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1.
J Sci Food Agric ; 102(1): 167-174, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34080199

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nowadays a significant amount of land contaminated with toxic elements is being used for agriculture, posing a serious risk of crop contamination and toxicity. Several methodologies are being used to remediate soil contamination, including the use of amendments such as biochar. This work evaluated the effects of biochar combined with different fertirrigations (water, a conventional fertilizer solution, or a fertilizer solution with a commercial biostimulant derived from leonardite) on the availability of toxic elements and nutrients for pepper cultivated in a soil contaminated with As, Cd, Pb, and Zn. RESULTS: Irrigation with fertilizer solutions improved plant growth regardless of the biochar amendment. Biochar decreased the bioavailability of Cu and Pb in soil and the Cu content in pepper leaves. Combined with fertilization, biochar also decreased plant As and Pb content. Biochar combined with biostimulant decreased the bioavailable content of Cd in soil and its uptake by pepper plants. CONCLUSION: The use of biochar and biostimulant presented advantages for plant production in a non-suitable scenario of nutrient scarcity and contamination. © 2021 The Authors. Journal of The Science of Food and Agriculture published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Capsicum/metabolismo , Carvão Vegetal/química , Produção Agrícola/métodos , Fertilizantes/análise , Nutrientes/química , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Adsorção , Transporte Biológico , Cádmio/química , Cádmio/metabolismo , Capsicum/química , Capsicum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Chumbo/análise , Chumbo/química , Chumbo/metabolismo , Nutrientes/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/química , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Solo/química , Poluentes do Solo/química , Zinco/química , Zinco/metabolismo
2.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 485, 2021 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34688264

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: GROWTH-REGULATING FACTORs (GRFs), a type of plant-specific transcription factors, play important roles in regulating plant growth and development. Although GRF gene family has been identified in various plant species, a genome-wide analysis of this family in lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) has not been reported yet. RESULTS: Here we identified 15 GRF genes in lettuce and performed comprehensive analysis of them, including chromosomal locations, gene structures, and conserved motifs. Through phylogenic analysis, we divided LsaGRFs into six groups. Transactivation assays and subcellular localization of LsaGRF5 showed that this protein is likely to act as a transcriptional factor in the cell nucleus. Furthermore, transgenic lettuce lines overexpressing LsaGRF5 exhibited larger leaves, while smaller leaves were observed in LsaMIR396a overexpression lines, in which LsaGRF5 was down-regulated. CONCLUSIONS: These results in lettuce provide insight into the molecular mechanism of GRF gene family in regulating leaf growth and development and foundational information for genetic improvement of the lettuce variations specialized in leaf character.


Assuntos
Alface/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Alface/genética , Desenvolvimento Vegetal/genética , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/genética , Folhas de Planta/anatomia & histologia , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Folhas de Planta/genética , China , Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genes de Plantas , Genoma de Planta , Filogenia , Fatores de Transcrição
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(19)2021 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34638958

RESUMO

The development of above-ground lateral organs is initiated at the peripheral zone of the shoot apical meristem (SAM). The coordination of cell fate determination and the maintenance of stem cells are achieved through a complex regulatory network comprised of transcription factors. Two AP2/ERF transcription factor family genes, ESR1/DRN and ESR2/DRNL/SOB/BOL, regulate cotyledon and flower formation and de novo organogenesis in tissue culture. However, their roles in post-embryonic lateral organ development remain elusive. In this study, we analyzed the genetic interactions among SAM-related genes, WUS and STM, two ESR genes, and one of the HD-ZIP III members, REV, whose protein product interacts with ESR1 in planta. We found that esr1 mutations substantially enhanced the wus and stm phenotypes, which bear a striking resemblance to those of the wus rev and stm rev double mutants, respectively. Aberrant adaxial-abaxial polarity is observed in wus esr1 at relatively low penetrance. On the contrary, the esr2 mutation partially suppressed stm phenotypes in the later vegetative phase. Such complex genetic interactions appear to be attributed to the distinct expression pattern of two ESR genes because the ESR1 promoter-driving ESR2 is capable of rescuing phenotypes caused by the esr1 mutation. Our results pose the unique genetic relevance of ESR1 and the SAM-related gene interactions in the development of rosette leaves.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Arabidopsis/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genes de Plantas , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/genética , Meristema/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Meristema/genética , Organogênese Vegetal/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Mutação , Fenótipo , Folhas de Planta/genética , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento
4.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 454, 2021 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34615487

