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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33806488

RESUMO

Wind energy resources are subject to changes in climate, so the use of wind energy density projections in the near future is essential to determine the viability and profitability of wind farms at particular locations. Thus, a step forward in determining the economic assessment of floating offshore wind farms was taken by considering current and near-future wind energy resources in assessing the main parameters that determine the economic viability (net present value, internal rate of return, and levelized cost of energy) of wind farms. This study was carried out along the Atlantic coast from Brest to Cape St. Vincent. Results show that the future reduction in wind energy density (2%-6%) mainly affects the net present value (NPV) of the farm and has little influence on the levelized cost of energy (LCOE). This study provides a good estimate of the economic viability of OWFs (Offshore Wind Farms) by taking into account how wind resources can vary due to climate change over the lifetime of the farm.


Assuntos
Baías , Fontes Geradoras de Energia , Fazendas , Estudos de Viabilidade , Vento
2.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(4): 181, 2021 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33694006

RESUMO

Coastal wetlands along migratory flyways are crucial in supporting staging or wintering waterbirds, yet they are often targeted for wind energy development. Potential conflicts are likely to be strong in densely populated East and Southeast Asia, where many bird species along the flyway are endangered, and wind energy projects are just flourishing. We investigated waterbird abundance and flight behavior at a coastal wind farm at the mid of the East Asian-Australasian Flyway. For shorebirds roosting in the aquacultural ponds, the abundance showed no significant change in the study area compared with the control area across all development stages of the wind farm. For egrets breeding in the mangroves, fewer Cattle Egrets Bubulcus ibis were observed in the year of wind farm construction and the first year of wind farm operation, then the number recovered afterwards. Since the operation of the wind farm, birds avoided crossing closely spaced (200 m) turbines while travelling through widely spaced (500 m) ones more frequently. Shorebirds, egrets, and landbirds flew lower when turbines were present, reducing the overlap of their flight height with the swept zone. Our study suggests that coastal wind farms are not necessarily a great threat to waterbirds. Yet environmentally sound planning and rigorous monitoring are crucial in minimizing potential impacts.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Fontes Geradoras de Energia , Animais , Aves , Monitoramento Ambiental , Vento
3.
J Environ Manage ; 284: 112058, 2021 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33548752

RESUMO

To diversify and decarbonize its energy system, Colombia plans a sizeable increase in wind power by installing onshore wind farms in the Guajira region. While presumably superior to other alternatives in terms of environmental performance, this assumption cannot be tested due to the lack of studies in this region. To assess the potential environmental performance of wind power in Colombia, we conduct a hybrid life cycle assessment of a wind farm of 19.5 MW of installed capacity for various impacts. We include both direct (required on-site) and indirect (required in the supply-chain) services associated with the life cycle of the wind farm for completeness, an unprecedented feature in the LCA literature. The results show that the wind farm is associated with low global warming impacts (12.93 gr CO2 eq/kWh) compared with similar studies, mainly due to high wind speeds. Moreover, the inclusion of both direct and indirect services increases the environmental impacts across indicators (with respect to the results without services) from 0% (carcinogenic effects) to 21% (terrestrial eutrophication). Further, sensitivity analysis suggests that the results are highly dependant on the capacity factor, lifespan, and percentage of losses. We conclude that the inclusion of both direct and indirect services is not negligible in the life cycle assessment of wind farms and similar projects, particularly given the substantial services required, such as surveying, legal compliance, etc. Given the difficulty to obtain data on services, we conclude with some recommendations aimed at relevant stakeholders, such as tax benefits and public procurement guidelines.


