiologia , Ovário/transplante , Gravidez
5.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 71(5): 1445-1452, set.-out. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX, LILACS | ID: biblio-1038672

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of Recombinant bovine somatotropin (rbST) on survival and diameter of bovine preantral ovarian follicles (PAOF) cultured in vitro. Ovaries were collected from adult cows and fragments of ovarian cortex were immediately fixed (non-cultured control) or cultured in vitro in α-MEM+ alone or containing 10, 50, 100 or 1,000ng/mL rbST. The fragments were processed for Classical Histology and Transmission Electron Microscopy. After one and seven days of culture, the percentage of normal follicles in the non-cultured control was superior (P< 0.05) to the follicles cultured in α-MEM+ alone or with different rbST concentrations. The oocyte and follicular mean diameter did not increase during the culture for one and seven days, both in media containing rbST and in the medium without this hormone. The only medium in which there was no reduction in follicular diameter with the time of culture was the medium without rbST. Ultrastructural damage in PAOF cultured in vitro was found. It is concluded that the use of rbST at different concentrations in in situ culture of bovine preantral follicles has no beneficial effects on survival and growth of bovine PAOF.(AU)


O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da somatotropina recombinante bovina (rbST) sobre a sobrevivência e o diâmetro de folículos ovarianos pré-antrais (FOPA) bovinos cultivados in vitro. Ovários foram coletados de vacas adultas e fragmentos do córtex ovariano foram imediatamente fixados (controle não cultivado) ou cultivados in vitro em α-MEM + sozinho ou contendo 10, 50, 100 ou 1.000ng/mL de rbST. Os fragmentos foram processados para histologia clássica e microscopia eletrônica de transmissão. Após um e sete dias de cultivo, o percentual de folículos normais no controle não cultivado foi superior (P<0,05) aos cultivados em α-MEM + sozinho ou acrescido de diferentes concentrações de rbST. Os diâmetros médios oocitário e folicular não aumentaram durante o cultivo por um e sete dias, tanto nos meios contendo rbST, como no meio sem esse hormônio (α-MEM + ). O único meio em que não houve redução no diâmetro folicular com o tempo de cultivo foi o sem rbST. Verificaram-se ainda danos ultraestruturais em FOPA cultivados in vitro. Conclui-se que o uso de rbST em diferentes concentrações no cultivo in situ de folículos pré-antrais bovinos não tem efeitos benéficos na sobrevivência e no crescimento de FOPA bovinos.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Feminino , Bovinos/embriologia , Hormônio do Crescimento , Folículo Ovariano/anatomia & histologia , Folículo Ovariano/efeitos dos fármacos , Técnicas In Vitro/veterinária
6.
Anim Reprod Sci ; 209: 106170, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31514925

RESUMO

Bos indicus females have more surface antral follicles than Bos taurus females; however, histological studies demonstrated no difference in total number of primordial follicles between these two biological types of cattle. Primordial follicle density in the ovary was less in Nelore ovaries compared to Angus ovaries, but no studies have examined the primordial follicle density in Bos indicus cross-bred females. It, therefore, was hypothesized that primordial follicle density in the ovary would decrease as percentage Bos indicus increased. Ovaries were collected from cross-bred Angus (n = 32, no Bos indicus influence), Brangus (n = 15), or Brahman (n = 9) cows and prepared for histological evaluation. There was no difference in total number of primordial follicles per ovary between breeds (P > 0.10). When numbers of primordial follicles were expressed on a per gram of ovarian tissue basis, there were fewer primordial follicles per gram of ovarian tissue in Brangus and Brahman cows than in Angus cows (P < 0.05). Brangus cows did not differ from Brahman cows in primordial follicle density (P > 0.10). Differences in primordial follicle density could indicate differences in capacity of ovarian stroma to produce factors necessary for oogonial proliferation and primordial follicle formation among breeds. Identifying these factors could improve the aprroach for culturing pre-antral follicles of cattle. Furthermore, these results explain why ultrasonographic antral follicle counts may need to be adjusted to a greater threshold to predict size of the ovarian reserve and determine ovarian reserve related reproductive traits in Bos indicus females.


