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1.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(38): 10624-10636, 2019 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31483633

RESUMO

The freshness and color quality of postharvest tea leaves can be markedly prolonged and retained by proper preservation measures. Here, we investigated the dynamic changes of chlorophyll and its derivatives in postharvest tea leaves under different low-temperature treatments using natural withering as a control. Chlorophyll decomposition was found closely related with chlorophyllide, pheophorbide, and pheophytin. Low-temperature withering could slow chlorophyll degradation in postharvest tea leaves via significant inhibition on the enzyme activity and gene expression of Mg-dechelatase, chlorophyllase, and pheophorbide a oxygenase. At the initial stage of withering, a significant increase was observed in the chlorophyll content, expression of chlorophyll-synthesis-related enzymes (such as glutamyl-tRNA synthetase, etc.), and chlorophyll synthase activity in newly picked tea leaves. Moreover, an obvious decrease was found in the content of l-glutamate as the foremost precursor substance of chlorophyll synthesis. Hence, our findings revealed that the chlorophyll synthesis reaction was induced by the light-dehydration-stress in the initial withering of tea leaves. This study provides a theoretical basis for exploring preservation technology in actual green tea production.


Assuntos
Camellia sinensis/genética , Camellia sinensis/metabolismo , Clorofila/metabolismo , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Camellia sinensis/química , Camellia sinensis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Hidrolases de Éster Carboxílico/genética , Hidrolases de Éster Carboxílico/metabolismo , Clorofila/química , Cor , Enzimas/genética , Enzimas/metabolismo , Oxigenases/genética , Oxigenases/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/química , Folhas de Planta/genética , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Temperatura Ambiente
2.
Gene ; 717: 144046, 2019 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31434006

RESUMO

Flavonoids are major polyphenol compounds in plant secondary metabolism. The hydroxylation pattern of the B-ring of flavonoids is determined by the flavonoid 3'-hydroxylase (F3'H) and flavonoid 3',5'-hydroxylase (F3'5'H). In this paper, one CsF3'H and two CsF3'5'Hs (CsF3'5'Ha and CsF3'5'Hb) were isolated. The phylogenetic tree results showed that F3'H and F3'5'Hs belong to the CYP75B and CYP75A, respectively. The Expression pattern analysis showed that the expression of CsF3'5'Ha and CsF3'5'Hb in the bud and 1st leaf were higher than other tissues. However, the CsF3'H had the highest expression in the 4th and mature leaf. The correlation analysis showed that the expression of CsF3'5'Hs is positively associated with the concentration of B-trihydroxylated catechins, and the expression of CsF3'H is positively associated with the Q contentration. Heterologous expression of these genes in yeast showed that CsF3'H and CsF3'5'Ha can catalyze flavanones, flavonols and flavanonols to the corresponding 3', 4' or 3', 4', 5'-hydroxylated compounds, for which the optimum substrate is naringenin. The enzyme of CsF3'5'Hb can only catalyze flavonols (including K and Q) and flavanonols (DHK and DHQ), of which the highest activities in catalyzing are DHK. Interestingly, The experiment of site-directed mutagenesis suggested that two novel sites near the C-terminal were discovered impacting on the activity of the CsF3'5'H. These results provide a significantly molecular basis on the accumulation B-ring hydroxylation of flavonoids in tea plant.


Assuntos
Camellia sinensis/genética , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/genética , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Camellia sinensis/metabolismo , Clonagem Molecular , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/metabolismo , Flavonoides/química , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Hidroxilação , Mutagênese Sítio-Dirigida , Filogenia , Folhas de Planta/genética , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética
3.
Gene ; 716: 144024, 2019 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31390541