Assuntos
Fontes Geradoras de Energia , Vento , Animais , Colômbia , Eutrofização , Estágios do Ciclo de Vida
4.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 28(13): 16420-16433, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33387323

RESUMO

Pakistan is experiencing increasing CO2 emissions in contrast with other regions of the world. The country is also facing the problems of low economic growth, energy poverty, and environmental pollution. The objective of the study is to analyze economic growth of Pakistan and obtain some alternate sources of production for sustainable environment. Time series data of Pakistan from 1985 to 2018 is used. In order to estimate direct and substitution effect among energy and non-energy factors on economic growth, translog functional form is used. The presence of multicollinearity among explanatory variables approves to employ ridge regression. Capital per worker has the highest elasticity (0.1531) among all variables followed by consumption of oil (0.0571), natural gas (0.0333), technology (0.0329), and hydroelectricity (0.02). Average output elasticity for oil, natural gas, hydroelectricity, capital per worker, and technology are 0.4474, 0.3127, 0.433, 1.0037, and 0.2309, respectively. Technical progress of variables is ranked as capital per worker, oil consumption, natural gas consumption, hydroelectricity, and technology. Relatively lower but efficient substitution between oil and natural gas provides opportunity to save huge foreign exchange on import of oil. Investment on capital per worker in transport, power, fertilizer, and industrial sectors can reduce the demand of oil and natural gas which would eventually lower carbon dioxide emissions in the country. Increasing 10% investment on capital/worker would mitigate 208.283 million tons of carbon dioxide. Energy inputs are substitutes; therefore, mega hydropower projects and small renewable projects may be launched to cope with energy poverty and environmentally sustainable challenges.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono , Desenvolvimento Econômico , Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Fontes Geradoras de Energia , Poluição Ambiental/análise , Paquistão , Energia Renovável
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33477844

RESUMO

The public perception of renewable energy sources is generally positive, due to their role in air pollution and CO2 emission mitigation policies. However, there are local environmental detrimental effects, and empirical evidence is not consistent as to the support of local communities. In the present paper, we analyse the antecedents of public generic perceptions of renewables grounded on objective location-related factors. Personal location-related factors can originate in the involvement of individuals with renewable energy sources. Regional location-related factors concern the importance of the renewable energy source in the district of residence and in relation to other renewables. We implement a questionnaire on public perceptions of renewable energy sources by the general population in mainland Portugal and complement respondent-level responses with renewable energy district information. Regression analysis shows that these objective location-related factors, both personal and regional, help explain public perceptions of renewables and thus we find empirical support for the proposed approach. These results can inform and guide policymakers in tackling future social acceptance issues of renewable energy policies towards lower carbon emissions and less polluting energy production.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/prevenção & controle , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Fontes Geradoras de Energia , Poluição Ambiental/análise , Energia Renovável , Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Humanos , Portugal
6.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(1)2021 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33401575

RESUMO

Wind as a clean and renewable energy source has been used by humans for centuries. However, in recent years with the increase in the number and size of wind turbines, their impact on avifauna has become worrisome. Researchers estimated that in the U.S. up to 500,000 birds die annually due to collisions with wind turbines. This article proposes a system for mitigating bird mortality around wind farms. The solution is based on a stereo-vision system embedded in distributed computing and IoT paradigms. After a bird's detection in a defined zone, the decision-making system activates a collision avoidance routine composed of light and sound deterrents and the turbine stopping procedure. The development process applies a User-Driven Design approach along with the process of component selection and heuristic adjustment. This proposal includes a bird detection method and localization procedure. The bird identification is carried out using artificial intelligence algorithms. Validation tests with a fixed-wing drone and verifying observations by ornithologists proved the system's desired reliability of detecting a bird with wingspan over 1.5 m from at least 300 m. Moreover, the suitability of the system to classify the size of the detected bird into one of three wingspan categories, small, medium and large, was confirmed.


