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1.
Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao ; 37(8): 2845-2855, 2021 Aug 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34472302

RESUMO

Production of biofuels such as ethanol from non-grain crops may contribute to alleviating the global energy crisis and reducing the potential threat to food security. Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) is a commercial crop with high biomass yield. Breeding of starch-rich tobacco plants may provide alternative raw materials for the production of fuel ethanol. We cloned the small subunit gene NtSSU of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (NtAGPase), which controls starch biosynthesis in tobacco, and constructed a plant expression vector pCAMBIA1303-NtSSU. The NtSSU gene was overexpressed in tobacco upon Agrobacterium-mediated leaf disc transformation. Phenotypic analysis showed that overexpression of NtSSU gene promoted the accumulation of starch in tobacco leaves, and the content of starch in tobacco leaves increased from 17.5% to 41.7%. The growth rate and biomass yield of the transgenic tobacco with NtSSU gene were also significantly increased. The results revealed that overexpression of NtSSU gene could effectively redirect more photosynthesis carbon flux into starch biosynthesis pathway, which led to an increased biomass yield but did not generate negative effects on other agronomic traits. Therefore, NtSSU gene can be used as an excellent target gene in plant breeding to enrich starch accumulation in vegetative organs to develop new germplasm dedicated to fuel ethanol production.


Assuntos
Amido , Tabaco , Biomassa , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Melhoramento Vegetal , Folhas de Planta/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/metabolismo , Tabaco/genética , Tabaco/metabolismo
2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445541

RESUMO

Mallotus japonicus is a valuable traditional medicinal plant in East Asia for applications as a gastrointestinal drug. However, the molecular components involved in the biosynthesis of bioactive metabolites have not yet been explored, primarily due to a lack of omics resources. In this study, we established metabolome and transcriptome resources for M. japonicus to capture the diverse metabolite constituents and active transcripts involved in its biosynthesis and regulation. A combination of untargeted metabolite profiling with data-dependent metabolite fragmentation and metabolite annotation through manual curation and feature-based molecular networking established an overall metabospace of M. japonicus represented by 2129 metabolite features. M. japonicus de novo transcriptome assembly showed 96.9% transcriptome completeness, representing 226,250 active transcripts across seven tissues. We identified specialized metabolites biosynthesis in a tissue-specific manner, with a strong correlation between transcripts expression and metabolite accumulations in M. japonicus. The correlation- and network-based integration of metabolome and transcriptome datasets identified candidate genes involved in the biosynthesis of key specialized metabolites of M. japonicus. We further used phylogenetic analysis to identify 13 C-glycosyltransferases and 11 methyltransferases coding candidate genes involved in the biosynthesis of medicinally important bergenin. This study provides comprehensive, high-quality multi-omics resources to further investigate biological properties of specialized metabolites biosynthesis in M. japonicus.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Mallotus (Planta)/metabolismo , Metaboloma , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Transcriptoma , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Mallotus (Planta)/genética , Mallotus (Planta)/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Especificidade de Órgãos , Filogenia , Folhas de Planta/genética , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445369

RESUMO

Annexin (Ann) is a polygenic, evolutionarily conserved, calcium-dependent and phospholipid-binding protein family, which plays key roles in plant growth, development, and stress response. However, a comprehensive understanding of CaAnn genes of pepper (Capsicum annuum) at the genome-wide level is limited. Based on the available pepper genomic information, we identified 15 members of the CaAnn gene family. Phylogenetic analysis showed that CaAnn proteins could be categorized into four different orthologous groups. Real time quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed that the CaAnn genes were tissue-specific and were widely expressed in pepper leaves after treatments with cold, salt, and drought, as well as exogenously applied MeJA and ABA. In addition, the function of CaAnn9 was further explored using the virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) technique. CaAnn9-silenced pepper seedlings were more sensitive to salt stress, reflected by the degradation of chlorophyll, the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and the decrease of antioxidant defense capacity. This study provides important information for further study of the role of pepper CaAnn genes and their coding proteins in growth, development, and environmental responses.


