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1.
Sci Total Environ ; 740: 139740, 2020 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32927530

RESUMO

Most wetlands have been subject to changes in flooding regimes by climate change and human activities, resulting in widespread alteration of wetland plants at different organizational levels. However, scaling the responses of wetland plants to changes in flooding regimes is still challenging, because flooding could indirectly affect wetland plants through affecting environment factors (e.g. soil properties). During the non-flooding period, we investigated leaf N and P stoichiometry at three organizational levels (intra-species, inter-species, inter-community) along a flooding duration gradient in a lakeshore meadow of Poyang Lake floodplain, China. At the intra-species level, leaf N and P stoichiometry showed species-specific responses to flooding duration. At the inter-species level, leaf N or P contents or N:P ratio showed no significant response to flooding duration. At the inter-community level, leaf N and P contents significantly increased with flooding duration, while leaf N:P ratio decreased. At each organizational level, leaf N and P stoichiometry showed poor correlation with soil N and P stoichiometry. Moreover, intra-specific responses of leaf N and P contents to flooding duration and soil nutrient content increased with mean flooding duration of species distribution, which was the index of species hydrological niche. Intraspecific variation had lower contribution than species turnover to variations in community leaf nutrient stoichiometry. In all, flooding duration affected leaf N and P stoichiometry mainly through direct pathway at the intra-species and inter-community level, rather than the indirect pathway via soil nutrient stoichiometry. Therefore, our results have implications for scaling up from environmental conditions to ecosystem processes via wetland plant communities.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Nitrogênio/análise , China , Nutrientes , Fósforo , Folhas de Planta/química , Solo
2.
PLoS Biol ; 18(9): e3000828, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32936797

RESUMO

Many herbivorous insects are mono- or oligophagous, having evolved to select a limited range of host plants. They specifically identify host-plant leaves using their keen sense of taste. Plant secondary metabolites and sugars are thought to be key chemical cues that enable insects to identify host plants and evaluate their quality as food. However, the neuronal and behavioral mechanisms of host-plant recognition are poorly understood. Here, we report a two-factor host acceptance system in larvae of the silkworm Bombyx mori, a specialist on several mulberry species. The first step is controlled by a chemosensory organ, the maxillary palp (MP). During palpation at the leaf edge, the MP detects trace amounts of leaf-surface compounds, which enables host-plant recognition without biting. Chemosensory neurons in the MP are tuned with ultrahigh sensitivity (thresholds of attomolar to femtomolar) to chlorogenic acid (CGA), quercetin glycosides, and ß-sitosterol (ßsito). Only if these 3 compounds are detected does the larva make a test bite, which is evaluated in the second step. Low-sensitivity neurons in another chemosensory organ, the maxillary galea (MG), mainly detect sucrose in the leaf sap exuded by test biting, allowing larvae to accept the leaf and proceed to persistent biting (feeding). The two-factor host acceptance system reported here may commonly underlie stereotyped feeding behavior in many phytophagous insects and determine their feeding habits.


Assuntos
Bombyx/fisiologia , Comportamento de Escolha , Dieta , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Larva/fisiologia , Papilas Gustativas/fisiologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Bombyx/anatomia & histologia , Bombyx/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Células Quimiorreceptoras/fisiologia , Quimiotaxia/fisiologia , Sinais (Psicologia) , Comportamento Exploratório/fisiologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita/fisiologia , Larva/anatomia & histologia , Larva/citologia , Morus/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Paladar/fisiologia , Papilas Gustativas/anatomia & histologia
3.
Toxins (Basel) ; 12(9)2020 09 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32957454

RESUMO

The deadly pandemic named COVID-19, caused by a new coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2), emerged in 2019 and is still spreading globally at a dangerous pace. As of today, there are no proven vaccines, therapies, or even strategies to fight off this virus. Here, we describe the in silico docking results of a novel broad range anti-infective fusion protein RTAM-PAP1 against the various key proteins of SARS-CoV-2 using the latest protein-ligand docking software. RTAM-PAP1 was compared against the SARS-CoV-2 B38 antibody, ricin A chain, a pokeweed antiviral protein from leaves, and the lectin griffithsin using the special CoDockPP COVID-19 version. These experiments revealed novel binding mechanisms of RTAM-PAP1 with a high affinity to numerous SARS-CoV-2 key proteins. RTAM-PAP1 was further characterized in a preliminary toxicity study in mice and was found to be a potential therapeutic candidate. These findings might lead to the discovery of novel SARS-CoV-2 targets and therapeutic protein structures with outstanding functions.


