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1.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4131, 2021 07 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34226544

RESUMO

Feeding decisions are fundamental to survival, and decision making is often disrupted in disease. Here, we show that neural activity in a small population of neurons projecting to the fan-shaped body higher-order central brain region of Drosophila represents food choice during sensory conflict. We found that food deprived flies made tradeoffs between appetitive and aversive values of food. We identified an upstream neuropeptidergic and dopaminergic network that relays internal state and other decision-relevant information to a specific subset of fan-shaped body neurons. These neurons were strongly inhibited by the taste of the rejected food choice, suggesting that they encode behavioral food choice. Our findings reveal that fan-shaped body taste responses to food choices are determined not only by taste quality, but also by previous experience (including choice outcome) and hunger state, which are integrated in the fan-shaped body to encode the decision before relay to downstream motor circuits for behavioral implementation.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Drosophila/metabolismo , Drosophila melanogaster/metabolismo , Drosophila/metabolismo , Neurônios/metabolismo , Animais , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Tomada de Decisões , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Preferências Alimentares , Fome/fisiologia , Paladar/fisiologia , Percepção Gustatória
2.
Nutrients ; 13(6)2021 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34200678

RESUMO

Food homeostatic states (hunger and satiety) influence the cognitive systems regulating impulsive responses, but the direction and specific mechanisms involved in this effect remain elusive. We examined how fasting, and satiety, affect cognitive mechanisms underpinning disinhibition using a novel framework and a gamified test-battery. Thirty-four participants completed the test-battery measuring three cognitive facets of disinhibition: attentional control, information gathering and monitoring of feedback, across two experimental sessions: one after overnight fasting and another after a standardised meal. Homeostatic state was assessed using subjective self-reports and biological markers (i.e., blood-derived liver-expressed antimicrobial protein 2 (LEAP-2), insulin and leptin). We found that participants who experienced greater subjective hunger during the satiety session were more impulsive in the information gathering task; results were not confounded by changes in mood or anxiety. Homeostatic state did not significantly influence disinhibition mechanisms linked to attentional control or feedback monitoring. However, we found a significant interaction between homeostatic state and LEAP-2 on attentional control, with higher LEAP-2 associated with faster reaction times in the fasted condition only. Our findings indicate lingering hunger after eating increases impulsive behaviour via reduced information gathering. These findings identify a novel mechanism that may underpin the tendency to overeat and/or engage in broader impulsive behaviours.


Assuntos
Cognição/fisiologia , Homeostase , Fome/fisiologia , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Adolescente , Adulto , Peptídeos Catiônicos Antimicrobianos/metabolismo , Apetite/fisiologia , Atenção/fisiologia , Proteínas Sanguíneas/metabolismo , Tomada de Decisões , Retroalimentação , Feminino , Hormônios/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Saciação , Adulto Jovem
3.
Nutrients ; 13(5)2021 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34068506

RESUMO

The intersections between hunger and health are beginning to gain traction. New interventions emphasize collaboration between the health and social service sectors. This study aimed to understand the nutrition and physical activity (PA) needs as perceived by food pantry stakeholders to inform a health intervention approach. The study used formative research incorporating mixed methods through surveying and semi-structured interviews with three food pantry stakeholder groups: Clients (n = 30), staff (n = 7), and volunteers (n = 10). Pantry client participants reported; high rates of both individual (60%, n = 18) and household (43%, n = 13) disease diagnosis; low consumption (0-1 servings) of fruits (67%, n = 20) and vegetables (47%, n = 14) per day; and low levels (0-120 min) of PA (67%, n = 20) per week. Interviews identified five final convergent major themes across all three stakeholder groups including food and PA barriers, nutrition and PA literacy, health status and lifestyle, current pantry operations and adjustments, and suggestions for health intervention programming. High rates of chronic disease combined with low health literacy among pantry clients demonstrate the need to address health behaviors. Further research piloting the design and implementation of a comprehensive health behavior intervention program in the food pantry setting is needed.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico , Promoção da Saúde , Fome , Estado Nutricional , Adulto , Idoso , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Insegurança Alimentar , Frutas , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Verduras , Adulto Jovem
4.
FASEB J ; 35(7): e21649, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34164846