Assuntos
Cruzamento , Bovinos/classificação , Reserva Ovariana/fisiologia , Animais , Bovinos/anatomia & histologia , Contagem de Células , Tamanho Celular , Feminino , Tamanho do Órgão , Folículo Ovariano/anatomia & histologia , Folículo Ovariano/citologia , Ovário/anatomia & histologia , Ovário/citologia , Linhagem , Especificidade da Espécie
7.
J Morphol ; 280(11): 1668-1681, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31433075

RESUMO

The dynamics of cellular development and homeostasis of the ovary depend on the balance between proliferation and cell death throughout the reproductive cycle. Millerichthys robustus is an annual fish whose ovarian follicles develop asynchronously, allowing daily reproduction from sexual maturity until death. The objective of this research is to describe, histologically, the processes of follicular atresia and regression of postovulatory follicular complexes (POC) throughout a reproductive cycle of M. robustus. Patterns of cell death were documented by apoptosis in atretic follicles and POC, and necrosis in the POC after ovulation with an associated inflammatory response. Atretic follicles were seen from the onset of sexual maturity, during week three post-hatching (PH), both in primary growth (from the Cortical alveoli step, with folliculogenesis completed) and secondary growth Stages, with a higher prevalence in the latter. POCs were observed in different stages of regression from week four PH until the death of the fish. The apoptotic characteristics found were: (i) fragmentation of the nuclear membrane and zona pellucida, and liquefaction of the cortical alveoli and yolk; (ii) follicular cells becoming phagocytic, increasing their size, and migrating within the oocyte; and (iii) formation of an intrafollicular lumen, a product of phagocytosis of the oocyte constituents and dispersed pigments that remain after the digestion of yolk and cortical alveoli. The morphological changes of the follicular cells of the POC, from a squamous morphology after ovulation to columnar during its regression with PAS+ contents, was documented, suggesting a secretory activity.


Assuntos
Apoptose , Ciprinodontiformes/fisiologia , Atresia Folicular , Folículo Ovariano/fisiologia , Animais , Ciprinodontiformes/anatomia & histologia , Feminino , Oócitos , Folículo Ovariano/anatomia & histologia , Reprodução
8.
Mem. Inst. Invest. Cienc. Salud (Impr.) ; 17(2): 102-106, ago. 2019. tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, BDNPAR | ID: biblio-1008842

RESUMO

It is a fact that while even basic reproductive information on alpacas is unavailable, the normal ovarian reserve of this species in comparison to other species is also unidentified. In this study, the ovarian preantral follicles in healthy adult alpacas were characterized in order to establish a general model to in vitro studies. Ten ovaries were collected from five adult alpacas. The ovarian cortex samples were fixed with paraformaldehyde and histological analysis was done. Normal and degenerated follicles percentages were determined. The normal follicles were measured and classified in primordial, transitional, primary and secondary stages. Most of the preantral follicles present in the ovarian cortex of alpacas were primordial and transitional stages; primary (6.10%) and secondary (0.37%) follicles were rarely found. The primary and secondary follicles were larger in diameter when compared with the primordial and transitional follicles. The largest oocyte diameter was recorded in the secondary follicles (P < 0.05). This study serves to establish a biological model for future reproduction studies in Alpacas or as possible biological model for studies of folliculogenesis in humans(AU)


Es un hecho que, si bien no se dispone de información reproductiva básica sobre las alpacas, la reserva ovárica normal de esta especie en comparación con otras especies tampoco está identificada. En este estudio, se caracterizaron los folículos preantrales ováricos en alpacas adultas sanas. Se recogieron diez ovarios de cinco alpacas adultas. Las muestras de la corteza ovárica se fijaron con paraformaldehído y se realizó un análisis histológico. Se determinaron los porcentajes de folículos normales y degenerados. Los folículos normales se midieron y clasificaron en estadios: primordiales, de transición, primarios y secundarios. La mayoría de los folículos preantrales presentes en la corteza ovárica de las alpacas eran estadios primordiales y de transición; Raras veces se encontraron folículos primarios (6.10%) y secundarios (0.37%). Los folículos primarios y secundarios tenían un diámetro mayor en comparación con los folículos primordiales y de transición. El mayor diámetro de ovocitos se registró en los folículos secundarios (P <0.05). Este estudio sirve para establecer un modelo biológico para futuros estudios de reproducción en alpacas o como posible modelo biológico para estudios de foliculogénesis en humanos(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Feminino , Camelídeos Americanos , Folículo Ovariano/anatomia & histologia
9.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 3164, 2019 07 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31320652

