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1.
Anticancer Res ; 39(10): 5473-5481, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31570441

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Aerial parts and seeds of the neem tree (Azadirachta indica) have long been used in traditional medicine such as Ayurveda for health-related purposes. Our interest in neem bioactives lies in their potential use as standalone anticancer agents, or as adjuvants to standard therapy. The aim of the present study was to explore a supercritical CO2 extract (SCNE) of neem leaf and a prominent liminoid in neem leaf, nimbolide, for epigenetic activity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Human colorectal cancer cell lines (HCT116 and HT29) were cultured for 48 h in the presence of neem extract or nimbolide and evaluated for growth inhibition and evidence of suppression of histone deacetylation and DNA methylation. RESULTS: Both SCNE and nimbolide suppressed the proliferation of colon cancer cells by inducing epigenetic modifications. CONCLUSION: Neem leaf contains bioactive constituents which modify epigenetic activity.


Assuntos
Azadirachta/química , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Epigênese Genética/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta/química , Dióxido de Carbono/química , Dióxido de Carbono/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Metilação de DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Células HCT116 , Células HT29 , Humanos , Limoninas/farmacologia
2.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 44(15): 3203-3212, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31602873

RESUMO

In order to provide guidance for the protection and utilization of resources,quality control and breeding of improved varieties,we compared the main phenotypic characters and quality of wild and transplanted Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis collected from different producing areas. Seven phenotypic characters of 33 samples of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis collected from Yunnan,Guizhou and Sichuan were determined by conventional methods,and the principal component analysis and cluster analysis were used to analyze the diversity of the samples. The parissaponin( polyphyllin Ⅰ,Ⅱ,Ⅵ,Ⅶ) content of the samples were detected by HPLC,and analyzed by cluster analysis. Correlation analysis of the phenotypic characters and the parissaponin content was performed. There were significant differences in seven phenotypic characters between wild and transplanted samples of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis from different habitats,with high phenotypic diversity and abundant genetic variation. The results of principal component analysis showed that leaf shape index was the main factor of morphological variation of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis. Cluster analysis showed that the phenotypic characters of wild and transplanted P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis could not be completely separated. The content of saponins in wild and transplanted samples from different habitats was quite different. Saponins content of 93. 94% samples met the criterion of Chinese Pharmacopoeia 2015 edition,and the overall quality was relatively steady. The results of independent sample t-test showed that there was no significant difference of all the active ingredient between wild and transplanted samples,and it couldn't be used to distinguish between wild and transplanted samples. It is the same as the results of cluster analysis. The results of correlation analysis showed that the phenotypic traits of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis were correlated with its medicine quality,and the total content of saponins was positively correlated with leaf length and leaf shape index( r = 0. 389,0. 441; P<0. 05). Yunnan,Guizhou and Sichuan are suitable for the growth of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis. And the transplaned P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis can be used as the same as the wild ones completely. The results provide reference for the protection and selective breeding of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis.


Assuntos
Melanthiaceae/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Saponinas/análise , China , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Ecossistema , Melhoramento Vegetal , Folhas de Planta , Plantas Medicinais/química
3.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 44(15): 3233-3238, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31602877

RESUMO

In order to study the correlation between the traits of Andrographis paniculata. The main agronomic traits and the content of four kinds of diterpene lactons were measured by the seedlings and the unmutagenized seeds carried by the spacecraft,and multiple comparisons,correlations and principal component analysis were carried out. The results showed that the agronomic traits of A. paniculata have different degrees of difference after being carried by space. The contents of diterpene lactones were quite different. The variation coefficients of deoxyandrographolide content,fresh weight,leaf dry weight,dehydrated andrographolide content,dry weight,neoandrographolide content and andrographolide content were all over 35%. There was a significant correlation between multiple traits,and the leaf weight ratio was significantly positively correlated with the number of primary tillers,leaf dry weight and dry weight,and was significantly negatively correlated with the content of deoxyandrographolide. Andrographolide content was a significantly negatively correlated with the number of leaves and the number of primary tillers,and positively correlated with the other three lactones. Five principal components were extracted from principal component analysis,and the cumulative contribution rate was 83. 127%,which were yield factor,plant type factor,leaf type factor,component factor and seed weight factor. Among the traits affecting the quality of A. paniculata,the yield factor for reliability of the selection of A. paniculata is higher than other factors. There are abundant variations among the traits of A. paniculata,carried in space which increase the genetic diversity. The principal component analysis method can be used to select the principal component factors according to the breeding requirements,which provides a theoretical basis for the breeding of high-yield and high-quality A. paniculata and the high-yield and stable cultivation of A. paniculata.


