Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 16.525
Filtrar
1.
Codas ; 32(4): e20190105, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32756856

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To analyze the recognizability and effectiveness of items in the Phonological Assessment Tool (Instrumento de Avaliação Fonológica - INFONO) at eliciting target words, as well as to evaluate the internal consistency of the instrument and compare performance between genders, school types and typical vs. atypical phonological development. METHOD: Participants were 48 children (n=26 with typical phonological development and n=22 with atypical development) categorized by age (6 age groups ranging from 3 years and 8 years 11 months), type of school (public vs. private) and gender (male vs. female). Data were collected by the spontaneous naming task of the INFONO. Recognition rates, scores, recognition difficulties and internal consistency were examined in 116 items. Performance in a final set of 84 items was also compared between genders, school types and typical/atypical phonological development. RESULTS: Most target words achieved high recognition rates were considered suitable for use in the INFONO. Some images had to be redesigned to facilitate the spontaneous production of target words, while other items were excluded from the instrument altogether. The instrument demonstrated excellent internal consistency. There were no statistically significant differences between genders and school types, though differences were observed between typically and atypically developing children. CONCLUSION: The images in the INFONO were successfully recognized by participants and were effective at eliciting the target words. The final set of items contained the minimum number of target words which would allow for an assessment of all phonemes in Brazilian Portuguese in different word and syllable positions, and these items presented excellent internal consistency.


Assuntos
Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Fonética , Brasil , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Projetos Piloto , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Psicometria , Instituições Acadêmicas
2.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(29): 16920-16927, 2020 07 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32632010

RESUMO

Visual speech facilitates auditory speech perception, but the visual cues responsible for these benefits and the information they provide remain unclear. Low-level models emphasize basic temporal cues provided by mouth movements, but these impoverished signals may not fully account for the richness of auditory information provided by visual speech. High-level models posit interactions among abstract categorical (i.e., phonemes/visemes) or amodal (e.g., articulatory) speech representations, but require lossy remapping of speech signals onto abstracted representations. Because visible articulators shape the spectral content of speech, we hypothesized that the perceptual system might exploit natural correlations between midlevel visual (oral deformations) and auditory speech features (frequency modulations) to extract detailed spectrotemporal information from visual speech without employing high-level abstractions. Consistent with this hypothesis, we found that the time-frequency dynamics of oral resonances (formants) could be predicted with unexpectedly high precision from the changing shape of the mouth during speech. When isolated from other speech cues, speech-based shape deformations improved perceptual sensitivity for corresponding frequency modulations, suggesting that listeners could exploit this cross-modal correspondence to facilitate perception. To test whether this type of correspondence could improve speech comprehension, we selectively degraded the spectral or temporal dimensions of auditory sentence spectrograms to assess how well visual speech facilitated comprehension under each degradation condition. Visual speech produced drastically larger enhancements during spectral degradation, suggesting a condition-specific facilitation effect driven by cross-modal recovery of auditory speech spectra. The perceptual system may therefore use audiovisual correlations rooted in oral acoustics to extract detailed spectrotemporal information from visual speech.


Assuntos
Acústica da Fala , Percepção da Fala , Percepção Visual , Adulto , Sinais (Psicologia) , Feminino , Humanos , Lábio/fisiologia , Masculino , Fonética
3.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 16(7): e1007992, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32614826

RESUMO

Understanding how the human brain processes auditory input remains a challenge. Traditionally, a distinction between lower- and higher-level sound features is made, but their definition depends on a specific theoretical framework and might not match the neural representation of sound. Here, we postulate that constructing a data-driven neural model of auditory perception, with a minimum of theoretical assumptions about the relevant sound features, could provide an alternative approach and possibly a better match to the neural responses. We collected electrocorticography recordings from six patients who watched a long-duration feature film. The raw movie soundtrack was used to train an artificial neural network model to predict the associated neural responses. The model achieved high prediction accuracy and generalized well to a second dataset, where new participants watched a different film. The extracted bottom-up features captured acoustic properties that were specific to the type of sound and were associated with various response latency profiles and distinct cortical distributions. Specifically, several features encoded speech-related acoustic properties with some features exhibiting shorter latency profiles (associated with responses in posterior perisylvian cortex) and others exhibiting longer latency profiles (associated with responses in anterior perisylvian cortex). Our results support and extend the current view on speech perception by demonstrating the presence of temporal hierarchies in the perisylvian cortex and involvement of cortical sites outside of this region during audiovisual speech perception.