RESUMO

The young leaves generally accumulate a certain concentration anthocyanins in the dominant species of the subtropical forest, and the changes of anthocyanin synthesis-related enzyme genes expression levels had an important effect on the study photoprotection of anthocyanins in the young leaves of subtropical forests. The determination of anthocyanin synthesis-related enzyme gene sequences and the selection of appropriate reference genes provide a basis for analyzing the functional properties of anthocyanins. In this study, four dominant subtropical forest species (i.e., Schima superba, Castanopsis fissa, Acmena acuminatissima, Cryptocarya concinna) were taken as materials. To obtain the correct nucleotide sequences of anthocyanin-related enzymes, the nucleotide sequences of CHS, DFR and ANS in each dominant species were obtained by sequencing and comparison. Then, to select the most stable reference genes for leaves at different developmental stages and different light conditions, the expression levels of six reference genes, including 18S, Actin, GAPDH, TUB, EF1 and UBQ, were studied by real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR), and reference gene stability was analyzed by GeNorm and NormFinder software. The results showed that the expression level of Actin was the most stable in S. superba, A. acuminatissima and C. concinna, and the expression level of GAPDH was the most stable in C. fissa. Finally, the expression levels of the anthocyanin synthesis genes CHS, DFR and ANS were analyzed and found to be consistent with the accumulation trend of anthocyanins in leaves. This study has important theoretical and practical significance for future research into the expression of anthocyanin synthesis-related enzyme genes in the dominant tree species in subtropical forests and reveals that anthocyanin has a photoprotective effect for young leaves in high-light environments.


Assuntos
Antocianinas/biossíntese , Árvores/genética , Aciltransferases/genética , Aciltransferases/metabolismo , Oxirredutases do Álcool/genética , Oxirredutases do Álcool/metabolismo , Antocianinas/metabolismo , Florestas , Genes de Plantas , Folhas de Planta/genética , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , RNA de Plantas/isolamento & purificação , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/normas , Padrões de Referência , Alinhamento de Sequência , Análise de Sequência , Árvores/enzimologia , Árvores/metabolismo
4.
BMC Plant Biol ; 19(1): 350, 2019 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31409298

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) gene family, which contains multiple 35-amino acid repeats, constitutes one of the largest gene families in plants. PPR proteins function in organelles to target specific transcripts and are involved in plant development and growth. However, the function of PPR proteins in cotton is still unknown. RESULTS: In this study, we characterized a PPR gene YELLOW-GREEN LEAF (GhYGL1d) that is required for cotton plastid development. The GhYGL1d gene has a DYW domain in C-terminal and is highly express in leaves, localized to the chloroplast fractions. GhYGL1d share high amino acid-sequence homology with AtECB2. In atecb2 mutant, overexpression of GhYGL1d rescued the seedling lethal phenotype and restored the editing of accD and ndhF transcripts. Silencing of GhYGL1d led to the reduction of chlorophyll and phenotypically yellow-green leaves in cotton. Compared with wild type, GhYGL1d-silenced cotton showed significant deformations of thylakoid structures. Furthermore, the transcription levels of plastid-encoded polymerase (PEP) and nuclear-encoded polymerase (NEP) dependent genes were decreased in GhYGL1d-silenced cotton. CONCLUSIONS: Our data indicate that GhYGL1d not only contributes to the editing of accD and ndhF genes, but also affects the expression of NEP- and PEP-dependent genes to regulate the development of thylakoids, and therefore regulates leaf variegation in cotton.


Assuntos
Cloroplastos/genética , Gossypium/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/fisiologia , Cloroplastos/metabolismo , Cloroplastos/fisiologia , Gossypium/anatomia & histologia , Gossypium/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/anatomia & histologia , Folhas de Planta/genética , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo
5.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(35): 9967-9978, 2019 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31403784

RESUMO

Following the recent completion of the draft genome sequence of the tea plant, high-throughput decoding of gene function, especially for those involved in complex secondary metabolic pathways, has become a major challenge. Here, we profiled the metabolome and transcriptome of 11 tea cultivars, and then illustrated a weighted gene coexpression network analysis (WGCNA)-based system biological strategy to interpret metabolomic flux, predict gene functions, and mine key regulators involved in the flavonoid biosynthesis pathway. We constructed a multilayered regulatory network, which integrated the gene coexpression relationship with the microRNA target and promoter cis-regulatory element information. This allowed us to reveal new uncharacterized TFs (e.g., MADSs, WRKYs, and SBPs) and microRNAs (including 17 conserved and 15 novel microRNAs) that are potentially implicated in different steps of the catechin biosynthesis. Furthermore, we applied metabolic-signature-based association method to capture additional key regulators involved in catechin pathway. This provides important clues for the functional characterization of five SCPL1A acyltransferase family members, which might be implicated in the production balance of anthocyanins, galloylated catechins, and proanthocyanins. Application of an "omics"-based system biology strategy should facilitate germplasm utilization and provide valuable resources for tea quality improvement.