Assuntos
Fontes Geradoras de Energia , Animais , Inteligência Artificial , Aves , Humanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Vento
7.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 368, 2021 01 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33446663

RESUMO

Though highly motivated to slow the climate crisis, governments may struggle to impose costly polices on entrenched interest groups, resulting in a greater need for negative emissions. Here, we model wartime-like crash deployment of direct air capture (DAC) as a policy response to the climate crisis, calculating funding, net CO2 removal, and climate impacts. An emergency DAC program, with investment of 1.2-1.9% of global GDP annually, removes 2.2-2.3 GtCO2 yr-1 in 2050, 13-20 GtCO2 yr-1 in 2075, and 570-840 GtCO2 cumulatively over 2025-2100. Compared to a future in which policy efforts to control emissions follow current trends (SSP2-4.5), DAC substantially hastens the onset of net-zero CO2 emissions (to 2085-2095) and peak warming (to 2090-2095); yet warming still reaches 2.4-2.5 °C in 2100. Such massive CO2 removals hinge on near-term investment to boost the future capacity for upscaling. DAC is most cost-effective when using electricity sources already available today: hydropower and natural gas with renewables; fully renewable systems are more expensive because their low load factors do not allow efficient amortization of capital-intensive DAC plants.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Eletricidade , Fontes Geradoras de Energia , Monitoramento Ambiental/economia , Aquecimento Global
8.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 28(14): 18216-18233, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33410039

RESUMO

Wind energy is considered one of the cleanest and most sustainable resources among renewable energy sources. However, several negative environmental impacts can be observed, unless suitable sites are selected for the establishment of wind farms. The aim of this study is to determine the change in the soil organic carbon (SOC) stock resulting from land cover changes that were caused by wind farm establishments in the Karaburun peninsula. Within the scope of the study, remote sensing and geographic information system technologies were utilized. Maximum likelihood algorithm, one of the supervised classification techniques, was used to classify the land cover, and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) analyses were performed to determine land cover changes. The findings were correlated with the "Turkey Soil Organic Carbon Project" data. As a result, depending on the establishment of wind farms in the Karaburun Peninsula, a total decrease of 18,330.57 tons of SOC in the study area between 2000 and 2019 was determined. It should be taken into consideration that besides many other negative effects (effects on human health, effects on the ecosystem, effects on animals, etc.), land cover changes caused by wind farms may indirectly cause important problems such as climate change. Recently, this situation shows that there is an important dilemma in terms of current implementations. Wind farms are the most invested renewable energy sources and alternative energy supply to fossil fuels in terms of preventing climate change. However, the results of this study have reviewed that lack of proper approaches and methods to establish wind farms may result in various problems such as physical, chemical, and biological degradations and an increase in the amount of atmospheric carbon. Consequently, the investments in renewable energy sources should be comprehensively reevaluated in terms of current technologies, quality in the scope of environmental impact assessment and strategic environmental assessment processes, legal regulations and national policies, long-term environmental costs, etc.


Assuntos
Carbono , Solo , Animais , Carbono/análise , Ecossistema , Fontes Geradoras de Energia , Humanos , Turquia , Vento
9.
J Environ Manage ; 279: 111762, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33341727

RESUMO

Offshore wind power generation requires large areas of sea to accommodate its activities, with increasing claims for exclusive access. As a result, pressure is placed on other established maritime uses, such as commercial fisheries. The latter sector has often been taking a back seat in the thrust to move energy production offshore, thus leading to disagreements and conflicts among the different stakeholder groups. In recognition of the latter, there has been a growing international interest in exploring the combination of multiple maritime activities in the same area (multi-use; MU), including the re-instatement of fishing activities within, or in close proximity to, offshore wind farms (OWFs). We summarise local stakeholder perspectives from two sub-national case studies (East coast of Scotland and Germany's North Sea EEZ) to scope the feasibility of combining multiple uses of the sea, such as offshore wind farms and commercial fisheries. We combined a desk-based review with 15 semi-structured qualitative interviews with key knowledge holders from both industries, regulators, and academia to aggregate key results. Drivers, barriers and resulting effects (positive and negative) for potential multi-use of fisheries and OWFs are listed and ranked (57 factors in total). Factors are of economic, social, policy, legal, and technical nature. To date, in both case study areas, the offshore wind industry has shown little interest in multi-use solutions, unless clear added value is demonstrated and no risks to their operations are involved. In contrast, the commercial fishing sector is proactive towards multi-use projects and acts as a driving force for MU developments. We provide a range of management recommendations, based on stakeholder input, to support progress towards robust decision making in relation to multi-use solutions, including required policy and regulatory framework improvements, good practice guidance, empirical studies, capacity building of stakeholders and improvements of the consultation process. Our findings represent a comprehensive depiction of the current state and key stakeholder aspirations for multi-use solutions combining fisheries and OWFs. We believe that the pathways towards robust decision making in relation to multi-use solutions suggested here are transferable to other international locations.