Assuntos
Anexinas/genética , Capsicum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Tolerância ao Sal , Ácido Abscísico/farmacologia , Acetatos/farmacologia , Capsicum/efeitos dos fármacos , Capsicum/genética , Ciclopentanos/farmacologia , Evolução Molecular , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Especificidade de Órgãos , Oxilipinas/farmacologia , Filogenia , Folhas de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Folhas de Planta/genética , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
4.
Planta ; 254(3): 54, 2021 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34410495

RESUMO

MAIN CONCLUSION: The expression of full-length cDNAs encoding lavender AGAMOUS-like (LaAG-like) and SEPALLATA3-like (LaSEP3-like) transcription factors induces early flowering and impacts the leaf morphology at a strong expression level in Arabidopsis. Lavandula angustifolia is widely cultivated as an ornamental plant due to its attractive flower structure, and as a source of valuable essential oils for use in cosmetics, alternative medicines, and culinary products. We recently employed RNA-Seq and transcript profiling to describe a number of transcription factors (TFs) that potentially control flower development in this plant. In this study, we investigated the roles of two TFs, LaAGAMOUS-like (LaAG-like) and LaSEPALLATA3-like (LaSEP3-like), that exhibited substantial homology to Arabidopsis thaliana floral development genes, AGAMOUS and SEPALLATA3, respectively, in flowering initiation in Arabidopsis. We stably and constitutively expressed LaAG-like and LaSEP3-like cDNAs in separate Arabidopsis plants. All transgenic plants flowered earlier than the wild-type controls. However, plants that modestly overexpressed the gene were phenotypically normal, while those that strongly expressed the transgene developed curly leaves. We also assessed the expression of five endogenous flowering time regulating genes, from which high expression of Flowering Locus T (AtFT) mRNA in both LaAG-like (type-I and -II) and LaSEP3-like (type-I), and Leafy (AtLFY) mRNAs in LaSEP3-like (type-I) transgenic plants were detected, compared to wild-type controls. Our results suggest that with controlled expression, lavender AG-like and SEP3-like genes are potentially useful for the regulation of flowering time in commercial lavender species, and could be used for plant improvement studies through molecular genetics and targeted breeding programs.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis , Arabidopsis , Lavandula , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Flores/genética , Flores/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Lavandula/metabolismo , Proteínas de Domínio MADS/genética , Melhoramento Vegetal , Folhas de Planta/genética , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/metabolismo , Proteínas Repressoras
5.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 375, 2021 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34388962

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The lace plant (Aponogeton madagascariensis) is an aquatic monocot that develops leaves with uniquely formed perforations through the use of a developmentally regulated process called programmed cell death (PCD). The process of perforation formation in lace plant leaves is subdivided into several developmental stages: pre-perforation, window, perforation formation, perforation expansion and mature. The first three emerging "imperforate leaves" do not form perforations, while all subsequent leaves form perforations via developmentally regulated PCD. PCD is active in cells called "PCD cells" that do not retain the antioxidant anthocyanin in spaces called areoles framed by the leaf veins of window stage leaves. Cells near the veins called "NPCD cells" retain a red pigmentation from anthocyanin and do not undergo PCD. While the cellular changes that occur during PCD are well studied, the gene expression patterns underlying these changes and driving PCD during leaf morphogenesis are mostly unknown. We sought to characterize differentially expressed genes (DEGs) that mediate lace plant leaf remodelling and PCD. This was achieved performing gene expression analysis using transcriptomics and comparing DEGs among different stages of leaf development, and between NPCD and PCD cells isolated by laser capture microdissection. RESULTS: Transcriptomes were sequenced from imperforate, pre-perforation, window, and mature leaf stages, as well as PCD and NPCD cells isolated from window stage leaves. Differential expression analysis of the data revealed distinct gene expression profiles: pre-perforation and window stage leaves were characterized by higher expression of genes involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis, plant proteases, expansins, and autophagy-related genes. Mature and imperforate leaves upregulated genes associated with chlorophyll development, photosynthesis, and negative regulators of PCD. PCD cells were found to have a higher expression of genes involved with ethylene biosynthesis, brassinosteroid biosynthesis, and hydrolase activity whereas NPCD cells possessed higher expression of auxin transport, auxin signalling, aspartyl proteases, cysteine protease, Bag5, and anthocyanin biosynthesis enzymes. CONCLUSIONS: RNA sequencing was used to generate a de novo transcriptome for A. madagascariensis leaves and revealed numerous DEGs potentially involved in PCD and leaf remodelling. The data generated from this investigation will be useful for future experiments on lace plant leaf development and PCD in planta.