Assuntos
Camellia sinensis/metabolismo , Flavonoides/química , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Camellia sinensis/química , Camellia sinensis/classificação , Camellia sinensis/genética , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Metabolômica , Folhas de Planta/química , Folhas de Planta/classificação , Folhas de Planta/genética , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Transcriptoma
6.
Plant Sci ; 286: 1-6, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31300135

RESUMO

The excessive and harmful light energy absorbed by the photosystem (PS) II of higher plants is dissipated as heat through a protective mechanism termed non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) of chlorophyll fluorescence. PsbS-knock-out (KO) mutants lack the trans-thylakoid proton gradient (ΔpH)-dependent part of NPQ. To elucidate the molecular mechanism of NPQ, we investigated its dependency on oxygen. The development of NPQ in wild-type (WT) rice under low-oxygen (LO) conditions was reduced to more than 50% of its original value. However, under high-oxygen (HO) conditions, the NPQ of both WT and PsbS-KO mutants recovered. Moreover, WT and PsbS-KO mutant leaves infiltrated with the ΔpH dissipating uncoupler nigericin showed increased NPQ values under HO conditions. The experiments using intact chloroplasts and protoplasts of Arabidopsis thaliana supported that the LO effects observed in rice leaves were not due to carbon dioxide deficiency. There was a noticeable 90% reduction in the half-time of P700 oxidation rate in LO-treated leaves compared with that of WT control leaves, but the HO treatment did not significantly change the half-time of P700 oxidation rate. Overall, the results obtained here indicate that the stroma of the PsbS-KO plants could be potentially under O2 deficiency. Because the functions of PsbS in rice leaves are likely to be similar to those in other higher plants, our findings offer novel insights into the role of oxygen in the development of NPQ.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica/efeitos da radiação , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Oryza/metabolismo , Oxigênio/metabolismo , Complexo de Proteína do Fotossistema II/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/efeitos da radiação , Cloroplastos/metabolismo , Cloroplastos/efeitos da radiação , Oryza/efeitos da radiação , Complexo de Proteína do Fotossistema II/genética , Folhas de Planta/genética , Folhas de Planta/fisiologia , Folhas de Planta/efeitos da radiação , Protoplastos/metabolismo , Protoplastos/efeitos da radiação
7.
Plant Mol Biol ; 101(1-2): 129-148, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31267256

RESUMO

Iron and phosphorus are abundant elements in soils but poorly available for plant nutrition. The availability of these two nutrients represents a major constraint for fruit tree cultivation such as apple (Malus × domestica) leading very often to a decrease of fruit productivity and quality worsening. Aim of this study was to characterize common and specific features of plant response to Fe and P deficiencies by ionomic, transcriptomic and exudation profiling of apple roots. Under P deficiency, the root release of oxalate and flavonoids increased. Genes encoding for transcription factors and transporters involved in the synthesis and release of root exudates were upregulated by P-deficient roots, as well as those directly related to P acquisition. In Fe-deficiency, plants showed an over-accumulation of P, Zn, Cu and Mn and induced the transcription of those genes involved in the mechanisms for the release of Fe-chelating compounds and Fe mobilization inside the plants. The intriguing modulation in roots of some transcription factors, might indicate that, in this condition, Fe homeostasis is regulated by a FIT-independent pathway. In the present work common and specific features of apple response to Fe and P deficiency has been reported. In particular, data indicate similar modulation of a. 230 genes, suggesting the occurrence of a crosstalk between the two nutritional responses involving the transcriptional regulation, shikimate pathway, and the root release of exudates.


Assuntos
Ferro/deficiência , Malus/fisiologia , Fósforo/deficiência , Transcriptoma , Transporte Biológico , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Homeostase , Ferro/metabolismo , Malus/genética , Fósforo/metabolismo , Exsudatos de Plantas/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/genética , Folhas de Planta/fisiologia , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/fisiologia , Análise de Sequência de RNA
8.
Plant Mol Biol ; 101(1-2): 183-202, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31286324