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Photosynthesis in the green leafless blade tissues or organs of plants has been studied in some plants, but the photosynthetic characteristics of stems and petioles are poorly understood. Cucurbitaceous plants are climbing plants that have substantial stem and petiole biomass. Understanding the photosynthetic contribution of cucumber stems and petioles to their growth and the underlying molecular mechanisms are important for the regulating of growth in cucumber production. RESULTS: In this study, the photosynthetic capacity of cucumber stems and petioles were determined by 14CO2 uptake. The total carbon fixed by the stems and petioles was approximately 4% of that fixed by one leaf blade in the cucumber seedling stage, while the proportion of the carbon accumulated in the stems and petioles that redistributed to sink organs (roots and shoot apexes) obviously increased under leafless conditions. The photosynthetic properties of cucumber stems and petioles were studied using a combination of electron microscopy and isotope tracers to compare these properties of stems and petioles with those of leaf blade using two genotypes of cucumber (dark green and light green). Compared with those of the leaf blades, the chlorophyll contents of the cucumber stems and petioles were lower, and the stems and petioles had lower chloroplast numbers and lower stoma numbers but higher thylakoid grana lamella numbers and larger stoma sizes. The Chl a/b ratios were also decreased in the petioles and stems compared with those in the leaf blades. The total photosynthetic rates of the stems and petioles were equivalent to 6 ~ 8% of that of one leaf blade, but the respiration rates were similar in all the three organs, with an almost net 0 photosynthetic rate in the stems and petioles. Transcriptome analysis showed that compared with the leaf blades, the stems and petioles has significantly different gene expression levels in photosynthesis, porphyrin and chlorophyll metabolism; photosynthetic antenna proteins; and carbon fixation. PEPC enzyme activities were higher in the stems and petioles than in the leaf blades, suggesting that the photosynthetic and respiratory mechanisms in stems and petioles are different from those in leaf blade, and these results are consistent with the gene expression data. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we confirmed the photosynthetic contribution to the growth of cucumber stems and petioles, and showed their similar photosynthetic patterns in the terms of anatomy, molecular biology and physiology, which were different from those of cucumber leaf blades.


Assuntos
Cucumis sativus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cucumis sativus/genética , Fotossíntese/genética , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Folhas de Planta/genética , Caules de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Caules de Planta/genética , Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cucumis sativus/metabolismo , Variação Genética , Genótipo
5.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 451, 2021 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34615488

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As a biennial plant, Secale cereale L is usually harvested in the autumn in the northern part of China where the temperature difference between day and night is of great disparity Through the pot experiment, the seedlings were cut to 2, 6 and 10 cm stubble height, and the simulated freeze-thaw (FT) stress (10/- 5 °C) was carried out after 6 days regrowth. The physiological effects of FT with different stubble height were revealed by analyzing the relative water content (RWC), osmotic adjustment substance concentration (soluble sugar and protein), membrane peroxidation (MDA) and catalase (CAT) activity. RESULTS: The results demonstrated that under freeze stress (- 5 °C), the content of soluble protein and MDA decreased and the seedlings of 2 cm treatment kept higher level of soluble protein and MDA, while the seedlings of 6 and 10 cm treatments kept higher level of the RWC, soluble sugar content, and CAT activity. After FT stress, the content of soluble sugar and protein, RWC in the 6 cm treatment were higher than those in 2 cm and 10 cm treatments, and the CAT activity in 10 cm treatment was the highest while the MDA content is lower. CONCLUSION: These data suggest that keeping high stubble height is more adaptive for short-term FT stress.