RESUMO

Eating chocolate in the morning or in the evening/at night, may differentially affect energy balance and impact body weight due to changes in energy intake, substrate oxidation, microbiota (composition/function), and circadian-related variables. In a randomized controlled trial, postmenopausal females (n = 19) had 100 g of chocolate in the morning (MC), in the evening/at night (EC), or no chocolate (N) for 2 weeks and ate any other food ad libitum. Our results show that 14 days of chocolate intake did not increase body weight. Chocolate consumption decreased hunger and desire for sweets (P < .005), and reduced ad libitum energy intake by ~300 kcal/day during MC and ~150 kcal/day during EC (P = .01), but did not fully compensate for the extra energy contribution of chocolate (542 kcal/day). EC increased physical activity by +6.9%, heat dissipation after meals +1.3%, and carbohydrate oxidation by +35.3% (P < .05). MC reduced fasting glucose (4.4%) and waist circumference (-1.7%) and increased lipid oxidation (+25.6%). Principal component analyses showed that both timings of chocolate intake resulted in differential microbiota profiles and function (P < .05). Heat map of wrist temperature and sleep records showed that EC induced more regular timing of sleep episodes with lower variability of sleep onset among days than MC (60 min vs 78 min; P = .028). In conclusion, having chocolate in the morning or in the evening/night results in differential effects on hunger and appetite, substrate oxidation, fasting glucose, microbiota (composition and function), and sleep and temperature rhythms. Results highlight that the "when" we eat is a relevant factor to consider in energy balance and metabolism.


Assuntos
Apetite/efeitos dos fármacos , Índice de Massa Corporal , Carboidratos/química , Chocolate/efeitos adversos , Fome/efeitos dos fármacos , Microbiota/efeitos dos fármacos , Idoso , Glicemia/análise , Estudos Cross-Over , Ingestão de Energia , Jejum , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Período Pós-Prandial , Fatores de Tempo
5.
Nutrients ; 13(5)2021 May 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34070014

RESUMO

Ageing is associated with a reduction in muscle mass and strength, termed sarcopenia. Dietary protein is important for the maintenance of muscle mass through the promotion of muscle protein synthesis. However, protein is also reported to be a highly satiating nutrient. This raises concerns that protein intake for musculoskeletal health reasons in older adults may exacerbate age-related decreased appetite and may result in reduced energy and nutrient intake. This study aimed to investigate the effect of short-term protein supplementation and its timing (morning vs. evening), on energy and nutrient intake and appetite measures in middle-older age adults. Twenty-four 50-75 year olds were recruited to a randomised cross-over trial. In phase 1 (pre-supplementation) participants completed a food diary and reported hunger and appetite on three alternate days. During the second and third phases, participants consumed a 20 g whey protein gel (78 mL/368 kJ), for four days, either in the morning (after breakfast) or the evening (before bed), whilst completing the same assessments as phase 1. No differences in dietary intakes of energy, macronutrients and micronutrients were recorded when comparing the pre-supplementation phase to the protein supplementation phases, irrespective of timing (excluding the contribution of the protein supplement itself). Similarly, no differences were observed in self-reported feelings of hunger and appetite. In conclusion, a 20 g/day whey protein supplement given outside of meal-times did not alter habitual dietary intakes, hunger or appetite in this middle-older age adult population in the short-term. This approach may be a useful strategy to increasing habitual protein intake in the middle-older age population.


Assuntos
Apetite/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Ingestão de Alimentos/efeitos dos fármacos , Ingestão de Energia/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas do Soro do Leite/administração & dosagem , Idoso , Estudos Cross-Over , Registros de Dieta , Suplementos Nutricionais , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Fome/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Refeições , Micronutrientes/análise , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nutrientes/análise , Fatores de Tempo
7.
Appetite ; 164: 105267, 2021 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33933550

RESUMO

Food choices are a complex subject of study. This study reviews existing literature on the topic, while also offering new perspectives. It introduces empirical materials that suggest the existence of continuities between childhood memories of food insecurity and current nutritional choices and practices among older adults. This is a qualitative study, based on grounded theory, which explores memories of hunger in the aftermath of the Spanish Civil War through ethnographic fieldwork conducted in 12 rural localities in Extremadura (Spain) - analysing current food practices and ideologies among surviving post-war children and tracing continuities between the past and the present. It provides results in the field of food continuities and shows how experiences and memories of hunger have an impact on food choices many decades later Data analysis and interpretation revealed three main categories: food memories of the so-called "years of hunger"; present-day food practices; and continuities between past and present. The inductive-deductive analysis revealed enduring memories that shaped present-day attitudes towards food - i.e. maximisation of ingredients and "zero-waste" practices; conspicuous consumption at particular times of the year; the central role of bread; and even certain food taboos. More than seventy years later, memories of deprivation and hunger are still pervasive and permeate present-day dietary practices and choices.