Assuntos
Antivirais/química , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Ligação Proteica/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Inativadoras de Ribossomos Tipo 1/química , Proteínas Inativadoras de Ribossomos Tipo 1/uso terapêutico , Ricina/uso terapêutico , Animais , Simulação por Computador , Humanos , Camundongos , Modelos Animais , Pandemias , Phytolacca americana/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Proteínas Inativadoras de Ribossomos Tipo 1/genética
4.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4519, 2020 09 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32908150

RESUMO

The leaf economics spectrum (LES) describes consistent correlations among a variety of leaf traits that reflect a gradient from conservative to acquisitive plant strategies. So far, whether the LES holds in wetland plants at a global scale has been unclear. Using data on 365 wetland species from 151 studies, we find that wetland plants in general show a shift within trait space along the same common slope as observed in non-wetland plants, with lower leaf mass per area, higher leaf nitrogen and phosphorus, faster photosynthetic rates, and shorter leaf life span compared to non-wetland plants. We conclude that wetland plants tend to cluster at the acquisitive end of the LES. The presented global quantifications of the LES in wetland plants enhance our understanding of wetland plant strategies in terms of resources acquisition and allocation, and provide a stepping-stone to developing trait-based approaches for wetland ecology.


Assuntos
Fotossíntese/genética , Folhas de Planta/genética , Plantas/genética , Áreas Alagadas , Nitrogênio/análise , Fósforo/análise , Folhas de Planta/anatomia & histologia , Folhas de Planta/química , Plantas/anatomia & histologia , Plantas/metabolismo
5.
Chemosphere ; 254: 126794, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32957267

RESUMO

Present study carried out pot experiments and evaluated effects of single and binary mixture of nanoparticles (exposed via sludge as soil conditioner) on spinach plant. Exposure of Ag2O nanoparticles (NPs) (1 and 10 mg/kg soil-sludge) did not show significant reduction in plant as compared to control. On the other hand, TiO2 NPs (exposed as single and in binary mixture) resulted in significant increase in root length (29% and 37%) and fresh weight (60% and 48%) at highest exposure concentration. Total chlorophyll content decreased for Ag2O and binary mixture (7% and 4%, respectively) and increased for TiO2 (5%) at 10 mg/kg soil-sludge. The toxic interaction between Ag2O and TiO2 NPs was additive at both exposure concentrations. Ag2O NPs had higher tendency of root surface adsorption than TiO2 NPs. Metal content in spinach leaves at highest exposure concentration was Ag: 2.6 ± 0.55 mg/g plant biomass(for Ag2O NPs) and 1.02 ± 0.32 mg/g plant biomass (for Ag2O + TiO2 NPs) and for Ti: 1.12 ± 0.78 (for TiO2 NPs) mg/g plant biomass and 0.58 ± 0.41 mg/g (for Ag2O + TiO2 NPs). The inadvertent ingestion of NPs- contaminated spinach resulted in projected daily intake (DI) of Ag and Ti for different age-mass classes (child to adult) exceeding the oral reference dose for toxicity during oral ingestion. In conclusion, we report no acute toxicity of single and binary mixture of NPs to spinach but significant accumulation of Ag and Ti metals in spinach leaves. There are high chances that ingestion of spinach grown in such environment might lead to human health risks.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas/toxicidade , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Spinacia oleracea/efeitos dos fármacos , Biomassa , Clorofila , Humanos , Nanopartículas Metálicas/toxicidade , Metais/toxicidade , Nanopartículas/análise , Folhas de Planta/química , Esgotos , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Spinacia oleracea/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Titânio/farmacologia
6.
Toxins (Basel) ; 12(9)2020 09 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-789508

RESUMO

The deadly pandemic named COVID-19, caused by a new coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2), emerged in 2019 and is still spreading globally at a dangerous pace. As of today, there are no proven vaccines, therapies, or even strategies to fight off this virus. Here, we describe the in silico docking results of a novel broad range anti-infective fusion protein RTAM-PAP1 against the various key proteins of SARS-CoV-2 using the latest protein-ligand docking software. RTAM-PAP1 was compared against the SARS-CoV-2 B38 antibody, ricin A chain, a pokeweed antiviral protein from leaves, and the lectin griffithsin using the special CoDockPP COVID-19 version. These experiments revealed novel binding mechanisms of RTAM-PAP1 with a high affinity to numerous SARS-CoV-2 key proteins. RTAM-PAP1 was further characterized in a preliminary toxicity study in mice and was found to be a potential therapeutic candidate. These findings might lead to the discovery of novel SARS-CoV-2 targets and therapeutic protein structures with outstanding functions.