Assuntos
Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Desidratação , Congelamento , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Caules de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Secale/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plântula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Absorção Fisiológica , China , Pressão Osmótica
6.
Molecules ; 26(19)2021 Sep 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34641378

RESUMO

Black net shade treatment attenuates flavonoid biosynthesis in tea plants, while the effect of light quality is still unclear. We investigated the flavonoid and transcriptome profiles of tea leaves under different light conditions, using black nets with different shade percentages, blue, yellow and red nets to alter the light intensity and light spectral composition in the fields. Flavonol glycosides are more sensitive to light intensity than catechins, with a reduction percentage of total flavonol glycosides up to 79.6% compared with 38.7% of total catechins under shade treatment. A total of 29,292 unigenes were identified, and the KEGG result indicated that flavonoid biosynthesis was regulated by both light intensity and light spectral composition while phytohormone signal transduction was modulated under blue net shade treatment. PAL, CHS, and F3H were transcriptionally downregulated with light intensity. Co-expression analysis showed the expressions of key transcription factors MYB12, MYB86, C1, MYB4, KTN80.4, and light signal perception and signaling genes (UVR8, HY5) had correlations with the contents of certain flavonoids (p < 0.05). The level of abscisic acid in tea leaves was elevated under shade treatment, with a negative correlation with TFG content (p < 0.05). This work provides a potential route of changing light intensity and spectral composition in the field to alter the compositions of flavor substances in tea leaves and regulate plant growth, which is instructive to the production of summer/autumn tea and matcha.


Assuntos
Camellia sinensis/genética , Flavonoides/biossíntese , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Luz , Folhas de Planta/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Transcriptoma/efeitos da radiação , Camellia sinensis/química , Camellia sinensis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Camellia sinensis/efeitos da radiação , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Folhas de Planta/química , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Folhas de Planta/efeitos da radiação , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo
7.
Molecules ; 26(19)2021 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34641402

RESUMO

Transitory starch plays a central role in the life cycle of plants. Many aspects of this important metabolism remain unknown; however, starch granules provide insight into this persistent metabolic process. Therefore, monitoring alterations in starch granules with high temporal resolution provides one significant avenue to improve understanding. Here, a previously established method that combines LCSM and safranin-O staining for in vivo imaging of transitory starch granules in leaves of Arabidopsis thaliana was employed to demonstrate, for the first time, the alterations in starch granule size and morphology that occur both throughout the day and during leaf aging. Several starch-related mutants were included, which revealed differences among the generated granules. In ptst2 and sex1-8, the starch granules in old leaves were much larger than those in young leaves; however, the typical flattened discoid morphology was maintained. In ss4 and dpe2/phs1/ss4, the morphology of starch granules in young leaves was altered, with a more rounded shape observed. With leaf development, the starch granules became spherical exclusively in dpe2/phs1/ss4. Thus, the presented data provide new insights to contribute to the understanding of starch granule morphogenesis.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/fisiologia , Ritmo Circadiano , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Mutação , Folhas de Planta/fisiologia , Amido/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Cloroplastos , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo
8.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0246874, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34624043

RESUMO

The aim of this study is to optimize the simulation result of the WOFOST model and explore the possibility of assimilating unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) imagery into this model. Field images of wheat during its key growth stages are acquired with a UAV, and the corresponding leaf area index (LAI), biomass, and final yield are experimentally measured. LAI data is retrieved from the UAV imagery and assimilated into a localized WOFOST model using least squares optimization. Sensitive parameters, i.e., specific leaf area (SLATB0, SLATB0.5, SLATB2) and maximum CO2 assimilation rate (AMAXTB1, AMAXTB1.3) are adjusted to minimize the discrepancy between the LAI obtained from the model simulation and inversion of the UAV data. The results show that the assimilated model provides a better estimation of the growth and development of winter wheat in the study area. The R2, RMSE, and NRMSE of winter wheat LAI simulated with the assimilated WOFOST model are 0.8812, 0.49, and 23.5% respectively. The R2, RMSE, and NRMSE of the simulated yield are 0.9489, 327.06 kg·hm-2, and 6.5%. The accuracy in model simulation of winter wheat growth is improved, which demonstrates the feasibility of integrating UAV data into crop models.