Assuntos
Preferências Alimentares , Fome , Idoso , Antropologia Cultural , Criança , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Humanos , Espanha
8.
Appetite ; 164: 105280, 2021 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33940054

RESUMO

An increasing number of studies investigate the effects of mindfulness on food intake and weight outcomes, while the underlying mechanisms by which mindfulness exerts its effects have received less attention. We conducted two pre-registered studies to shed light on the frequently proposed yet largely understudied hypothesis that mindfulness improves awareness of bodily signals of satiation and hunger. We assessed the ability to perceive the onset of bodily signals of satiation with the two-step water load test (Study 1) and the ability to perceive the onset of bodily signals of hunger with the preload test (Study 2). A brief mindfulness exercise (body scan) did not impact the perception of satiation but improved the ability to perceive bodily signals of hunger. After the consumption of a standardized preload, participants in the two experimental conditions felt equally satiated; nevertheless, those in the mindfulness condition perceived the onset of hunger 18min earlier than those in the control condition and this effect persisted also in the presence of control variables. These findings together suggest that even a single and short mindfulness exercise can improve perception of hunger signals substantially, while more intensive mindfulness training may be needed to impact perception of satiation signals.


Assuntos
Fome , Atenção Plena , Ingestão de Alimentos , Humanos , Percepção , Saciação
9.
Biol Lett ; 17(5): 20210095, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33947217

RESUMO

Predators are often food limited in their habitat, and some are limited by specific macronutrients (protein, lipid or carbohydrate). It is unresolved, however, to what extent and in what way food and macronutrient limitation are connected. Using a carabid beetle (Nebria brevicollis), we compared macronutrient self-selection of the animals three times: immediately after collection in the field, after being fed to satiation and nutritional balance and after a subsequent period of starvation. Both sexes were food and females lipid limited in the field; after 7-21 days of starvation both sexes increased proportional carbohydrate intake significantly. Thus, starvation created a nutrient deficit that was different from what the animals had experienced in the field. We conclude that while macronutrient limitation in nature may be influenced by hunger due to food limitation, this is not its main determinant. A nutritional imbalance of available food may override this effect.


Assuntos
Besouros , Alimentos , Animais , Proteínas na Dieta , Ingestão de Alimentos , Ingestão de Energia , Feminino , Preferências Alimentares , Fome , Masculino , Nutrientes
10.
Science ; 372(6544): 792-793, 2021 05 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34016769
11.
J Evid Based Soc Work (2019) ; 18(4): 413-428, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33827381

RESUMO

Purpose: Lack of social welfare programs for vulnerable households during the coronavirus outbreak in Nigeria caused severe pain and economic hardship to households as millions suffered hunger in Nigeria and Africa at large.Method: To explore the socioeconomic impact of COVID-19 pandemic in Nigeria, a qualitative study was conducted with 70 participants from Lagos, Nigeria. We conducted 52 individual and 2 group interviews with 18 key stakeholders involved with enforcing lockdown orders. Responses were analyzed in themes using content and discourse analysis.Result: The participants stated that the greatest challenge faced by many amidst the pandemic is hunger and starvation and described government palliatives as grossly insufficient. This is linked to the high population of Nigerians living below poverty line, who depends on daily earning for survival.Discussion: Therefore, these viewpoints must be taken into account by the policymakers and social welfare providers when designing social welfare policies and interventions for poor/vulnerable Nigerians.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Medo , Fome , Pobreza , Inanição , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nigéria , SARS-CoV-2 , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
12.
Obesity (Silver Spring) ; 29(6): 1046-1057, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33864348

