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1.
Waste Manag ; 105: 550-559, 2020 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32146416

RESUMO

In the South-Tyrol region (Italy), 46 gasifiers are currently operating and €200,000 are annually paid to dispose of as a waste 1300 tons of char. Therefore, there is a considerable interest in finding alternatives for the valorization of this solid by-product. The aim of this work is to assess the potential of char as energy source and to compare two scenarios. The first scenario considers the possibility of exploiting char in a dedicated burner integrated in the gasification plant. The second scenario assumes that all the char is collected from South-Tyrol and co-fired with biomass in an existing combustion-ORC plant. An economic analysis was performed evaluating the discounted payback time and both scenarios were modeled using Aspen Plus®. The results reveal that substantial savings in the operating costs of the plants can be achieved. In the first scenario the owners of the gasification plants could save from 50% to 94% of the char disposal costs with a payback time ranging between 3 and 7 years. In the second scenario, the owner of the plant could save approximately €235 k per year with a payback time of approximately 7 years. The present study provides a basis for further techno-economic studies on char combustion. The results can be helpful for the owners of the gasification plants in determining the most cost-effective way to dispose char and to avoid disposing it of as a waste. Furthermore, it is demonstrated how char could be used as a renewable fuel, with better performance than raw biomass.


Assuntos
Fontes Geradoras de Energia , Biomassa , Análise Custo-Benefício , Itália , Fenômenos Físicos
2.
Ambio ; 49(2): 442-459, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31140159

RESUMO

Wind farms can help to mitigate increasing atmospheric carbon (C) emissions. However, disturbance caused by wind farm development must not have lasting deleterious impacts on landscape C sequestration. To understand the effects of wind farm development on peatlands, we monitored streamwater at Europe's second largest onshore wind farm (539 MW), Whitelee, Scotland, for 31 months. Using nested catchment sampling to understand impacts on water quality, increasing macronutrient concentrations and exports were associated with wind farm development, particularly forest-felling and borrow pits. Low/poor water quality occurred in small headwater catchments most disturbed by development. At the site exit, dissolved organic C and soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) concentrations increased during construction, though [SRP] recovery occurred within 2 years. Since C was lost and streamwater quality negatively affected, we propose future good practice measures for wind farm development, including limiting total disturbance within individual catchments and locating borrow pits, where deemed necessary, off site avoiding peatlands.


Assuntos
Fontes Geradoras de Energia , Vento , Monitoramento Ambiental , Europa (Continente) , Nutrientes , Escócia
3.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(5): 5547-5558, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31853847

RESUMO

Seaports are considered one of the sources involved in the deterioration of the maritime environment due to the excessive amount of exhaust gases emitted from their activities. The majority of seaports depend on the national electric grid as a source of power for the domestic and ships' electric demands. This paper discusses the possibility of shifting ports from relying on the national grid electricity to green power-based ports. Offshore wind turbines and fuel cell units appear as two typical promising clean energy sources for ports. As a case study, the paper investigates the prospect of converting Alexandria Port in Egypt to be an eco-friendly port with the study of technical, logistic, and financial requirements. The results show that the fuel cell, followed by a combined system of wind turbines and fuel cells, is the best choice regarding electricity production unit cost by 0.101 and 0.107 $/kWh, respectively. Furthermore, using fuel cells and offshore wind turbine as a green power concept will achieve a reduction in emissions' quantity of CO2, NOx, and CO emissions by 80,441, 20,814, and 133,025 ton per year, respectively. Finally, the paper highlights the role that renewable energy can play when supplying Alexandria Port with green energy to lift the burden on the government in supporting the electricity, with a possibility of achieving a profit from 3.85 to 22.31% of the annual electricity cost compared with the international prices.