Assuntos
Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Agricultura/métodos , Biomassa , Simulação por Computador , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Fenômica/métodos , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Tecnologia de Sensoriamento Remoto/métodos , Estações do Ano
9.
Plant Sci ; 312: 111026, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34620431

RESUMO

Brassinosteroids (BRs) play numerous important roles in plant growth and development. Previous studies reported that BRs could promote stem growth by regulating the expression of xyloglucan endotransglucosylase/hydrolases (XTHs). However, the mechanism of XTHs involved in stem growth remains unclear. In this study, PcBRU1, which belonged to the XTH family, was upregulated by exogenous BL treatment in Pyrus communis. The expression of PcBRU1 was highest in stems and lowest in leaves. Subcellular localization analysis indicated that PcBRU1 was located in the plasma membrane. Furthermore, overexpressing PcBRU1 in tobaccos promoted the plant height and internode length. Electron microscopy and anatomical structure analysis showed that the cell wall was significantly thinner and the cells were slenderer in transgenic tobacco lines overexpressing PcBRU1 than in wild-type tobaccos. PcBRU1 promoted stem growth as it loosened the cell wall, leading to the change in cell morphology. In addition, overexpressing PcBRU1 altered the root development and leaf shape of transgenic tobaccos. Taken together, the results could provide a theoretical basis for the XTH family in regulating cell-wall elongation and stem growth.


Assuntos
Crescimento Celular , Glicosiltransferases/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Caules de Planta/metabolismo , Pyrus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Pyrus/genética , Pyrus/metabolismo , Parede Celular/metabolismo , Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Produtos Agrícolas/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genes de Plantas , Variação Genética , Genótipo , Glicosiltransferases/genética , Fenótipo , Folhas de Planta/genética , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Caules de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Tabaco/genética , Tabaco/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Tabaco/metabolismo
10.
Plant Sci ; 312: 111035, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34620439

RESUMO

After germination, the maize shoot proceeds through a series of developmental stages before flowering. The first transition occurs during the vegetative phase where the shoot matures from the juvenile to the adult phase, called vegetative phase change (VPC). In maize, both phases exhibit easily-scored morphological characteristics, facilitating the elucidation of molecular mechanisms directing the characteristic gene expression patterns and resulting physiological features of each phase. miR156 expression is high during the juvenile phase, suppressing expression of squamosa promoter binding proteins/SBP-like transcription factors and miR172. The decline in miR156 and subsequent increase in miR172 expression marks the transition into the adult phase, where miR172 represses transcripts that confer juvenile traits. Leaf-derived signals attenuate miR156 expression and thus the duration of the juvenile phase. As found in other species, VPC in maize utilizes signals that consist of hormones, stress, and sugar to direct epigenetic modifiers. In this review we identify the intersection of leaf-derived signaling with components that contribute to the epigenetic changes which may, in turn, manage the distinct global gene expression patterns of each phase. In maize, published research regarding chromatin remodeling during VPC is minimal. Therefore, we identified epigenetic regulators in the maize genome and, using published gene expression data and research from other plant species, identify VPC candidates.


Assuntos
Epigênese Genética , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Folhas de Planta/genética , Brotos de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Brotos de Planta/genética , Zea mays/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Zea mays/genética , Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , MicroRNAs/genética , MicroRNAs/fisiologia , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia
11.
Plant Sci ; 312: 111048, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34620445