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study examined how household food insecurity (HFI) and chronic stress relate to adiposity among Tsimane' hunter-forager-horticulturalists in remote Bolivia with limited access to energy-dense processed foods that promote weight gain among industrialized populations. METHODS: Retrospective cross-sectional data on HFI (via the Household Food Insecurity Access Scale [HFIAS]), hair cortisol concentration (HCC), adiposity (BMI, body fat percentage [%BF]), and sociodemographics were collected from 171 men, 164 women, and 167 children. Linear mixed-effects models tested linear, quadratic, joint, and interactive relationships between adiposity measures and both the HFIAS score and HCC. RESULTS: Among children, each 3-point HFIAS score increase was associated with a 0.44-point higher %BF (SE = 0.22, P = 0.04). However, each 20% increase in HCC was associated with a -0.29-point difference in %BF (SE = 0.12, P = 0.01). Among men, a slight curvilinear relationship emerged between HFIAS and BMI. HFIAS and HCC were unrelated to adiposity measures among women. HCC did not modify relationships between HFIAS and adiposity in any subgroup. CONCLUSIONS: These findings from a remote, small-scale population suggest that positive associations between HFI and adiposity are not isolated to contexts of industrialized food environments and heavy reliance on processed foods. However, these dynamics and the role of stress appear to differ by sex and age group.


Assuntos
Adiposidade/etnologia , Comportamento Alimentar/etnologia , Insegurança Alimentar , Cabelo/metabolismo , Hidrocortisona/metabolismo , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Bolívia/epidemiologia , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Feminino , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Cabelo/química , Horticultura , Humanos , Fome/etnologia , Hidrocortisona/análise , Povos Indígenas , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
13.
Nutrients ; 13(3)2021 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33807690

RESUMO

Poor sleep is a determinant of obesity, with overconsumption of energy contributing to this relationship. Eating behavior characteristics are predictive of energy intake and weight change and may underlie observed associations of sleep with weight status and obesity risk factors. However, relationships between sleep and dimensions of eating behavior, as well as possible individual differences in these relations, are not well characterized. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate whether sleep behaviors, including duration, timing, quality, and regularity relate to dietary restraint, disinhibition, and tendency towards hunger and to explore whether these associations differ by sex. This cross-sectional study included 179 adults aged 20-73 years (68.7% women, 64.8% with BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2). Sleep was evaluated by accelerometry over 2 weeks. Eating behavior dimensions were measured with the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire. Prolonged wake after sleep onset (WASO) (0.029 ± 0.011, p = 0.007), greater sleep fragmentation index (0.074 ± 0.036, p = 0.041), and lower sleep efficiency (-0.133 ± 0.051, p = 0.010) were associated with higher dietary restraint. However, higher restraint attenuated associations of higher WASO and sleep fragmentation with higher BMI (p-interactions < 0.10). In terms of individual differences, sex influenced associations of sleep quality measures with tendency towards hunger (p-interactions < 0.10). Stratified analyses showed that, in men only, higher sleep fragmentation index, longer sleep onset latency, and lower sleep efficiency were associated with greater tendency towards hunger (ß = 0.115 ± 0.037, p = 0.003, ß = 0.169 ± 0.072, p = 0.023, ß = -0.150 ± 0.055, p = 0.009, respectively). Results of this analysis suggest that the association of poor sleep on food intake could be exacerbated in those with eating behavior traits that predispose to overeating, and this sleep-eating behavior relation may be sex-dependent. Strategies to counter overconsumption in the context of poor quality sleep should be evaluated in light of eating behavior traits.


Assuntos
Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Hiperfagia/fisiopatologia , Obesidade/etiologia , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/fisiopatologia , Sono , Actigrafia , Adulto , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Peso Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Ingestão de Energia , Feminino , Humanos , Fome , Hiperfagia/complicações , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/complicações , Inquéritos e Questionários , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
14.
Nat Metab ; 3(4): 523-529, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33846643