Assuntos
Andrographis/química , Diterpenos/análise , Lactonas/análise , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Folhas de Planta , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
4.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 44(17): 3695-3704, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31602941

RESUMO

Aconitums,represented by Aconite Radix,Aconiti Lateralis Radix Praeparata and Aconiti Kusnezoffh Folium,is a kind of traditional Chinese medicine with a long medicinal history in China. They possess the significant toxicity and therapeutic effects simultaneously. Their potent effects of rescuing from dying,curing rheumatism,anti-inflammation,and analgesia make Aconitums highly regarded by physicians and pharmacists of various dynasties. However,countless poisoning cases caused by an irrational use of Aconitums were reported. In case of improper application and exceeding the therapeutic window,the acute cardiotoxicity and neurotoxicity would be caused,seriously threatening health and even life of the users. Therefore,the clinical application of Aconitums is limited to some extent. To avoid its toxicity and ensure the safety of medicinal use,Aconitums is usually used in a form of its processed products instead of the crude herbs,or combined with some other traditional Chinese medicines in a normal prescription. A proper processing and compatibility method can detoxicate its severe toxicity,reduce the adverse reactions,and also significantly broaden the indications and application range of Aconitums. This provides a guarantee for the secondary exploitation and utilization of Aconitums. In this paper,the traditional processing methods of Aconitums,along with the modern advancement were reviewed,and the mechanisms of detoxification by processing and compatibility were also illuminated. The physical detoxification mode and chemical detoxification mode were found as two main detoxification ways for Aconitums. In particular,the detoxification by hydrolysis,ion-pair,and saponification were three main means. The mechanisms illustrated in this paper can be a reference to the development of modern processing method and a guidance for appropriate use of Aconitums in clinical application.


Assuntos
Aconitum/química , Composição de Medicamentos/métodos , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Aconitum/toxicidade , China , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/toxicidade , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Folhas de Planta/química , Raízes de Plantas/química
5.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 44(17): 3738-3744, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31602947

RESUMO

Seventeen compounds were isolated from the 95% ethanol extract of the stems and leaves of Sapium discolor by using various chromatographic techniques,including silica gel,Sephadex LH-20,MCI,ODS,and semi-preparative HPLC. Their structures were elucidated as sapiumin F( 1),kadsulignan C( 2),ciwujiatone( 3),ethylbrevifolin carboxylate( 4),7-hydroxy-8-methoxycoumarin( 5),fraxetin( 6),fraxidin( 7),isofraxidin( 8),6,7,8-trimethoxycoumarin( 9),5,6,7,8-tetramethoxycoumarin( 10),8-hydroxy-5,6,7-trimethoxycoumarin( 11),3,3'-di-O-methylellagic acid( 12),3,3',4'-tri-O-methylellagic acid( 13),3'-methoxyellagic acid 4'-O-α-rhamnopyranoside( 14),4,5-didehydro-chebulic acid triethyl ester( 15),ent-kaurane-3-oxo-16α,17-diol( 16),and abscisic acid( 17) by spectroscopic data. Compound 1 is a new compound. Except for compounds 4,11,and 13,the remaining compounds were isolated from this plant for the first time. All the isolates were evaluated for their in vitro antineuroinflammatory activities,and the results showed that compounds 6 and 15 significantly inhibited nitric oxide production in lipopolysaccharide-induced BV-2 microglial cells,with IC50 values of 6. 06 and 6. 05 µmol·L-1,respectively.