Assuntos
Antivirais/química , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Ligação Proteica/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Inativadoras de Ribossomos Tipo 1/química , Proteínas Inativadoras de Ribossomos Tipo 1/uso terapêutico , Ricina/uso terapêutico , Animais , Simulação por Computador , Humanos , Camundongos , Modelos Animais , Pandemias , Phytolacca americana/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Proteínas Inativadoras de Ribossomos Tipo 1/genética
7.
Anticancer Res ; 40(9): 5201-5210, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32878808

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Persimmon (Diospyros kaki L.) leaves are popular as a tea infusion in Asia and their main active ingredients are flavonoids. The present study aimed to explore the anticancer properties of flavonoids isolated from persimmon leaves (PLF). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We investigated the in vitro anti-proliferative activity of PLF against several human cancer cell lines. Apoptosis and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced by PLF were accessed using high-content analysis with florescent staining. The ability of PLF to scavenge free radicals was evaluated by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. RESULTS: PLF demonstrated significant inhibition of proliferation of liver, breast, and colorectal cancer cells in vitro. PLF induced apoptosis and increased intracellular ROS levels in HCT116 (colorectal cancer) and HepG2 (liver cancer) cells. In addition, PLF showed strong free radical scavenging ability. CONCLUSION: The anti-proliferation activity of PLF against cancer cells was related to the induction of apoptosis and oxidative stress.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Diospyros/química , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta/química , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/química , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/isolamento & purificação , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Flavonoides/química , Flavonoides/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
8.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0231805, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32760118

RESUMO

Boron (B) is required during all growth stages of cotton crop, especially during boll formation. However, Typic Haplocambid soils of cotton growing belt in Pakistan are B-deficient, which results in low yield and economic returns. Foliar application of B improves cotton productivity; however, information is limited on the role of soil applied B in improving cotton growth and yield. The current study investigated the role of soil applied B in improving growth, yield and fiber quality of cotton crop. Five different B doses (i.e., 0.00, 2.60, 5.52, 7.78 and 10.04 mg kg-1 of soil) and two cotton cultivars (i.e., CIM-600 and CIM-616) were included in the study. Soil applied B (2.60 mg kg-1) significantly improved growth, yield, physiological parameters and fiber quality, while 10.04 mg kg-1 application improved B distribution in roots, seeds, leaves and stalks. Significant improvement was noted in plant height (12%), leaf area (3%), number of bolls (48%), boll size (59%), boll weight (52%), seed cotton yield (52%), photosynthesis (50%), transpiration rate (10%), stomatal conductance (37%) and water use efficiency (44%) of CIM-600 with 2.60 mg kg-1 compared to control treatment of CIM-616. Similarly, B accumulation in roots, seeds, leaves and stalk of CIM-600 was improved by 76, 41, 86 and 70%, respectively compared to control treatment. The application of 2.60 mg kg-1 significantly improved ginning out turn (6%), staple length (3.5%), fiber fineness (17%) and fiber strength (5%) than no B application. The results indicated that cultivar CIM-600 had higher ginning out turn (1.5%), staple length (5.4%), fiber fineness (15.5%) and fiber strength (1.8%) than CIM-616. In crux, 2.60 mg kg-1 soil B application improved growth, yield, physiological and fiber quality traits of cotton cultivar CIM-600. Therefore, cultivar CIM-600 and 2.60 mg kg-1 soil B application is recommended for higher yield and productivity.


Assuntos
Boro/metabolismo , Gossypium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Gossypium/metabolismo , Biomassa , Fibra de Algodão/análise , Fertilizantes , Paquistão , Fotossíntese , Folhas de Planta/química , Raízes de Plantas/química , Sementes/química , Solo/química , Água
9.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0230089, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32760138