Assuntos
Córtex Auditivo/fisiologia , Percepção Auditiva , Modelos Neurológicos , Redes Neurais de Computação , Som , Adolescente , Adulto , Mapeamento Encefálico/métodos , Eletrocorticografia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Filmes Cinematográficos , Fonética , Processamento de Sinais Assistido por Computador , Fala/fisiologia , Percepção da Fala , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
4.
Behav Brain Sci ; 43: e146, 2020 06 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32645810

RESUMO

Gilead et al. provide a unified account of predictive cognition in which abstract representations play an essential role. Although acknowledging the similarity to linguistic concepts toward the higher end of the proposed abstraction gradient, Gilead et al. do not consider the potential of their account to embrace phonetic and phonological speech sound representations and their neural bases.


Assuntos
Fonética , Fala , Encéfalo
5.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3117, 2020 06 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32561726

RESUMO

On-line comprehension of natural speech requires segmenting the acoustic stream into discrete linguistic elements. This process is argued to rely on theta-gamma oscillation coupling, which can parse syllables and encode them in decipherable neural activity. Speech comprehension also strongly depends on contextual cues that help predicting speech structure and content. To explore the effects of theta-gamma coupling on bottom-up/top-down dynamics during on-line syllable identification, we designed a computational model (Precoss-predictive coding and oscillations for speech) that can recognise syllable sequences in continuous speech. The model uses predictions from internal spectro-temporal representations of syllables and theta oscillations to signal syllable onsets and duration. Syllable recognition is best when theta-gamma coupling is used to temporally align spectro-temporal predictions with the acoustic input. This neurocomputational modelling work demonstrates that the notions of predictive coding and neural oscillations can be brought together to account for on-line dynamic sensory processing.


Assuntos
Córtex Auditivo/fisiologia , Ritmo Gama/fisiologia , Modelos Neurológicos , Percepção da Fala/fisiologia , Ritmo Teta/fisiologia , Estimulação Acústica , Compreensão/fisiologia , Simulação por Computador , Sinais (Psicologia) , Humanos , Fonética
6.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234553, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32555620

RESUMO

This study investigated the developmental paths in the use of audiovisual information for the perception of emotions and phonemes by Japanese speakers. Children aged 5 to 12 years and adults aged 30 to 39 years engaged in an emotion perception task in which speakers expressed their emotions through their faces and voices, and a phoneme perception task using phonemic information in speakers' lip movements and speech sounds. Results indicated that Japanese children's judgement of emotions by using auditory information increased with increasing age, whereas the use of audiovisual information for judging phonemes remained constant with increasing age. Moreover, adults were affected by visual information more than children. We discuss whether these differences in developmental patterns are due to differential integration processes for information indicative of emotions and phonemes, as well as possible cultural / linguistic reasons for these differences.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil , Emoções , Fonética , Percepção da Fala , Percepção Visual , Adulto , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Japão , Julgamento , Leitura Labial , Percepção Sonora , Masculino , Acústica da Fala
7.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0233282, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32459800

RESUMO

Although having a long history of scrutiny in experimental psychology, it is still controversial whether wilful inner speech (covert speech) production is accompanied by specific activity in speech muscles. We present the results of a preregistered experiment looking at the electromyographic correlates of both overt speech and inner speech production of two phonetic classes of nonwords. An automatic classification approach was undertaken to discriminate between two articulatory features contained in nonwords uttered in both overt and covert speech. Although this approach led to reasonable accuracy rates during overt speech production, it failed to discriminate inner speech phonetic content based on surface electromyography signals. However, exploratory analyses conducted at the individual level revealed that it seemed possible to distinguish between rounded and spread nonwords covertly produced, in two participants. We discuss these results in relation to the existing literature and suggest alternative ways of testing the engagement of the speech motor system during wilful inner speech production.