Assuntos
Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Folhas de Planta/química , Caules de Planta/química , Sapium/química , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Camundongos
6.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 30(10): 3356-3366, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31621221

RESUMO

To reveal the seedlings dynamics of dominant trees and their response to canopy changes (as indicated by changes in leaf area index), we analyzed the seedlings dynamics of dominant trees and canopy structure during forest regeneration based on three-year (2014 to 2016) censuses and hemispherical photography in a 4 hm2 forest dynamics monitoring plot. The results showed that canopy LAI first decreased and then increased during the survey period, with significant interannual difference. The seedlings of 12 dominant tree species showed notable response to the change of canopy structure, with the response varying among different tree species. The relative abundance or frequency of seedlings for neutral tree species generally increased with the decreases of canopy LAI. The relative abundance or frequency of seedlings of light-demanding tree species generally decreased with the increases of canopy LAI. In multi-response permutation procedures by analyzing the numeric composition and distribution of dominant tree seedlings, there was significant difference among the three censuses. Such interannual difference gradually decreased from 2014 to 2016. Significant change occurred in the indicator species of dominant tree seedlings, reflecting their responses to the changes of canopy structure.


Assuntos
Plântula , Árvores , China , Florestas , Folhas de Planta
7.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 30(10): 3435-3442, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31621230

RESUMO

To examine the effects of soil structure improvement due to the amendment of biochar and polyacrylamide (PAM) on the chlorophyll fluorescence characteristics of rice leaves and the yield of rice, a pit cultivation experiment was carried out in a coastal reclamation region. Three levels of biochar (0%, 2% and 5% by the mass of 0-20 cm surface soil and noted as B1, B2 and B3, respectively) and PAM (0‰, 0.4‰ and 1‰ by the mass of 0-20 cm surface soil and noted as P1,P2 and P3, respectively) were applied to the adopted soil, respectively. The results of the three-year experiment showed that an appropriate application quantity of biochar and PAM could improve the fluorescence characteristics of rice leaves. However, high levels of biochar and PAM had no obvious or even a negative effect. Among all the treatments, the B2P2 treatment always had the highest the maximum photochemical efficiency (Fv/Fm), the actual photochemical efficiency of photosystem II (ΦPS2), the photochemical quenching coefficient (qP) and the non-photochemical quenching coefficient (NPQ) values during the whole growth period. The chlorophyll content (SPAD value) of rice leaves showed no significant difference among different biochar application levels. However, it showed significant differences among different PAM application levels, with the highest value under the soil amended with 0.4‰ PAM (the P2 treatment). The application of biochar and PAM had significant impacts on rice yield, with the highest yield, namely 7236 kg·hm-2, presenting under the B2P2 treatment, which was 28.5% higher than that of the control. The improved soil structure of the coastal saline soil due to the amendment of biochar and PAM affects rice yield mainly through its influences on the 1000-grain weight, the spike number per hole, the grain number per spike and the seed setting rate. It is concluded that improving soil structure by applying an appropriate quantity of biochar and PAM is conducive to increase the chlorophyll fluorescence characteristics and the yield of rice in the coastal reclamation region.


Assuntos
Oryza , Solo , Clorofila , Fluorescência , Folhas de Planta
8.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 30(10): 3491-3500, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31621236

RESUMO

The dynamic simulation of cucumber growth and development in sunlight greenhouse can provide technical support for the intelligent management of cucumber production. According to the cucumber response characteristics to light and temperature, the cucumber development module based on the algorithm of clock model was established by using data from four-stage experiment with 'Jinyou 35' as experiment variety in two years. Based on the relationship between the leaf growth and key meteorological factors (temperature and radiation), leaf area index (LAI) module was established with the accumulated product of thermal effectiveness and photosynthetically active radiation (TEP) as independent variables. The simulation module of cucumber dry matter production was established by taking into consideration the double integral of LAI and daily length in photosynthesis per unit leaf area as well as the respiratory expenditure of different organs. Combined with water content of organs, fresh weight simulation module of cucumber organs was constructed. The whole cucumber development and growth simulation model in greenhouse was built based on each sub-module. The model parameters were calibrated and determined. The results showed that root mean square error (RMSE) of simulated values and observed values of four deve-lopment stages (from transplanting date to stretch tendril, to initial flowering, to early harvested and to uprooting), was 3.9-10.5 d. The normalized root mean square error (nRMSE) was 6.5%-28.6%. The coincidence index (D) was 0.79-0.97. The relationship between LAI and TEP was the regression of 'S' type curve. The RMSE of simulated and observed LAI values was 0.19. The nRMSE was 17.2%. The D value was 0.90. The RMSE of dry weight of root, stem, leaf, flower and fruit of the simulated values and observed values were 0.39-8.94 g·m-2. The nRMSE were 10.9%-17.7%. The D values were all above 0.98. The growth and development model of cucumber could accurately simulate the key development period of cucumber, leaf area and the dry and fresh weight of various organs and quantify the growth and development of cucumber in sunlight greenhouse.