Assuntos
Centrais Elétricas , Energia Renovável , Egito , Eletricidade , Fontes Geradoras de Energia
4.
J Environ Manage ; 254: 109796, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31731026

RESUMO

Plastic films can be considered as a high-value auxiliary material in agriculture with multiple important uses to fulfil, including covering films in greenhouse cultivation system. Such an application enables several benefits and, therefore, it is going through an important upsurge, especially in regions where protected crop cultivation is highly widespread. However, the increased demand for these covering films arouses concerns for their post-use treatment with regard to both the consumption of Non-Renewable Primary Energy (NRPE) resources and the emission of Greenhouse Gases (GHGs). Therefore, environmental analysis is needed to find and follow cleaner paths for the management and treatment of this kind of Agricultural Plastic Waste (APW), especially in the light of the gap currently existing in the specialised literature. In this context, this paper reports upon findings from a combined Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of single environmental issues (i.e., energy and water consumption, and GHG emissions) applied to a Sicilian firm, representative of APW collection and recycling to obtain Low-Density Polyethylene (LDPE) granules. The results showed that electricity consumption for the whole recycling process is the most NRPE resource demanding and the most GHG emitting input item. Moreover, the washing phase of disused covering films is the highest water demanding within the recycling process. Potential improvements could be achieved by shifting from fossil energy source to renewable one. The installation of a wind power plant would lead to around 56% and 85% reduction in NRPE resource exploitation and GHG emission, respectively. Finally, despite the huge consumption of water and NRPE resources and the resulting GHG emissions, the production of recycled-LDPE granules is far more sustainable than the virgin counterpart.


Assuntos
Plásticos , Reciclagem , Agricultura , Fontes Geradoras de Energia , Efeito Estufa , Centrais Elétricas
5.
Sensors (Basel) ; 20(1)2019 Dec 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31878206

RESUMO

A bio-derived power harvester from mechanical vibrations is here proposed. The harvester aims at using greener fabrication technologies and reducing the dependence from carbon-based fossil energy sources. The proposed harvester consists mainly of biodegradable matters. It is based on bacterial cellulose, produced by some kind of bacteria, in a sort of bio-factory. The cellulose is further impregnated with ionic liquids and covered with conducting polymers. Due to the mechanoelectrical transduction properties of the composite, an electrical signal is produced at the electrodes, when a mechanical deformation is imposed. Experimental results show that the proposed system is capable of delivering electrical energy on a resistive load. Applications can be envisaged on autonomous or quasi-autonomous electronics, such as wireless sensor networks, distributed measurement systems, wearable, and flexible electronics. The production technology allows for fabricating the harvester with low power consumption, negligible amounts of raw materials, no rare elements, and no pollutant emissions.


Assuntos
Bactérias/metabolismo , Celulose/química , Fontes Geradoras de Energia , Eletrônica , Líquidos Iônicos/química , Polímeros/química , Vibração , Tecnologia sem Fio
6.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(1): 63, 2019 Dec 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31867682

RESUMO

This paper analyzes the building process of the main greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions (CO2, CH4 and N2O) inventory from the energy sector in Palestine. The paper includes determination tools, i.e., emission factors, to estimate the amounts of national GHG emissions from sub-sectors of energy including energy industries, manufacturing industries and construction, transport and other sectors (households, agriculture and commerce and public services). The results show that the total amount of national GHG emissions from the energy sector in 2016 was 4131 thousand metric tons of CO2-equivalent (TtCO2e), which represented 0.011% of the total global GHG emissions. The average value of GHG emissions per capita from the energy sector was 0.86 tCO2e in Palestine, and its gross domestic product was estimated at 3212 $/ton of CO2e. The estimated amounts of CO2, CH4 and N2O emission from the energy sector were 4022, 49 and 60 TtCO2e, respectively. The transport and household sub-sectors dominated the national GHG emissions from the entire energy sector by 58 and 32%, respectively. In general, fuels including diesel, gasoline, wood and charcoal and liquefied petroleum gas made most of the total amount of the national GHG emissions from the energy sector at 50, 18, 18 and 12%, respectively. Finally, the mitigation actions included in the first nationally determined contribution of Palestine and recommendations to help lower the national GHG emissions from the Palestinian energy sector are provided.