Assuntos
Eletromiografia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Fonética , Pensamento/fisiologia , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Reconhecimento Automatizado de Padrão , Fala/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
8.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0233041, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32453792

RESUMO

Word identification is undeniably important for skilled reading and ultimately reading comprehension. Interestingly, both lexical and sublexical procedures can support word identification. Recent cross-linguistic comparisons have demonstrated that there are biases in orthographic coding (e.g., holistic vs. analytic) linked with differences in writing systems, such that holistic orthographic coding is correlated with lexical-level reading procedures and vice versa. The current study uses a measure of holistic visual processing used in the face processing literature, orientation sensitivity, to test individual differences in word identification within a native English population. Results revealed that greater orientation sensitivity (i.e., greater holistic processing) was associated with a reading profile that relies less on sublexical phonological measures and more on lexical-level characteristics within the skilled English readers. Parallels to Chinese procedures of reading and a proposed alternative route to skilled reading are discussed.


Assuntos
Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos , Leitura , Vocabulário , Adolescente , Compreensão , Feminino , Humanos , Individualidade , Idioma , Masculino , Fonética , Tempo de Reação , Adulto Jovem
9.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0232938, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32459802

RESUMO

Stretched words like 'heellllp' or 'heyyyyy' are a regular feature of spoken language, often used to emphasize or exaggerate the underlying meaning of the root word. While stretched words are rarely found in formal written language and dictionaries, they are prevalent within social media. In this paper, we examine the frequency distributions of 'stretchable words' found in roughly 100 billion tweets authored over an 8 year period. We introduce two central parameters, 'balance' and 'stretch', that capture their main characteristics, and explore their dynamics by creating visual tools we call 'balance plots' and 'spelling trees'. We discuss how the tools and methods we develop here could be used to study the statistical patterns of mistypings and misspellings and be used as a basis for other linguistic research involving stretchable words, along with the potential applications in augmenting dictionaries, improving language processing, and in any area where sequence construction matters, such as genetics.


Assuntos
Idioma , Linguística/estatística & dados numéricos , Linguística/tendências , Humanos , Linguística/métodos , Fonética , Leitura , Mídias Sociais/estatística & dados numéricos , Mídias Sociais/tendências
10.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0232209, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32365075

RESUMO

Recent research on speech communication has revealed a tendency for speakers to imitate at least some of the characteristics of their interlocutor's speech sound shape. This phenomenon, referred to as phonetic convergence, entails a moment-to-moment adaptation of the speaker's speech targets to the perceived interlocutor's speech. It is thought to contribute to setting up a conversational common ground between speakers and to facilitate mutual understanding. However, it remains uncertain to what extent phonetic convergence occurs in voice fundamental frequency (F0), in spite of the major role played by pitch, F0's perceptual correlate, as a conveyor of both linguistic information and communicative cues associated with the speaker's social/individual identity and emotional state. In the present work, we investigated to what extent two speakers converge towards each other with respect to variations in F0 in a scripted dialogue. Pairs of speakers jointly performed a speech production task, in which they were asked to alternately read aloud a written story divided into a sequence of short reading turns. We devised an experimental set-up that allowed us to manipulate the speakers' F0 in real time across turns. We found that speakers tended to imitate each other's changes in F0 across turns that were both limited in amplitude and spread over large temporal intervals. This shows that, at the perceptual level, speakers monitor slow-varying movements in their partner's F0 with high accuracy and, at the production level, that speakers exert a very fine-tuned control on their laryngeal vibrator in order to imitate these F0 variations. Remarkably, F0 convergence across turns was found to occur in spite of the large melodic variations typically associated with reading turns. Our study sheds new light on speakers' perceptual tracking of F0 in speech processing, and the impact of this perceptual tracking on speech production.