RESUMO

Ecological stoichiometric should be incorporated into management and nutrient impacted ecosystems dynamic to understand the status of ecosystems and ecological interaction. The present study focused on ecological stoichiometric characteristics of soil, and leaves, stems, and roots of different macrophytes after the banning of seine fishing in Shengjin Lake. For C, N, and P analysis from leaves, stems, roots, and soil to explore their stoichiometric ratio and deriving environmental forces, four dominant plant communities (Vallisneria natans, Zizania latifolia, Trapa natans and Carex schmidtii) were collected. The concentration of C, N, P and C: N: P ratio in leaves, stems, roots, and soil among the plant communities varied significantly. Along the depth gradient high C: N was measured in C.schmidtii soil (7.08±1.504) but not vary significantly (P >0.05). High C: P result was found in T.natans (81.14±43.88) and in V.natans soil (81.40±42.57) respectively with no significant difference (p>0.05). Besides, N: P ratio measured high in V. natans (13.7±4.05) and showed significant variation (P<0.05). High leaf C: N and N: P ratio was measured in C. schmidtii and V. natans respectively. Nevertheless, high leaf C: P ratio was measured in Z. latifolia. From the three studied organs, leaf C: N and N: P ratio showed high values compared to root and stems. The correlation analysis result showed that at 0-10cm depth soil organic carbon (SOC) correlated negatively with stem total phosphorus (STP), and root total nitrogen (RTN) (P<0.05) but positively strongly with leaf total phosphorus (LTP) and leaf total nitrogen (LTN) (P<0.01) respectively. Soil total nitrogen (STN) at 0-10cm strongly positively correlated with leaf total phosphorus (LTP) (P<0.01) and positively with RN: P and leaf total carbon (LTC) (P<0.05). Soil basic properties such as soil moisture content (SMC), bulky density (BD) and pH positively correlated with soil ecological stoichiometric characteristics. Redundancy analysis (RDA) result showed available nitrogen (AN), soil total nitrogen (STN), and available phosphorus (AP) were the potential determinants variables on plants stoichiometric characteristics.


Assuntos
Plantas/química , Solo/química , Carbono/análise , Carex (Planta) , China , Ecossistema , Eleocharis , Hydrocharitaceae , Lagos , Nitrogênio/análise , Fósforo/análise , Folhas de Planta/química , Raízes de Plantas/química , Caules de Planta/química , Poaceae , Áreas Alagadas
10.
Bull Environ Contam Toxicol ; 105(3): 428-432, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32740744

RESUMO

The accumulation of Cd and Pb in rice grains poses a potential threat to human health, which is a subject of increasing concern across the globe. We examined the effect that foliar spraying of Zn-ethylenediaminetetraacetate (Zn-EDTA) (0.3% and 0.5% w/v) during the early-grain filling stage has on rice grain yield and Cd, Pb, Zn and Fe contents in rice tissues via a field experiment. The grain yield significantly decreased with the foliar application of 0.5% Zn-EDTA. In rice grain, foliar spraying of 0.5% Zn-EDTA significantly decreased the Cd and Pb contents, but increased the Zn and Fe contents. The main reasons for the decrease in the Cd and Pb content in grain were the inhibition of Cd and Pb by roots and the increased Fe content in grain via Zn-EDTA application. The foliar spraying of Zn-EDTA decreased the grain yield and Cd and Pb contents, while increased the Zn and Fe contents in grains.


Assuntos
Cádmio/análise , Ácido Edético/química , Chumbo/análise , Oryza/fisiologia , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Grão Comestível/química , Humanos , Oryza/efeitos dos fármacos , Folhas de Planta/química , Raízes de Plantas/química , Solo , Zinco/análise
11.
Bull Environ Contam Toxicol ; 105(3): 405-410, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32776280

RESUMO

The accumulation of zinc (Zn) in Cichorium intybus and effects of phytotoxicity during 90 days of growth on (natural) non-contaminated and Zn-contaminated soils were studied. The phytotoxicity effects were monitored by evaluating the leaf area, leaf biomass, leaf length and root length of the vegetable. The Zn concentrations ranged from 5.35 ± 1.05 to 37.5 ± 3.89 mg kg-1 in leaves of plants grown on natural soil, and from 334.0 ± 25.6 to 2232 ± 16.7 mg kg-1 when grown on Zn-contaminated soils. Zn accumulation caused a decrease in growth on contaminated soils and an increase in phytotoxicity. These effects were associated to high metal concentration, mobility and bioavailability in the soil as well as changes in the translocation mechanism from the roots to the leaves. Then, it must be avoided the organic fertilization of soils with either animal manure or other agricultural inputs containing high zinc concentrations.


