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4.
Recurso na Internet em Português | LIS - Localizador de Informação em Saúde | ID: lis-LISBR1.1-47454

RESUMO

Famílias e profissionais têm um encontro marcado com a Fiocruz Brasília, na próxima quinta-feira (14/5), das 15h às 17h, quando acontece a sétima edição do Conexão Fiocruz Brasília, programa transmitido ao vivo pelo YouTube. O tema da vez é Alimentação em tempos de pandemia: hábitos saudáveis, fome e solidariedade.


Assuntos
Comportamento Alimentar , Fome , Solidariedade , Infecções por Coronavirus , Betacoronavirus , Promoção da Saúde ,
5.
Matern Child Nutr ; 16(3): e13036, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32458574

RESUMO

Globally, the COVID-19 pandemic has already led to major increases in unemployment and is expected to lead to unprecedented increases in poverty and food and nutrition insecurity, as well as poor health outcomes. Families where young children, youth, pregnant and lactating women live need to be protected against the ongoing protracted pandemic and the aftershocks that are very likely to follow for years to come. The future wellbeing of the vast majority of the world now depends on reconfiguring the current ineffective food, nutrition, health, and social protection systems to ensure food and nutrition security for all. Because food, nutrition, health, and socio-economic outcomes are intimately inter-linked, it is essential that we find out how to effectively address the need to reconfigure and to provide better intersecoral coordination among global and local food, health care, and social protection systems taking equity and sutainability principles into account. Implementation science research informed by complex adaptive sytems frameworks will be needed to fill in the major knowledge gaps. Not doing so will not only put the development of individuals at further risk, but also negatively impact on the development potential of entire nations and ultimately our planet.


Assuntos
Saúde da Criança , Infecções por Coronavirus , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Saúde Materna , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Betacoronavirus , Criança , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Infantil , Feminino , Saúde Global , Humanos , Fome , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Materna , Pobreza , Gravidez , Risco
7.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0230965, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32243485

RESUMO

The burden of food insecurity is large in Sub-Saharan Africa, yet the evidence-base on the relation between household food insecurity and early child development is extremely limited. Furthermore, available research mostly relies on cross-sectional data, limiting the quality of existing evidence. We use longitudinal data on preschool-aged children and their households in Ghana to investigate how being in a food insecure household was associated with early child development outcomes across three years. Household food insecurity was measured over three years using the Household Hunger Score. Households were first classified as "ever food insecure" if they were food insecure at any round. We also assessed persistence of household food insecurity by classifying households into three categories: (i) never food insecure; (ii) transitory food insecurity, if the household was food insecure only in one wave; and (iii) persistent food insecurity, if the household was food insecure in two or all waves. Child development was assessed across literacy, numeracy, social-emotional, short-term memory, and self-regulation domains. Controlling for baseline values of each respective outcome and child and household characteristics, children from ever food insecure households had lower literacy, numeracy and short-term memory. When we distinguished between transitory and persistent food insecurity, transitory spells of food insecurity predicted decreased numeracy (ß = -0.176, 95% CI: -0.317; -0.035), short-term memory (ß = -0.237, 95% CI: -0.382; -0.092), and self-regulation (ß = -0.154, 95% CI: -0.326; 0.017) compared with children from never food insecure households. By contrast, children residing in persistently food insecure households had lower literacy scores (ß = -0.243, 95% CI: -0.496; 0.009). No gender differences were detected. Results were broadly robust to the inclusion of additional controls. This novel evidence from a Sub-Saharan African country highlights the need for multi-sectoral approaches including social protection and nutrition to support early child development.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Características da Família , Feminino , Abastecimento de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Gana , Humanos , Fome , Alfabetização/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Memória de Curto Prazo , Análise Multivariada , Autocontrole/psicologia , Mudança Social
9.
Harefuah ; 159(4): 263-265, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Hebraico | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32307964

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: War is usually accompanied by devastating consequences such as famine, diseases, social and economic destruction and more. Research projects or accounts on hunger were rarely made during the war itself. This review describes these attempts with an emphasis on the heroic "Hunger Disease " research that was carried out within the Warsaw ghetto.