RESUMO

Understanding how to modulate appetite in humans is key to developing successful weight loss interventions. Here, we showed that postprandial glucose dips 2-3 h after a meal are a better predictor of postprandial self-reported hunger and subsequent energy intake than peak glucose at 0-2 h and glucose incremental area under the blood glucose curve at 0-2 h. We explore the links among postprandial glucose, appetite and subsequent energy intake in 1,070 participants from a UK exploratory and US validation cohort, who consumed 8,624 standardized meals followed by 71,715 ad libitum meals, using continuous glucose monitors to record postprandial glycaemia. For participants eating each of the standardized meals, the average postprandial glucose dip at 2-3 h relative to baseline level predicted an increase in hunger at 2-3 h (r = 0.16, P < 0.001), shorter time until next meal (r = -0.14, P < 0.001), greater energy intake at 3-4 h (r = 0.19, P < 0.001) and greater energy intake at 24 h (r = 0.27, P < 0.001). Results were directionally consistent in the US validation cohort. These data provide a quantitative assessment of the relevance of postprandial glycaemia in appetite and energy intake modulation.


Assuntos
Apetite/fisiologia , Glicemia/metabolismo , Ingestão de Energia/fisiologia , Período Pós-Prandial/fisiologia , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Dieta , Feminino , Humanos , Fome/fisiologia , Masculino , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Saciação , Adulto Jovem
15.
Artigo em Inglês | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-53413

RESUMO

[ABSTRACT]. Objectives. To assess the association between childhood hunger experiences and the prevalence of chronic diseases later in life. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted using baseline data from the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Aging (ELSI-Brazil), a nationally representative study of persons aged 50 years and older (n = 9 412). Univariate and bivariate analyses were used to describe the sample, and multivariate logistic regressions to examine the association between childhood hunger and hypertension, diabetes, arthritis and osteoporosis. Adjusted odds ratios and predicted probabilities were calculated. Results. 24.7% of Brazilians aged 50 and over experienced hunger during childhood. This harmful exposure was significantly more common among non-white people, individuals with lower educational attainment, lower household income and heavy manual laborers. Regional variation was also observed, as the prevalence of individuals reporting childhood hunger was higher in the North and Northeast regions. The multivariate analysis revealed that older adults who reported having experienced hunger during childhood had 20% higher odds of developing diabetes in adulthood (aOR = 1.20, 95% CI: 1.02 – 1.41) and 38% higher odds of developing osteoporosis (aOR = 1.38, 95% CI: 1.15 – 1.64) than adults who did not experience hunger during childhood, after controlling for covariates. Conclusions. The study showed an association between childhood hunger and two chronic diseases in later life: diabetes and osteoporosis. This work restates that investing in childhood conditions is a cost-effective way to have a healthy society and provides evidence on relationships that deserve further investigation to elucidate underlying mechanisms.


[RESUMEN]. Objetivos. Evaluar la asociación entre las experiencias de hambre en la niñez y la prevalencia de enfermedades crónicas en las etapas posteriores de la vida. Métodos. Se realizó un estudio transversal utilizando como línea de base los datos del Estudio Longitudinal del Envejecimiento en Brasil (ELSI-Brasil), un estudio nacional representativo de personas de 50 años o más (n = 9 412). Se emplearon análisis univariado y bivariado para describir la muestra, y regresión logística multivariada para examinar la asociación entre el hambre en la niñez y la hipertensión, la diabetes, la artritis y la osteoporosis. Se calcularon las razones de posibilidades ajustadas y las probabilidades previstas. Resultados. El 24,7% de los brasileños de 50 años o más pasó hambre en la niñez. Esta experiencia perjudicial fue considerablemente más común en las personas no blancas, las personas con menor nivel de instrucción, las personas con ingresos familiares bajos y los trabajadores de mano de obra pesada. También se observó una variación regional, puesto que la prevalencia de individuos que expresaron haber pasado hambre en la niñez fue mayor en las regiones Norte y Nordeste. Luego de controlar las covariables, el análisis multifactorial reveló que los adultos mayores que dijeron haber pasado hambre en la niñez tenían una probabilidad 20% mayor de tener diabetes en la edad adulta (aOR = 1,20, IC 95%: 1,02 – 1,41) y 38% mayor de tener osteoporosis (aOR = 1,38, IC 95%: 1,15 – 1,64) que los adultos que no habían pasado hambre en la niñez. Conclusiones. El estudio reveló una asociación entre el hambre en la niñez y dos enfermedades crónicas en las etapas posteriores de la vida: la diabetes y la osteoporosis. Este trabajo reafirma que invertir en las condiciones de vida de las personas en la niñez es una manera costoeficaz de tener una sociedad saludable, al tiempo que aporta evidencia acerca de relaciones que merecen investigarse más a fin de esclarecer los mecanismos subyacentes.