Assuntos
Cucumis sativus , Crescimento e Desenvolvimento , Fotossíntese , Folhas de Planta , Luz Solar
9.
Postepy Biochem ; 65(2): 128-134, 2019 06 06.
Artigo em Polonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31642651

RESUMO

During leaf senescence and fruit ripening chlorophyll is broken down into nonfluorescent catabolites (NCCs). The chlorophyll degradation pathway includes a series of biochemical transformations ocurring sequentially in chloroplasts, cytosol and vacuoles. The path begins with enzymatic reduction of chlorophyll b to chlorophyll a. Next, the specific dechelatase and esterase remove the magnesium atom and the phytol chain resulting in the formation of pheophorbide a. In the next step, the porphyrin macroring is opened by pheophorbide a oxygenase and red catabolite reductase. The product of this transformation is an early fluorescent catabolite (pFCC), which after hydroxylation and species-specific modifications is imported into the vacuole. In acidic medium of the vacuole pFCC undergo isomerization to their respective colorless NCCs, which are final chlorophyll degradation products in higher plants. There are still no answers to a number of questions about the fate and significance of millions tons of chlorophyll catabolites released annually in the aquatic environment as a result of cellular senescence and death of phytoplankton. A few reports indicate that algae and cyanobacteria may metabolize their photosynthetic pigments in a similar way as higher plants do, however, the course of chlorophyll breakdown in these organisms has not been yet elucidated.


Assuntos
Clorofila/metabolismo , Células Vegetais/metabolismo , Oxirredutases/metabolismo , Células Vegetais/enzimologia , Folhas de Planta/enzimologia , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo
10.
Prog Chem Org Nat Prod ; 109: 385-413, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31637530

RESUMO

Since higher plants are unable to move in their environment, interesting and mysterious developmental events (allelopathy, phototropism, apical dominance, nyctinasty, flowering, senescence) are observed in their life cycle. Chemical compounds released from plant organs to the neighboring environment stimulate or suppress the development and/or growth of other plants; this chemical interaction is called "allelopathy." The bending of the organs of a plant toward the light is a well-known phenomenon called "phototropism." The growth of lateral buds of some plants is normally repressed by a strongly growing main shoot apex and is the so-called "apical dominance". Plants open their leaves during the day and close them at night as if sleeping is known as "nyctinasty." Herein, recent studies on isolation and structure elucidation of bioactive compounds involved in their life cycle and determination of the molecular mechanisms for these developmental events are described.


Assuntos
Embriófitas/química , Fototropismo , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Animais , Embriófitas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento
11.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 85: 35-45, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31471029

RESUMO

Imazethapyr (IM) is an acetolactate synthase (ALS)-inhibiting herbicide that has been widely used in recent years. However, IM spraying can lead to the accumulation of herbicide residues in leaves. Here, we determined the effects of IM spraying on the plant growth and leaf surface microbial communities of Arabidopsis thaliana after 7 and 14 days of exposure. The results suggested that IM spraying inhibited plant growth. Fresh weight decreased to 48% and 26% of the control value after 7 and 14 days, respectively, of 0.035 kg/ha IM exposure. In addition, anthocyanin content increased 9.2-fold and 37.2-fold relative to the control content after 7 and 14 days of treatment, respectively. Furthermore, IM spraying destroyed the cell structures of the leaves, as evidenced by increases in the number of starch granules and the stomatal closure rate. Reductions in photosynthetic efficiency and antioxidant enzyme activity were observed after IM spraying, especially after 14 days of exposure. The diversity and evenness of the leaf microbiota were not affected by IM treatment, but the composition of community structure at the genus level was altered by IM spraying. Imazethapyr application increased the abundance of Pseudomonas, a genus that includes species pathogenic to plants and humans, indicating that IM potentially increased the abundance of pathogenic bacteria on leaves. Our findings increase our understanding of the relationships between herbicide application and the microbial community structures on plant leaves, and they provide a new perspective for studying the ecological safety of herbicide usage.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Herbicidas/toxicidade , Microbiota/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácidos Nicotínicos/toxicidade , Folhas de Planta/microbiologia , Arabidopsis/efeitos dos fármacos , Arabidopsis/microbiologia , Folhas de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos
12.
Bioresour Technol ; 293: 122059, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31476563