RESUMO

The ovary is perhaps the most dynamic organ in the human body, only rivaled by the uterus. The molecular mechanisms that regulate follicular growth and regression, ensuring ovarian tissue homeostasis, remain elusive. We have performed single-cell RNA-sequencing using human adult ovaries to provide a map of the molecular signature of growing and regressing follicular populations. We have identified different types of granulosa and theca cells and detected local production of components of the complement system by (atretic) theca cells and stromal cells. We also have detected a mixture of adaptive and innate immune cells, as well as several types of endothelial and smooth muscle cells to aid the remodeling process. Our results highlight the relevance of mapping whole adult organs at the single-cell level and reflect ongoing efforts to map the human body. The association between complement system and follicular remodeling may provide key insights in reproductive biology and (in)fertility.


Assuntos
Células Endoteliais/classificação , Células da Granulosa/classificação , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/classificação , Folículo Ovariano/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Células Tecais/classificação , Adulto , Sequência de Bases , Feminino , Humanos , Folículo Ovariano/anatomia & histologia , Folículo Ovariano/citologia , Ovulação/fisiologia , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Útero/anatomia & histologia , Útero/citologia , Útero/crescimento & desenvolvimento
10.
J Gynecol Obstet Hum Reprod ; 48(10): 833-838, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30930300

RESUMO

AIM: To investigate the effectiveness of ovulation induction and intrauterine insemination (OI + IUI) in female patients with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (HH), and to compare the outcomes of different stimulation protocols and cycle characteristics. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The outcomes of OI + IUI treatments in patients with HH diagnosed between 2010 and 2018 were retrospectively evaluated. Cycles using recombinant (rec) luteinizing hormone (LH) or human menopausal gonadotropin (hMG) as LH sources were compared with each other. The cycle characteristics and pregnancy rates of the first cycles were compared with those of the second cycles in patients who underwent 2 or more cycles. RESULTS: Of 104 patients diagnosed with World Health Organization type 1 anovulation, 99 were treated with hMG or rec LH + rec follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) in a total of 220 cycles. The mean age of the study patients was 27.8 ± 4.6 years (range, 19-39 years). Rec FSH + rec LH was given in 37 cycles, and hMG was used in 183 cycles. The hormone values were as follows: FSH, 1.4 ± 1.6 mIU/mL; LH, 0.7 ± 1.2 mIU/mL; oestradiol, 13 (15.8 ± 12.0) pg/mL; and anti-Müllerian hormone, 2.1 (2.6 ± 1.2) ng/mL. A dominant follicle was observed in 85.7% of the first cycles and in 86.2% of the second cycles. The treatment lasted 17.2 ± 5.0 and 15.5 ± 3.8 days until the human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) administration day in the first and second cycles, respectively, and the difference was statistically significant (p < 0.05). The cycle cancellation rate was 8.1% (n = 3) in cycles done using rec gonadotropins and 29% (n = 53) in patients stimulated with hMG, and the difference was statistically significant (p < 0.05). The pregnancy rates were 12.7% and 28.3% per cycle and per patient, respectively. The pregnancy rate in hCG-triggered patients (successful stimulation) was 17.1% per cycle in all patients. CONCLUSION: OI with gonadotropins and IUI is a safe, efficient, and relatively cost-effective treatment option in patients with HH, yielding reasonable pregnancy rates per cycle and per patient. The use of rec FSH + rec LH facilitates cycle management but does not positively contribute to pregnancy rates and is more expensive than some other feasible options.