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: Isoforms of 2-OGDH E1 subunit are not functionally redundant in plant growth and development of A. thaliana. The tricarboxylic acid cycle enzyme 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase (2-OGDH) converts 2-oxoglutarate (2-OG) to succinyl-CoA concomitant with the reduction of NAD+. 2-OGDH has an essential role in plant metabolism, being both a limiting step during mitochondrial respiration as well as a key player in carbon-nitrogen interactions. In Arabidopsis thaliana two genes encode for E1 subunit of 2-OGDH but the physiological roles of each isoform remain unknown. Thus, in the present study we isolated Arabidopsis T-DNA insertion knockout mutant lines for each of the genes encoding the E1 subunit of 2-OGDH enzyme. All mutant plants exhibited substantial reduction in both respiration and CO2 assimilation rates. Furthermore, mutant lines exhibited reduced levels of chlorophylls and nitrate, increased levels of sucrose, malate and fumarate and minor changes in total protein and starch levels in leaves. Despite the similar metabolic phenotypes for the two E1 isoforms the reduction in the expression of each gene culminated in different responses in terms of plant growth and seed production indicating distinct roles for each isoform. Collectively, our results demonstrated the importance of the E1 subunit of 2-OGDH in both autotrophic and heterotrophic tissues and suggest that the two E1 isoforms are not functionally redundant in terms of plant growth in A. thaliana.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis/enzimologia , Carbono/metabolismo , Complexo Cetoglutarato Desidrogenase/metabolismo , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Dióxido de Carbono/metabolismo , Clorofila/metabolismo , Complexo Cetoglutarato Desidrogenase/genética , Mitocôndrias/enzimologia , Mutagênese Insercional , Nitratos/metabolismo , Fenótipo , Filogenia , Folhas de Planta/enzimologia , Folhas de Planta/genética , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Isoformas de Proteínas , Subunidades Proteicas , Plântula/enzimologia , Plântula/genética , Plântula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sementes/enzimologia , Sementes/genética , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento
9.
BMC Plant Biol ; 19(1): 302, 2019 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31291890

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nitrogen (N) and potassium (K) are two important mineral nutrients in regulating leaf photosynthesis. Studying the interactive effects of N and K on regulating N allocation and photosynthesis (Pn) of rice leaves will be of great significance for further increasing leaf Pn, photosynthetic N use efficiency (PNUE) and grain yield. We measured the gas exchange of rice leaves in a field experiment and tested different kinds of leaf N based on N morphology and function, and calculated the interactive effects of N and K on N allocation and the PNUE. RESULTS: Compared with N0 (0 kg N ha- 1) and K0 (0 kg K2O ha- 1) treatments, the Pn was increased by 17.1 and 12.2% with the supply of N and K. Compared with N0K0 (0 kg N and 0 kg K2O ha- 1), N0K120 (0 kg N and 120 kg K2O ha- 1) and N0K180 (0 kg N and 180 kg K2O ha- 1), N supply increased the absolute content of photosynthetic N (Npsn) by 15.1, 15.5 and 10.5% on average, and the storage N (Nstore) was increased by 32.7, 64.9 and 72.7% on average. The relative content of Npsn was decreased by 5.6, 12.1 and 14.5%, while that of Nstore was increased by 8.7, 27.8 and 33.8%. Supply of K promoted the transformation of Nstore to Npsn despite the leaf N content (Na) was indeed decreased. Compared with N0K0, N180K0 (180 kg N and 0 kg K2O ha- 1) and N270K0 (270 kg N and 0 kg K2O ha- 1), K supply increased the relative content of Npsn by 17.7, 8.8 and 7.3%, and decreased the relative content of Nstore by 24.2, 11.4 and 8.7% respectively. CONCLUSIONS: This study indicated the mechanism that K supply decreased the Na but increased the Npsn content and then increased leaf Pn and PNUE from a new viewpoint of leaf N allocation. The supply of K promoted the transformation of Nstore to Npsn and increased the PNUE. The decreased Nstore mainly resulted from the decrease of non-protein N. Combined use of N and K could optimize leaf N allocation and maintain a high leaf Npsn content and PNUE.


Assuntos
Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Oryza/fisiologia , Potássio/metabolismo , Grão Comestível/genética , Grão Comestível/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Grão Comestível/fisiologia , Oryza/genética , Oryza/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fotossíntese , Folhas de Planta/genética , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Folhas de Planta/fisiologia
10.
BMC Plant Biol ; 19(1): 234, 2019 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31159746