RESUMO

Commercial avocado orchards typically consist of composite trees. Avocado is salt-sensitive, suffering from substantial growth and production depreciation when exposed to high sodium and chloride levels. Salt ions penetrate the roots and are subsequently transferred to the foliage. Hence, understanding distinct physiological responses of grafted avocado plant organs to salinity is of great interest. We compared the ion, metabolite and lipid profiles of leaves, roots and trunk drillings of mature 'Hass' scion grafted onto two different rootstocks during gradual exposure to salinity. We found that one rootstock, VC840, did not restrict the transport of irrigation solution components to the scion, leading to salt accumulation in the trunk and leaves. The other rootstock, VC152, functioned selectively, moderating the movement of toxic ions to the scion organs by accumulating them in the roots. The leaves of the scion grafted on the selective rootstock acquired the standard level of essential minerals without being exposed to excessive salt concentrations. However, this came with an energetic cost as the leaves transferred carbohydrates and storage lipids downward to the rootstock organs, which became a strong sink. We conclude that mutual scion-rootstock relationships enable marked tolerance to salt stress through selective ion transport and metabolic modifications.


Assuntos
Persea/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Persea/genética , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Caules de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Salinidade , Tolerância ao Sal/genética , Tolerância ao Sal/fisiologia , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Variação Genética , Genótipo , Israel , Lipidômica , Metaboloma , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Caules de Planta/genética
13.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(18)2021 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34575941

RESUMO

Drought is the main environmental factor that limits the yield and quality of apples (Malus × domestica) grown in arid and semi-arid regions. Nuclear factor Ys (NF-Ys) are important transcription factors involved in the regulation of plant growth, development, and various stress responses. However, the function of NF-Y genes is poorly understood in apples. Here, we identified 43 NF-Y genes in the genome of apples and conducted an initial functional characterization of the apple NF-Y. Expression analysis of NF-Y members in M. sieversii revealed that a large number of NF-Ys were highly expressed in the roots compared with the leaves, and a large proportion of NF-Y genes responded to drought treatment. Furthermore, heterologous expression of MsNF-YB21, which was significantly upregulated by drought, led to a longer root length and, thus, conferred improved osmotic and salt tolerance in Arabidopsis. Moreover, the physiological analysis of MsNF-YB21 overexpression revealed enhanced antioxidant systems, including antioxidant enzymes and compatible solutes. In addition, genes encoding catalase (AtCAT2, AtCAT3), superoxide dismutase (AtFSD1, AtFSD3, AtCSD1), and peroxidase (AtPER12, AtPER42, AtPER47, AtPER51) showed upregulated expression in the MsNF-YB21 overexpression lines. These results for the MsNF-Y gene family provide useful information for future studies on NF-Ys in apples, and the functional analysis of MsNF-YB21 supports it as a potential target in the improvement of apple drought tolerance via biotechnological strategies.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis/genética , Malus/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Arabidopsis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Secas , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Pressão Osmótica , Folhas de Planta/genética , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Tolerância ao Sal/genética , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
14.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(18)2021 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34575968

RESUMO

Purple-colored leaves in plants attain much interest for their important biological functions and could be a potential source of phenotypic marker in selecting individuals in breeding. The transcriptional profiling helps to precisely identify mechanisms of leaf pigmentation in crop plants. In this study, two genetically unlike rice genotypes, the mutant purple leaf (pl) and wild (WT) were selected for RNA-sequencing and identifying the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) that are regulating purple leaf color. In total, 609 DEGs were identified, of which 513 and 96 genes were up- and down-regulated, respectively. The identified DEGs are categorized into metabolic process, carboxylic acid biosynthesis, phenylpropanoids, and phenylpropanoid biosynthesis process enrichment by GO analysis. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) confirmed their association with phenylpropanoid synthesis, flavonoid synthesis, and phenylalanine metabolism. To explore molecular mechanism of purple leaf color, a set of anthocyanin biosynthetic and regulatory gene expression patterns were checked by qPCR. We found that OsPAL (Os02g0626100, Os02g0626400, Os04g0518400, Os05g0427400 and Os02g0627100), OsF3H (Os03g0122300), OsC4HL (Os05g0320700), and Os4CL5 (Os08g0448000) are associated with anthocyanin biosynthesis, and they were up-regulated in pl leaves. Two members of regulatory MYB genes (OsMYB55; Os05g0553400 and Os08g0428200), two bHLH genes (Os01g0196300 and Os04g0300600), and two WD40 genes (Os11g0132700 and Os11g0610700) also showed up-regulation in pl mutant. These genes might have significant and vital roles in pl leaf coloration and could provide reference materials for further experimentation to confirm the molecular mechanisms of anthocyanin biosynthesis in rice.