Assuntos
Hipogonadismo/complicações , Infertilidade Feminina/terapia , Inseminação Artificial/métodos , Indução da Ovulação/métodos , Taxa de Gravidez , Adulto , Amenorreia/epidemiologia , Anovulação/complicações , Gonadotropina Coriônica/administração & dosagem , Estradiol/sangue , Feminino , Hormônio Foliculoestimulante/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Hipogonadismo/sangue , Infertilidade Feminina/sangue , Infertilidade Feminina/etiologia , Hormônio Luteinizante/administração & dosagem , Ciclo Menstrual , Folículo Ovariano/anatomia & histologia , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez , Progesterona/sangue , Proteínas Recombinantes/administração & dosagem , Estudos Retrospectivos , Análise do Sêmen/métodos , Adulto Jovem
11.
Reprod Fertil Dev ; 31(9): 1457-1462, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31030725

RESUMO

The organisation of the ovarian interstitial tissue in the southern hairy-nosed wombat Lasiorhinus latifrons was investigated. Unlike in most other marsupials, the outer cortical region of the ovary contains abundant luteinised interstitial tissue that largely occurs in discrete lobules, many of which contain a localised area of non-cellular, highly eosinophilic and periodic acid-Schiff-positive material. The findings suggest that the latter arises from the zona pellucida that surrounded the oocyte in growing follicles and that the luteinised interstitial tissue thus developed from transformed theca interna of degenerated atretic follicles. It is hypothesised that this tissue synthesises and secretes progestogens, which may result in the long, and variable, oestrous cycle length that has been found to occur in this species.


Assuntos
Marsupiais/anatomia & histologia , Ovário/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Feminino , Oócitos/citologia , Folículo Ovariano/anatomia & histologia
12.
Acta Med Port ; 32(1): 25-29, 2019 Feb 01.
Artigo em Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30753800

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Medically assisted reproduction in natural cycle has been investigated, especially in women with poor response to conventional ovarian stimulation, with endometrial receptivity improvement, lower cost and possibility of successive cycles. The disadvantages are: lower profitability per treatment cycle and higher cancellation rate. The aim of this study was to determine the rate of clinical pregnancy in infertile women subjected to medically assisted reproduction in natural cycle. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Retrospective study of 149 medically assisted reproduction without ovarian stimulation of 50 infertile women, between January/2011 and October/2014. RESULTS: The mean age of women undergoing medically assisted reproduction in natural cycle was 36.1 years. Approximately half (46.0%) of the cycles were performed in poor responders. On the day of ovulation trigger, the mean diameter of the follicle was 17.5 mm. Twenty-three cycles (15.4%) were canceled prior to ovulation trigger. In 8 cycles (5.3%), ovulation occurred between ovulation trigger and oocyte retrieval. In the majority of cycles (n = 118; 79.2%) oocyte retrieval was executed, a medically assisted reproduction technique was performed in 71 (47.6%), mostly intracytoplasmic injection. The overall fertilization rate was 77.5%. In 40 cycles (26.8%) there was embryo transfer. The implantation rate and the clinical pregnancy rate by embryo transfer was 35.0% and 25.0%, respectively. Most pregnancies occurred in poor responders, according to Bologna criteria. DISCUSSION: Although the pregnancy rate per cycle started was 6.7%, the rate of clinical pregnancy per embryo transfer is quite satisfactory, being a group of women with unfavorable responses in previous treatments. The relatively high rates of cycle cancellation are mitigated by the greater simplicity and lower cost of these cycles. CONCLUSION: The results obtained in this study demonstrate that Medically Assisted Reproduction in natural cycle may be an alternative treatment for ovarian stimulation in patients with poor prognosis, whose only alternative would be oocyte donation.


Assuntos
Infertilidade Feminina/terapia , Ciclo Menstrual , Taxa de Gravidez , Técnicas de Reprodução Assistida/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Implantação do Embrião , Transferência Embrionária/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Recuperação de Oócitos/estatística & dados numéricos , Folículo Ovariano/anatomia & histologia , Indução da Ovulação , Gravidez , Medicina Reprodutiva , Técnicas de Reprodução Assistida/efeitos adversos , Técnicas de Reprodução Assistida/economia , Estudos Retrospectivos
13.
Histol Histopathol ; 34(7): 775-789, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30589059