Assuntos
Alismatales/genética , Alismatales/fisiologia , Apoptose , Folhas de Planta/fisiologia , Alismatales/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Antocianinas/biossíntese , Apoptose/genética , Parede Celular/enzimologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Células Vegetais , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/fisiologia , Folhas de Planta/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , RNA de Plantas , RNA-Seq , Fatores de Transcrição/fisiologia , Transcriptoma
6.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 358, 2021 Aug 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34348650

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The South America pinworm, Tuta absoluta, is a destructive pest of tomato that causes important losses worldwide. Breeding of resistant/tolerant tomato cultivars could be an effective strategy for T. absoluta management but, despite the economic importance of tomato, very limited information is available about its response to this treat. To elucidate the defense mechanisms to herbivore feeding a comparative analysis was performed between a tolerant and susceptible cultivated tomato at both morphological and transcriptome level to highlight constitutive leaf barriers, molecular and biochemical mechanisms to counter the effect of T. absoluta attack. RESULTS: The tolerant genotype showed an enhanced constitutive barrier possibly as result of the higher density of trichomes and increased inducible reactions upon mild infestation thanks to the activation/repression of key transcription factors regulating genes involved in cuticle formation and cell wall strength as well as of antinutritive enzymes, and genes involved in the production of chemical toxins and bioactive secondary metabolites. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, our findings suggest that tomato resilience to the South America pinworm is achieved by a combined strategy between constitutive and induced defense system. A well-orchestrated modulation of plant transcription regulation could ensure a trade-off between defense needs and fitness costs. Our finding can be further exploited for developing T. absoluta tolerant cultivars, acting as important component of integrated pest management strategy for more sustainable production.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Lycopersicon esculentum/genética , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Folhas de Planta/genética , Transcriptoma , Animais , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Ontologia Genética , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Larva/fisiologia , Lycopersicon esculentum/metabolismo , Lycopersicon esculentum/parasitologia , Mariposas/fisiologia , Doenças das Plantas/parasitologia , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/parasitologia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , RNA-Seq/métodos , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Tricomas/genética , Tricomas/metabolismo , Tricomas/parasitologia
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Jul 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360554

RESUMO

Leaf angle and grain size are important agronomic traits affecting rice productivity directly and/or indirectly through modulating crop architecture. OsBC1, as a typical bHLH transcription factor, is one of the components comprising a complex formed with LO9-177 and OsBUL1 contributing to modulation of rice leaf inclination and grain size. In the current study, two homologues of OsBC1, OsBCL1 and OsBCL2 were functionally characterized by expressing them under the control of OsBUL1 promoter, which is preferentially expressed in the lamina joint and the spikelet of rice. Increased leaf angle and grain length with elongated cells in the lamina joint and the grain hull were observed in transgenic rice containing much greater gibberellin A3 (GA3) levels than WT, demonstrating that both OsBCL1 and OsBCL2 are positive regulators of cell elongation at least partially through increased GA biosynthesis. Moreover, the cell elongation was likely due to cell expansion rather than cell division based on the related gene expression and, the cell elongation-promoting activities of OsBCL1 and OsBCL2 were functional in a dicot species, Arabidopsis.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Oryza/anatomia & histologia , Fenótipo , Folhas de Planta/anatomia & histologia , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Oryza/genética , Oryza/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/genética , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Transdução de Sinais
8.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(13): 3330-3336, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34396752

RESUMO

The present study aimed to explore the correlation between agronomic traits and quality indexes of Dendrobium nobile and its application value in agricultural breeding. The cultivated strains of D. nobile in Hejiang-Chishui producing areas were extensively collected,and the main agronomic traits and quality indexes were measured. The agronomic traits with significant correlation with quality indexes were screened out by the correlation analysis,and then the parental lines and self-bred F_1 generation plants were furtherverified. Among 96 lines of D. nobile,the content of soluble polysaccharides showed a significant negative correlation with dendrobine( P < 0. 01),and no significant correlation with agronomic traits in stems and leaves. The content of dendrobine exhibited a significant positive correlation with the stem width-thickness ratio( at the largest cross section; P < 0. 01),and no significant correlation with other agronomic traits. Regression analysis further verified the positive correlation between dendrobine content and stem width-thickness ratio( R2> 0. 9). Two lines,JC-10 and JC-35,with significant differences in stem width-thickness ratio were screened out( P <0. 05). The corresponding F1 generation plants by self-pollination both showed that the dendrobine content was higher with greater stem width-thickness ratio( P < 0. 01). The experimental results suggested that within a certain range,the dendrobine content was higher in D. nobile with flatter stem. Therefore,in the breeding of D. nobile,this specific trait could be used for screening plants with high content of quality indexes such as dendrobine.