Assuntos
Fontes Geradoras de Energia , Vento , Pesqueiros , Alemanha , Mar do Norte , Escócia
10.
J Environ Manage ; 280: 111828, 2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33360740

RESUMO

This study examines the relationship between energy security, energy equity, and environmental sustainability from the perspective of economic growth and CO2 emissions. For this purpose, this study utilizes the energy trilemma index (ETI) 2018 of the World Energy Council (WEC) to measure, evaluate and assess the energy efficiency of the top ten best-performing countries around the world. This study formulates an interval decision matrix to apply Principal Components Analysis (PCA) by reducing a large set into a small set of underlying variables with comprehensive information. Finally, this study uses the Fuzzy-TOPSIS method to determine the comprehensive ranks of all countries. This study shows that Denmark holds overall first rank in energy efficiency with a score of one in energy security, eleven in energy equity, and seventeen in environmental sustainability. In contrast, Germany has dominated all top ten performers by energy and environmental progress, which cannot be shirker within the UK's social progress concept. Thus, with ceteris paribus, a higher energy price will indicate a higher degree of scarcity of energy sources, encouraging working for cheaper and renewable alternatives and ultimately influencing the energy supply side. Carbon valuation can reduce greenhouse emissions by paying the extra dollar to the enterprise for less emission. It will lead to changing energy consumption structures and make it a cleaner choice for profit maximization.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Econômico , Energia Renovável , Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Fontes Geradoras de Energia , Alemanha
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33321936

RESUMO

Current energy demand and climate target plans are leading to green energy facilities which are efficient and sustainable. Archimedean screw turbines (ASTs) are used to generate hydroelectricity in low heads. They have been manufactured and installed worldwide. However, there is a lack of knowledge about how to design them efficiently. In this study, the performance of ASTs is analyzed using an analogy between ASTs and bucket elevators. Based on this analogy, a theoretical hypothesis on how to produce efficient ASTs is proposed. The new methodology for the design of ASTs is based on two considerations: the filling level of the AST buckets must be 85% and the increase of leakage losses must be minimized. This hypothesis is numerically and experimentally studied. Two experimental prototypes were developed and installed in the north of Spain. The numerical and experimental results are provided. A discussion comparing the results of this work and other results from the literature is presented. Finally, conclusions are drawn from this work that contribute to the improvement of AST technology as a sustainable facility to generate green energy.


Assuntos
Fontes Geradoras de Energia , Tecnologia , Movimentos da Água , Espanha , Tecnologia/métodos
12.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(1)2020 Dec 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33374850

RESUMO

There are different monitoring procedures in wind farms with two main objectives: (i) to improve energy production by the capability of the national electrical network and (ii) to reduce the stooped hours due to preventive and or corrective maintenance activities. In this sense, different sensors are employed to sample in real-time the working conditions of equipment, the electrical production and the weather conditions. Despite this, just the anemometer measurement can be related to the more important errors of interruption of power regulation and anemometer errors. Both errors are related to gusty winds and contribute to more than 33% of the cost of a wind farm. The present paper reports some mathematical relations between weather and maintenance but there are no extreme values of each variable that let us predict a near failure and its corresponding loss of working hours. To achieve this, statistical analysis identifies the relation between weather variables and errors and different models are obtained. What is more, due to the difficulty and economic implications involving the implementation of complex algorithms and techniques of artificial intelligence, it is still a challenge to optimize this process. Finally, the obtained results show a particular case study that can be extrapolated to other wind farms after different case studies to adjust the model to different weather regions, and serve as a useful tool for weather maintenance.