RESUMO

The ovary is a structurally dynamic organ that alters with age. Modifications in the paracrine status influence the capacity of aging oocytes to develop normal embryos. Despite the importance of understanding the cellular and molecular mechanism involved in the process of ovarian aging, histological changes remain poorly understood. Correlating the process of folliculogenesis and somatic cell function during ovarian aging is essential to explain the reproductive decline of aged mammalian species, including humans. Here, we performed a morphological and immunohistological study on the ovaries of chinchilla rabbits that varied in age from one to 34-months. The spatiotemporal expression of the cholesterol side-chain cleavage cytochrome P450scc (CYP11A) and the smooth muscle actin (SMA) were analyzed. A significant histological rearrangement of immunodetected cells in theca interna, theca externa and the interstitial tissue around the follicles occurred. The expression of CYP11A1 decreased considerably in antral follicles of aging ovaries. Moreover, we found that the secondary interstitial gland developed extensively, and a remarkable rearrangement of the surface epithelium occurred in aging ovaries. In contrast to ovaries during the reproductive period, the immunohistological changes demonstrate that the interstitial gland became the most abundant tissue during the aging of ovaries. Thus, the current study provides new data for understanding the alteration of somatic cell function in elderly ovaries and how this affects their declined fertility.


Assuntos
Folículo Ovariano/anatomia & histologia , Ovário/anatomia & histologia , Actinas/metabolismo , Envelhecimento , Animais , Enzima de Clivagem da Cadeia Lateral do Colesterol/metabolismo , Epitélio/metabolismo , Feminino , Oócitos/citologia , Folículo Ovariano/citologia , Folículo Ovariano/metabolismo , Ovário/citologia , Ovário/metabolismo , Coelhos , Células Tecais/citologia
14.
Reprod Biol Endocrinol ; 16(1): 66, 2018 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30007408

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: For the first time, thorough morphometrical measurements of primordial ovarian follicles were performed and their age-related changes were investigated in Lithuanian women of the reproductive age. METHODS: Ovaries of dead women (n = 30) were divided into six age groups: 15-20 years old, 21-25 years old, 26-30 years old, 31-35 years old, 36-40 years old and 41-46 years old. Histological slides of left and right ovaries were stained using haematoxylin-eosin and periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) staining methods. The morphometrical measurements of 10 primordial ovarian follicles of the left and right ovary of each woman were made from microphotographs. RESULTS: The diameter of primordial ovarian follicles increased in groups of women from 15 years old to 35 years old and decreased in the groups from 36 years old to 46 years old. The area of primordial ovarian follicles increased in the groups of women until 35 years old. It decreased in the groups of women older than 36 years. The follicular basement membrane thickened from 1.29 ± 0.11 µm to 1.43 ± 0.18 µm with increasing age of women. The diameter of primary oocytes enlarged until 35 years and then began to decrease. The area of primary oocytes increased in women until 35 years. It decreased in groups of women aged 36-40 and 41-46 years old. The diameter and the area of primary oocytes nuclei increased in women aged 15-30 years old; later, it began to decrease. The length of follicular cells varied from 8.56 ± 0.43 µm to 8.72 ± 0.27 µm (p > 0.05). The height of follicular cells varied from 2.59 ± 0.27 µm to 2.7 ± 0.21 µm (p > 0.05). The diameter, the area and the basement membrane thickness of primordial ovarian follicles and the diameter and the area of primary oocytes and their nuclei differed insignificantly in left and right ovaries in all age groups of women (p > 0.5). The length and height of follicular cells were similar in left and right ovaries of the same age group (p > 0.5). CONCLUSIONS: The age decreasing of morphometrical parameters begins in primordial ovarian follicles and their primary oocytes in Lithuanian women older than 35 years. The thickness of the follicular basement membrane increased with increasing age of women. No significant differences were found in the morphometrical parameters in primordial follicles of left and right ovaries in the same age group of women.