Assuntos
Dendrobium , Agricultura , Dendrobium/genética , Melhoramento Vegetal , Folhas de Planta/genética , Polissacarídeos
9.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 400, 2021 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34454435

RESUMO

BACKGROUNDS: Pomegranate is an excellent tree species with nutritional, medicinal, ornamental and ecological values. Studies have confirmed that SPL factors play an important role in floral transition and flower development. RESULTS: Used bioinformatics methods, 15 SPL (SQUAMOSA promoter-binding protein-like) genes were identified and analyzed from the 'Taishanhong' pomegranate (P. granatum L.) genome. Phylogenetic analysis showed that PgSPLs were divided into six subfamilies (G1 ~ G6). PgSPL promoter sequences contained multiple cis-acting elements associated with abiotic stress or hormonal response. Based on the transcriptome data, expression profiles of different tissues and different developmental stages showed that PgSPL genes had distinct temporal and spatial expression characteristics. The expression analysis of miR156 in small RNA sequencing results showed that miR156 negatively regulated the expression of target genes. qRT-PCR analysis showed that the expression levels of PgSPL2, PgSPL3, PgSPL6, PgSPL11 and PgSPL14 in leaves were significantly higher than those in buds and stems (p < 0.05). The expression levels of PgSPL5, PgSPL12 and PgSPL13 in flower buds were significantly higher than that in leaves and stems (p < 0.05). The full-length of coding sequence of PgSPL5 and PgSPL13 were obtained by homologous cloning technology. The full length of PgSPL5 is 1020 bp, and PgSPL13 is 489 bp, which encodes 339 and 162 amino acids, respectively. Further investigation revealed that PgSPL5 and PgSPL13 proteins were located in the nucleus. Exogenous plant growth regulator induction experiments showed that PgSPL5 was up-regulated in leaves and stems. PgSPL13 was up-regulated in leaves and down-regulated in stems. When sprayed with 6-BA, IBA and PP333 respectively, PgSPL5 and PgSPL13 were up-regulated most significantly at P2 (bud vertical diameter was 5.1 ~ 12.0 mm) stage of bisexual and functional male flowers. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggested that PgSPL2, PgSPL3, PgSPL6, PgSPL11 and PgSPL14 played roles in leaves development of pomegranate. PgSPL5, PgSPL12 and PgSPL13 played roles in pomegranate flower development. PgSPL5 and PgSPL13 were involved in the response process of different plant hormone signal transduction in pomegranate development. This study provided a robust basis for further functional analyses of SPL genes in pomegranate.


Assuntos
Flores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Flores/genética , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Folhas de Planta/genética , Romã (Fruta)/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Romã (Fruta)/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genes de Plantas , Genoma de Planta , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Família Multigênica , Filogenia , Análise de Sequência
10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360953

RESUMO

Cadmium (Cd), a heavy metal toxic to humans, easily accumulates in rice grains. Rice with unacceptable Cd content has become a serious food safety problem in many rice production regions due to contaminations by industrialization and inappropriate waste management. The development of rice varieties with low grain Cd content is seen as an economic and long-term solution of this problem. The cation/H+ exchanger (CAX) family has been shown to play important roles in Cd uptake, transport and accumulation in plants. Here, we report the characterization of the rice CAX family. The six rice CAX genes all have homologous genes in Arabidopsis thaliana. Phylogenetic analysis identified two subfamilies with three rice and three Arabidopsis thaliana genes in both of them. All rice CAX genes have trans-member structures. OsCAX1a and OsCAX1c were localized in the vacuolar while OsCAX4 were localized in the plasma membrane in rice cell. The consequences of qRT-PCR analysis showed that all the six genes strongly expressed in the leaves under the different Cd treatments. Their expression in roots increased in a Cd dose-dependent manner. GUS staining assay showed that all the six rice CAX genes strongly expressed in roots, whereas OsCAX1c and OsCAX4 also strongly expressed in rice leaves. The yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) cells expressing OsCAX1a, OsCAX1c and OsCAX4 grew better than those expressing the vector control on SD-Gal medium containing CdCl2. OsCAX1a and OsCAX1c enhanced while OsCAX4 reduced Cd accumulation in yeast. No auto-inhibition was found for all the rice CAX genes. Therefore, OsCAX1a, OsCAX1c and OsCAX4 are likely to involve in Cd uptake and translocation in rice, which need to be further validated.