[RESUMO]. Objetivos. Avaliar a associação entre a experiência de passar fome na infância e a prevalência posterior de doenças crônicas. Métodos. Um estudo transversal foi realizado a partir de dados básicos do Estudo Longitudinal da Saúde dos Idosos Brasileiros (ELSI-Brasil), uma pesquisa com representatividade nacional realizada com pessoas de 50 anos ou mais (n = 9.412). Análises univariadas e bivariadas foram usadas para descrever a amostra e a regressão logística multivariada foi aplicada para examinar a associação entre passar fome na infância e hipertensão, diabetes, artrite e osteoporose. Foram calculadas razões de chances (odds ratio, OR) ajustadas e probabilidades previstas. Resultados. Verificou-se que 24,7% dos brasileiros com 50 anos ou mais passaram fome na infância. Esta exposição prejudicial foi significativamente mais frequente em pessoas não brancas, com nível de instrução menor e renda familiar mais baixa e em trabalhadores braçais. Observou-se também uma variação regional, com uma maior prevalência de pessoas que relataram ter passado fome na infância nas Regiões Norte e Nordeste. Na análise multivariada, nos idosos que informaram ter passado fome na infância, a probabilidade foi 20% maior de ter diabetes na idade adulta (ORaj 1,20; IC 95% 1,02–1,41) e 38% maior de ter osteoporose (ORaj 1,38, IC 95% 1,15–1,64) em comparação aos adultos que não passaram fome na infância, após o controle de covariáveis. Conclusões. O estudo demonstrou associação entre passar fome na infância e duas doenças crônicas na vida adulta: diabetes e osteoporose. Este trabalho reitera que investir na infância é uma maneira custo-efetiva de se criar uma sociedade saudável e fornece evidências sobre relações que devem ser pesquisadas mais a fundo para esclarecer os processos subjacentes.


Assuntos
Fome , Doença Crônica , Envelhecimento , Diabetes Mellitus , Osteoporose , Brasil , Fome , Doença Crônica , Envelhecimento , Brasil , Fome , Doença Crônica , Envelhecimento , Osteoporose
16.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(6)2021 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33804088

RESUMO

Tryptophan is an essential amino acid critical for protein synthesis in humans that has emerged as a key player in the microbiota-gut-brain axis. It is the only precursor for the neurotransmitter serotonin, which is vital for the processing of emotional regulation, hunger, sleep, and pain, as well as colonic motility and secretory activity in the gut. Tryptophan catabolites from the kynurenine degradation pathway also modulate neural activity and are active in the systemic inflammatory cascade. Additionally, tryptophan and its metabolites support the development of the central and enteric nervous systems. Accordingly, dysregulation of tryptophan metabolites plays a central role in the pathogenesis of many neurologic and psychiatric disorders. Gut microbes influence tryptophan metabolism directly and indirectly, with corresponding changes in behavior and cognition. The gut microbiome has thus garnered much attention as a therapeutic target for both neurologic and psychiatric disorders where tryptophan and its metabolites play a prominent role. In this review, we will touch upon some of these features and their involvement in health and disease.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/metabolismo , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Serotonina/metabolismo , Triptofano/metabolismo , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Colo/fisiologia , Sistema Nervoso Entérico/fisiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Homeostase/genética , Humanos , Fome/fisiologia , Cinurenina , Dor/genética , Dor/fisiopatologia , Serotonina/genética , Sono/fisiologia
17.
Nutrients ; 13(4)2021 Apr 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33919779