Assuntos
Fontes Geradoras de Energia/normas , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Efeito Estufa/prevenção & controle , Gases de Efeito Estufa/análise , Agricultura , Carvão Vegetal/análise , Indústrias , Oriente Médio , Petróleo/análise , Madeira/química
7.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(36): 36274-36286, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31713824

RESUMO

In energy economics literature, we found few studies on the association between environmental quality energy consumption and financial development. The current study is an attempt to contribute in literature by examining the link between carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, financial development, energy consumption, and economic growth, in South East Asian economies for the period 1980-2017 using annual time series data. For empirical analysis, Bound tests for cointegration and error correction approach are used. The estimated results confirm that financial development has positive impact on environmental quality. On the other hand, in the long run, the rise in energy consumption economic growth and trade openness is unfavorable for environment quality. Our results confirm U-shaped relationship between economic growth and environmental quality that is a proof of environmental Kuznets curve (EKC). Additionally, the government needs to design different modes of energy consumption to solve the problem of environmental degradation. Moreover, the major conclusion extends new insight for authority to make a comprehensive trade and financial policies to improve environmental quality.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Desenvolvimento Econômico/estatística & dados numéricos , Ásia Sudeste , Pesquisa Empírica , Fontes Geradoras de Energia/economia , Fontes Geradoras de Energia/estatística & dados numéricos , Meio Ambiente , Internacionalidade
8.
Nature ; 575(7781): 98-108, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31695208

RESUMO

Much of the Earth's biosphere has been appropriated for the production of harvestable biomass in the form of food, fuel and fibre. Here we show that the simplification and intensification of these systems and their growing connection to international markets has yielded a global production ecosystem that is homogenous, highly connected and characterized by weakened internal feedbacks. We argue that these features converge to yield high and predictable supplies of biomass in the short term, but create conditions for novel and pervasive risks to emerge and interact in the longer term. Steering the global production ecosystem towards a sustainable trajectory will require the redirection of finance, increased transparency and traceability in supply chains, and the participation of a multitude of players, including integrated 'keystone actors' such as multinational corporations.


Assuntos
Biomassa , Ecossistema , Fontes Geradoras de Energia , Retroalimentação , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Atividades Humanas , Desenvolvimento Sustentável , Agricultura/economia , Animais , Comércio/economia , Fontes Geradoras de Energia/economia , Abastecimento de Alimentos/economia , Agricultura Florestal , Água Subterrânea/análise , Atividades Humanas/economia , Humanos , Desenvolvimento Sustentável/economia
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31623353

RESUMO

Quantitative analysis on decoupling between economic output, carbon emission, and the driving factors behind decoupling states can serve to make the economy grow without increasing carbon emission in China's transport sector. In this work, we investigate the decoupling states and driving factors of decoupling states in the transport sector of China's four municipalities (Beijing, Shanghai, Tianjin, and Chongqing) through combining the Tapio decoupling approach with the decomposition technique. The results show that (i) the decoupling state of Beijing, Shanghai, and Tianjin improved; Beijing stabilized in weak decoupling; Shanghai and Tianjin appeared to have strong decoupling, but the decoupling state of Chongqing deteriorated from decoupling to negative decoupling. (ii) The energy-saving effect was the primary contributor to decoupling in these four municipalities, promoting transport's economic growth strongly decouple from carbon emission. The economic scale effect was not optimized enough in Chongqing, facilitating expansive coupling, and expansive negative decoupling emerged. But it had a rather positive impact on decoupling process in Beijing, Shanghai and Tianjin, promoting economic growth to weakly decouple from carbon emission. (iii) The carbon-reduction effect promoted strong decoupling, which emerged in Shanghai's transport sector, more so than in the other three municipalities, in which weak decoupling emerged. Finally, several relevant policy recommendations were offered to promote the decoupling of carbon emission from economic growth and low-carbon transport.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Desenvolvimento Econômico/estatística & dados numéricos , Fontes Geradoras de Energia/estatística & dados numéricos , Urbanização/tendências , Carbono/análise , China/epidemiologia , Cidades/estatística & dados numéricos , Desenvolvimento Econômico/tendências , Fontes Geradoras de Energia/economia , Humanos
10.
Waste Manag ; 100: 327-335, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31581029