Assuntos
Antiporters/metabolismo , Cádmio/metabolismo , Proteínas de Transporte de Cátions/metabolismo , Resistência a Medicamentos , Oryza/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Antiporters/genética , Cádmio/toxicidade , Proteínas de Transporte de Cátions/genética , Transporte de Íons , Oryza/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/genética , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo
11.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 387, 2021 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34416853

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The plant body in duckweed species has undergone reduction and simplification from the ancient Spirodela species towards more derived Wolffia species. Among the five duckweed genera, Wolffia members are rootless and represent the smallest and most reduced species. A better understanding of Wolffia frond architecture is necessary to fully explore duckweed evolution. RESULTS: We conducted a comprehensive study of the morphology and anatomy of Wolffia globosa, the only Wolffia species in China. We first used X-ray microtomography imaging to reveal the three-dimensional and internal structure of the W. globosa frond. This showed that new fronds rapidly budded from the hollow reproductive pocket of the mother fronds and that several generations at various developmental stages could coexist in a single W. globosa frond. Using light microscopy, we observed that the meristem area of the W. globosa frond was located at the base of the reproductive pocket and composed of undifferentiated cells that continued to produce new buds. A single epidermal layer surrounded the W. globosa frond, and the mesophyll cells varied from small and dense palisade-like parenchyma cells to large, vacuolated cells from the ventral to the dorsal part. Furthermore, W. globosa fronds contained all the same organelles as other angiosperms; the most prominent organelles were chloroplasts with abundant starch grains. CONCLUSIONS: Our study revealed that the reproductive strategy of W. globosa plants enables the rapid accumulation of biomass and the wide distribution of this species in various habitats. The reduced body plan and size of Wolffia are consistent with our observation that relatively few cell types are present in these plants. We also propose that W. globosa plants are not only suitable for the study of structural reduction in higher plants, but also an ideal system to explore fundamental developmental processes of higher plants that cannot be addressed using other model plants.


Assuntos
Lilianae/anatomia & histologia , Lilianae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Lilianae/genética , Folhas de Planta/anatomia & histologia , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Folhas de Planta/genética , Evolução Biológica , China , Lilianae/ultraestrutura , Folhas de Planta/ultraestrutura
12.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 393, 2021 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34418972

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mycotoxins are among the environmental stressors whose oxidative action is currently widely studied. The aim of this paper was to investigate the response of seedling leaves to zearalenone (ZEA) applied to the leaves (directly) and to the grains (indirectly) in tolerant and sensitive wheat cultivars. RESULTS: Biochemical analyses of antioxidant activity were performed for chloroplasts and showed a similar decrease in this activity irrespective of plant sensitivity and the way of ZEA application. On the other hand, higher amounts of superoxide radical (microscopic observations) were generated in the leaves of plants grown from the grains incubated in ZEA solution and in the sensitive cultivar. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) studies showed that upon ZEA treatment greater numbers of Mn - aqua complexes were formed in the leaves of the tolerant wheat cultivar than in those of the sensitive one, whereas the degradation of Fe-protein complexes occurred independently of the cultivar sensitivity. CONCLUSION: The changes in the quantity of stable, organic radicals formed by stabilizing reactive oxygen species on biochemical macromolecules, indicated greater potential for their generation in leaf tissues subjected to foliar ZEA treatment. This suggested an important role of these radical species in protective mechanisms mainly against direct toxin action. The way the defense mechanisms were activated depended on the method of the toxin application.


Assuntos
Imunidade Vegetal/genética , Folhas de Planta/imunologia , Sementes/imunologia , Triticum/genética , Triticum/imunologia , Zearalenona/efeitos adversos , Grão Comestível/genética , Grão Comestível/imunologia , Espectroscopia de Ressonância de Spin Eletrônica , Variação Genética , Genótipo , Imunidade Vegetal/fisiologia , Folhas de Planta/genética , Plântula/genética , Plântula/imunologia , Sementes/genética
13.
Plant Mol Biol ; 106(6): 555-567, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34275101

