Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 17.134
Filtrar
1.
Codas ; 33(5): e20200197, 2021.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34320140

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To analyze which method of judgment, auditory- perceptual (PAJ) of audios or perceptual-visual judgment (PVJ) (ultrasound images), is more sensitive to detect gradual productions between the class of deaf coronal fricatives and check if there is a correlation between these forms of judgment. METHOD: Audio and video files of language ultrasound (LUS) related to the production of the words "frog" and "key", of 11 children, between 6 and 12 years old, with atypical speech production, were selected from a bank data and edited for judgments. After instruction and prior training, 20 judges should choose, immediately upon presentation of the stimulus (auditory or visual), one of three options arranged on the computer screen. In PAJ the options were: correct, incorrect or gradient production, while in PVJ the options were images corresponding to the production of [s], [∫] or undifferentiated. The presentation time of the stimuli and the reaction time were automatically controlled by the PERCEVAL software. RESULTS: PVJ provided a higher percentage of identification of gradient stimuli and a shorter reaction time in performing the task compared to PAJ, both statistically significant. Spearman's correlation test did not show statistical significance between PAJ and PVJ responses, nor for reaction time. CONCLUSION: PVJ using US images proved to be the most sensitive method for detecting gradient production in the production of fricatives [s] and [∫], and can be used as a complementary method to PAJ in speech analysis.


Assuntos
Julgamento , Percepção da Fala , Criança , Humanos , Idioma , Fonética , Fala
2.
J Acoust Soc Am ; 149(6): 3910, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34241427

RESUMO

Face-to-face speech data collection has been next to impossible globally as a result of the COVID-19 restrictions. To address this problem, simultaneous recordings of three repetitions of the cardinal vowels were made using a Zoom H6 Handy Recorder with an external microphone (henceforth, H6) and compared with two alternatives accessible to potential participants at home: the Zoom meeting application (henceforth, Zoom) and two lossless mobile phone applications (Awesome Voice Recorder, and Recorder; henceforth, Phone). F0 was tracked accurately by all of the devices; however, for formant analysis (F1, F2, F3), Phone performed better than Zoom, i.e., more similarly to H6, although the data extraction method (VoiceSauce, Praat) also resulted in differences. In addition, Zoom recordings exhibited unexpected drops in intensity. The results suggest that lossless format phone recordings present a viable option for at least some phonetic studies.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Fala , Acústica , Humanos , Fonética , SARS-CoV-2 , Acústica da Fala
3.
Atten Percept Psychophys ; 83(5): 1935-1941, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34089165

RESUMO

Many studies on non-native speech sound learning report a large amount of between-participant variability. This variability allows us to ask interesting questions about non-native speech sound learning, such as whether certain training paradigms give rise to more or less between-participant variability. This study presents a reanalysis of Fuhrmeister and Myers (Attention, Perception, and Psychophysics, 82(4), 2049-2065, 2020) and tests whether different types of phonetic training lead to group differences in between-participant variability. The original study trained participants on a non-native speech sound contrast in two different phonological (vowel) contexts and tested for differences in means between a group that received blocked training (one vowel context at a time) and interleaved training (vowel contexts were randomized). No statistically significant differences in means were found between the two groups in the original study on a discrimination test (a same-different judgment). However, the current reanalysis tested group differences in between-participant variability and found greater variability in the blocked training group immediately after training because this group had a larger proportion of participants with higher-than-average scores. After a period of offline consolidation, this group difference in variability decreased substantially. This suggests that the type and difficulty of phonetic training (blocked vs. interleaved) may initially give rise to differences in between-participant variability, but offline consolidation may attenuate that variability and have an equalizing effect across participants. This reanalysis supports the view that examining between-participant variability in addition to means when analyzing data can give us a more complete picture of the effects being tested.