Assuntos
Folículo Ovariano/anatomia & histologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Feminino , Humanos , Lituânia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Folículo Ovariano/patologia
15.
Reprod Biol Endocrinol ; 16(1): 69, 2018 Jul 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30031399

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In an article published in 2017, we discussed the results of the first part of our study into the morphokinetic development of embryos in relation to follicle diameter and homogeneity of follicular development. Our findings showed that embryos coming from small follicles in heterogeneous cycles had significantly higher rates of arrest or failure to reach blastocyst than embryos coming from large follicles in homogenous cycles. The aim of this further study was to investigate the relationship between follicular size and gene expression of cumulus cells (CCs) and evaluate whether gene expression could be an indicator of embryo development. METHODS: This study was based on 2495 COCs from 184 patients. CC expressions of five genes (TNFAIP6, PTGS2, HAS2, PTX3 and GDF9) were studied by generalized linear mixed models (GLMMs) regarding follicular size. CC expressions were then separately analysed regarding patient-specific variables (age, BMI, AMH and follicular size) in relation to embryos reaching blastocyst (eRB) or top or good quality blastocysts (TQ + GQ) using GLMMs with logit link. RESULTS: Follicular size significantly correlated with the potential of an oocyte to develop into a blastocyst: oocytes developing from large follicles were more than twice as likely to develop into an eRB than oocytes from small follicles (p < 0.001). Gene expression of HAS2 and GDF9 correlated with blastocyst quality when separately evaluated with follicular size and the patient specific variables of age, BMI and AMH. However, no such correlation was found in other gene expressions studied. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that differences in the expression of genes studied could be related to follicular size rather than to embryo quality. Although gene expression of HAS2 and GDF9 correlated with blastocyst quality, the only variable correlating with eRB and TQ and GQ blastocysts for each of these five models was follicular size. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This prospective cohort study was registered at clinicaltrials.gov (NCT02230449).


Assuntos
Células do Cúmulo/metabolismo , Desenvolvimento Embrionário/genética , Expressão Gênica , Folículo Ovariano/anatomia & histologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Hormônio Antimülleriano/metabolismo , Índice de Massa Corporal , Proteína C-Reativa/genética , Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Moléculas de Adesão Celular/genética , Moléculas de Adesão Celular/metabolismo , Estudos de Coortes , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/genética , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/metabolismo , Feminino , Fator 9 de Diferenciação de Crescimento/genética , Fator 9 de Diferenciação de Crescimento/metabolismo , Humanos , Hialuronan Sintases/genética , Hialuronan Sintases/metabolismo , Oócitos/citologia , Oócitos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Folículo Ovariano/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Folículo Ovariano/metabolismo , Componente Amiloide P Sérico/genética , Componente Amiloide P Sérico/metabolismo
16.
Anat Histol Embryol ; 47(6): 510-516, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30022512

RESUMO

Follicle atresia in mammals is a universal phenomenon characteristic by degenerative morphological changes in granulosa and theca cells. The unfavourable effect of milk production in relation to fertility has been studied starting from the 70s of the last century; however, there is no unambiguous and persuasive data on association of ovarian atresia with milk yield of dairy cows. The aim of this study was to define histological signs of ovarian follicle atresia in dairy cows in relation to their milk production. The ovaries were recovered from slaughtered Holstein dairy cows assigned into two groups according to average level of annual milk production: Group 1 (n = 25)-low (≤8,000 kg/year) and Group 2 (n = 23)-high (≥8,000 kg/year). Atresia of antral follicles was evaluated on the basis of histopathological image (staining with basic fuchsine and toluidine blue) of nonovulated follicles, classified into five categories: an initial atresia, cystic atresia, obliterated atresia, atresia with luteinization of the granulosa and follicle structures of the fibrous body-corpus fibrosum. We found that the histopathological image of follicle atresia in groups of low-milk- or high-milk-producing cows is essentially similar. Prevalent form of atresia in follicles of all experimental cows was the formation of fibrous bodies and obliterated atresia. The occurrence of fibrous bodies was significantly higher (55.44%) in low-milk-producing cows compared with high-milk-producing cows (34.61%). In the same way, the higher incidence of obliterated atresia was recorded in ovarian follicles from cows with the lower milk production (36.96%) compared to the cows with the higher milk production (25.48%). In contrast, ovaries from lower milk-producing cows showed lower (p < 0.05) incidence of initial (p < 0.001) and cystic (p < 0.05) follicle atresia than ovaries from the higher milk-producing cows. Our results show that cows in the higher lactation group showed more initial and cystic atresia, what may adversely affect the fertility of dairy cows.