RESUMO

To investigate the effects of adding Lactobacilluscasei (LC) and sucrose (S) on the fermentation quality and bacterial community of mulberry leaf silage, two kinds of mulberry leaves were harvested and ensiled with or without LC and S for 1, 7, 14, 30 and 60 days, respectively. Silages treated with LC and S contained more lactic acid (4.46-10.54%DM) and less ammonia-N (0.03-0.13%DM), acetic acid (0.73-3.40%DM) and coliform bacteria (<2.30 log cfu/g FM) and had a lower pH (<4.40) compared with controls. In addition, microbial analysis revealed less diverse bacterial communities and greater abundances of Lactobacillus (52.89-81.27%) and Pseudomonas (2.21-5.21%) in the LC and S silages. Furthermore, the addition of LC and S also inhibited the growth of undesirable Enterobacter. In conclusion, the addition of both LC and S has the capability of improving the silage quality of mulberry leaves.


Assuntos
Lactobacillus casei , Morus , Fermentação , Folhas de Planta , Silagem , Sacarose
13.
Oecologia ; 191(2): 397-409, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31494711

RESUMO

Determining the characteristics of non-native plants that can successfully establish and spread is central to pressing questions in invasion ecology. Evidence suggests that some non-native species establish and spread in new environments because they possess characteristics (functional traits) that allow them to either successfully compete with native residents or fill previously unfilled niches. However, the relative importance of out-competing native species vs. filling empty niche space as potential mechanisms of invasion may depend on environmental characteristics. Here, we measured plant functional traits, proxies indicative of competitive and establishment strategies, to determine if these traits vary among native and invasive species and if their prevalence is dependent on environmental conditions. Using a natural environmental gradient in Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park, we evaluated how functional traits differ between native and non-native plant communities and if these differences change along an environmental gradient from hot, dry to cool, wet conditions. Functional trait differences suggested that both competition and open niche space may be important for invasion. Non-native communities tended to have traits associated with faster growth strategies such as higher specific leaf area and lower leaf thickness. However, native and non-native community traits became more dissimilar along the gradient, suggesting that non-native species may be occupying previously unfilled niche space at the hot, dry end of the gradient. We also found that most of the variation in functional trait values amongst plots was due to species turnover rather than intraspecific variation. These results highlight the role of environmental context when considering invasion mechanisms.


Assuntos
Espécies Introduzidas , Plantas , Fenótipo , Folhas de Planta
14.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(38): 10685-10693, 2019 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31479251

RESUMO

Theanine is the most abundant non-protein amino acid in Camellia sinensis, but it is not known how a tea plant accumulates such high levels of theanine. The endophyte isolated from in vitro grown plantlets of C. sinensis cultivars was identified as Luteibacter spp., showing strong biocatalytic activity for converting both glutamine and ethylamine to theanine. Theanine was secreted outside of the bacteria. The endophyte isolated from in vitro plantlets of Camellia oleifera cultivar was identified as Bacillus safensis and did not convert glutamine and ethylamine to theanine. Enzymatic assays in vitro indicated that γ-glutamyltranspeptidases rCsEGGTs from the endophyte Luteibacter strains converted glutamine and ethylamine to theanine at higher rates than rCsGGTs from C. sinensis. This is the first report on theanine biosynthesis by an endophyte from C. sinensis, which provides a new pathway to explore the mechanism of theanine biosynthesis in C. sinensis and the interactions between an endophyte and tea plants.