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: Root-specific expression of a cytokinin-degrading CKX gene in maize roots causes formation of a larger root system leading to higher element content in shoot organs. The size and architecture of the root system is functionally relevant for the access to water and soil nutrients. A great number of mostly unknown genes are involved in regulating root architecture complicating targeted breeding of plants with a larger root system. Here, we have explored whether root-specific degradation of the hormone cytokinin, which is a negative regulator of root growth, can be used to genetically engineer maize (Zea mays L.) plants with a larger root system. Root-specific expression of a CYTOKININ OXIDASE/DEHYDROGENASE (CKX) gene of Arabidopsis caused the formation of up to 46% more root dry weight while shoot growth of these transgenic lines was similar as in non-transgenic control plants. The concentration of several elements, in particular of those with low soil mobility (K, P, Mo, Zn), was increased in leaves of transgenic lines. In kernels, the changes in concentration of most elements were less pronounced, but the concentrations of Cu, Mn and Zn were significantly increased in at least one of the three independent lines. Our data illustrate the potential of an increased root system as part of efforts towards achieving biofortification. Taken together, this work has shown that root-specific expression of a CKX gene can be used to engineer the root system of maize and alter shoot element composition.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Citocininas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Oxirredutases atuantes sobre Doadores de Grupo CH-NH/genética , Folhas de Planta/genética , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Zea mays/genética , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Cobre/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Engenharia Genética/métodos , Manganês/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Minerais/metabolismo , Oxirredutases atuantes sobre Doadores de Grupo CH-NH/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Brotos de Planta/genética , Brotos de Planta/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Transgenes/genética , Zea mays/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Zea mays/metabolismo , Zinco/metabolismo
14.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(14)2021 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34298865

RESUMO

Poplar is one of the most important tree species in the north temperate zone, but poplar plantations are quite water intensive. We report here that CaMV 35S promoter-driven overexpression of the PdERECTA gene, which is a member of the LRR-RLKs family from Populus nigra × (Populus deltoides × Populus nigra), improves water use efficiency and enhances drought tolerance in triploid white poplar. PdERECTA localizes to the plasma membrane. Overexpression plants showed lower stomatal density and larger stomatal size. The abaxial stomatal density was 24-34% lower and the stomatal size was 12-14% larger in overexpression lines. Reduced stomatal density led to a sharp restriction of transpiration, which was about 18-35% lower than the control line, and instantaneous water use efficiency was around 14-63% higher in overexpression lines under different conditions. These phenotypic changes led to increased drought tolerance. PdERECTA overexpression plants not only survived longer after stopping watering but also performed better when supplied with limited water, as they had better physical and photosynthesis conditions, faster growth rate, and higher biomass accumulation. Taken together, our data suggest that PdERECTA can alter the development pattern of stomata to reduce stomatal density, which then restricts water consumption, conferring enhanced drought tolerance to poplar. This makes PdERECTA trees promising candidates for establishing more water use efficient plantations.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Estômatos de Plantas/genética , Populus/genética , Água/metabolismo , Biomassa , Membrana Celular/genética , Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Secas , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Fotossíntese/genética , Folhas de Planta/genética , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Estômatos de Plantas/metabolismo , Transpiração Vegetal/genética , Populus/metabolismo , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética
15.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(14)2021 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34298931

RESUMO

Rhus potaninii Maxim is an economically and medicinally important tree species in China. It produces galls (induced by aphids) with a high abundance of tannins. Here, we discuss the histology, cellular structures and their distribution, and the macromolecular components of secretive glandular trichomes on the leaves of R. potaninii. A variation in the density of glandular trichomes and tomenta was found between the adaxial and abaxial sides of a leaf in different regions and stages of the leaf. The glandular trichomes on R. potaninii trees comprise a stalk with no cellular structure and a head with 8-15 cells. Based on staining, we found that the secretion of glandular trichomes has many polysaccharides, phenolic compounds, and acidic lipids but very few neutral lipids. The dense glandular trichomes provide mechanical protection for young tissues; additionally, their secretion protects the young tissues from pathogens by a special chemical component. According to transcriptome analysis, we found enhanced biosynthetic and metabolism pathways of glycan, lipids, toxic amino acids, and phenylpropanoids. This shows a similar tendency to the staining. The numbers of differentially expressed genes were large or small; the averaged range of upregulated genes was greater than that of the downregulated genes in most subpathways. Some selectively expressed genes were found in glandular trichomes, responsible for the chitinase activity and pathogenesis-related proteins, which all have antibacterial activity and serve for plant defense. To our knowledge, this is the first study showing the components of the secretion from glandular trichomes on the leaf surface of R. potaninii.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Expressão Gênica/genética , Folhas de Planta/genética , Rhus/genética , Transcriptoma/genética , Tricomas/genética , Regulação para Baixo/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Lipídeos/genética , Fenol/metabolismo , Polissacarídeos/metabolismo , Tricomas/metabolismo , Regulação para Cima/genética
16.
Plant Sci ; 310: 110972, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34315590