Assuntos
Chicória/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Zinco/toxicidade , Animais , Disponibilidade Biológica , Chicória/metabolismo , Fertilizantes , Metais , Folhas de Planta/química , Raízes de Plantas/química , Plantas , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Verduras , Zinco/análise
12.
Environ Pollut ; 266(Pt 3): 115308, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32835917

RESUMO

Shortly after an atmospheric release, the interception of radionuclides by crop canopies represents the main uptake pathway leading to food chain contamination. The food chain models currently used in European emergency decision support systems require a large number of input parameters, which inevitably leads to high model complexity. In this study, we have established a new relationship for wet deposited radionuclides to simplify the current modelling approaches. This relationship is based on the hypothesis that the stage of plant development is the key factor governing the interception of radionuclides by crops having horizontally oriented leaves (planophile crops). The interception fraction (f) and the leaf area index normalized (fLAI) and mass normalized (fB) interception fractions were assessed for spinach (Spinacia oleracea) and radish (Raphanus sativus) at different stages of plant development and for different contamination treatments and plant densities. A database of 191 f values for Cs-137 and Th-229 was built and complemented with existing literature covering various radionuclides and crops with similar canopy structure. The overall f increased with the plant growth, while the reverse was observed for fB. The fLAI significantly decreased by doubling the contaminated rainfall deposited. Fitting a multiple linear regression to predict the f value as a function of the standing biomass (B), and the radionuclide form (anion and cation) led to a better estimation of the interception (R2 = 81%) than the ECOSYS-87 model (R2 = 35%). Hence, the simplified modelling approach here proposed seems to be a suitable risk assessment tool as fewer parameters will minimize the model complexity and facilitate the decision-making procedures in case of emergencies, when countermeasures need to be identified and implemented promptly.


Assuntos
Radioisótopos de Césio/análise , Liberação Nociva de Radioativos , Biomassa , Produtos Agrícolas , Folhas de Planta/química
13.
J Environ Manage ; 275: 111239, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32846360

RESUMO

Today, particulate-matter (PM) pollution has become one of the most severe air-pollution problems. As the most commonly used method in daily life, phytoremediation can use plant organs (such as leaves) as biological filters for pollutants to repair the atmosphere. At the same time, rainfall can remove PM from plant-leaf surfaces and enable them to adsorb PM again. By simulating natural rainfall, the rainfall characteristics are quantified as rainfall intensity and rainfall duration, and we use the washout-weighing method to obtain the amount of PM removed from the leaf surface. Then, use a scanner to scan the leaves after rain to get their images, and use Image J software to process the images to obtain leaf area. Finally, the amount of PM removed by rain per unit leaf area can be calculated. It will be used to explore the impact of different rainfall intensity and duration on the removal of PM from the leaf surface of wetland plants. The results showed that under three rainfall intensities used in this experiment, the removal of PM from plant-leaf surfaces all increased with an increase in rainfall duration. When the particle size is 10-100-µm, and the rainfall intensity is 30 mm/h, the removal amount of plant particles tested in this experiment is the largest. With increased rainfall duration, the removal of PM from plant-leaf surfaces increased sharply at first, then slowly, and finally tended to be stable. The removal efficiency of PM on the blade surface is most apparent at the early stage of rainfall, and then gradually weakens. Among the four wetland plants tested in this experiment, in the range of 10-100-µm, the number of PM on the leaf surface of Scirpus validus is the largest, and the optimum rainfall intensity is 30 mm/h; in the range of 2.5-10-µm, the number of PM on the leaf surface of Typha orientalis is the largest, and the optimal rainfall intensity is 30 mm/h; in the range of 0.45-2.5-µm, the number of PM on the leaf surface of Iris wilsonii is the largest, and the optimal rainfall intensity is 15 mm/h. Wetland species with high particle accumulation capacity can provide references for vegetation restoration of degraded wetland plants and plant cultivation in constructed wetlands. At the same time, the best rainfall intensity and duration for removing particulate matter on the surface of plant leaves were obtained through experiments, which provided a reference for the design of automatic plant irrigation systems and dust removers in different scenarios.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Material Particulado , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Material Particulado/análise , Folhas de Planta/química , Áreas Alagadas
14.
J Oleo Sci ; 69(8): 941-950, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32759552

RESUMO

This study reports the biological activity of essential oils from fertility tree and horseradish tree leaves, and the mechanisms by which these oils promote insecticidal activity using Drosophila melanogaster as a model organism. Adult D. melanogaster were exposed to these essential oils at a final concentration of 10 µL/g for 24 hours. The exposure of flies to the essential oil resulted in significant decrease in their survival and fecundity. In addition, the essential oils produced significant reduction in acetylcholinesterase activity and induced oxidative stress in the flies as evidenced by an increase in reactive oxygen species, thiol and thiobarbituric reactive substance levels, as well as catalase activity. The essential oils were also characterized by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. Constituents such as terpenoids, Bis (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, benzeneacetaldehyde, phytol, octadecane, 9,12-octadecadienoic acid (Z,Z)- methyl ester, heneicosane, eicosane and others were characterized. Therefore, our results point out to the potential application of fertility tree and horseradish tree leaf essential oils as natural alternatives to synthetic insecticides in agricultural and pest control practices, especially against dipterans.