Assuntos
Judeus , Inanição , Humanos , Fome , Judaísmo , Socialismo Nacional
10.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0232099, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32330183

RESUMO

Food cues affect hunger and nutritional choices. Omnipresent stimulation with palatable food contributes to the epidemics of obesity. The objective of the study was to investigate the impact of food cues on appetite-related hormones and to assess the functionality of the secreted hormones on macronutrient uptake in healthy subjects. Additionally, we aimed at verifying differences in the response of total and active ghrelin to stimulation with food pictures and to a meal followed by the stimulation. We were also interested in the identification of factors contributing to response to food cues. We recruited healthy, non-obese participants for two independent cross-over studies. During the first study, the subjects were presented random non-food pictures on the first day and pictures of foods on the second day of the study. Throughout the second study, following the picture session, the participants were additionally asked to drink a milkshake. Concentrations of blood glucose, triglycerides and hunger-related hormones were measured. The results showed that concentrations of several hormones measured in the blood are interdependent. In the case of ghrelin and gastric inhibitory peptide (GIP) as well as ghrelin and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), this co-occurrence relies on the visual cues. Regulation of total ghrelin concentration following food stimulation is highly individual and responders showed upregulated total ghrelin, while the concentration of active ghrelin decreases following a meal. Protein content and colour intensity of food pictures reversely correlated with participants' rating of the pictures. We conclude that observation of food pictures influences the concentration of several appetite-related hormones. The close link of visual clues to physiological responses is likely of clinical relevance. Additionally, the protein content of displayed foods and green colour intensity in pictures may serve as a predictor of subjective attractiveness of the presented meal.


Assuntos
Fome/fisiologia , Obesidade/psicologia , Estimulação Luminosa/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Apetite/fisiologia , Glicemia/metabolismo , Comportamento de Escolha/fisiologia , Sinais (Psicologia) , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Feminino , Polipeptídeo Inibidor Gástrico/sangue , Grelina/sangue , Peptídeo 1 Semelhante ao Glucagon/sangue , Humanos , Insulina/sangue , Masculino , Nutrientes , Peptídeo YY/sangue
11.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0229840, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32231372

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hunger frequently and persistently occur in older populations in low-income countries especially in sub-Sahara Africa. The aim of this study was to examine the associations between food insecurity with hunger and psychological distress among older people in Ghana. METHODS: A total of 1200 individuals aged ≥50 years were recruited during 2016/2017 Ageing, Health, Psychological Well-being and Health-seeking Behavior Study. Associations between psychological distress (assessed with the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale) and hunger (assessed with a 30-day subjective scale) were evaluated using linear regression modeling. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of food insecurity was 36% with approximately 27% and 9% respectively for moderate and severe levels of hunger whilst the mean score of psychological distress was 9.5 (±4.10). Persons experiencing moderate hunger (ß = 0.71, SE = 0.160, p < 0.001) and severe hunger (ß = 1.81, SE = 0.280, p < 0.001) significantly reported increased psychological distress outcome compared to those without hunger. These associations varied between women (ß = 1.59, SE = 0.359 p < 0.001) and men (ß = 2.33, SE = 0.474, p < 0.001) as well as 50-64 age group (ß = 1.48, SE = 0.368, p < 0.005) and 65+ age group (ß = 2.51, SE = 0.467, p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that experiencing hunger is associated with psychological distress and the effect may be aggravated with advancing age and in men. These findings may inform social policy initiatives and health programmatic interventions for older people exposed to food insecurity.


Assuntos
Abastecimento de Alimentos , Fome , Pobreza/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Gana , Humanos , Vida Independente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
12.
Neuron ; 105(6): 959-960, 2020 03 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32191858

RESUMO

The neural mechanisms underlying interoception-the sensation of internal physiological states-remain largely unresolved. In this issue of Neuron, Livneh et al. (2020) demonstrate that the insula bridges different timescales of interoception by tracking and predicting thirst and hunger states.