Assuntos
Inteligência Artificial , Clima , Fontes Geradoras de Energia , Vento , Espanha , Tempo (Meteorologia)
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33374644

RESUMO

The world is faced with significant climate change, rapid urbanization, massive energy consumption, and tremendous pressure to reduce greenhouse gases. Building heating and cooling is one primary source of energy consumption and anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions. First, this review presents previous studies that estimate the specific amount of climate change impact on building heating and cooling energy consumption, using the statistical method, physical model method, comprehensive assessment model method, and the combination method of statistical and physical model methods. Then, because the heating and cooling degree days indices can simply and reliably indicate the effects of climate on building heating and cooling energy consumption, previous studies were reviewed from the aspects of heating and cooling degree days indices, regional spatial-temporal variations in degree days and related indices, influencing factors of the spatial distributions of degree days, and the impacts of urbanization on degree days. Finally, several potential key issues or research directions were presented according to the research gaps or fields that need to be studied further in the future, such as developing methods to simply and accurately estimate the specified amounts of climate change impact on building cooling and heating energy consumption; using more effective methods to analyze the daytime, nighttime, and all-day spatial-temporal changes in different seasons in the past and future under various environment contexts by considering not only the air temperature but also the relative humidity, solar radiation, population, etc., and further exploring the corresponding more kinds of driving forces, including the various remotely sensed indices, albedo, nighttime light intensity, etc.; estimating the daytime, nighttime, and all-day impacts of urbanization on heating degree days (HDDs), cooling degree days (CDDs), and their sum (HDDs + CDDs) for vast cities in different environmental contexts at the station site, city, regional and global scales; producing and sharing of the related datasets; and analyzing the subsequent effects induced by climate change on the energy consumption for building heating and cooling, etc.


Assuntos
Ar Condicionado , Mudança Climática , Fontes Geradoras de Energia , Calefação , Cidades
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33375392

RESUMO

The wide application of various energy resources in economic development is allegedly responsible for deepening environmental deterioration in terms of increasing pollution emissions and other negative consequences including climate change. This current work investigates the interdependent correlation between energy consumption (both fossil fuel energy consumption and renewable energy consumption) and economic complexity among Lancang-Mekong Cooperation (hereafter LMC) countries, from 1991 to 2017. As for empirical analysis, a panel vector autoregression (PVAR) model was employed. Outcomes of this research confirm the existence of a unidirectional relationship between energy consumption and economic complexity index. It is verified that renewable energy usage is a possible alternative to traditional energy and is able to increase economic complexity. This current research proposed to contribute as a pioneering exploration on LMC countries by adding original observations into existing studies. Finally, we will discuss policy implications of this work.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Econômico , Poluição Ambiental/prevenção & controle , Desenvolvimento Sustentável/economia , Fontes Geradoras de Energia , Energia Renovável
15.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0239634, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33021990

RESUMO

In recent years, the environmental problems caused by excessive carbon emissions from energy sources have become increasingly serious, which not only aggravates the climate change caused by the greenhouse effect but also seriously restricts the sustainable development of Chinese economy. An attempt is made in this paper to use energy consumption method and input-output method to study the carbon emission structure of China's energy system and industry in 2015 from two perspectives, namely China's energy supply side and energy demand side, by taking into account the two factors of energy invest in gross capital formation and export. The results show that neglecting these two factors will lead to underestimation of intermediate use carbon emissions and overestimation of final use carbon emissions. On energy supply side, the carbon emission structure of China's energy system is still dominated by high-carbon energy (raw coal, coke, diesel, and fuel oil, etc.), accounting for more than 70% of total energy carbon emissions; on the contrary, the natural gas such as clean energy accounts for only 3.45% of total energy carbon emissions, indicating that the energy consumption structure optimization and emission reduction gap of China's energy supply side are still substantial. On energy demand side, the final use (direct consumption by residents and government) produces less carbon emissions, while the intermediate use (production by enterprises) produces more than 90% of the total energy carbon emissions. Fossil energy, power sector, heavy industry, chemical industry, and transportation belong to industries with larger carbon emissions and lower carbon emission efficiency, while agriculture, construction, light industry, and service belong to industries with fewer carbon emissions and higher carbon emission efficiency. This means that the optimization of industrial structure is conducive to slowing down the growth of energy carbon emissions on the demand side.