Assuntos
Antocianinas/biossíntese , Oryza/genética , Folhas de Planta/genética , Transcriptoma/genética , Antocianinas/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Proteínas Mutantes/genética , Oryza/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Pigmentação/genética , Melhoramento Vegetal , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , RNA-Seq
15.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(18)2021 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34576037

RESUMO

Their high adaptability to difficult coastal conditions makes mangrove trees a valuable resource and an interesting model system for understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying stress tolerance and adaptation of plants to the stressful environmental conditions. In this study, we used RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) for de novo assembling and characterizing the Bruguiera gymnorhiza (L.) Lamk leaf transcriptome. B. gymnorhiza is one of the most widely distributed mangrove species from the biggest family of mangroves; Rhizophoraceae. The de novo assembly was followed by functional annotations and identification of individual transcripts and gene families that are involved in abiotic stress response. We then compared the genome-wide expression profiles between two populations of B. gymnorhiza, growing under different levels of stress, in their natural habitats. One population living in high salinity environment, in the shore of the Pacific Ocean- Japan, and the other population living about one kilometre farther from the ocean, and next to the estuary of a river; in less saline and more brackish condition. Many genes involved in response to salt and osmotic stress, showed elevated expression levels in trees growing next to the ocean in high salinity condition. Validation of these genes may contribute to future salt-resistance research in mangroves and other woody plants. Furthermore, the sequences and transcriptome data provided in this study are valuable scientific resources for future comparative transcriptome research in plants growing under stressful conditions.


Assuntos
Pressão Osmótica/efeitos dos fármacos , Rhizophoraceae/genética , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Transcriptoma/genética , Adaptação Fisiológica/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Folhas de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Folhas de Planta/genética , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Rhizophoraceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Salinidade , Tolerância ao Sal/genética , Cloreto de Sódio/efeitos adversos , Árvores
16.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 406, 2021 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34488627

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Plant mitochondrial transcription termination factor (mTERF) family members play important roles in development and stress tolerance through regulation of organellar gene expression. However, their molecular functions have yet to be clearly defined. RESULTS: Here an mTERF gene V14 was identified by fine mapping using a conditional albino mutant v14 that displayed albinism only in the first two true leaves, which was confirmed by transgenic complementation tests. Subcellular localization and real-time PCR analyses indicated that V14 encodes a chloroplastic protein ubiquitously expressed in leaves while spiking in the second true leaf. Chloroplastic gene expression profiling in the pale leaves of v14 through real-time PCR and Northern blotting analyses showed abnormal accumulation of the unprocessed transcripts covering the rpoB-rpoC1 and/or rpoC1-rpoC2 intercistronic regions accompanied by reduced abundance of the mature rpoC1 and rpoC2 transcripts, which encode two core subunits of the plastid-encoded plastid RNA polymerase (PEP). Subsequent immunoblotting analyses confirmed the reduced accumulation of RpoC1 and RpoC2. A light-inducible photosynthetic gene psbD was also found down-regulated at both the mRNA and protein levels. Interestingly, such stage-specific aberrant posttranscriptional regulation and psbD expression can be reversed by high temperatures (30 ~ 35 °C), although V14 expression lacks thermo-sensitivity. Meanwhile, three V14 homologous genes were found heat-inducible with similar temporal expression patterns, implicating their possible functional redundancy to V14. CONCLUSIONS: These data revealed a critical role of V14 in chloroplast development, which impacts, in a stage-specific and thermo-sensitive way, the appropriate processing of rpoB-rpoC1-rpoC2 precursors and the expression of certain photosynthetic proteins. Our findings thus expand the knowledge of the molecular functions of rice mTERFs and suggest the contributions of plant mTERFs to photosynthesis establishment and temperature acclimation.