RESUMO

Cuticular wax covers the surface of fleshy fruit and plays a protective role in fruit development and postharvest storage, including reducing fruit water loss, resisting biotic and abiotic stress and affecting fruit glossiness. The ß-ketoacyl-CoA synthase (KCS) is the rate-limiting enzyme of very long chain fatty acids (VLCFAs) synthesis, which provides precursors for the synthesis of cuticular wax. In this study, a total of 96 KCS genes were identified in six Citrinae species, including 13, 16, 21, 14, 16 and 16 KCS genes in the primitive species (Atalantia buxifolia), the wild species (Citrus ichangensis), and four cultivated species (Citrus medica, Citrus grandis, Citrus sinensis and Citrus clementina), respectively. Compared with primitive species, wild and cultivated species showed expansion of KCS gene family. Evolutionary analysis of KCS gene family indicated that uneven gain and loss of genes resulted in variable numbers of KCS genes in Citrinae, and KCS genes have undergone purifying selection. Expression profiles in C. sinensis revealed that the KCS genes had diverse expression patterns among various tissues. Furthermore, CsKCS2 and CsKCS11 were predominantly expressed in the flavedo and their expression increased sharply with ripening. Subcellular localization analysis indicated that CsKCS2 and CsKCS11 were located in the endoplasmic reticulum. Further, heterologous expression of CsKCS2 and CsKCS11 in Arabidopsis significantly increased the content of cuticular wax in leaves. Thus, CsKCS2 and CsKCS11 are involved in the accumulation of fruit cuticular wax at ripening. This work will facilitate further functional verification and understanding of the evolution of KCS genes in Citrinae.


Assuntos
Frutas/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , 3-Oxoacil-(Proteína de Transporte de Acila) Sintase/genética , 3-Oxoacil-(Proteína de Transporte de Acila) Sintase/metabolismo , Citrus/genética , Citrus/metabolismo , Frutas/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/fisiologia , Folhas de Planta/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Ceras/metabolismo
17.
Plant Sci ; 310: 110976, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34315592

RESUMO

NAM, ATAF1/2, and CUC2 (NAC) proteins regulate plant responses to salt stress. However, the molecular mechanisms by which NAC proteins regulate salt-induced programmed cell death (PCD) are unclear. We identified 56 NAC genes, 35 of which had complete open reading frames with complete NAM domain, in the R. trigyna transcriptome. Salt stress and methyl jasmonate (MeJA) mediated PCD-induced leaf senescence in R. trigyna seedlings. Salt stress accelerated endogenous JA biosynthesis, upregulating RtNAC100 expression. This promoted salt-induced leaf senescence in R. trigyna by regulating RtRbohE and RtSAG12/20 and enhancing ROS accumulation. Transgenic assays showed that RtNAC100 overexpression aggravated salt-induced PCD in transgenic lines by promoting ROS and Na+ accumulation, ROS-Ca2+ hub activation, and PCD-related gene expression. Therefore, RtNAC100 induces PCD via the MeJA signaling pathway in R. trigyna under salt stress.


Assuntos
Acetatos/farmacologia , Ciclopentanos/farmacologia , Oxilipinas/farmacologia , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Tamaricaceae/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/fisiologia , Folhas de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Folhas de Planta/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Tolerância ao Sal/genética , Tolerância ao Sal/fisiologia , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Tamaricaceae/efeitos dos fármacos
18.
Plant Mol Biol ; 106(6): 521-531, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34224063

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: We characterize a functional lincRNA, XH123 in cotton seedling in defense of cold stress. The silencing of XH123 leads to increased sensitivity to cold stress and the decay of chloroplast. Cotton, which originated from the arid mid-American region, is one of the most important cash crops worldwide. Cultivated cotton is now widely spread throughout high-altitude regions such as those in the far northwest of Asia. In such areas, spring temperatures below 12 ℃ impose cold stress on cotton seedlings, with concomitant threat of lost yield and productivity. It is documented that cold stress can induce differential expression of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) in cotton; however, it is not yet clear if these cold-responsive lncRNAs are actively involved with tolerance of cold stress at the molecular level. Here, we select ten long intergenic non-coding RNAs as candidate genes and use virus-induced gene silencing and additional cold treatments to examine their roles in the response to cold stress during the cotton seedling stage. One such gene, XH123, was revealed to be involved in tolerance of cold stress. Specifically, XH123-silenced plants demonstrated sensitivity to cold stress, exhibiting chloroplast damage and increased endogenous levels of reactive oxygen species. The transcriptome profile of XH123-silenced seedlings was similar to that of cold-stressed seedlings having the known cold stress gene PIF3 silenced. These results imply that the lincRNA XH123 is actively involved with cold stress regulation in cotton during the seedling stage.