Assuntos
Pegada de Carbono/economia , Desenvolvimento Econômico , Combustíveis Fósseis , Aquecimento Global/economia , Carbono/análise , China , Mudança Climática/economia , Carvão Mineral/economia , Fontes Geradoras de Energia/economia , Poluição Ambiental/economia , Poluição Ambiental/prevenção & controle , Combustíveis Fósseis/economia , Aquecimento Global/prevenção & controle , Efeito Estufa/economia , Efeito Estufa/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Indústrias/economia , Investimentos em Saúde
16.
Mar Environ Res ; 162: 105157, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33080559

RESUMO

The increasing development of offshore wind farms (OWFs) worldwide leads to possible conflicts with the ecological requirements of top predators that largely depend on offshore areas. Seabird species exhibit different behavioural reactions to OWFs, ranging from avoidance resulting in habitat loss, to attraction causing an increased risk of colliding with the turbines. We investigated how OWFs affected the densities and distributions of guillemots and kittiwakes breeding in the southern North Sea and if the effects varied among seasons using a 'before-after control impact' (BACI) analysis approach based on a large-scale and long-term dataset covering 14 years before and 3 years after the construction of OWFs. Guillemot relative density in the OWF decreased by 63% in spring, and by 44% in the breeding season. Kittiwake relative density in the OWF decreased by 45% in the breeding season, and not significantly by 10% in spring. We furthermore estimated the response radii to the OWF for both species and seasons, finding that guillemots showed a response radius of ~9 km in spring and kittiwakes a radius of ~20 km in the breeding season. The results underline the value of large-scale and long-term assessments considering seasonal variation throughout the yearly cycle. The here provided information on the seasonally different reactions of seabirds to OWFs adds substantially to our current knowledge and provides the necessary basis for reliable estimations of OWF effects on guillemots and kittiwakes. Such evaluations are urgently needed for future planning and management recommendations to decision-makers.


Assuntos
Fontes Geradoras de Energia , Vento , Animais , Cruzamento , Mar do Norte , Estações do Ano
17.
Mar Environ Res ; 162: 105196, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33126111

RESUMO

There is a pressing need to quantify the risks of renewable energy developments such as offshore wind farms for protected populations. However, assessments are often based on incomplete data, or fail to consider variation in risk between sexes and at different times of year. We tracked northern gannets foraging from the world's largest colony (Bass Rock, Scotland) across five consecutive breeding seasons. We examine how seasonal and sex differences in behaviour affect the collision risk from planned and operational wind farms within their foraging range and assess the likely consequences for long-term population viability. Both sexes made shorter trips during chick-rearing than prior to chick-hatching, spent a greater proportion of time within wind farm sites and had an eight times greater potential collision risk during chick-rearing. Females made longer trips than males at both these times of year, flew higher and spent more time within wind farm sites, leading to three times greater collision risk for females. After accounting for the potential additional mortality from collisions, and assuming that the death of a parent also led to the loss of its offspring, the breeding population was projected to increase by 3.57% (95% CI: 2.16-5.15%) per year, compared with 6.56% (95% CI: 4.59-8.73%) in the absence of turbines, suggesting a negligible effect on population viability. However, additional mortality could result in greater immigration from neighbouring colonies, potentially affecting their viability and highlighting a need for research within a metapopulation framework to assess the impacts of offshore wind developments on vulnerable species across multiple connected sites.