Assuntos
Comportamento Imitativo/fisiologia , Fala/fisiologia , Adulto , Algoritmos , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fonética , Percepção da Fala , Adulto Jovem
11.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0231484, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32287289

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study aimed to evaluate the role of motor control immaturity in the speech production characteristics of 4-year-old children, compared to adults. Specifically, two indices were examined: trial-to-trial variability, which is assumed to be linked to motor control accuracy, and anticipatory extra-syllabic vowel-to-vowel coarticulation, which is assumed to be linked to the comprehensiveness, maturity and efficiency of sensorimotor representations in the central nervous system. METHOD: Acoustic and articulatory (ultrasound) data were recorded for 20 children and 10 adults, all native speakers of Canadian French, during the production of isolated vowels and vowel-consonant-vowel (V1-C-V2) sequences. Trial-to-trial variability was measured in isolated vowels. Extra-syllabic anticipatory coarticulation was assessed in V1-C-V2 sequences by measuring the patterns of variability of V1 associated with variations in V2. Acoustic data were reported for all subjects and articulatory data, for a subset of 6 children and 2 adults. RESULTS: Trial-to-trial variability was significantly larger in children. Systematic and significant anticipation of V2 in V1 was always found in adults, but was rare in children. Significant anticipation was observed in children only when V1 was /a/, and only along the antero-posterior dimension, with a much smaller magnitude than in adults. A closer analysis of individual speakers revealed that some children showed adult-like anticipation along this dimension, whereas the majority did not. CONCLUSION: The larger trial-to-trial variability and the lack of anticipatory behavior in most children-two phenomena that have been observed in several non-speech motor tasks-support the hypothesis that motor control immaturity may explain a large part of the differences observed between speech production in adults and 4-year-old children, apart from other causes that may be linked with language development.


Assuntos
Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Fala/fisiologia , Acústica , Adulto , Antecipação Psicológica/fisiologia , Canadá , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Idioma , Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Masculino , Fonética , Espectrografia do Som/métodos , Acústica da Fala , Testes de Articulação da Fala/métodos , Medida da Produção da Fala/métodos
12.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(11): 6255-6263, 2020 03 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32123070

RESUMO

Auditory speech perception enables listeners to access phonological categories from speech sounds. During speech production and speech motor learning, speakers' experience matched auditory and somatosensory input. Accordingly, access to phonetic units might also be provided by somatosensory information. The present study assessed whether humans can identify vowels using somatosensory feedback, without auditory feedback. A tongue-positioning task was used in which participants were required to achieve different tongue postures within the /e, ε, a/ articulatory range, in a procedure that was totally nonspeech like, involving distorted visual feedback of tongue shape. Tongue postures were measured using electromagnetic articulography. At the end of each tongue-positioning trial, subjects were required to whisper the corresponding vocal tract configuration with masked auditory feedback and to identify the vowel associated with the reached tongue posture. Masked auditory feedback ensured that vowel categorization was based on somatosensory feedback rather than auditory feedback. A separate group of subjects was required to auditorily classify the whispered sounds. In addition, we modeled the link between vowel categories and tongue postures in normal speech production with a Bayesian classifier based on the tongue postures recorded from the same speakers for several repetitions of the /e, ε, a/ vowels during a separate speech production task. Overall, our results indicate that vowel categorization is possible with somatosensory feedback alone, with an accuracy that is similar to the accuracy of the auditory perception of whispered sounds, and in congruence with normal speech articulation, as accounted for by the Bayesian classifier.


Assuntos
Retroalimentação Fisiológica , Fonética , Sensação/fisiologia , Percepção da Fala/fisiologia , Língua/fisiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Palato/fisiologia , Medida da Produção da Fala , Adulto Jovem
13.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0230412, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32203524

RESUMO

Much of the literature surrounding bilingual spoken word recognition is based on bilinguals of non-tonal languages. In the Mandarin spoken word recognition literature, lexical tones are often considered as equally important as segments in lexical processing. It is unclear whether and how lexical tones contribute to bilingual language processing. One recent study demonstrates that tonal bilinguals require the availability of both tonal and segmental information to induce cross-language lexical competition during bilingual lexical access, even without phonological overlap between the target and non-target language. The current study investigates whether overt phonological overlap between the target and non-target language would equally require both tonal and segmental information available to induce cross-language lexical competition. We employed two auditory lexical decision experiments with both Mandarin-English bilinguals and English monolinguals to test whether inter-lingual homophones (IH) would induce lexical competition from the non-target language, L1 Mandarin. Our results show that cross-language lexical competition was only observed with the presence of lexical tones, in addition to segmental overlap.