Assuntos
Acetilcolinesterase/metabolismo , Bignoniaceae/química , Drosophila melanogaster/efeitos dos fármacos , Drosophila melanogaster/metabolismo , Inseticidas , Moringa oleifera/química , Óleos Voláteis/isolamento & purificação , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Folhas de Planta/química , Animais , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Óleos Voláteis/química , Ácidos Ftálicos/análise , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Terpenos/análise , Substâncias Reativas com Ácido Tiobarbitúrico/metabolismo , Fatores de Tempo
15.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236879, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32790676

RESUMO

Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a progressive pathological condition associated with proliferation of prostatic tissues, prostate enlargement, and lower-urinary tract symptoms. However, the mechanism underlying the pathogenesis of BPH is unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effects of a combination of Stauntonia hexaphylla and Cornus officinalis (SC extract) on a testosterone propionate (TP)-induced BPH model. The effect of SC extract was examined in a TP-induced human prostate adenocarcinoma cell line. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 5 groups (n = 6) for in vivo experiments. To induce BPH, all rats, except those in the control group, were administered daily with subcutaneous injections of TP (5 mg/kg) and orally treated with appropriate phosphate buffered saline/drugs (finasteride/saw palmetto/SC extract) for 4 consecutive weeks. SC extract significantly downregulated the androgen receptor (AR), prostate specific antigen (PSA), and 5α-reductase type 2 in TP-induced BPH in vitro. In in vivo experiments, SC extract significantly reduced prostate weight, size, serum testosterone, and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) levels. Histologically, SC extract markedly recovered TP-induced abnormalities and reduced prostatic hyperplasia, thereby improving the histo-architecture of TP-induced BPH rats. SC extract also significantly downregulated AR and PSA expression, as assayed using immunoblotting. Immunostaining revealed that SC extract markedly reduced the 5α-reductase type 2 and significantly downregulated the expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen. In addition, immunoblotting of B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) family proteins indicated that SC extract significantly downregulated anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 and markedly upregulated pro-apoptotic B cell lymphoma-associated X (Bax) expression. Furthermore, SC treatment significantly decreased the Bcl-2/Bax ratio, indicating induced prostate cell apoptosis in TP-induced BPH rats. Thus, our findings demonstrated that SC extract protects against BPH by inhibiting 5α-reductase type 2 and inducing prostate cell apoptosis. Therefore, SC extract might be useful in the clinical treatment of BPH.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Colestenona 5 alfa-Redutase/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Hiperplasia Prostática/prevenção & controle , Substâncias Protetoras/uso terapêutico , Inibidores de 5-alfa Redutase/química , Inibidores de 5-alfa Redutase/farmacologia , Inibidores de 5-alfa Redutase/uso terapêutico , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Colestenona 5 alfa-Redutase/metabolismo , Cornus/química , Cornus/metabolismo , Regulação para Baixo/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Masculino , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Folhas de Planta/química , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Antígeno Prostático Específico/sangue , Hiperplasia Prostática/etiologia , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/metabolismo , Ranunculales/química , Ranunculales/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Propionato de Testosterona/efeitos adversos
16.
J Chromatogr A ; 1626: 461370, 2020 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32797849

RESUMO

Betacyanins, natural plant pigments, from Iresine herbstii Hook. ex Lindl. leaf extract were separated for the first time by high-speed countercurrent chromatography (HSCCC) in a highly polar solvent system composed of PrOH-ACN-(NH4)2SO4satd.soln-H2O (1.0:0.5:1.2:1.0; v/v/v/v) in the tail-to-head mode. The flow rate of the mobile phase was 2.0 ml/min and the column rotation speed was 860 rpm. The retention of the stationary phase was 81.0%. For the identification of separated betacyanins in the crude extract and in the HSCCC fractions, as well as for the molecular formulas and multi-step fragmentation pattern elucidation, liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry and high-resolution ion-trap time-of-flight mass spectrometry were performed. The innovative application of the HSCCC system for fractionation of the betacyanins present in I. herbstii leaves enabled effective separation as well as preconcentration of the pigments for further low- and high-resolution LC-MS/MS analysis. HSCCC separation enabled identification of 22 betacyanins, of which 18 had not been detected previously in the leaves of I. herbstii, and four of these betacyanins (sinapoyl-gomphrenin and coumaroyl-gomphrenin as well as their epimers) were identified for the first time in the Iresine genus.