Assuntos
Fonética , Percepção da Fala , Humanos , Aprendizagem , Psicofísica , Fala
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34069642

RESUMO

Phonological skills have been found to be strongly related to early reading and writing development. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to examine the extent to which the development of phonological awareness facilitates reading acquisition in students learning to read a transparent orthography. Our research included 689 primary school students in first through third grade (Mean age 101.59 months, SD = 12,690). The assessment tools used to conduct this research include the Phonological Awareness Test and the Gray Oral Reading Test. According to the results from the present study, 13.7% of students have reading difficulties. Students with reading difficulties obtained low scores in phonological awareness within each subscale compared to students who do not have reading difficulties (p < 0.01). Components of phonological awareness which did not singled out as strongly related to early reading success include Phoneme Segmentation, Initial Phoneme Identification, and Syllable Merging. Thus, understanding the nature of the relationship between phonological awareness and reading should help effective program design that will be aimed at eliminating delayed development in children's phonological awareness while they are still in preschool.


Assuntos
Fonética , Leitura , Conscientização , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Estudantes , Redação
5.
Res Dev Disabil ; 115: 103996, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34116299

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: For young children experiencing phonological awareness (PA) difficulties, the need for early and targeted intervention to prevent reading disability is unequivocal. There are very few studies, however, on the efficacy of PA interventions delivered at school. AIMS: This study examined the impact of an early PA intervention embedded within an oral language program designed for at-risk kindergartners. METHODS: Using a quasi-experimental pretest/posttest design, at-risk readers from four schools received either the 10-week intervention in small groups, three times a week for 30 min as a supplement to the regular classroom curriculum or served as controls not participating in the intervention and receiving the usual classroom instruction. RESULTS: Children in the intervention group demonstrated a greater use of phonological awareness at posttest on overall composites of phonological processing, and on several individual accuracy and fluency measures targeting skills at the phoneme level. CONCLUSIONS: The results add to accumulating evidence on the efficacy and effectiveness of teacher-delivered school-based early literacy interventions.


Assuntos
Dislexia , Fonética , Conscientização , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Alfabetização , Instituições Acadêmicas
6.
Zhonghua Er Ke Za Zhi ; 59(6): 478-483, 2021 Jun 02.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34102821

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the characteristics of consonant among children with speech sound disorder (SSD) and to provide an empirical basis for the subsequent clinical evaluation and evidence-based intervention. Methods: In this retrospective research a total of 1 395 children diagnosed with SSD from the Language-Speech Clinic of the Department of Children Health Care, Children's Hospital, Capital Institute of Pediatrics from January 2007 to December 2018 were enrolled and underwent the phonological examination on the lexical level with picture naming, according to phoneme development in Chinese mandarin. The Chi-square trend test was applied to analyze the differences and trends of the proportion of consonant error subtypes in children of different age groups. The Chi-square test was conducted to compare the proportion of consonant error subtypes in different gender. Results: The 1 395 children diagnosed with SSD included 1 044 boys and 351 girls, with an age of (5.1±0.8) years. The occurrence of consonant errors in different locations of articulation was the highest for blade-alveolar /l/ (71.8%, 1 002/1 395) and the lowest for labial/b/(9.3%, 130/1 395). The occurrence of consonant errors of labial/p/f/, supra-dental/z/c/s/, blade-alveolar/t/l/, blade-palatal/ch/r/, velar/k/h/, and lingua-palatal/q/decreased with age (all P<0.05). The occurrence of consonant errors of labial/b/m/, supra-dental/z/c/, blade-alveolar/n/l/, blade-palatal/sh/, velar/h/, and lingua-palatal/x/were higher in boys than those in girls (10.3% (108/1 044) vs. 6.3% (22/351), 11.4% (119/1 044) vs. 6.0% (21/351), 64.8% (676/1 044) vs. 51.9% (182/351), 67.8% (708/1 044) vs. 59.8% (210/351), 16.7% (174/1 044) vs. 8.8% (31/351), 73.7% (769/1 044) vs. 66.1% (232/351), 58.0% (606/1 044) vs. 47.6% (167/351), 24.0% (251/1 044) vs. 14.2% (50/351), and 39.9% (417/1 044) vs. 27.6% (97/351); χ²=5.167, 8.533, 16.889, 7.447, 12.863, 7.412, 11.650, 14.900, and 17.099, all P<0.05). The error types of consonant were substitution, omission, and distortion. Omission was the main error type of blade-alveolar/l/(53.3%, 743/1 395), distortion was the main error type of velar/h/(11.8%, 165/1 395), and substitution was the main error type of all other consonants. Substitution with blade-palatal/ch/having the highest occurrence of error (60.2%, 840/1 395). Conclusions: The occurrence of the blade-alveolar/l/error is the highest in children with SSD, with boys demonstrating more serious articulation problems. The main error type of consonant is substitution, with blade-palatal/ch/having the highest occurrence of error. These results suggest the necessity of attending to preschoolers' articulation development. Phonological training targeting blade-alveolar/l/and blade-palatal/ch/should be carried out as early as possible.