Assuntos
Oryza/metabolismo , Fotossíntese/fisiologia , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plântula/fisiologia , Aclimatação , Cloroplastos/fisiologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Oryza/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Temperatura
17.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0256905, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34495993

RESUMO

Nanoscience paves the way for producing highly potent fertilizers and pesticides to meet farmer's expectations. This study investigated the physiological and molecular responses of soybean seedlings to the long-time application of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) and their bulk type (BZnO) at 5 mg L-1 under the two application methods (I- foliar application; II- soil method). The ZnO NPs/BZnO treatments in a substance type- and method-dependent manner improved plant growth performance and yield. ZnO NPs transactionally upregulated the EREB gene. However, the expression of the bHLH gene displayed a contrary downward trend in response to the supplements. ZnO NPs moderately stimulated the transcription of R2R3MYB. The HSF-34 gene was also exhibited a similar upward trend in response to the nano-supplements. Moreover, the ZnONP treatments mediated significant upregulation in the WRKY1 transcription factor. Furthermore, the MAPK1 gene displayed a similar upregulation trend in response to the supplements. The foliar application of ZnONP slightly upregulated transcription of the HDA3 gene, while this gene showed a contrary slight downregulation trend in response to the supplementation of nutrient solution. The upregulation in the CAT gene also resulted from the nano-supplements. The concentrations of photosynthetic pigments exhibited an increasing trend in the ZnONP-treated seedlings. The applied treatments contributed to the upregulation in the activity of nitrate reductase and the increase in the proline concentrations. ZnO NPs induced the activity of antioxidant enzymes, including peroxidase and catalase by averages of 48.3% and 41%, respectively. The utilization of ZnO NPs mediated stimulation in the activity of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase and increase in soluble phenols. The findings further underline this view that the long-time application of ZnO NPs at low concentrations is a safe low-risk approach to meet agricultural requirements.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Carbono/metabolismo , Histona Desacetilases/metabolismo , Nanopartículas/química , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Metabolismo Secundário/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Soja/efeitos dos fármacos , Soja/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Óxido de Zinco/farmacologia , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Fertilizantes , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Genes de Plantas , Histona Desacetilases/genética , Fotossíntese/efeitos dos fármacos , Folhas de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Plântula/efeitos dos fármacos , Plântula/genética , Plântula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plântula/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Soja/genética , Soja/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Regulação para Cima/efeitos dos fármacos , Óxido de Zinco/efeitos adversos
18.
Cells ; 10(9)2021 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34571927

RESUMO

Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are vital epigenetic modifiers not only in regulating plant development but also in abiotic- and biotic-stress responses. Though to date, the functions of HD2C-an HD2-type HDAC-In plant development and abiotic stress have been intensively explored, its function in biotic stress remains unknown. In this study, we have identified HD2C as an interaction partner of the Cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) P6 protein. It functions as a positive regulator in defending against CaMV infection. The hd2c mutants show enhanced susceptibility to CaMV infection. In support, the accumulation of viral DNA, viral transcripts, and the deposition of histone acetylation on the viral minichromosomes are increased in hd2c mutants. P6 interferes with the interaction between HD2C and HDA6, and P6 overexpression lines have similar phenotypes with hd2c mutants. In further investigations, P6 overexpression lines, together with CaMV infection plants, are more sensitive to ABA and NaCl with a concomitant increasing expression of ABA/NaCl-regulated genes. Moreover, the global levels of histone acetylation are increased in P6 overexpression lines and CaMV infection plants. Collectively, our results suggest that P6 dysfunctions histone deacetylase HD2C by physical interaction to promote CaMV infection.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/virologia , Caulimovirus/isolamento & purificação , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Histona Desacetilases/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/virologia , Proteínas Virais/metabolismo , Viroses/virologia , Acetilação , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/química , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Caulimovirus/fisiologia , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Histona Desacetilases/química , Histona Desacetilases/genética , Fenótipo , Folhas de Planta/genética , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/virologia , Tabaco/genética , Tabaco/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Tabaco/metabolismo , Tabaco/virologia , Proteínas Virais/genética , Viroses/genética , Viroses/metabolismo
19.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0257023, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34555032