Assuntos
Amaranthaceae/química , Betacianinas/análise , Distribuição Contracorrente/métodos , Solventes/química , Amaranthaceae/metabolismo , Betacianinas/isolamento & purificação , Betacianinas/normas , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/normas , Extratos Vegetais/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Padrões de Referência , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/normas
17.
J Chromatogr A ; 1627: 461414, 2020 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32823112

RESUMO

Various techniques have been evaluated for the extraction and cleanup of pesticides from environmental samples. In this work, a Selective Pressurized Liquid Extraction (SPLE) method for pesticides was developed using a Thermo Fisher Scientific Accelerated Solvent Extraction (ASE) system. This instrument was compared to the newly introduced (2017) extraction instrument, the Energized Dispersive Guided Extraction (EDGE) system, which combines Pressurized Liquid Extraction (PLE) and dispersive Solid Phase Extraction (dSPE). We first optimized the SPLE method using the ASE instrument for pesticide extraction from alfalfa leaves using layers of Florisil and graphitized carbon black (GCB) downstream of the leaf homogenate in the extraction cell (Layered ASE method). We then compared results obtained for alfalfa and citrus leaves with the Layered ASE method to those from a method in which the leaf homogenate and sorbents were mixed (Mixed ASE method) and to similar methods modified for use with EDGE (Layered EDGE and Mixed EDGE methods). The ASE and EDGE methods led to clear, colorless extracts with low residual lipid weight. No significant differences in residual lipid masses were observed between the methods. The UV-Vis spectra showed that Florisil removed a significant quantity of the light-absorbing chemicals, but that GCB was required to produce colorless extracts. Recoveries of spiked analytes into leaf homogenates were generally similar among methods, but in several cases, significantly higher recoveries were observed in ASE extracts. Nonetheless, no significant differences were observed among pesticide concentrations in field samples when calculated with the isotope dilution method in which labelled surrogates were added to samples before extraction. The extraction time with the ASE methods was ~45 minutes, which was ~4.5 times longer than with the EDGE methods. The EDGE methods used ~10 mL more solvent than the ASE methods. Based on these results, the EDGE is an acceptable extraction instrument and, for most compounds, the EDGE had a similar extraction efficiency to the ASE methods.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Química Analítica/métodos , Praguicidas/análise , Folhas de Planta/química , Solventes/química , Lipídeos/química , Medicago sativa/química , Resíduos de Praguicidas/análise , Extratos Vegetais/química , Espectrofotometria Ultravioleta
18.
J Chromatogr A ; 1625: 461271, 2020 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32709323

RESUMO

Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are ubiquitous in the environment. However, only a limited number of predominantly persistent perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) have been analyzed in edible plants so far. We present a generic trace analytical method that allows for quantification of 16 intermediate fluorotelomer alcohol (FTOH)- or perfluoroalkane sulfonamidoethanol (FASE)-based transformation products as well as 18 PFAAs in plants. Additionally, 36 suspected intermediate PFAS transformation products were qualitatively analyzed. The ultrasound-assisted solid-liquid extraction of wheat and maize grain, maize leaves, Jerusalem artichoke and ryegrass (1-5 g plant sample intake) was followed by a clean-up with dispersive solid-phase extraction using graphitized carbon adsorbent (5-10 mg per sample) and chemical analysis by reversed phase liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The method was based on matrix matched and extracted calibration and displayed good precision with relative standard deviations in triplicate analyses typically below 15% for all quantified analytes and matrices. An average deviation of 12% between quantified concentrations obtained by matrix matched and extracted calibration and a method based on isotopically labelled internal standards underlines the good trueness of the method. The method quantification limits for the majority of analytes in all plant samples were in the low ng/kg concentration range on a dry weight basis. Plant matrices were analyzed from crops grown on agricultural fields that have been contaminated with PFASs. FTOH- and/or FASE-based intermediate transformation products were detected in all samples with N-ethyl perfluorooctane sulfonamidoacetic acid (EtFOSAA) and perfluorooctane sulfonamide (FOSA) as the prevailing compounds in concentrations up to several hundred ng/kg in maize leaves. The 9:3 Acid (a transformation product of 10:2 FTOH) was tentatively identified. In accordance with these findings, the final degradation products perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) and perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA) were frequently detected. For perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs), according to earlier findings, short chain homologues generally displayed the highest levels (up to 98 µg/kg for perfluorobutanoic acid (PFBA) in maize leaves). However, maize grain was an exception showing the highest concentrations for long chain PFCAs, whereas PFBA was not detected. The uptake of high levels of PFASs into plants is of concern since these may be used as animal feed or represent a direct exposure medium for humans.