Assuntos
Fontes Geradoras de Energia , Vento , Animais , Demografia , Feminino , Masculino , Escócia , Estações do Ano
18.
Mar Environ Res ; 160: 104989, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32907727

RESUMO

Expansion of offshore wind energy is vital for the reduction of CO2 emissions. However, offshore wind farms may negatively impact the environment without proper planning. Here we assess the robustness of the conclusions of earlier studies that the strictly protected red-throated diver, Gavia stellata, is strongly displaced from wind farms in the German Bight (North Sea). We modelled the distribution of divers based on two independent data sets, digital aerial surveys and satellite telemetry, in relation to the dynamic offshore environment and anthropogenic pressures. Both data types found that divers were strongly displaced from wind farms in suitable habitat. The displacement effect gradually decreased with distance from the wind farms (being very strong up to 5 km away), but a significant effect could be detected up to 10-15 km away. The telemetry data further indicated that the displacement distance decreased with decreasing visibility. The displacement distance was also shorter during the day than during the night, potentially as a response to aviation and navigation lights of the wind farms. These findings should be taken into consideration in marine spatial planning to avoid cumulative impacts on red-throated diver populations.


Assuntos
Aves , Fontes Geradoras de Energia , Telemetria , Vento , Animais , Mar do Norte , Inquéritos e Questionários
19.
J Environ Manage ; 276: 111323, 2020 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32932067

RESUMO

Australia offers an interesting case study of climate policy effectiveness as Australia has 'tried' a wide range of policies to mixed effect. Given that more than half of Australia's greenhouse gas emissions typically come from stationary energy generation, most climate policy in Australia has focussed on electricity sector reform, particularly the uptake of variable renewable energy and the decrease of thermal power generation. Electricity supply in Australia has undergone substantial change over recent years, substantially due to these policies, and needs to continue changing in the future to meet climate change mitigation targets and ensure stable, cost-effective electricity supply. This paper is therefore written from the perspective of an electricity planner and seeks to learn from the experiences of climate policies tried over recent decades. We start by reviewing the history of Australian energy policy and a description of how the Australian electricity network is structured to operate. We examine the theory and effects of different policies tried, which range from renewable energy targets, carbon pricing schemes, subsidies for renewable energy and research and development initiatives. We make three key observations from the case analysis: (1) that there has been substantial expense and effort effectively wasted through duplicate effects of different policy mechanisms by both federal and state governments; (2) as various mechanisms enable variable renewable energy generation to increase, the market becomes distorted, increasing total system costs and decreasing system robustness and resilience; and (3) the narrowed focus of climate policy mechanisms on certain variable renewables, such as solar photovoltaic and wind generation, omitted the opportunity for uptake of scale-able low carbon, firm generation options, like nuclear power and carbon capture and storage.


Assuntos
Eletricidade , Energia Renovável , Austrália , Fontes Geradoras de Energia , Vento
20.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(10): 652, 2020 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32964332

RESUMO

Location selection for offshore wind farms is a major challenge for renewable energy policy, marine spatial planning, and environmental conservation. This selection constitutes a multi-criteria decision-making problem, through which parameters like wind velocity, water depth, shorelines, fishing areas, shipping routes, environmental protection areas, transportation, and military zones should be jointly investigated. The aim of the present study was thus to develop an integrated methodology for assessing the siting of bottom-fixed offshore wind farms in two different countries (with different legal, political, and socio/economic characteristics). Our methodology combined multi-criteria decision-making methods and geographical information systems and was implemented in Cyclades (Greece) and in the sea area of Izmir region (Turkey). Experts used fuzzy sets and linguistic terms to achieve more consistent and independent rankings and results. In the Turkish region, the results showed that 519 km2 (10.23%) of the study area is suitable for offshore wind farms, while in the Greek region, only 289 km2 (3.22%) of the study area was found to be suitable. This spatial suitability analysis may contribute to provide some useful recommendations for the spatial marine planning at the regional scale, as well as for the preliminary assessment of new offshore wind farms in both countries.


Assuntos
Fontes Geradoras de Energia , Sistemas de Informação Geográfica , Monitoramento Ambiental , Grécia , Centrais Elétricas , Turquia , Vento
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