Assuntos
Transtorno Fonológico , Transtornos da Articulação , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Idioma , Masculino , Fonética , Estudos Retrospectivos , Transtorno Fonológico/epidemiologia
7.
J Speech Lang Hear Res ; 64(6): 1794-1801, 2021 06 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33979206

RESUMO

Purpose We examined the effect of bite block insertion (BBI) on lingual movements and formant frequencies in corner vowel and diphthong production in a sentence context. Method Twenty young adults produced the corner vowels (/u/, /ɑ/, /æ/, /i/) and the diphthong /ɑɪ/ in sentence contexts before and after BBI. An electromagnetic articulograph measured the movements of the tongue back, middle, and front. Results There were significant decreases in the acoustic vowel articulation index and vowel space area following BBI. The kinematic vowel articulation index decreased significantly for the back and middle of the tongue but not for the front. There were no significant acoustic changes post-BBI for the diphthong, other than a longer transition duration. Diphthong kinematic changes after BBI included smaller movements for the back and middle of the tongue, but not the front. Conclusions BBI led to a smaller acoustic working space for the corner vowels. The adjustments made by the front of the tongue were sufficient to compensate for the BBI perturbation in the diphthong, resulting in unchanged formant trajectories. The back and middle of the tongue were likely biomechanically restricted in their displacement by the fixation of the jaw, whereas the tongue front showed greater movement flexibility.


Assuntos
Acústica da Fala , Fala , Acústica , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Humanos , Fonética , Adulto Jovem
8.
J Speech Lang Hear Res ; 64(6): 1904-1917, 2021 06 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34019771

RESUMO

Introduction The current study examined the extent to which practice amount mediates dual-task interference patterns associated with concurrent performance of a novel speech task and attention-demanding visuomotor task. Method A Sequential Nonword Repetition Task was used to examine the effect of practice on interference associated with concurrent performance of a Visuomotor Pursuit Task. Twenty-five young adult participants were assigned to either an Extended Practice Group or a Limited Practice Group and performed a novel Sequential Nonword Repetition Task in isolation and while performing a concurrent visuomotor pursuit rotor task. Results Participants in the Limited Practice Group who were afforded a limited amount of practice exhibited dual-task interference (i.e., dual-task performance reductions) for both the speech and visuomotor tasks (i.e., bidirectional dual-task interference). Conversely, participants in the Extended Practice Group who were afforded extended practice exhibited little-to-no observable dual-task interference on the nonword repetition task. Conclusion Data from the current investigation suggest that the amount of initial practice mediates the degree of dual-task interference observed when a novel speech production task is performed with an attention-demanding Visuomotor Pursuit Task. Supplemental Material https://doi.org/10.23641/asha.14608071.


Assuntos
Fonética , Fala , Humanos , Medida da Produção da Fala , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Adulto Jovem
9.
J Speech Lang Hear Res ; 64(6): 2070-2084, 2021 06 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34057849

RESUMO

Purpose Lexical tone perception is known to be persistently difficult for individuals with cochlear implants (CIs). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of high-variability phonetic training (HVPT) in improving Mandarin tone perception for native-speaking children with CIs. Method A total of 28 Mandarin-speaking pediatric CI recipients participated in the study. Half of the children with CIs received a five-session HVPT within a period of 3 weeks. Identification and discrimination of lexical tones produced by familiar talkers (used during training) and novel talkers (not used during training) were measured before, immediately after, and 10 weeks after training termination. The other half untrained children served as control for the identical pre- and posttests. Results Lexical tone perception significantly improved in both trained identification task and untrained discrimination task for the trainees. There was also a significant effect in transfer of learning to perceiving tones produced by novel talkers. Moreover, training-induced gains were retained for up to 10 weeks after training. By comparison, no significant pre-post changes were observed in the control group. Conclusion The results provide the first systematical assessment for the efficacy of the HVPT protocol for Mandarin-speaking pediatric CI users with congenital hearing loss, which supports the clinical utility of intensive short-term HVPT in these children's rehabilitative regimens.