RESUMO

Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF) makes an increasingly important contribution to sustainable waste management as an energy source in cement kilns. The most important parameter of RDF in an evaluation of its performance as a fuel is Higher Heating Value (HHV). The two methods of HHV determination are the direct method and the indirect method. The direct method requires the use of a calorimetric bomb and the indirect method requires ultimate or proximate analysis. As in the direct method, the ultimate analysis based indirect method requires the use of specific equipment and a skilled analyst. Most cement plants do not have special equipment. From this point of view, this study aims to predict the HHVs of RDF samples using the results of proximate analysis. Two Genetic Programming (GP) Models, namely GP Model #1 and GP Model #2 are used for the prediction. GP Model #1 denotes a modest nonlinear mapping function used for the prediction of HHVs, whereas GP Model #2 is a more inclusive nonlinear correlation analysis model as an improved version of GP Model #1. To assess the developed models, the test data is simulated and statistical results to the estimation of HHVs are reported as R2 equal to 0.9951 and 0.9988, Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) equal to 1.4126 and 0.6971 and Average Absolute Error (AAE) equal to 0.0543 and 0.0251, for GP Model #1 and GP Model #2, respectively. It can be seen that GP Model #2 may be confidently used for HHV estimation.


Assuntos
Resíduos de Alimentos , Eliminação de Resíduos , Gerenciamento de Resíduos , Fontes Geradoras de Energia , Calefação , Dinâmica não Linear
11.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(34): 34884-34895, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31655983

RESUMO

Transport sector of Pakistan contributes more than one half to the national energy consumption. This sector is dominated by road transportation and mainly relies on fossil fuels. The country is going through rapid unplanned urbanization, which can lead to detrimental health and ecological consequences by intensifying road transport energy consumption. Therefore, the current study investigates the effect of urbanization on road sector energy consumption controlling for economic growth, road infrastructure, and industrialization. The autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) approach is used to examine the long-run and short-run relationship between variables over the period 1971 to 2018. The vector error correction model (VECM) is employed to analyze the causality between variables. The results disclose a significant positive contribution of urbanization to road sector energy consumption. Further, road infrastructure, economic growth, and industrialization stimulate road transport energy consumption. Feedback effect exists between urbanization and road transport energy consumption, while economic growth Granger causes road sector energy consumption, urbanization, and road infrastructure. The findings imply that energy conservation and sustainable urbanization policies are a better choice under the current economic situation. Also, road infrastructure development in rural areas may reduce rural to urban migration.


Assuntos
Fontes Geradoras de Energia , Transportes , Urbanização , Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Desenvolvimento Econômico , Combustíveis Fósseis , Desenvolvimento Industrial , Paquistão , Cimentos de Resina
12.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(31): 32298-32310, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31598925