Assuntos
Atresia Folicular/fisiologia , Lactação/fisiologia , Folículo Ovariano/fisiologia , Animais , Bovinos , Feminino , Células da Granulosa/fisiologia , Leite/metabolismo , Folículo Ovariano/anatomia & histologia , Folículo Ovariano/citologia , Células Tecais/fisiologia
17.
Ann Anat ; 218: 214-226, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29738835

RESUMO

Orexins are neuropeptides with pleiotropic functions, involved in the coordination of multiple versatile physiological processes, in particular related to food intake and several aspects of the reproductive process. Their actions are carried out through the bond with the related Orexin 1 (OXR1) and Orexin 2 (OXR2) G-protein-coupled receptors. Studies on the expression of the orexinergic system in the female genital organs are scarce and limited to preovulatory gametogenic follicles and corpora lutea isolated from the rest of the ovary. As the description of only these structures is insufficient to provide a complete picture of the organ, the present study is aimed to give a panoramic view of all the ovarian structures and cells expressing Orexin A (OXA) and its receptors in their original localization. Double labeling immunofluorescent methods, applied on frozen sections of the whole organ in both follicular and luteal phase, were used to highlight the particular distribution and colocalization of the proteins. For a better recognition of cellular morphology and a better distinction between gametogenic (healthy) and atretic follicles, also a single labeling immunolocalization of OXA on formalin fixed paraffin embedded tissues and a TUNEL staining were performed. The results indicate that OXA and its two receptors subtypes are expressed in all the different structures composing the swine ovary, albeit in different ways, in both phases of the ovarian cycle. In general, OXA and OXR2 appear diffusely distributed within "health", proliferating and steroid producing cells, while has granular appearance, being presumably associated to cytoplasmic vesicles, in degenerating cells, independently if apoptotic or not. The immunoreactivity for OXR1, instead, is often associated with the nuclear envelope but it is also detectable, to a lesser extent, diffusely distributed in the cytoplasm of growing or steroid producing cells. When cells undertake the path leading to degeneration, also OXR1 immunoreactivity assumes a granular appearance in the cytoplasm and is colocalized with OXA and OXR2. Different roles for the two receptors in the same cell and a different regulation of their expression remain to be investigated. Their comprehension could help studies of follicle development in pig, as part of in vitro oocyte maturation and fertilization programs in livestock.


Assuntos
Receptores de Orexina/metabolismo , Orexinas/metabolismo , Ovário/anatomia & histologia , Ovário/metabolismo , Animais , Apoptose , Corpo Lúteo/anatomia & histologia , Corpo Lúteo/metabolismo , Estro/fisiologia , Feminino , Imunofluorescência , Imuno-Histoquímica , Ciclo Menstrual , Folículo Ovariano/anatomia & histologia , Folículo Ovariano/metabolismo , Sus scrofa , Suínos
18.
Gene ; 668: 174-181, 2018 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29783074

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The current study aimed to investigate FSH receptor binding inhibitor (FRBI) effects in the expressions of FSH receptor (FSHR) and estrogen receptor-beta (ERß) in the mice ovaries at the gene and protein levels, also to find the potential efficacy of FRBI on suppressing ovarian cancer through down-regulating over-expression of FSHR and ERß in the normal ovarian tissues. METHODS: 180 female mice were randomized into six groups (n = 30). Mice of FRBI-1, FRBI-2 and FRBI-3, FRBI-4 were intramuscularly injected with FRBI of 10, 20, 30 and 40 mg/kg, respectively, for five consecutive days. The qPCR and Western blotting were used to determine expression levels of FSHR and ERß mRNAs and proteins in mouse ovaries. RESULTS: The ovarian cortex thickness (OCT) of the FRBI-4 group were less than that FSH group on day 30 (P < 0.05). The numbers of secondary follicles (SF) and the maximum transverse diameters (MTD) of secondary follicles of FRBI-3 and FRBI-4 groups were decreased as compared to FSH group (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01) by 24.11% and 27.47% on day 20 based on the control group (CG) levels. On day 15, the reductions of FSHR mRNA levels in FRBI-2, FRBI-3 and FRBI-4 were 27.78%, 29.37% and 43.65% (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01), respectively in comparison with CG. ERß and FSHR protein levels of FRBI-treated mice were gradually decreased as compared to and CG and FSH group. ERß protein level of FRBI-4 was less than that of CG on day 20 (P < 0.05). On days 15 and 20, estradiol (E2) concentrations of FRBI-2, FRBI-3 and FRBI-4 groups were lower than those of the CG and FSH group (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: FRBI could reduce OCT and follicle numbers. A high dose of FRBI (30 mg/kg to 40 mg/kg) could suppress ovarian and follicular development, and attenuate expression levels of ERß and FSHR mRNAs and proteins in the ovaries, additionally inhibit E2 production. Therefore, FRBI will possibly be utilized to restrain the carcinogenesis of ovarian cancer by down-regulating overexpression of FSHR and ERß in the ovaries.