Assuntos
Implante Coclear , Implantes Cocleares , Percepção da Fala , Criança , Humanos , Fonética , Percepção da Altura Sonora , Percepção do Timbre
10.
Brain Behav ; 11(6): e02194, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34018705

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Previous studies have evidenced a different mode of speech perception in dyslexia, characterized by the use of allophonic rather than phonemic units. People with dyslexia perceive phonemic features (such as voicing) less accurately than typical readers, but they perceive allophonic features (i.e., language-independent differences between speech sounds) more accurately. METHOD: In this study, we investigated the perception of voicing contrasts in a sample of 204 Spanish children with or without dyslexia. Identification and discrimination data were collected for synthetic sounds varying along three different voice onset time (VOT) continua (ba/pa, de/te, and di/ti). Empirical data will be contrasted with a mathematical model of allophonic perception building up from neural oscillations and auditory temporal processing. RESULTS: Children with dyslexia exhibited a general deficit in categorical precision; that is, they discriminated among phonemically contrastive pairs (around 0-ms VOT) less accurately than did chronological age controls, irrespective of the stimulus continuum. Children with dyslexia also exhibited a higher sensitivity in the discrimination of allophonic features (around ±30-ms VOT), but only for the stimulus continuum that was based on a nonlexical contrast (ba/pa). CONCLUSION: Fitting the neural network model to the data collected for this continuum suggests that allophonic perception is due to a deficit in "subharmonic coupling" between high-frequency oscillations. Relationships with "temporal sampling framework" theory are discussed.


Assuntos
Dislexia , Percepção da Fala , Percepção Auditiva , Criança , Humanos , Idioma , Fonética
11.
Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol ; 145: 110742, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33933988

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: to compare the Frequency Following Responses of children with childhood apraxia of speech with typical development children. METHOD: this is an observational cross-sectional analytical study approved by Human Research Ethics Committee. Thirty normal hearing children have participated in the study. THEY WERE DIVIDED INTO TWO GROUPS: 1) study group - composed by 15 children diagnosed with childhood apraxia of speech (between the chronological ages of 3 and 11 years, mean age of 5,7 years); and 2) control group: composed by 15 children with typical development, paired by age and gender with study group. Frequency Following Response were recorded using the/da/syllable presentation rate at 10.9 ms. RESULTS: there was a significant delay in latencies of waves V, A and C of children with apraxia of speech, suggesting difficulties in the ability to process sounds. CONCLUSION: The delay on Frequency Following Response's latencies (waves V, A and C) in children with apraxia of speech maybe related to atypical neural coding of speech sounds, suggesting that apraxia of speech must not be purely considered as a motor speech disorder.


Assuntos
Apraxias , Percepção da Fala , Apraxias/diagnóstico , Apraxias/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Potenciais Evocados Auditivos do Tronco Encefálico , Humanos , Fonética , Fala , Distúrbios da Fala/diagnóstico , Distúrbios da Fala/epidemiologia
12.
J Acoust Soc Am ; 149(4): 2426, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33940863

RESUMO

To elucidate the linguistic similarity between the alveolo-palatal sibilant [ɕ] and palatal non-sibilant [ç] in Japanese, the aeroacoustic differences between the two consonants were explored via experimentation with participants and analysis using simplified vocal tract models. The real-time magnetic resonance imaging (rtMRI) observations of articulatory movements demonstrated that some speakers use a nearly identical place of articulation for /si/ [ɕi] and /hi/ [çi]. Simplified vocal tract models were then constructed based on the data captured by static MRI, and the model-generated synthetic sounds were compared with speaker data producing [ɕ] and [ç]. Speaker data demonstrated that the amplitude of the broadband noise of [ç] was weaker than that of [ɕ]; the characteristic peak amplitude at approximately 4 kHz was greater in [ç] than in [ɕ], although the mid-sagittal vocal tract profiles were nearly identical for three of ten subjects in the rtMRI observation. These acoustic differences were reproduced by the proposed models, with differences in the width of the coronal plane constriction and the flow rate. The results suggest the need to include constriction width and flow rate as parameters for articulatory phonetic descriptions of speech sounds.


Assuntos
Fonética , Voz , Acústica , Humanos , Japão , Fala , Acústica da Fala
13.
J Acoust Soc Am ; 149(4): 2602, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33940867

RESUMO

Foreign-accented speech commonly incurs a processing cost, but this cost can be offset when listeners are given informative cues to the speaker's purported ethnicity and/or language background. This study investigates the mechanism that underlies this facilitatory effect of top-down expectation, evaluating between general adaptation (an across-the-board relaxation of phonetic categorization criteria) and targeted adaptation (tuning in to accent-specific phonetics). In experiment 1, native speakers of American English completed a transcription-in-noise task with Chinese-accented English sentences. All listeners heard the same voice but were randomly assigned to one of four visual conditions: a blank silhouette, a European face, an East Asian face, or a South Asian face. Results showed that although there was no significant effect of visual condition, listeners who believed the speaker to be non-natively accented enjoyed significantly improved performance compared to those who reported hearing a native accent. Crucially, however, listeners who correctly perceived the speaker as Chinese-accented showed no additional benefit over those who heard some other foreign accent. This basic pattern held even when listeners were primed to expect congruent face-accent pairings (experiment 2). Overall, these results provide evidence for a general adaptation mechanism, rather than a targeted mechanism involving accent-specific phonetic adjustments.


Assuntos
Inteligibilidade da Fala , Percepção da Fala , Humanos , Idioma , Ruído , Fonética
14.
J Acoust Soc Am ; 149(4): 2877, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33940879

RESUMO

In this study, we revisit consonantal perturbation of F0 in English, taking into particular consideration the effect of alignment of F0 contours to segments and the F0 extraction method in the acoustic analysis. We recorded words differing in consonant voicing, manner of articulation, and position in syllable, spoken by native speakers of American English in both statements and questions. In the analysis, we compared methods of F0 alignment and found that the highest F0 consistency occurred when F0 contours were time-normalized to the entire syllable. Applying this method, along with using syllables with nasal consonants as the baseline and a fine-detailed F0 extraction procedure, we identified three distinct consonantal effects: a large but brief (10-40 ms) F0 raising at voice onset regardless of consonant voicing, a smaller but longer-lasting F0 raising effect by voiceless consonants throughout a large proportion of the following vowels, and a small lowering effect of around 6 Hz by voiced consonants, which was not found in previous studies. Additionally, a brief anticipatory effect was observed before a coda consonant. These effects are imposed on a continuously changing F0 curve that is either rising-falling or falling-rising, depending on whether the carrier sentence is a statement or a question.


Assuntos
Idioma , Acústica da Fala , Acústica , Nariz , Fonética , Fatores de Tempo , Estados Unidos
15.
J Acoust Soc Am ; 149(4): 2671, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33940905

RESUMO

This study reports the results of two experiments aimed at assessing the perceived similarity between English and Catalan vowels and diphthongs. Perceived similarity judgements were elicited from speakers of both languages involved and were compared to first language identification data from the same speakers. In experiment 1, a group of 27 naive Catalan listeners performed a perceptual assimilation task in which they were asked to identify Catalan and English vowels in terms of native categories and provide a goodness of fit rating. In experiment 2, a group of native speakers of Southern British English performed an adaptation of the same task. The results showed that most non-native vowels were consistently perceived as instances of a given native category, with varying degrees of goodness of fit. In a few cases, assimilation scores were very high in both experiments, pointing to the possibility of near-identical or shared categories. A few asymmetrical mappings were found, which were linked to the influence of language-specific cues such as the role of vowel duration in English. These results emphasize the importance of contrasting native and non-native perception and the potential of reciprocal approaches for making predictions about non-native perception and second language development.


Assuntos
Multilinguismo , Percepção da Fala , Sinais (Psicologia) , Humanos , Idioma , Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Fonética
16.
Neuropsychologia ; 158: 107883, 2021 07 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33989647

RESUMO

Pitch accents are local pitch patterns that convey differences in word prominence and modulate the information structure of the discourse. Despite the importance to discourse in languages like English, neural processing of pitch accents remains understudied. The current study investigates the neural processing of pitch accents by native and non-native English speakers while they are listening to or ignoring 45 min of continuous, natural speech. Leveraging an approach used to study phonemes in natural speech, we analyzed thousands of electroencephalography (EEG) segments time-locked to pitch accents in a prosodic transcription. The optimal neural discrimination between pitch accent categories emerged at latencies between 100 and 200 ms. During these latencies, we found a strong structural alignment between neural and phonetic representations of pitch accent categories. In the same latencies, native listeners exhibited more robust processing of pitch accent contrasts than non-native listeners. However, these group differences attenuated when the speech signal was ignored. We can reliably capture the neural processing of discrete and contrastive pitch accent categories in continuous speech. Our analytic approach also captures how language-specific knowledge and selective attention influences the neural processing of pitch accent categories.


Assuntos
Percepção da Fala , Fala , Percepção Auditiva , Humanos , Idioma , Fonética
17.
Neuropsychologia ; 158: 107888, 2021 07 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33991562

RESUMO

A prevailing conception of cross-linguistic transfer is that first language experience poses perceptual interference, or at best null effect, on second language speech perception. Surprisingly, a recent study found that Cantonese listeners outperformed English listeners on English stress perception. The present study further evaluated whether segmental variations would constrain the Cantonese advantage on English stress perception. Cantonese and English listeners were tested with both active and passive oddball paradigms in which ERP responses to English stress deviations were elicited. Behaviorally, the Cantonese listeners exhibited a perceptual advantage relative to the English listeners, but this advantage disappeared upon the introduction of segmental variations. Neurophysiologically, segmental variations diminished the P3b amplitudes of the Cantonese but not the English listeners. Collectively, results suggest that segmental variations constrain the Cantonese advantage on English stress perception.


Assuntos
Idioma , Percepção da Fala , Humanos , Fonética
18.
Atten Percept Psychophys ; 83(6): 2367-2376, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33948883

RESUMO

Researchers have hypothesized that in order to accommodate variability in how talkers produce their speech sounds, listeners must perform a process of talker normalization. Consistent with this proposal, several studies have shown that spoken word recognition is slowed when speech is produced by multiple talkers compared with when all speech is produced by one talker (a multitalker processing cost). Nusbaum and colleagues have argued that talker normalization is modulated by attention (e.g., Nusbaum & Morin, 1992, Speech Perception, Production and Linguistic Structure, pp. 113-134). Some of the strongest evidence for this claim is from a speeded monitoring study where a group of participants who expected to hear two talkers showed a multitalker processing cost, but a separate group who expected one talker did not (Magnuson & Nusbaum, 2007, Journal of Experimental Psychology, 33[2], 391-409). In that study, however, the sample size was small and the crucial interaction was not significant. In this registered report, we present the results of a well-powered attempt to replicate those findings. In contrast to the previous study, we did not observe multitalker processing costs in either of our groups. To rule out the possibility that the null result was due to task constraints, we conducted a second experiment using a speeded classification task. As in Experiment 1, we found no influence of expectations on talker normalization, with no multitalker processing cost observed in either group. Our data suggest that the previous findings of Magnuson and Nusbaum (2007) be regarded with skepticism and that talker normalization may not be permeable to high-level expectations.


Assuntos
Motivação , Percepção da Fala , Atenção , Humanos , Fonética , Fala
19.
Atten Percept Psychophys ; 83(6): 2694-2708, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33987821

RESUMO

Speech perception, like all perception, takes place in context. Recognition of a given speech sound is influenced by the acoustic properties of surrounding sounds. When the spectral composition of earlier (context) sounds (e.g., a sentence with more energy at lower third formant [F3] frequencies) differs from that of a later (target) sound (e.g., consonant with intermediate F3 onset frequency), the auditory system magnifies this difference, biasing target categorization (e.g., towards higher-F3-onset /d/). Historically, these studies used filters to force context stimuli to possess certain spectral compositions. Recently, these effects were produced using unfiltered context sounds that already possessed the desired spectral compositions (Stilp & Assgari, 2019, Attention, Perception, & Psychophysics, 81, 2037-2052). Here, this natural signal statistics approach is extended to consonant categorization (/g/-/d/). Context sentences were either unfiltered (already possessing the desired spectral composition) or filtered (to imbue specific spectral characteristics). Long-term spectral characteristics of unfiltered contexts were poor predictors of shifts in consonant categorization, but short-term characteristics (last 475 ms) were excellent predictors. This diverges from vowel data, where long-term and shorter-term intervals (last 1,000 ms) were equally strong predictors. Thus, time scale plays a critical role in how listeners attune to signal statistics in the acoustic environment.


Assuntos
Fonética , Percepção da Fala , Estimulação Acústica , Humanos , Idioma , Som , Espectrografia do Som , Acústica da Fala
20.
Ear Hear ; 42(3): 673-690, 2021 04 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33928926

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The ability to recognize words in connected speech under noisy listening conditions is critical to everyday communication. Many processing levels contribute to the individual listener's ability to recognize words correctly against background speech, and there is clinical need for measures of individual differences at different levels. Typical listening tests of speech recognition in noise require a list of items to obtain a single threshold score. Diverse abilities measures could be obtained through mining various open-set recognition errors during multi-item tests. This study sought to demonstrate that an error mining approach using open-set responses from a clinical sentence-in-babble-noise test can be used to characterize abilities beyond signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) threshold. A stimulus-response phoneme-to-phoneme sequence alignment software system was used to achieve automatic, accurate quantitative error scores. The method was applied to a database of responses from normal-hearing (NH) adults. Relationships between two types of response errors and words correct scores were evaluated through use of mixed models regression. DESIGN: Two hundred thirty-three NH adults completed three lists of the Quick Speech in Noise test. Their individual open-set speech recognition responses were automatically phonemically transcribed and submitted to a phoneme-to-phoneme stimulus-response sequence alignment system. The computed alignments were mined for a measure of acoustic phonetic perception, a measure of response text that could not be attributed to the stimulus, and a count of words correct. The mined data were statistically analyzed to determine whether the response errors were significant factors beyond stimulus SNR in accounting for the number of words correct per response from each participant. This study addressed two hypotheses: (1) Individuals whose perceptual errors are less severe recognize more words correctly under difficult listening conditions due to babble masking and (2) Listeners who are better able to exclude incorrect speech information such as from background babble and filling in recognize more stimulus words correctly. RESULTS: Statistical analyses showed that acoustic phonetic accuracy and exclusion of babble background were significant factors, beyond the stimulus sentence SNR, in accounting for the number of words a participant recognized. There was also evidence that poorer acoustic phonetic accuracy could occur along with higher words correct scores. This paradoxical result came from a subset of listeners who had also performed subjective accuracy judgments. Their results suggested that they recognized more words while also misallocating acoustic cues from the background into the stimulus, without realizing their errors. Because the Quick Speech in Noise test stimuli are locked to their own babble sample, misallocations of whole words from babble into the responses could be investigated in detail. The high rate of common misallocation errors for some sentences supported the view that the functional stimulus was the combination of the target sentence and its babble. CONCLUSIONS: Individual differences among NH listeners arise both in terms of words accurately identified and errors committed during open-set recognition of sentences in babble maskers. Error mining to characterize individual listeners can be done automatically at the levels of acoustic phonetic perception and the misallocation of background babble words into open-set responses. Error mining can increase test information and the efficiency and accuracy of characterizing individual listeners.


Assuntos
Percepção da Fala , Fala , Acústica , Adulto , Audição , Humanos , Individualidade , Fonética
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...