Assuntos
Bactérias/metabolismo , Camellia sinensis/microbiologia , Endófitos/metabolismo , Glutamatos/metabolismo , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Camellia sinensis/química , Camellia sinensis/classificação , Endófitos/classificação , Endófitos/genética , Endófitos/isolamento & purificação , Etilaminas/metabolismo , Glutamina/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/química , Folhas de Planta/microbiologia
15.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(38): 10624-10636, 2019 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31483633

RESUMO

The freshness and color quality of postharvest tea leaves can be markedly prolonged and retained by proper preservation measures. Here, we investigated the dynamic changes of chlorophyll and its derivatives in postharvest tea leaves under different low-temperature treatments using natural withering as a control. Chlorophyll decomposition was found closely related with chlorophyllide, pheophorbide, and pheophytin. Low-temperature withering could slow chlorophyll degradation in postharvest tea leaves via significant inhibition on the enzyme activity and gene expression of Mg-dechelatase, chlorophyllase, and pheophorbide a oxygenase. At the initial stage of withering, a significant increase was observed in the chlorophyll content, expression of chlorophyll-synthesis-related enzymes (such as glutamyl-tRNA synthetase, etc.), and chlorophyll synthase activity in newly picked tea leaves. Moreover, an obvious decrease was found in the content of l-glutamate as the foremost precursor substance of chlorophyll synthesis. Hence, our findings revealed that the chlorophyll synthesis reaction was induced by the light-dehydration-stress in the initial withering of tea leaves. This study provides a theoretical basis for exploring preservation technology in actual green tea production.


Assuntos
Camellia sinensis/genética , Camellia sinensis/metabolismo , Clorofila/metabolismo , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Camellia sinensis/química , Camellia sinensis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Hidrolases de Éster Carboxílico/genética , Hidrolases de Éster Carboxílico/metabolismo , Clorofila/química , Cor , Enzimas/genética , Enzimas/metabolismo , Oxigenases/genética , Oxigenases/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/química , Folhas de Planta/genética , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Temperatura Ambiente
16.
Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) ; 67(9): 935-939, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31474732

RESUMO

Chafuroside A and chafuroside B are flavone C-glycosides isolated from oolong tea leaves. They have a number of beneficial pharmacological activities related to antiinflammation at various concentrations. However, no crystallographic study of chafurosides has yet been reported. In the present study, the crystal structures of chafuroside A and chafuroside B were investigated using single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The asymmetric unit of the chafuroside A crystal consists of one chafuroside A and two water molecules, and that of chafuroside B contains one chafuroside B and one water molecule. The flavone moiety of chafuroside A is curved, i.e., the angle between the best-fit planes of the chromene and phenyl rings is 18.9°, whereas the chafuroside B flavone moiety is relatively flat. A comparison of the curvatures of the flavone moieties of various C-glycosides showed that the curvature of chafuroside A is significantly larger than those of the others. This structural feature might contribute to the differences between the strengths of the pharmacological activities of chafurosides A and B.


Assuntos
Flavonas/química , Glicosídeos/química , Compostos Heterocíclicos de 4 ou mais Anéis/química , Chá/química , Camellia sinensis/química , Camellia sinensis/metabolismo , Cristalografia por Raios X , Conformação Molecular , Folhas de Planta/química , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo
17.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(36): e17009, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31490383

RESUMO

Erythrina corallodendron L., a kind of landscape tree, has long been used as a traditional medicine. In this study, the composition of essential oil extracted from the leaves was analysed by GC-MS (gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer), with linalool identified as the main compound. Its cytotoxicity against MDA-MB-231, MCF-7 and HMLE cells was examined by MTT and cloning assays. Transwell and wound-healing assays were used to examine the inhibition of migration and invasion. Western blot, qRT-PCR and immunofluorescence staining were used to measure the mRNA and protein expression of factors related to EMT (snail, slug, E-cadherin, N-cadherin and vimentin). The essential oil of Erythrina corallodendron leaves was found to inhibit the proliferation, migration and invasion of breast cancer cells in a dose-dependent manner. The findings of this study suggest that the essential oil of E. corallodendron leaves may merit further investigation as a potential clinical or adjuvant drug for treating breast cancer migration and invasion.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/tratamento farmacológico , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/análise , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Erythrina/química , Óleos Voláteis/uso terapêutico , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Células MCF-7 , Óleos Voláteis/química , Óleos Voláteis/isolamento & purificação , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Fitoterapia , Folhas de Planta/química
18.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(40): 11089-11098, 2019 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31509411