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: YABBY genes play important roles in the growth and polar establishment of lateral organs such as leaves and floral organs in angiosperms. However, the functions of YABBY homologous genes are largely unknown in soybean. RESULTS: In this study, we identified GmFILa encoding a YABBY transcription factor belonging to FIL subfamily. In situ mRNA hybridization analysis indicated that GmFILa had specific expression patterns in leaf as well as in flower bud primordia. Ectopic expression of GmFILa in Arabidopsis thaliana altered the partial abaxialization of the adaxial epidermises of leaves. Besides, GmFILa transgenic plants also exhibited longer flowering period and inhibition of shoot apical meristem (SAM) development compared to the wild type plants. Digital expression data and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis demonstrated that the expression of GmFILa was induced by biotic and abiotic stresses and hormone treatments. Transcriptome analysis suggested that overexpressing GmFILa yielded 82 significant differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in Arabidopsis leaves, which can be classified into transcription factors, transporters, and genes involved in growth and development, metabolism, signal transduction, redox reaction and stress response. CONCLUSIONS: These results not only demonstrate the roles of GmFILa involved in leaf adaxial-abaxial polarity in Arabidopsis, but also help to reveal the molecular regulatory mechanism of GmFILa based on the transcriptomic data.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Soja/genética , Arabidopsis/genética , Folhas de Planta/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Soja/metabolismo
11.
BMC Plant Biol ; 19(1): 240, 2019 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31170934

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Red maple (Acer rubrum L.) is one of the most common and widespread trees with colorful leaves. We found a mutant with red, yellow, and green leaf phenotypes in different branches, which provided ideal materials with the same genetic relationship, and little interference from the environment, for the study of complex metabolic networks that underly variations in the coloration of leaves. We applied a combination of NGS and SMRT sequencing to various red maple tissues. RESULTS: A total of 125,448 unigenes were obtained, of which 46 and 69 were thought to be related to the synthesis of anthocyanins and carotenoids, respectively. In addition, 88 unigenes were presumed to be involved in the chlorophyll metabolic pathway. Based on a comprehensive analysis of the pigment gene expression network, the mechanisms of leaf color were investigated. The massive accumulation of Cy led to its higher content and proportion than other pigments, which caused the redness of leaves. Yellow coloration was the result of the complete decomposition of chlorophyll pigments, the unmasking of carotenoid pigments, and a slight accumulation of Cy. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides a systematic analysis of color variations in the red maple. Moreover, mass sequence data obtained by deep sequencing will provide references for the controlled breeding of red maple.


Assuntos
Acer/fisiologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/instrumentação , Pigmentação/genética , Transcriptoma , Acer/genética , Acer/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Folhas de Planta/genética , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Folhas de Planta/fisiologia
12.
Plant Cell Rep ; 38(8): 927-936, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31147728

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: A new anthocyanin biosynthesis transcription factor PdMYB118, which could be used for the genetic engineering of colorful tree species, was indentified from a red leaf mutant of Populus deltoids. In higher plants, the biosynthesis of anthocyanins is regulated by several classes of transcription factors (TFs), including R2R3-MYB, bHLH and WD-repeat proteins. In this work, we isolated an MYB gene regulating anthocyanin biosynthesis from a red leaf mutant of Populus deltoids, which accumulated more anthocyanins in the leaves and showed higher expression levels of anthocyanin biosynthesis genes than did the wild type. Gene expression analyses of all TFs regulating anthocyanin biosynthesis demonstrated that only a MYB118 homologous gene, PdMYB118, was up-regulated in the mutant compared with the wide type. Subcellular localization analyses in poplar leaf mesophyll protoplasts showed that PdMYB118-YFP fusion protein was specifically located in nucleus. When transiently expressed in poplar leaf protoplasts, PdMYB118 specifically promoted the expression of anthocyanidin biosynthesis genes. Dual-luciferase assays revealed that PdMYB118 can directly activate the promoters of these genes. When overexpressed in Shanxin Yang (P. davidiana × P. bolleana), a hybrid clone commercially grown for landscaping in the northern part of China, transgenic plants overexpressing PdMYB118 produced more anthocyanins in the leaves and turned their color into redness when grown in both greenhouse and field. Consistently, transcripts of some important anthocyanidin biosynthesis genes were significantly increased in the leaves of transgenic plants. All these results indicate that PdMYB118 functions as an essential transcription factor regulating anthocyanin biosynthesis in poplar and could be used for the genetic engineering of colorful tree species.