Assuntos
Interocepção , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Córtex Cerebral , Fome , Sensação
13.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 312, 2020 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32164634

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Several front-of-pack (FOP) labels identify healthier options by comparing foods within product categories. Alternative approaches label healthier options by comparing across categories. Which approach is superior remains unknown. The objective of this study was to test the effect of a within-category versus across-category FOP lower calorie label on 1) the percentage of labeled products purchased, 2) several measures of calories purchased (total, per dollar and per serving), and 3) total spending. We also tested the moderating effects of hunger and mood on purchasing patterns. METHODS: Using an online grocery store, we conducted a 3 × 3 crossover trial involving actual purchases with 146 participants randomly exposed to: 1) no labeling control; 2) within-category lower calorie labels, and; 3) across-category lower calorie labels. We labeled the 20% of products with the lowest calories per serving within or across categories. Purchases were compared using a fixed effects regression on first-differenced outcomes. RESULTS: Relative to the control condition, there was a 3 percentage point increase (p = 0.01) in labelled products purchased in the within-category arm and a non-significant decrease of 1 percentage point (p = 0.711) in the across-category arm. There was no significant difference in the proportion of labeled products purchased between the two labelling conditions. Neither strategy resulted in reductions in any measure of calories purchased or in total spending. When limited to beverages, there was a 398 cal reduction (p = 0.01) in the within-category arm and a 438 cal reduction (p < 0.01) in the across-category arm versus the control. Mood and hunger did not modify the effects for either strategy. CONCLUSIONS: Results provide evidence that both labelling strategies have the potential to influence food purchasing patterns. However, we cannot definitely state that one labelling approach is superior or even that an increase in the proportion of labelled products purchased will lead to a reduction in calories purchased. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The American Economic Association's registry for randomized controlled trials, RCT ID: AEARCTR-0002325; Prospectively Registered October 06, 2017. In compliance with ICMJE policy, the trial was also registered on Clinicaltrials.gov, RCT ID: [NCT04165447]. Retrospectively Registered 11 November 2019.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Consumidor/estatística & dados numéricos , Ingestão de Energia , Rotulagem de Alimentos/métodos , Adulto , Afeto , Estudos Cross-Over , Feminino , Humanos , Fome , Masculino
14.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 111(5): 997-1006, 2020 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32219418

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Several risk factors in the first 1000 d are linked with increased obesity risk in later childhood. The role of potentially modifiable eating behaviors in this association is unclear. OBJECTIVES: This study examined whether the association between cumulated risk factors in the first 1000 d and adiposity at 6 y is moderated by eating behaviors. METHODS: Participants were 302 children from the GUSTO (Growing Up in Singapore Towards healthy Outcomes) cohort. Risk factors included maternal prepregnancy and paternal overweight, excessive gestational weight gain, raised fasting plasma glucose during pregnancy, short breastfeeding duration, and early introduction of solid foods. Composite risk scores reflecting the prevalence and the importance of the risk factors present were computed. Adiposity outcomes were child BMI and sum of skinfolds (SSF), and candidate eating behavior moderators were portion size, eating rate, and energy intake during lunch and in an eating in the absence of hunger task. RESULTS: Higher composite risk score predicted higher BMI z scores (B = 0.08; 95% CI: 0.04, 0.13) and larger SSF (0.70 mm; 0.23, 1.18 mm), and was associated with larger self-served food portions (5.03 kcal; 0.47, 9.60 kcal), faster eating rates (0.40 g/min; 0.21, 0.59 g/min), and larger lunch intakes (7.05 kcal; 3.37, 10.74 kcal). Importantly, the association between composite risk score and adiposity was moderated by eating behaviors. The composite risk score was unrelated to SSF in children who selected smaller food portions, ate slower, and consumed less energy, but was positively associated with SSF among children who selected larger food portions, ate faster, and consumed more energy (eating behavior × risk score interactions: P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The association between risk factors in the first 1000 d and adiposity at 6 y varies by eating behaviors, highlighting modifiable behavioral targets for interventions.This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01174875.