Assuntos
Resposta ao Choque Frio/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Gossypium/genética , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , RNA de Plantas/genética , Adaptação Fisiológica/genética , Cloroplastos/genética , Cloroplastos/metabolismo , Cloroplastos/ultraestrutura , Temperatura Baixa , Inativação Gênica , Gossypium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Folhas de Planta/genética , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/ultraestrutura , RNA-Seq/métodos , Plântula/genética , Plântula/crescimento & desenvolvimento
19.
J Plant Res ; 134(5): 1021-1035, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34218357

RESUMO

Yushania niitakayamensis (Bambusoideae; Poaceae), a perennial grass distributed from mid to high elevations in Taiwan, is often found growing in exposed grassland or shaded forest understories. To answer the question how does Y. niitakayamensis cope with contrasting light availability of habitats, we compared (1) leaf ecophysiological traits between populations of Y. niitakayamensis growing in exposed and shaded habitats in four seasons, and (2) plasticity patterns of transplanted plants to two light treatments (full-sun and 70 % shading) in a phytotron. Significant differences in leaf morphological (leaf length, width, specific leaf area, stomatal density), anatomical (leaf thickness (LT), the frequency of cavity formed by collapsed fusoid cells), and biochemical (chlorophyll contents, nitrogen contents per unit area ([N]area) and stable carbon isotope ratio) features were found between populations across seasons. Common garden experiments suggested that most of the trait variations in field growing plants can be explained by the effect of growth light treatment but not by that of population. However, variations between the two populations in LT, [N]area, gas exchange parameters, and the degree of plasticity in LT and [N]area in responding to growth light regimes might have genetic basis. In comparison between transplants from different origins grown under same light regime, plants from the exposed population grown under full-sun expressed significantly higher LT, [N]area and light-saturated photosynthetic rates, whereas plants from the shaded population grown under shading had significantly higher water use efficiency. Accordingly, local specialization in populations of Y. niitakayamensis to particular environmental conditions might have arisen.


Assuntos
Folhas de Planta , Poaceae , Adaptação Fisiológica , Variação Genética , Luz , Fotossíntese , Folhas de Planta/genética , Poaceae/genética
20.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 166: 950-957, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34247109

RESUMO

Durable disease resistance genes such as the wheat gene Lr34 are valuable sources of resistance for agricultural breeding programs. Lr34 encodes an ATP-binding cassette transporter protein involved in the transport of the phytohormone abscisic acid. Lr34 from wheat is functionally transferable to barley, maize, rice and sorghum. A pleiotropic effect of Lr34 induces the development of a senescence-like phenotype, referred to as leaf tip necrosis. We used Lr34-expressing wheat and transgenic barley plants to elucidate the role of abscisic acid in the development of leaf tip necrosis. Leaf tips in Lr34-expressing wheat and barley showed an accumulation of abscisic acid. No increase of Lr34 expression was detected in the leaf tip. Instead, the development of ectopic, Lr34-induced leaf tip necrosis after removing the leaf tip suggests an increased flux of abscisic acid towards the tip, where it accumulates and mediates the development of leaf tip necrosis. This redistribution of abscisic acid was also observed in adult transgenic barley plants with a high Lr34 expression level growing in the field and coincided with leaf tip necrosis as well as complete field resistance against Puccinia hordei and Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei. In a barley transgenic line with a lower Lr34 expression level, a quantitative resistance against Puccinia hordei was still observed, but without a significant redistribution of abscisic acid or apparent leaf tip necrosis. Thus, our results imply that fine-tuning the Lr34 expression level is essential to balance disease resistance versus leaf tip necrosis to deploy transgenic Lr34 in breeding programs.


Assuntos
Basidiomycota , Hordeum , Ácido Abscísico , Ascomicetos , Resistência à Doença/genética , Hordeum/genética , Melhoramento Vegetal , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Folhas de Planta/genética , Triticum/genética
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