RESUMO

Sustainable sources like wind, solar, and geothermal power are defined as a clean source of renewable energy which has a less harmful impact on the environment than other energy sources such as coal, natural gas and oil. Turkey is one of the energy-importing countries where air pollution has been become an inevitable environmental concern. Thus, investments on sustainable sources have been developed rapidly in recent years in Turkey. This paves the way for studying a site selection problem considering both solar and wind energy in Igdir Province located in the east part of Turkey. In the literature, there are many studies on solar-wind energy to select a desirable site for both energy sources, and many solution techniques have been proposed dealing with this problem. In this study, one of multi-criteria decision-making methods named analytical hierarchy process (AHP) and geographical information systems (GIS) are used to determine suitable site selection for solar-wind energy investigating four counties of Igdir: Tuzluca, Igdir Central, Karakoyunlu and Aralik. The aim of this work is first to investigate possible locations for solar-wind power plant installation using a mapping method, GIS, and then, AHP is applied to the problem to obtain optimum areas for both solar-wind energy. Also, more accurate results are provided comparing results of two methods, GIS and AHP. The results reveal that 524.5 km2 for solar power plant and 147.2 km2 for wind turbine are suitable while only 49.1 km2 is suitable for solar-wind power plan installation.


Assuntos
Centrais Elétricas/normas , Energia Renovável , Tomada de Decisões , Fontes Geradoras de Energia , Sistemas de Informação Geográfica/estatística & dados numéricos , Energia Solar , Turquia , Vento
13.
J Environ Manage ; 250: 109453, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31551200

RESUMO

The aim of the article is to evaluate the national adaptation to climate change in the energy generation sector in Colombia via a composite index. To build an index, a framework by stages is used, which includes the definition of the main concepts that supports the measurements; the selection of the relevant indicators using a subject matter experts; standardization of the indicators using a mathematic formula regarding the relationship between the variables that represent the adaptation to climate change; and establishment of the weights using an analytic hierarchical process of paired comparisons and the aggregation of indicators to obtain the following three sub-indexes: reactive adaptation, wherein the replacement of hydraulic energy by thermal energy is evaluated; anticipatory adaptation, which measures the gap between the generation of total energy and the demand of the national energy system; and planned adaptation, which considers indicators such as the sectoral plan for adapting to climate change, the law of alternative energies, and the generation of alternative energies as a percentage of generation capacity. By adding these sub-indices, the climate change adaptation index (CCAI) is obtained. The results of CCAI show that progress was made from a reactive adaptation scenario in which the system vulnerability was high to an anticipatory adaptation scenario wherein the vulnerability was average, indicating that the foundations for this sector to build a planned adaptation are currently being laid.


Assuntos
Aclimatação , Mudança Climática , Colômbia , Fontes Geradoras de Energia , Governo
14.
Rev Saude Publica ; 53: 62, 2019 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31483004

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the " Energía, la justa " program, aimed at reducing energy poverty in the city of Barcelona, from the point of view of the target population and the workers involved in the intervention. METHODS: A qualitative, descriptive and exploratory pilot study was carried out, with a phenomenological approach. Twelve semi-structured interviews were conducted: to three users, three energy agents who performed interventions in the homes, and six professionals who participated in the program coordination. A thematic content analysis was carried out using Atlas-ti software . Interviews were conducted between October 2016 and March 2017. RESULTS: Trust in a contact person (e.g. social workers) facilitated the participation, although there were difficulties reaching people who had illegal energy supplies, immigrant women or immigrants who subrent properties. Regarding implementation, home visits, energy efficiency advice and the relationship with energy agents were the best assessed aspects. However, not being able to carry out reforms in deteriorated dwellings was considered a limitation. The program also contributed to raise awareness on energy rights, to save on utility bills and to generate tranquility and social support. CONCLUSIONS: Programs such as this one can promote energy empowerment and improve psychosocial status. However, strategies with a gender and equity perspective should be considered to reach other vulnerable groups.