Assuntos
Antocianinas/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/metabolismo , Populus/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/fisiologia , Mutação/genética , Folhas de Planta/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Populus/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
13.
Plant Mol Biol ; 101(1-2): 81-93, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31201686

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: Here we show that accumulation of galactose-containing lipids in plastid membranes in shoots and the other membranes in roots maintains Arabidopsis growth under acidic stress and acidic phosphate deficiency. Soil acidification and phosphate deficiency are closely related to each other in natural environments. In addition to the toxicity of high proton concentrations, acid soil can lead to imbalances of ion availability and nutritional deficiencies, including inorganic phosphate (Pi). Among plants, activation of non-phosphorus-containing galactolipid, digalactosyldiacylglycerol (DGDG), synthesis concomitant with phospholipid degradation, namely membrane lipid remodeling, is crucial for coping with Pi starvation. However, regulation mechanisms of membrane lipid composition during acidic stress have not been clarified. Here, we investigated lipid metabolism in Arabidopsis thaliana grown under acidic stress with or without Pi. Under Pi-sufficient acidic conditions, DGDG was increased in shoot membranes, and some Pi starvation-responsive genes that are involved in lipid remodeling were upregulated without reducing Pi content in leaves. In contrast, under acidic Pi deficiency, membrane lipid remodeling in roots was partially repressed at a lower external pH. Nevertheless, phenotypic comparison between wild type and the double mutant of MGD2/3, which are responsible for DGDG accumulation during Pi starvation, indicated that the complete absence of lipid remodeling in roots resulted in a loss of tolerance to Pi deficiency rather specifically under acidic conditions. This result suggested important physiological roles of galactolipid-enriched membranes under acidic Pi deficiency.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis/fisiologia , Galactolipídeos/metabolismo , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Lipídeos de Membrana/metabolismo , Fosfatos/deficiência , Fosfolipídeos/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Fenótipo , Folhas de Planta/genética , Folhas de Planta/fisiologia , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/fisiologia , Brotos de Planta/genética , Brotos de Planta/fisiologia , Plastídeos/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico
14.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 141: 215-224, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31181509

RESUMO

Plants are usually exposed to several types of abiotic stress in regular field conditions. The lipid profile of barley homozygous lines exposed to drought, heat, salinity, and their combinations, was investigated in the present study. Free fatty acids, free sterols, and diacylglycerols were the most abundant classes (∼8.0% of plant material). The genetic background significantly impacted the lipid composition rather than the treatments, and diacylglycerols were the only lipid class affected by salinity (1.84 mg/100 mg plant tissue; ∼33% reduction). However, the genotype × treatment interaction analysis revealed that the lipid and sterol compositions depended on both genotype and environment. Our results suggest that inborn stress tolerance in barley is manifested by enhanced accumulation of most lipids, mainly sterols, especially in heat/drought-stressed plants. In addition, expression of the LTP2 gene may be indirectly involved in the abiotic stress reaction of barley by mediating intracellular transport of some lipid classes.


Assuntos
Hordeum/química , Lipídeos/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Esteróis/química , Estresse Fisiológico , Adaptação Fisiológica , Diglicerídeos/química , Secas , Ácidos Graxos não Esterificados/química , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Genótipo , Hordeum/genética , Temperatura Alta , Fenótipo , Fitosteróis/química , Folhas de Planta/genética , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Salinidade
15.
BMC Plant Biol ; 19(1): 187, 2019 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31064322

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is important to explore renewable alternatives (e.g. biofuels) that can produce energy sources to help reduce reliance on fossil oils, and reduce greenhouse gases and waste solids resulted from fossil oils consumption. Camelina sativa is an oilseed crop which has received increasing attention due to its short life cycle, broader adaptation regions, high oil content, high level of omega-3 unsaturated fatty acids, and low-input requirements in agriculture practices. To expand its Camelina production areas into arid regions, there is a need to breed for new drought-tolerant cultivars. Leaf cuticular wax is known to facilitate plant development and growth under water-limited conditions. Dissecting the genetic loci underlying leaf cuticular waxes is important to breed for cultivars with improved drought tolerance. RESULTS: Here we combined phenotypic data and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data from a spring C. sativa diversity panel using genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) technology, to perform a large-scale genome-wide association study (GWAS) on leaf wax compositions. A total of 42 SNP markers were significantly associated with 15 leaf wax traits including major wax components such as total primary alcohols, total alkanes, and total wax esters as well as their constituents. The vast majority of significant SNPs were associated with long-chain carbon monomers (carbon chain length longer than C28), indicating the important effects of long-chain carbon monomers on leaf total wax biosynthesis. These SNP markers are located on genes directly or indirectly related to wax biosynthesis such as maintaining endoplasmic reticulum (ER) morphology and enabling normal wax secretion from ER to plasma membrane or Golgi network-mediated transport. CONCLUSIONS: These loci could potentially serve as candidates for the genetic control involved in intracellular wax transport that might directly or indirectly facilitate leaf wax accumulation in C. sativa and can be used in future marker-assisted selection (MAS) to breed for the cultivars with high wax content to improve drought tolerance.