RESUMO

Reactive oxygen species and subsequent oxidative stress are reported to play important roles in chronic metabolic diseases. Plant-derived polyphenols, especially food-derived phenolics, have attracted a lot of attention due to their potential usage against oxidative stress-related diseases. The leaf of Psidium guajava (known as guava) is regarded as a good resource of polyphenols and its products are commercially available in Japan as functional foods against multiple chronic metabolism disorders. In the course of finding novel polyphenols with antioxidative activities from guava leaf, 11 acylated phenolic glycosides (1-11), including 5 new oleuropeic acid-conjugated phenolic glycosides, named guajanosides A-E (1, 2, and 5-7), along with 17 known meroterpenoides (12-28), were isolated and identified. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic data analysis, chemical degradation, and acid hydrolysis. Compounds 1, 2, and 5-11 displayed potent reactive oxygen species-scavenging activity in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. Western blot revealed that compound 6 markedly increased the expression levels of nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), NAD(P)H quinone dehydrogenase 1 (NQO1), and the glutamate-cysteine ligase catalytic subunit. The current study revealed the presence of oleuropeic acid-derived phenolic glycosides in guava leaf and highlighted the potential usage of this type of phenolics against oxidative stress-related metabolic diseases via activation of the Nrf2 signaling pathway.


Assuntos
Depuradores de Radicais Livres/farmacologia , Glicosídeos/farmacologia , Fenóis/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Psidium/química , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Animais , Depuradores de Radicais Livres/química , Glicosídeos/química , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Camundongos , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/genética , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenóis/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Células RAW 264.7
19.
Bioresour Technol ; 294: 122127, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31525585

RESUMO

To investigate the reason for well preservation of protein in Neolamarckia cadamba leaves (NCL) during ensiling, fresh NCL were ensiled with or without addition of 2.0 mL/kg formic acid (FA) or 1.0 × 109CFU/kg Lactobacillus farciminis (LF), and the dynamics of protease activity and microbial community were analyzed. Nonprotein-N, free amino acid, ammonia-N, the activities of carboxypeptidase and aminopeptidase, and bacterial diversity were low during NCL ensiling. Exiguobacterium dominated in NCL silage and its relative abundance increased while Enterobacter abundance decreased during ensiling. FA lowered (P < 0.05) pH and coliform bacteria number, while LF increased (P < 0.05) lactic acid bacteria number, lactic acid content and Lactobacillus abundance at the early stage of fermentation. In summary, protein in NCL can be well preserved during ensiling likely due to its low protease and bacterial activity, and FA and LF improve the quality of NCL silage in different ways.


Assuntos
Lactobacillus , Silagem , Bactérias , Fermentação , Formiatos , Peptídeo Hidrolases , Folhas de Planta , Proteólise
20.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(41): 11481-11488, 2019 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31545895

RESUMO

Dry tea matrix contains an abundance of caffeine and polyphenols which are different from the food matrix (e.g., protein, lipid, and carbohydrates), and only a few studies have tried aflatoxins determination with tea samples. Here, a specific, accurate, and sensitive method was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of aflatoxin B1, B2, G1, and G2 in dark teas. Aflatoxins were extracted by acetonitrile/water, press-filtered, and cleaned by multifunctional purification column (MFC) and immunoaffinity column (IAC) in tandem. The cleaned extract was analyzed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. The matrix interference was effectively reduced by MFC-IAC cleaning method. Recoveries at the spiking concentrations of 5-60 µg/kg ranged from 77.5 to 93%, with relative standard deviations <11.0%. The correlation coefficients of aflatoxins standard were >0.998. The limits of detection were 0.024-0.21 µg/kg and the limits of quantification were 0.08-0.74 µg/kg. The intra- and interday accuracy ranged from 74 to 87%, and the intra- and interday precisions ranged from 0.4 to 3.1%. After the method validation, the aflatoxins contaminations in 100 collected dark teas were detected, and the results were compared with those of other methods.


Assuntos
Aflatoxinas/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Imunoensaio/métodos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Chá/química , Camellia sinensis/química , Folhas de Planta/química
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