Assuntos
Fontes Geradoras de Energia , Assistência à Saúde , Eletricidade , Emigrantes e Imigrantes , Fontes Geradoras de Energia/economia , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Pobreza , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Espanha , Inquéritos e Questionários
15.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(31): 31856-31872, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31489549

RESUMO

In recent decades, climate change and environmental pollution have been at the center of global environmental debates. Nowadays, researchers have turned their attention to the linkage between real output and environmental quality and test the environmental Kuznets curve. Majority of the studies focus on a single pollutant aspect and measure the deterioration of the environment through carbon emission (CO2) only. In contrary, the current study uses a comprehensive proxy, ecological footprint, to measure the environmental quality of the sixteen Central and Eastern European Countries (CEECs). The aim of this paper is to discover the impact of financial development, economic growth, and energy consumption (renewable and non-renewable) on the environment. In addition, for the first time, the current study includes biocapacity and human capital in the growth-energy-environment nexus in the case of CEECs. In doing so, we used annual data of sixteen CEE countries in perspective of the One Belt One Road (OBOR) initiative and cover the period of 1991-2014. For reliable findings, this study focuses on second-generation econometric approaches to check stationarity, cross-sectional dependency, and co-integration among the model parameters. The long-run estimations of the "Dynamic Seemingly Unrelated-co-integration Regression" (DSUR) signify that the effect of economic growth on ecological footprint is not stable and validate N-shaped relationship for cubic functional form between per capita income and ecological footprint (environmental quality). Empirical evidence divulges that financial development and energy use significantly contribute to environmental degradation while renewable energy improves environmental quality by declining ecological footprint significantly. Moreover, the significant effects of biocapacity and human capital are positive and negative on the ecological footprint, respectively. In robustness check through the "Feasible Generalized Least Square" (FGLS) and "Generalized Method of Moment" (GMM) models, we found consistent result. Lastly, the "Dumitrescu-Hurlin (D-H) Panel Causality Test" demonstrates that two-way causal relationship exists between EF and GDP, EF and FD, EF and EU, EF and BC, and EF and HC, while one-way causality is running from RE to EF. This study puts the present scenario of CEE economies in front of the policymakers and suggests that they should consider the vital role of renewable energy and human capital to get sustainability.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Desenvolvimento Econômico , Fontes Geradoras de Energia/estatística & dados numéricos , Fontes Geradoras de Energia/economia , Meio Ambiente , Poluição Ambiental , Europa (Continente) , Produto Interno Bruto/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Renda , Cooperação Internacional , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Modelos Econométricos , Energia Renovável/economia
16.
J Med Eng Technol ; 43(4): 255-272, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31490086

RESUMO

The purpose of this study is to review available methods of utilising the human body to obtain energy during the course of daily life activities, without interference with an individual's lifestyle. The number of individuals with health issues requiring assistance from external or internal health-aiding devices is rapidly increasing. Battery life associated with these devices is currently a major limitation. Currently, medical devices that depend on batteries (i.e., implantable devices) require constant battery monitoring. Development of implantable devices with rechargeable batteries is, therefore, essential. Technologies that can capture energy from the human body can be developed, with different organs, systems, and activities having the potential to be utilised to generate energy. This energy source can act as an alternative to conventional batteries. This study provides an overview of various methods for obtaining energy from the human body. These methods are summarised, compared and analysed. The best results achieved (in terms of power output) are compared and listed.


Assuntos
Fontes de Energia Bioelétrica , Fontes Geradoras de Energia , Animais , Metabolismo Energético , Humanos
17.
J Environ Manage ; 251: 109578, 2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31546142

RESUMO

Oil is an indispensable and important energy source in modern society, and oil production plays a vital role in economic development. However, there is no denying that oil production has a very bad impact on the environment. To realize the sustainable development of oil production, the environmental problems caused by oil production need to be controlled and managed strictly. Aiming at the practical problems of insufficient recoverable reserves of high quality oil and aggravating environmental pollution, efficient oil production and wastewater treatment become more and more important. Therefore, the whole system is divided into two stages. The stage 1 is oil development, and the stage 2 is wastewater treatment. Considering that the model needs to solve the undesirable output, an extended two-stage Slacks-Based Measure (SBM) Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) network structure model with a feedback variable is established. The efficiency value of each stage can be obtained, and the weakness of each stage can be identified, so that the efficiency value of the whole system is more accurate. And then thirteen oilfields are selected for the numerical analysis to verify the validity and accuracy of the proposed model, the results demonstrate that the overall system is efficient only if the two stages are efficient; the oil production has higher efficiencies than the oilfield wastewater treatment; There is a stronger relationship between the efficiency of oilfield wastewater treatment and the whole system. A comparison with a traditional model demonstrated that the proposed model has a more scientific, stable and practical evaluation methods.