Assuntos
Brassicaceae/genética , Folhas de Planta/química , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Ceras/química , Ceras/metabolismo , Álcoois/metabolismo , Aldeídos/metabolismo , Algoritmos , Alcanos/metabolismo , Transporte Biológico/genética , Genética Populacional , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Fenótipo , Folhas de Planta/genética
16.
BMC Plant Biol ; 19(1): 174, 2019 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31046677

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Senescence affects the quality and yield of plants by regulating different traits of plants. A few members of S40 gene family, the barley HvS40 and the Arabidopsis AtS40-3, have been shown to play a role in leaf senescence in Barley and Arabidopsis. Although we previously reported that S40 family exist in most of plants, up to now, no more function of S40 members in plant has been demonstrated. The aim of this study was to provide the senescence related information of S40 gene family in rice as rice is a major crop that feeds about half of the human population in the world. RESULTS: A total of 16 OsS40 genes were identified from the genome database of Oryza sativa L. japonica by bioinformatics analysis. Phylogenetic analysis reveals that the 16 OsS40 proteins are classified into five groups, and 4 of the 16 members belong to group I to which also the HvS40 and AtS40-3 is assigned. S40 genes of rice show high structural similarities, as 13 out of the 16 genes have no intron and the other 3 genes have only 1 or 2 introns. The expression patterns of OsS40 genes were analyzed during natural as well as stress-induced leaf senescence in correspondence with senescence marker genes. We found that 6 of them displayed differential but clearly up-regulated transcript profiles under diverse situations of senescence, including darkness, nitrogen deficiency, hormone treatments as well as pathogen infection. Furthermore, three OsS40 proteins were identified as nuclear located proteins by transient protoplast transformation assay. CONCLUSIONS: Taking all findings together, we concluded that OsS40-1, OsS40-2, OsS40-12 and OsS40-14 genes have potential regulatory function of crosstalk among abiotic, biotic and developmental senescence in rice. Our results provide valuable baseline for functional validation studies of the rice S40 genes in rice leaf senescence.


Assuntos
Oryza/fisiologia , Folhas de Planta/fisiologia , Proteínas de Plantas/fisiologia , Envelhecimento , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Genes de Plantas , Oryza/genética , Folhas de Planta/genética , Proteínas Ribossômicas
17.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 140: 55-67, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31082659

RESUMO

Plants express various antimicrobial peptides including thionins to protect themselves against pathogens. It was recently found that, in addition to four thionin genes, Arabidopsis contains 67 thionin-like (ThiL) genes including six pseudogenes. It is known that thionins have antimicrobial activity and are part of the plant defense system, however, nothing is known about ThiL genes. In this study, we present a bioinformatic analysis of the (ThiL) gene family in Arabidopsis. We identified 15 different motifs which positioned the ThiL peptides in four groups. A comparison of amino acid sequences showed that the ThiL peptides are actually more similar to the acidic domain of thionin proproteins than to the thionin domain. We selected 10 ThiL genes to study the expression and possible function in the Arabidopsis plant. RT-PCR and promoter:GUS fusions showed that most genes were expressed at a very low level but in several organs and at different developmental stages. Some genes were also expressed in syncytia induced by the beet cyst nematode Heterodera schachti in roots while others were downregulated in syncytia. Some overexpression lines supported lower number of nematodes that developed on the roots after inoculation. Two of the genes resulted in a strong hypersensitive response when infiltrated into leaves of Nicotiana benthamiana. These results indicate that ThiL genes might be involved in the response to biotic stress. ThiL genes have been expanded in the Brassicales and specifically the Brassicaceae. The most extreme example is the CRP2460 subfamily that contains 28 very closely related genes from Arabidopsis which are mostly the result of tandem duplications.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/parasitologia , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/fisiologia , Folhas de Planta/genética , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética , Tioninas/genética , Tioninas/metabolismo
18.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(21): 6056-6073, 2019 May 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31070911