Assuntos
Produtos Agrícolas/química , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Fluorcarbonetos/análise , Animais , Humanos , Limite de Detecção , Folhas de Planta/química , Padrões de Referência , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
19.
Food Chem ; 332: 127393, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32603921

RESUMO

Jambu [Acmella oleracea (L.) R.K. Jansen] is an edible plant with a wide range of constituents of biological interest. In this study, the chemical composition of leaves, flowers and stems of jambu cultivated in hydroponic and conventional systems was investigated. In both crop systems, the leaves showed the highest total phenolic content, total flavonoid content and in vitro antioxidant capacity. The extracts were characterized by determining 45 compounds, including phenolic acids, glycosylated flavonoids, alkamides and fatty acids, by LC-MS analysis. Of these compounds, 31 are described for the first time in this species, five of which are reported for the first time in the literature. The PCA and cluster analysis results distinguished different anatomical parts (PC1 and PC2) and cultivation systems (PC3) into well-defined groups.


Assuntos
Asteraceae/química , Asteraceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Hidroponia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Estruturas Vegetais/química , Asteraceae/anatomia & histologia , Cromatografia Líquida , Análise por Conglomerados , Espectrometria de Massas , Folhas de Planta/química , Análise de Componente Principal
20.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236319, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32726328

RESUMO

Jacaranda mimosifolia trees are grown in frost-free regions globally. The aim of this study was to evaluate the methanol crude extract and various fractions of increasing polarity of J. mimosifolia leaves for bioactive metabolites, as well as antimicrobial, antioxidant and anticancer activities. The anti-inflammatory potential of the various fractions of J. mimosifolia leaf extract was studied via the lipoxygenase (LOX) inhibitory assay. Methanol crude extract (ME), derived fractions extracted with chloroform (CF) and ethyl acetate (EAF), and residual aqueous extract (AE) of dried J. mimosifolia leaves were assayed for polyphenolic compounds, their antioxidant, antimicrobial and lipoxygenase (LOX) inhibitory activities, and anticancer properties. Polyphenolic compounds were determined via HPLC while phytochemicals (total phenolics, flavonoids, tannins and ortho-diphenol contents), antioxidant activities (DPPH, hydrogen peroxideperoxide, hydroxyl and superoxide radical anions) and LOX were measured via spectrophotometry. Methanol extracts and various fractions were evaluated for antibacterial activities against Bacillus subtilis, Klebsiella pneumonia, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. Antifungal potential of the fractions was tested against three species: Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus fumigatus and Fusarium oxysporum. The highest values for total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), flavonols, tannins and ortho-diphenols were in the ME, followed by CF > EAF > AE. ME also had the highest antioxidant activity with EC50 values 48±1.3, 45±2.4, 42±1.3 and 46±1.3 µg/mL based on the DPPH, hydrogen peroxide, hydroxyl radical and superoxide radical assays, respectively. TPC and TFC showed a significant, strong and positive correlation with the values for each of these antioxidant activities. ME exhibited anti-inflammatory potential based on its LOX inhibitory activity (IC50 = 1.3 µg/mL). ME also had the maximum antibacterial and antifungal potential, followed by EAF > CF > AE. Furthermore, ME showed the strongest cytotoxic effect (EC50 = 10.7 and 17.3 µg/mL) against human hormone-dependent prostate carcinoma (LnCaP) and human lung carcinoma (LU-1) cell lines, respectively. Bioactive compounds present in leaf methanol extracts of J. mimosifolia were identified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Fifteen compounds were identified including phenolic and alcoholic compounds, as well as fatty acids. Our results suggest that J. mimosifolia leaves are a good source of natural products with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer properties for potential therapeutic, nutraceutical and functional food applications.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Bignoniaceae/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Anti-Infecciosos/química , Antioxidantes/química , Aspergillus/efeitos dos fármacos , Aspergillus/patogenicidade , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Citotoxinas/química , Citotoxinas/farmacologia , Humanos , Inibidores de Lipoxigenase/química , Inibidores de Lipoxigenase/farmacologia , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias/patologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus/patogenicidade
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