Assuntos
Eficiência , Águas Residuárias , Desenvolvimento Econômico , Fontes Geradoras de Energia
18.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(31): 31654-31666, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31485947

RESUMO

Since the "China Western Development" plan was initiated in 2000, the Sichuan-Chongqing region has experienced rapid economic growth, especially in the energy segment. However, energy shortage and environmental degradation currently pose a significant hurdle for sustainable development in this region. In the existing literature on factors driving the energy demand, the effect of technological progress on energy demand is discussed as a whole, but few papers have investigated the effect of technological progress from the perspective of its components. Additionally, existing studies have neglected the temporal and spatial aspect of energy demand, thereby generating biased and unreasonable results. Correspondingly, in the current study, the factors driving the per capita energy demand in the Sichuan-Chongqing region over the 2005-2016 period were, to the best of our knowledge, explored for the first time by employing the data envelopment analysis-Malmquist method and spatial dynamic panel model concurrently. The empirical results suggest that an improvement in total factor productivity (TFP) plays a positive but insignificant role in decreasing energy demand. Additionally, there is clear evidence that the effect of TFP on energy demand primarily emerges through spatial spillover effects and their components.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Econômico/estatística & dados numéricos , Fontes Geradoras de Energia , China , Eficiência , Emprego , Tecnologia
19.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(28): 29246-29256, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31392620

RESUMO

To comprehend city-level driving mechanisms of carbon emissions, this paper utilizes spectral cluster and two-layer LMDI (logarithmic mean divisia index) method to systematically assess the contribution values of correlative factors from each cluster to Henan's carbon emissions increments, and accordingly comes up with more strategies about how to reduce carbon emissions for each cluster on the basis of driving forces of carbon emissions. The results of clustering and the decomposition are as follows: (1) the 18 prefecture-level cities in Henan were divided into five categories by spectral clustering, and there are similar development patterns within each category, so they can learn from each other to improve their own defects of development; (2) this paper utilizes the two-layer LMDI method to divide the factors affecting each cluster of carbon emissions into four types, which includes energy structure, energy intensity, per capita GDP, and population, and calculates the contribution value of each factor. It was concluded that the contribution value of per capita GDP dominantly drove up carbon emissions, while energy intensity played a significant role in offsetting them. Therefore, it is important for Henan's low-carbon development to control the expansion of economic activity and improve energy efficiency in the future.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/prevenção & controle , Carbono/análise , Gases de Efeito Estufa/análise , China , Cidades , Análise por Conglomerados , Fontes Geradoras de Energia , Produto Interno Bruto/estatística & dados numéricos , Modelos Teóricos
20.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(29): 30069-30075, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31418145

RESUMO

Energy is a crucial part of any economy and holds a central position in enhancing social development in the world. Energy consumption and the economy in Brazil have both increased in the past decade. In this paper, time series statistics from 1980 to 2017 will be used to analyze the relationship between real GDP per capita and energy consumption to will examine how energy use in the country affects economic growth using causality models. This is established through testing for stationarity using Kwiatkowski-Phillips-Schmidt-Shin (KPSS) test for trend stationarity. A cointegration relationship is found between the two variables.


Assuntos
Conservação de Recursos Energéticos/economia , Desenvolvimento Econômico/tendências , Modelos Teóricos , Brasil , Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Desenvolvimento Econômico/estatística & dados numéricos , Fontes Geradoras de Energia/estatística & dados numéricos
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