RESUMO

Soil salinity is one of the major constraints affecting agricultural production and crop yield. A detailed understanding of the underlying physiological and molecular mechanisms of the different genotypic salt tolerance response in crops under salinity is therefore a prerequisite for enhancing this tolerance. In this study, we explored the changes in physiological and proteome profiles of salt-sensitive (S210) and salt-tolerant (T510) sugar beet cultivars in response to salt stress. T510 showed better growth status, higher antioxidant enzymes activities and proline level, less Na accumulation, and lower P levels after salt-stress treatments. With iTRAQ-based comparative proteomics method, 47 and 56 differentially expressed proteins were identified in the roots and leaves of S210, respectively. In T510, 56 and 50 proteins changed significantly in the roots and leaves of T510, respectively. These proteins were found to be involved in multiple aspects of functions such as photosynthesis, metabolism, stress and defense, protein synthesis, and signal transduction. Our proteome results indicated that sensitive and tolerant sugar beet cultivars respond differently to salt stress. The proteins that were mapped to the protein modification, amino acid metabolism, tricarboxylic acid cycle, cell wall synthesis, and reactive oxygen species scavenging changed differently between the sensitive and tolerant cultivars, suggesting that these pathways may promote salt tolerance in the latter. This work leads to a better understanding of the salinity mechanism in sugar beet and provides a list of potential markers for the further engineering of salt tolerance in crops.


Assuntos
Beta vulgaris/fisiologia , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Tolerância ao Sal , Beta vulgaris/química , Beta vulgaris/genética , Beta vulgaris/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genótipo , Folhas de Planta/química , Folhas de Planta/genética , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Folhas de Planta/fisiologia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/química , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raízes de Plantas/fisiologia , Proteômica
19.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(23): 6487-6496, 2019 Jun 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31094509

RESUMO

The excessive and inappropriate application of herbicides has caused environmental pollution. The use of allelochemicals as bioherbicides could provide a solution to this problem. The allelopathic activity of Cynara cardunculus L. has been studied previously, and sesquiterpene lactones (STLs) were identified as the most relevant allelochemicals. The goal of the study reported here was to investigate the effect of six genotypes and three harvest times on the qualitative and quantitative composition of STLs in C. cardunculus leaves through a new ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis method and, thus, the effect on phytotoxicity. Overall, wild cardoon contained the highest levels of STLs of the three botanical varieties studied. Nevertheless, climatic conditions had a marked influence on the presence of STLs among the six genotypes, which was higher in the April harvest. Cynaropicrin was the most abundant STL detected. A close relationship was found between the STL profiles and the allelopathic activity, expressed as inhibition of wheat coleoptile elongation. The data provide a new and important contribution to our understanding of C. cardunculus allelopathy.


Assuntos
Cynara/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cynara/genética , Lactonas/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Sesquiterpenos/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Cynara/química , Cynara/metabolismo , Genótipo , Lactonas/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas , Feromônios/química , Feromônios/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/química , Folhas de Planta/genética , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Sesquiterpenos/metabolismo , Fatores de Tempo
20.
J Appl Microbiol ; 127(1): 292-305, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31054164

RESUMO

AIMS: Greenhouse trials were conducted with different cultivars of baby leaf spinach, rocket and Swiss chard and inoculation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 gfp+, to determine whether plant species and cultivar have an impact on the establishment of this strain. METHODS AND RESULTS: Three cultivars each of spinach, rocket and Swiss chard were spray inoculated with E. coli O157:H7 gfp+ at doses of log 7 CFU per ml. Due to the different lengths of growing period spinach and Swiss chard were spray inoculated three times and rocket five times, with final inoculation performed 3 days prior to harvest. After a growing period of 26-33 days, E. coli O157:H7 gfp+ was recovered from the leaf surface in mean populations between log 1 and 6 CFU per gram. The lowest occurrence of E. coli O157:H7 gfp+ was found on rocket leaves and the highest on spinach. There was no significant difference in the establishment of E. coli O157:H7 gfp+ between cultivars, but there were differences between plant species. Indigenous phyllosphere bacteria were pure cultured and identified with 16S rRNA gene sequencing. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the same high inoculation dose of E. coli O157:H7 gfp+ on leaves, the establishment rate differed between plant species. However, plant cultivar did not affect establishment. Pantoea agglomerans dominated the identified bacterial isolates. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: As previous studies are inconclusive on choice of model plant species and cultivar, we studied whether plant species or cultivar determines the fate of E. coli O157:H7 gfp+ on leafy vegetables. The findings indicate that plant species is a key determinant in the establishment of E. coli O157:H7 gfp+.


Assuntos
Escherichia coli O157/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Folhas de Planta/microbiologia , Verduras/microbiologia , Beta vulgaris/microbiologia , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Pantoea/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Folhas de Planta/genética , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Spinacia oleracea/microbiologia , Verduras/genética
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