Assuntos
Adiposidade , Comportamento Alimentar , Sobrepeso/psicologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Aleitamento Materno , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Ingestão de Energia , Feminino , Humanos , Fome , Lactente , Masculino , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/metabolismo , Sobrepeso/fisiopatologia , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco , Singapura/epidemiologia
15.
J Sports Sci ; 38(8): 953-960, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32156187

RESUMO

Whether the acute coordinative exercise could affect the inhibitory control and food-cue related attention in obese adolescents remains understudied. Therefore, this study used the Stroop test and the food-cue related Stroop test to explore the impacts of 20 min of acute coordinative exercise on the cognitive tests involving inhibitory control and attentional bias towards food-cue related stimuli, respectively, in obese adolescents. Thirty-eight obese adolescents (mean age = 14.63 ± 0.69 years) were equally divided into exercise and control groups. The cognitive tests (i.e., the Stroop test and the food-cue related Stroop test) and hunger scores were conducted and assessed before and after an intervention. The exercise group had significantly larger negative pre-post response time difference in the congruent (-1.04 ± 0.29 ms) and incongruent (-5.76 ± 1.66 ms) conditions of the Stroop test than the control group (ps < 0.01), and a smaller post-interference (1.13 ± 0.14) than the pre-interference (1.31 ± 0.14, p = 0.04). Moreover, a significantly larger negative pre-post response time difference on the food-cue related Stroop test was observed in the exercise group (-4.42 ± 7.20 ms) than the control group (1.76 ± 8.37 ms, p = 0.02). Collectively, an acute coordinative exercise session could induce superior inhibitory control and less attentional bias towards food-cue related stimuli in obese adolescents.


Assuntos
Cognição , Sinais (Psicologia) , Exercício Físico/psicologia , Alimentos , Obesidade Pediátrica/psicologia , Adolescente , Aptidão Cardiorrespiratória , Feminino , Humanos , Fome , Masculino , Teste de Stroop
16.
PLoS Biol ; 18(3): e3000628, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32208414

RESUMO

When individuals exchange helpful acts reciprocally, increasing the benefit of the receiver can enhance its propensity to return a favour, as pay-offs are typically correlated in iterated interactions. Therefore, reciprocally cooperating animals should consider the relative benefit for the receiver when deciding to help a conspecific. Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus) exchange food reciprocally and thereby take into account both the cost of helping and the potential benefit to the receiver. By using a variant of the sequential iterated prisoner's dilemma paradigm, we show that rats may determine the need of another individual by olfactory cues alone. In an experimental food-exchange task, test subjects were provided with odour cues from hungry or satiated conspecifics located in a different room. Our results show that wild-type Norway rats provide help to a stooge quicker when they receive odour cues from a hungry rather than from a satiated conspecific. Using chemical analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), we identify seven volatile organic compounds that differ in their abundance between hungry and satiated rats. Combined, this "smell of hunger" can apparently serve as a reliable cue of need in reciprocal cooperation, which supports the hypothesis of honest signalling.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal , Fome , Odorantes/análise , Comportamento Social , Animais , Comportamento Cooperativo , Sinais (Psicologia) , Feminino , Análise de Componente Principal , Ratos , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise
17.
Am J Psychiatry ; 177(7): 601-610, 2020 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32160766

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Anorexia nervosa has the highest mortality rate of any psychiatric condition, yet the pathophysiology of this disorder and its primary symptom, extreme dietary restriction, remains poorly understood. In states of hunger relative to satiety, the rewarding value of food stimuli normally increases to promote eating, yet individuals with anorexia nervosa avoid food despite emaciation. This study's aim was to examine potential neural insensitivity to these effects of hunger in anorexia nervosa. METHODS: At two scanning sessions scheduled 24 hours apart, one after a 16-hour fast and one after a standardized meal, 26 women who were in remission from anorexia nervosa (to avoid the confounding effects of malnutrition) and 22 matched control women received tastes of sucrose solution or ionic water while functional MRI data were acquired. Within a network of interest responsible for food valuation and transforming taste signals into motivation to eat, the authors compared groups across conditions on blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) signal and task-based functional connectivity. RESULTS: Participants in the two groups had similar BOLD responses to sucrose and water tastants. A group-by-condition interaction in the ventral caudal putamen indicated that hunger had opposite effects on tastant response in the control group and the remitted anorexia nervosa group, with an increase and a decrease, respectively, in BOLD response when hungry. Hunger had a similar opposite effect on insula-to-ventral caudal putamen functional connectivity in the remitted anorexia nervosa group compared with the control group. Exploratory analyses indicated that lower caudate response to tastants when hungry was associated with higher scores on harm avoidance among participants in the remitted anorexia nervosa group. CONCLUSIONS: Reduced recruitment of neural circuitry that translates taste stimulation to motivated eating behavior when hungry may facilitate food avoidance and prolonged periods of extremely restricted food intake in anorexia nervosa.