RESUMO

Abiotic stress, especially a lack of water, can significantly reduce crop yields. In this study, we evaluated the physiological and biochemical effects of potassium sulfate (K2SO4) fertilizer and varied irrigation regimes on the economically significant oilseed crop, Brassica juncea L, under open field conditions. Two cultivars (RH-725 and RH-749) of B. juncea were used in a randomized complete block design experiment with three replicates. Irrigation regimes consisted of a control (double irrigation: once at the 50% flowering and another at 50% fruiting stages), early irrigation (at 50% flowering only), late irrigation (at 50% fruiting only) and stress (no irrigation). The K2SO4 applications were: control (K0, no fertilization); K1, 10 kg ha-1; and K2, 20 kg ha-1. We measured growth via fresh and dry plant weight, plant height, root length, and leaf area. All the growth parameters were higher in RH-749. The physiological attributes, including the membrane stability index and relative water content, were higher at the 50% flowering stage in RH-749. The amount of antioxidant enzymes (catalase (CAT), guaiacol peroxidase (POX), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), and superoxide dismutase (SOD)) was enhanced when both plants were fertilized during water stress. All of these enzymes had higher activity in RH-749. The total chlorophyll content and photosynthesis rate were considerably higher in RH-749, which leaked fewer electrolytes and maintained a less destructive osmotic potential under limited water conditions. The results indicated that it is water-stress tolerant when given a high concentration of K2SO4, which alleviated the adverse effects of water stress on growth and physiology.


Assuntos
Irrigação Agrícola/métodos , Fertilizantes/análise , Mostardeira/efeitos dos fármacos , Folhas de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Fisiológico/efeitos dos fármacos , Sulfatos/farmacologia , Ascorbato Peroxidases/metabolismo , Catalase/metabolismo , Clorofila/metabolismo , Secas , Flores/efeitos dos fármacos , Flores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Flores/metabolismo , Frutas/efeitos dos fármacos , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Frutas/metabolismo , Mostardeira/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Mostardeira/metabolismo , Peroxidase/metabolismo , Fotossíntese , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Especificidade da Espécie , Estresse Fisiológico/fisiologia , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Água/metabolismo
20.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0257756, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34559853

RESUMO

This study explored the physiological and molecular mechanisms of yield increase in maize under stable soil water content (SW) conditions. Results of the study showed that under SW conditions, corn yield increased by 38.72 and 44.09% in 2019 and 2020, respectively. Further, it was found that dry matter accumulation, economic coefficient and photosynthetic rate also increased by 31.24 and 25.67%, 5.45 and 15.38% as well as 29.60 and 31.83% in 2019 and 2020 respectively. However, the results showed that both the activity of antioxidant enzymes and content of osmotic adjustment substances decreased in maize under SW conditions. When compared with soil moisture content of dry and wet alternation (DW) conditions, SW could not only significantly promote growth and yield of maize but also increase the economic coefficient. Transcriptome profiles of maize leaves under the two conditions (SW and DW) were also analyzed and compared. It was found that 11 genes were highly up-regulated in the photosynthesis pathway. These genes included photosystem II protein V (PsbE), photosystem II protein VI (PsbF), photosystem II protein D1 (PsbA), photosystem II protein D2 (PsbD) and ATP synthase CF1 beta subunit (atpB). Further, it was found that four genes were up-regulated in the oxidative phosphorylation pathway., These were ATP synthase CF1 epsilon subunit (atpE), ATP synthase CF1 beta subunit (atpB), NADH dehydrogenase subunit 4L (ndhE) and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 6 (ndhG). In conclusion, the physiological mechanism of stable soil water content (SW) to increase corn yield may be the enhancement of photosynthetic capacity and energy metabolism.


Assuntos
Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Água/química , Zea mays/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Irrigação Agrícola , Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Fosforilação Oxidativa , Fotossíntese , Folhas de Planta/genética , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Solo/química , Zea mays/genética
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