RESUMO

Nutritional intake can influence exercise metabolism and performance, but there is a lack of research comparing protein-rich pre-exercise meals with endurance exercise performed both in the fasted state and following a carbohydrate-rich breakfast. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of three pre-exercise nutrition strategies on metabolism and exercise capacity during cycling. On three occasions, seventeen trained male cyclists (VO2peak 62.2 ± 5.8 mL·kg-1·min-1, 31.2 ± 12.4 years, 74.8 ± 9.6 kg) performed twenty minutes of submaximal cycling (4 × 5 min stages at 60%, 80%, and 100% of ventilatory threshold (VT), and 20% of the difference between power at the VT and peak power), followed by 3 × 3 min intervals at 80% peak aerobic power and 3 × 3 min intervals at maximal effort, 30 min after consuming a carbohydrate-rich meal (CARB; 1 g/kg CHO), a protein-rich meal (PROTEIN; 0.45 g/kg protein + 0.24 g/kg fat), or water (FASTED), in a randomized and counter-balanced order. Fat oxidation was lower for CARB compared with FASTED at and below the VT, and compared with PROTEIN at 60% VT. There were no differences between trials for average power during high-intensity intervals (367 ± 51 W, p = 0.516). Oxidative stress (F2-Isoprostanes), perceived exertion, and hunger were not different between trials. Overall, exercising in the overnight-fasted state increased fat oxidation during submaximal exercise compared with exercise following a CHO-rich breakfast, and pre-exercise protein ingestion allowed similarly high levels of fat oxidation. There were no differences in perceived exertion, hunger, or performance, and we provide novel data showing no influence of pre-exercise nutrition ingestion on exercise-induced oxidative stress.


Assuntos
Ciclismo/fisiologia , Jejum/fisiologia , Refeições/fisiologia , Estresse Oxidativo/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Atletas , Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Carboidratos da Dieta/administração & dosagem , Proteínas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Fome/fisiologia , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/fisiologia , Masculino , Oxirredução , Resistência Física/fisiologia , Esforço Físico/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
19.
Nutrients ; 13(2)2021 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33672963

RESUMO

Acacia gum (AG) is a non-viscous soluble fiber that is easily incorporated into beverages and foods. To determine its physiological effects in healthy human subjects, we fed 0, 20, and 40 g of acacia gum in orange juice along with a bagel and cream cheese after a 12 h fast and compared satiety, glycemic response, gastrointestinal tolerance, and food intake among treatments. Subjects (n = 48) reported less hunger and greater fullness at 15 min (p = 0.019 and 0.003, respectively) and 240 min (p = 0.036 and 0.05, respectively) after breakfast with the 40 g fiber treatment. They also reported being more satisfied at 15 min (p = 0.011) and less hungry with the 40 g fiber treatment at 30 min (p = 0.012). Subjects reported more bloating, flatulence, and GI rumbling on the 40 g fiber treatment compared to control, although values for GI tolerance were all low with AG treatment. No significant differences were found in area under the curve (AUC) or change from baseline for blood glucose response, although actual blood glucose with 20 g fiber at 30 min was significantly less than control. Individuals varied greatly in their postprandial glucose response to all treatments. AG improves satiety response and may lower peak glucose response at certain timepoints, and it is well tolerated in healthy human subjects. AG can be added to beverages and foods in doses that can help meet fiber recommendations.


Assuntos
Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Fibras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Goma Arábica/administração & dosagem , Período Pós-Prandial/efeitos dos fármacos , Saciação/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto , Área Sob a Curva , Citrus sinensis , Estudos Cross-Over , Método Duplo-Cego , Ingestão de Alimentos/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Fome/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino
20.
Eat Behav ; 41: 101495, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33713922

RESUMO

Research supports an association between altered interoceptive accuracy, or the ability to accurately monitor sensations from the body, and disordered eating. However, the behavioral mechanism through which interoceptive accuracy may influence eating behaviors is unclear. Intuitive eating, the ability to regulate food intake according to visceral cues of hunger and satiety, is positively related to interoceptive accuracy and negatively related to disordered eating. Therefore, we hypothesized that interoceptive accuracy would be negatively associated with intuitive eating which would, in turn, influence eating disorder risk. A mediation analysis was performed to test this hypothesis in a sample of 41 undergraduate women who completed a heartbeat counting task to assess interoceptive accuracy, followed by self-report measures of intuitive eating ability and eating disorder risk. We found that eating for physical rather than emotional reasons and reliance on hunger and satiety cues, two aspects of intuitive eating, mediated the relationship between interoceptive accuracy and eating disorder risk. Although further research is necessary, it is possible that findings regarding the association between interoceptive accuracy and intuitive eating may inform the development of eating disorder prevention efforts.


Assuntos
Ingestão de Alimentos , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Humanos , Fome , Saciação , Inquéritos e Questionários
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