Assuntos
Receptor beta de Estrogênio/metabolismo , Ovário/metabolismo , Receptores do FSH/metabolismo , Animais , Carcinogênese , Regulação para Baixo , Estradiol/sangue , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Camundongos , Folículo Ovariano/anatomia & histologia , Folículo Ovariano/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias Ovarianas/etiologia , Ovário/anatomia & histologia , Ovário/efeitos dos fármacos , Peptídeos/farmacologia , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Receptores do FSH/genética
19.
Gen Comp Endocrinol ; 265: 174-179, 2018 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29510152

RESUMO

Captive breeding in aquaria is a useful means for ex situ preservation of threatened elasmobranch species. To promote captive breeding, it is important to determine the female reproductive status. However, information regarding reproductive status in female elasmobranchs is limited. Here, we used zebra sharks, Stegostoma fasciatum, as a model for elasmobranch reproduction in captivity. We investigated the relationships among changes in the sex steroid hormone levels, follicle size, and egg-laying period to develop indicators for the female reproductive status. We confirmed that mature female zebra sharks undergo an annual reproductive cycle. Additionally, we showed that the variations in sex steroid hormone levels correlated with reproductive status in mature female zebra sharks. Plasma estradiol-17ß (E2) concentrations increased two months before ovarian follicle development and decreased along with follicle regression. Interestingly, E2 levels were inversely correlated with water temperature (R = -0.901). Moreover, high levels of testosterone (T) correlated well with the laying period. These results strongly suggest that E2 is an indicator for ovarian follicle development, and that T is a useful indicator for both the onset and end of the egg-laying period in captive zebra sharks.


Assuntos
Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/sangue , Reprodução , Tubarões/sangue , Tubarões/fisiologia , Animais , Estradiol/sangue , Feminino , Masculino , Folículo Ovariano/anatomia & histologia , Oviductos/metabolismo , Óvulo/metabolismo , Temperatura , Testosterona/sangue
20.
Gynecol Obstet Fertil Senol ; 46(2): 118-123, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29373313

RESUMO

In women undergoing controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH) for in vitro fertilization (IVF), a poor ovarian response, defined as three of fewer mature follicles, can lead to cancellation of the cycle. However, in women with at least one patent tube and normal semen parameters, conversion to intrauterine insemination (IUI) is considered an option, offering reasonable pregnancy rates at a lower cost and without the complications associated with oocyte retrieval. Studies have shown that in cycles with only one mature follicle, IVF should be canceled. However, in cycles with 2 or 3 mature follicles, patients have the choice between IVF and conversion to IUI. Some studies have shown that IVF is superior to IUI in such cases, whereas other reports failed to find any difference. Most of these studies are retrospective and limited by the presence of several biases and low numbers of cycles, and to this date, there is no consensus on the best approach. We have thus designed a multicenter, randomized non-inferiority study, comparing live birth rates following conversion to IUI or IVF in patients with 2 or 3 mature follicles in COH cycles. Nine hundred and forty patients will be randomized on trigger day to either IVF or conversion to IUI. Our study will also include a medico-economic analysis.


Assuntos
Fertilização In Vitro , Inseminação Artificial , Indução da Ovulação , Adulto , Custos e Análise de Custo , Feminino , Fertilização In Vitro/economia , Humanos , Inseminação Artificial/economia , Recuperação de Oócitos/efeitos adversos , Recuperação de Oócitos/economia , Folículo Ovariano/anatomia & histologia , Gravidez , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Resultado do Tratamento
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