Assuntos
Anorexia Nervosa/fisiopatologia , Núcleo Caudado/fisiopatologia , Córtex Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Fome/fisiologia , Putamen/fisiopatologia , Paladar/fisiologia , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Neuroimagem Funcional , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Vias Neurais/fisiopatologia , Indução de Remissão , Adulto Jovem
18.
Animal ; 14(S1): s133-s143, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32024575

RESUMO

Feeding management of the postnatal and preweaning calf has an important impact on calf growth and development during this critical period and affects the health and well-being of the calves. After birth, an immediate and sufficient colostrum supply is a prerequisite for successful calf rearing. Colostrum provides high amounts of nutrient as well as non-nutrient factors that promote the immune system and intestinal maturation of the calf. The maturation and function of the neonatal intestine enable the calf to digest and absorb the nutrients provided by colostrum and milk. Therefore, colostrum intake supports the start of anabolic processes in several tissues, stimulating postnatal body growth and organ development. After the colostrum feeding period, an intensive milk feeding protocol, that is, at least 20% of BW milk intake/day, is required to realise the calf potential for growth and organ development during the preweaning period. Insufficient milk intake delays postnatal growth and may have detrimental effects on organ development, for example, the intestine and the mammary gland. The somatotropic axis as the main postnatal endocrine regulatory system for body growth is stimulated by the intake of high amounts of colostrum and milk and indicates the promotion of anabolic metabolism in calves. The development of the forestomach is an important issue during the preweaning period in calves, and forestomach maturation is best achieved by solid feed intake. Unfortunately, intensive milk-feeding programmes compromise solid feed intake during the first weeks of life. In the more natural situation for beef calves, when milk and solid feed intake occurs at the same time, calves benefit from the high milk intake as evidenced by enhanced body growth and organ maturation without impaired forestomach development during weaning. To realise an intensive milk-feeding programme, it is recommended that the weaning process should not start too early and that solid feed intake should be at a high extent despite intensive milk feeding. A feeding concept based on intensive milk feeding prevents hunger and abnormal behaviour of the calves and fits the principles of animal welfare during preweaning calf rearing. Studies on milk performance in dairy cows indicate that feeding management during early calf rearing influences lifetime performance. Therefore, an intensive milk-feeding programme affects immediate as well as long-term performance, probably by programming metabolic pathways during the preweaning period.


Assuntos
Bovinos/fisiologia , Colostro/metabolismo , Leite/metabolismo , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Bovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ingestão de Alimentos , Feminino , Fome , Gravidez , Desmame
19.
Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 14(2): 103-111, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31996050

RESUMO

Introduction: Motilin was first alluded to nearly a century ago. But it remains a rather abstruse peptide, in the shadow of its younger but more lucid 'cousin' ghrelin.Areas covered: The review aimed to bring to the fore multifarious aspects of motilin research with a view to aiding prioritization of future studies on this gastrointestinal peptide.Expert opinion: Growing evidence indicates that rodents (mice, rats, guinea pigs) do not have functional motilin system and, hence, studies in these species are likely to have a minimal translational impact. Both the active peptide and motilin receptor were initially localized to the upper gastrointestinal tract only but more recently - also to the brain (in both humans and other mammals with functional motilin system). Motilin is now indisputably implicated in interdigestive contractile activity of the gastrointestinal tract (in particular, gastric phase III of the migrating motor complex). Beyond this role, evidence is building that there is a cross-talk between motilin system and the brain-pancreas axis, suggesting that motilin exerts not only contractile but also orexigenic and insulin secretagogue actions.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Motilina/fisiologia , Pâncreas/fisiologia , Animais , Motilidade Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Grelina/fisiologia , Humanos , Fome/fisiologia , Insulina/fisiologia , Complexo Mioelétrico Migratório/fisiologia , Receptor Cross-Talk/fisiologia , Receptores dos Hormônios Gastrointestinais/fisiologia , Receptores de Neuropeptídeos/fisiologia , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia
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