Assuntos
Idioma , Multilinguismo , Semântica , Percepção da Fala/fisiologia , China , Tomada de Decisões , Humanos , Fonética , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia
14.
Codas ; 32(2): e20180205, 2020.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32215471

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This short presentation aims to indicate phonological features inherent to the sonorant consonant class (nasals and liquids) that might be relatively problematic in the orthographic records of these phonemes. METHODS: orthographic replacement in text compositions from children in the first grade of elementary school was analyzed. Data analysis was performed according to the Padrão de Aquisição de Contrastes (PAC). RESULTS: Results reveal that replacement was distributed between the two classes, and within each subclass, relatively unstable phonological contrasts were detected in the orthographic records of these phonemes. CONCLUSION: This relative instability of contrasts pointed out phonological issues, as well as issues related to the orthographic complexity of each these segments, thus indicating a non-direct relation between speech and spelling.


Assuntos
Escrita Manual , Fonética , Criança , Linguagem Infantil , Humanos , Fala
15.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0229902, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32160213

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to investigate whether early-English education benefits the perception of English phonetic contrasts that are known to be perceptually confusable for Dutch native speakers, comparing Dutch pupils who were enrolled in an early-English programme at school from the age of four with pupils in a mainstream programme with English instruction from the age of 11, and English-Dutch early bilingual children. Children were 4-5-year-olds (start of primary school), 8-9-year-olds, or 11-12-year-olds (end of primary school). Children were tested on four contrasts that varied in difficulty: /b/-/s/ (easy), /k/-/É¡/ (intermediate), /f/-/θ/ (difficult), /ɛ/-/æ/ (very difficult). Bilingual children outperformed the two other groups on all contrasts except /b/-/s/. Early-English pupils did not outperform mainstream pupils on any of the contrasts. This shows that early-English education as it is currently implemented is not beneficial for pupils' perception of non-native contrasts.


Assuntos
Idioma , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Multilinguismo , Percepção da Fala/fisiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Fonética , Acústica da Fala
16.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0229934, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32182253

RESUMO

We examined phonological recoding during silent sentence reading in teenagers with a history of dyslexia and their typically developing peers. Two experiments are reported in which participants' eye movements were recorded as they read sentences containing correctly spelled words (e.g., church), pseudohomophones (e.g., cherch), and spelling controls (e.g., charch). In Experiment 1 we examined foveal processing of the target word/nonword stimuli, and in Experiment 2 we examined parafoveal pre-processing. There were four participant groups-older teenagers with a history of dyslexia, older typically developing teenagers who were matched for age, younger typically developing teenagers who were matched for reading level, and younger teenagers with a history of dyslexia. All four participant groups showed a pseudohomophone advantage, both from foveal processing and parafoveal pre-processing, indicating that teenagers with a history of dyslexia engage in phonological recoding for lexical identification during silent sentence reading in a comparable manner to their typically developing peers.


Assuntos
Dislexia/fisiopatologia , Movimentos Oculares/fisiologia , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Transtorno Fonológico/fisiopatologia , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Idioma , Masculino , Fonética , Leitura
17.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0230233, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32196513

RESUMO

In spite of its acoustic diversity, the speech signal presents statistical regularities that can be exploited by biological or artificial systems for efficient coding. Independent Component Analysis (ICA) revealed that on small time scales (∼ 10 ms), the overall structure of speech is well captured by a time-frequency representation whose frequency selectivity follows the same power law in the high frequency range 1-8 kHz as cochlear frequency selectivity in mammals. Variations in the power-law exponent, i.e. different time-frequency trade-offs, have been shown to provide additional adaptation to phonetic categories. Here, we adopt a parametric approach to investigate the variations of the exponent at a finer level of speech. The estimation procedure is based on a measure that reflects the sparsity of decompositions in a set of Gabor dictionaries whose atoms are Gaussian-modulated sinusoids. We examine the variations of the exponent associated with the best decomposition, first at the level of phonemes, then at an intra-phonemic level. We show that this analysis offers a rich interpretation of the fine-grained statistical structure of speech, and that the exponent values can be related to key acoustic properties. Two main results are: i) for plosives, the exponent is lowered by the release bursts, concealing higher values during the opening phases; ii) for vowels, the exponent is bound to formant bandwidths and decreases with the degree of acoustic radiation at the lips. This work further suggests that an efficient coding strategy is to reduce frequency selectivity with sound intensity level, congruent with the nonlinear behavior of cochlear filtering.


Assuntos
Fala/fisiologia , Estimulação Acústica/métodos , Cóclea/fisiologia , Implantes Cocleares , Humanos , Fonética , Acústica da Fala , Percepção da Fala/fisiologia
18.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0227643, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32032377

RESUMO

Second language (L2) learners are often aware of the typical pronunciation errors that speakers of their native language make, yet often persist in making these errors themselves. We hypothesised that L2 learners may perceive their own accent as closer to the target language than the accent of other learners, due to frequent exposure to their own productions. This was tested by recording 24 female native speakers of German producing 60 sentences. The same participants later rated these recordings for accentedness. Importantly, the recordings had been altered to sound male so that participants were unaware of their own productions in the to-be-rated samples. We found evidence supporting our hypothesis: participants rated their own altered voice, which they did not recognize as their own, as being closer to a native speaker than that of other learners. This finding suggests that objective feedback may be crucial in fostering L2 acquisition and reduce fossilization of erroneous patterns.


Assuntos
Idioma , Aprendizagem , Grupo Associado , Fonética , Percepção da Fala , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Adulto Jovem
19.
J Speech Lang Hear Res ; 63(2): 405-420, 2020 02 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32013664

RESUMO

Purpose This study examined vocal hyperfunction (VH) using voice onset time (VOT). We hypothesized that speakers with VH would produce shorter VOTs, indicating increased laryngeal tension, and more variable VOTs, indicating disordered vocal motor control. Method We enrolled 32 adult women with VH (aged 20-74 years) and 32 age- and sex-matched controls. All were speakers of American English. Participants produced vowel-consonant-vowel combinations that varied by vowel (ɑ/u) and plosive (p/b, t/d, k/g). VOT-measured at the release of the plosive to the initiation of voicing-was averaged over three repetitions of each vowel-consonant-vowel combination. The coefficient of variation (CoV), a measure of VOT variability, was also computed for each combination. Results The mean VOTs were not significantly different between the two groups; however, the CoVs were significantly greater in speakers with VH compared to controls. Voiceless CoV values were moderately correlated with clinical ratings of dysphonia (r = .58) in speakers with VH. Conclusion Speakers with VH exhibited greater variability in phonemic voicing targets compared to vocally healthy speakers, supporting the hypothesis for disordered vocal motor control in VH. We suggest future work incorporate VOT measures when assessing auditory discrimination and auditory-motor integration deficits in VH.


Assuntos
Disfonia/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Disfonia/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fonética , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Voz/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
20.
Sud Med Ekspert ; 63(1): 24-30, 2020.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32040084

RESUMO

The significance of phonetically representative texts in the study of the individuality of voice and speech of speakers in the analysis of the acoustic parameters of the timbre of the voice from experimental speech phonograms in order to search for signs that individualize the speaker's personality is considered. The results of the study of the most common texts from the position of phonetic representativeness and balance, the naturalness of the functioning of the speech apparatus and the temporary load on it in the process of voicing texts are presented. To implement the planned scientific research on the analysis of the acoustic parameters of the voice timbre, a corpus of phonetically representative texts has been compiled, consisting of well-known lexical materials and a special text including phonetic units missing in the original material.


Assuntos
Fonética , Fala , Voz , Acústica , Acústica da Fala
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA