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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(2): e18658, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31914051

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Despite increasing number of left ventricular assist device (LVAD) implantation, standardized cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) protocol for patients with LVAD, especially in out-of-hospital settings are not well known. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 41-year-old LVAD implanted man became cardiac arrest in an out-of-hospital setting. Bystander CPR was started and the patient was brought to our hospital without noticing LVAD. Upon arrival, the medical staff noted the LVAD and that the battery of the LVAD was exhausted. DIAGNOSIS: Cardiac arrest on LVAD. INTERVENTIONS: It took 50 minutes to change the battery, then the patient has become ventricular fibrillation; hence, we introduced extracorporeal membranous oxygenation and defibrillated the patient. After the sinus rhythm was restored, the LVAD started working uneventfully. OUTCOMES: The patient became brain dead. LESSONS: There are several difficulties in treating these patients. First, hemodynamic collapse is difficult to diagnose. Second, chest compression for LVAD implanted patients remains controversial. Third, education to first responders who are not familiar with LVAD are not enough. Appropriate education for those issues is needed.


Assuntos
Reanimação Cardiopulmonar/métodos , Coração Auxiliar , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar/terapia , Adulto , Cardioversão Elétrica , Fontes de Energia Elétrica , Oxigenação por Membrana Extracorpórea , Humanos , Masculino , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar/complicações , Fibrilação Ventricular/etiologia , Fibrilação Ventricular/terapia
2.
Chemosphere ; 242: 125291, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31896181

RESUMO

The huge usage of rechargeable batteries in electronics has added to a recurrent problem worldwide in generating tonnage of spent lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). The inadequacy of the resources of the depleting critical metals has also been described in vogue. The environmental assessment of the life cycle of the LIBs has been elucidated vis-a-vis the effects of raw material supply, transportation, and recycling. Based on the available work for recycling technologies, this review also attempts to elicit the various methods practiced in discharging/dismantling, classification, and separation of components followed by metal recovery. The authors have reviewed the major developments in the area of recycling of cathode material by using various acids for extraction of metals from spent LIBs, compared the merits and demerits of acids used and presented a comprehensive outlook to the processes formulated vis-à-vis imperative need for using green techniques. The necessity for benign recycling methods is stressed upon to alleviate the need for high temperature and oxidative acid leaching conditions. The various green lixiviants (organic acids) attempted to extract metals from spent LIBs have been discussed in detail with respect to the mechanism, efficacies as well as the various factors (selectivity, cost, etc.) that govern the use of organic acids in battery recycling. It was ascertained that the GHG emissions to extract Co using organic acids stand 1/8 of that using an inorganic acid leaching process. Efforts need to be envisaged in separating the leached metals from these lixiviants ensuring economics and environmental benefits.


Assuntos
Ácidos Carboxílicos/química , Fontes de Energia Elétrica , Resíduo Eletrônico/análise , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Lítio/análise , Reciclagem/métodos , Eletrodos , Íons
3.
Waste Manag ; 104: 254-261, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31991266

RESUMO

The process flowsheet consists of three main circuits, i.e., metal extraction by acid leaching, critical rare earth metal (REM) recovery from leach liquor and pure Co/Ni recovery by solvent extraction. Quantitative metal extraction using 1 M H2SO4, pulp density of 25 g/L at 90 °C from waste NiMH battery was achieved. From leach liquor using 10 M NaOH, at pH 1.8, more than 99% REM was precipitated out and isolated through calcination at 600 °C. Undesired metals like Mn, Al, Zn, and Fe were scrubbed out from the leach liquor using 0. 7 M D2EPHA at the equilibrium pH of 2.30. From the scrubbed raffinate Co and Ni was separated using 0.5 M Cyanex 272 at pH 4.70 through solvent extraction. At pH 4.70 Co was completely extracted from solution leaving Ni in solution, which can be recovered completely. From Co loaded Cyanex 272, the Co was stripped by 1 M H2SO4 and regenerated Cyanex 272 can be reused and close the loop. Similarly, the undesired metal loaded D2EPHA can be regenerated and reused and close the loop. As the process is close-loop process recovers critical REMs, Co, and Ni, the valorization process efficiently addresses the circular economy and recycling challenges associated with waste NiMH battery.


Assuntos
Metais Terras Raras , Reciclagem , Fontes de Energia Elétrica , Metais
4.
Waste Manag ; 102: 579-586, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31770692

RESUMO

The environmental threats posed by spent lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) and the future supply risks of battery components for electric vehicles can be simultaneously addressed by remanufacturing spent electric vehicle LIBs. To figure out the feasibility of battery remanufacturing, this paper quantifies the environmental impacts and costs of the remanufacturing of lithium-nickel-manganese-cobalt oxide battery cells and compares the results with the production of batteries from virgin materials. Based on the EverBatt model, a China-specific database of hydrometallurgical remanufacturing process is established. The results indicate that the reductions in energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions by battery remanufacturing are 8.55% and 6.62%, respectively. From the economic standpoint, the potential cost-saving from battery remanufacturing is approximately $1.87 kg-1 cell produced. Through a sensitivity analysis, LIB remanufacturing is found to be economically viable until the purchase price of spent batteries rises to $2.87 kg-1. Furthermore, the impact of battery type variability is prominent, whereas the influence of recovery efficiency is limited.


Assuntos
Fontes de Energia Elétrica , Lítio , China , Análise Custo-Benefício , Eletricidade
5.
Waste Manag ; 102: 131-138, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31677520

RESUMO

A novel and efficient approach for stepwise recycling of valuable metals from Ni-rich cathode material is developed. First, the spent cathode materials are leached by H2SO4 + H2O2 solution. The leaching efficiencies of lithium, nickel, manganese and cobalt reach almost 100%, 100%, 94% and 100%, respectively, under the conditions of 2 M sulfuric acid, 0.97 M hydrogen peroxide, 10 ml·g-1 liquid-solid ratio, 30 min and 80 °C. Then, manganese and cobalt are co-extracted from the leaching liquor with PC88A, while almost 99% nickel and 100% lithium remain in the raffinate followed by being separated from each other by solvent extraction with neodecanoic acid (Versatic 10). The results show that 98% manganese and over 90% cobalt are co-extracted at pH = 5, 30 vol% PC88A and volume ratio of oil to water (O:A) = 2:1, while 100% nickel is separated from lithium under the optimum extraction conditions of initial pH = 4, O:A = 1:3 and 30 vol% Versatic 10. Finally, cobalt and manganese in the strip liquor of co-extraction are separated by selective precipitation method. Over 90% manganese is separated from cobalt under the conditions of pH = 0.5, 0.076 M KMnO4, 80 °C and 60 min.


Assuntos
Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Lítio , Cobalto , Fontes de Energia Elétrica , Eletrodos , Metais , Reciclagem
6.
Waste Manag ; 102: 122-130, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31671359

RESUMO

Some inevitable issues of the acid leaching method used to recycle spent lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), such as toxic gas emission, excessive acid-base consumption, inferior metal selectivity and equipment corrosion, have gradually emerged and restricted the promotion and development of this method. It is therefore essential to develop a sustainable closed-loop recycling technology (reduction-ammoniacal method) for spent LIBs. In this study, the effects of various species of ammonia, ammonium salts and reductants on the leaching of Li, Co, Ni, Mn and Al from spent LIBs were investigated with a hydrothermal method. An increase of the electrode potential of the reductant greatly accelerated the selective leaching of Li, Co and Ni, which agreed with the thermodynamic analysis results. The standard electrode potentials of the LiNixCoyMn1-x-yO2 (NCM) materials were also determined by using approximate calculations. When using (NH4)2SO3 as a reductant in a one-step leaching process, 100% Co, 98.3% Ni and 90.3% Li were extracted into the ammonia-ammonium chloride solutions. From the kinetics analysis, the surface chemical reaction shrinking core model was found to control the leaching behavior of Li, Co, and Ni in the reduction-ammoniacal leaching process. A shell-core structure was composed of a product layer, a diffusion layer of the solid core and an unreacted core. Species in the product layer reduced the leaching efficiencies of Li, Co, and Ni. The results obtained for this hydrothermal reduction-ammoniacal method applied to recycle spent LIBs provide insights for the design of a high-speed, exceptionally selective, closed-loop recycling technique.


Assuntos
Lítio , Níquel , Cobalto , Fontes de Energia Elétrica , Reciclagem , Substâncias Redutoras , Sais
7.
Waste Manag Res ; 38(1): 100-106, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31603400

RESUMO

Thermal treatment offers an alternative method for the separation of aluminum foil and cathode materials during spent lithium-ion batteries recycling. In this work, the combustion kinetic of cathode was studied based on six model-free (isoconversional) methods, namely Flynn-Wall-Ozawa (FWO), Friedman, Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose, Starink, Tang, and Boswell methods. The possible decomposition mechanism was also probed using a master-plots method (Criado method). Thermogravimetric analysis showed that the whole thermal process could be divided into three stages with temperatures of 37-578°C, 578-849°C, and 849-1000°C. The activation energy (Eα) derived from these model-free methods displayed the same trend, gradually increasing with a conversion range of 0.002-0.013, and significantly elevating beyond this range. The coefficients from the FWO method were larger, and the resulted Eα fell into the range of 10.992-40.298 kJ/mol with an average value of 20.228 kJ/mol. Comparing the theoretical master plots with an experimental curve, the thermal decomposition of cathode could be better described by the geometric contraction models.


Assuntos
Fontes de Energia Elétrica , Lítio , Eletrodos , Cinética , Termogravimetria
8.
Waste Manag ; 102: 847-855, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31835062

RESUMO

A combined process was investigated to recover valuable metals from LiNixCoyMnzO2 cathode materials of spent lithium-ion batteries. In this approach, the cathode materials were first roasted with graphite which recycled from anode materials, and then conducted to a reductant-free sulfuric acid leaching for efficient recovery of valuable metals. The reduction roasting was meticulously investigated to control the composition of roasted products, and the physicochemical changes of the cathode materials in the reduction thermal treatment was studied by XRD, TGA, XPS, SEM and EDS analyses. The experimental results show that under the optimum processing conditions of 600 °C, 3 h, and mass ratio of cathode materials to anode graphite of 6:1, the mixed electrode materials can be transformed into the desired phase of CoO, NiO, MnO and Li2CO3 primarily. Being different from obtaining Co and Ni metallic phase in reduction roasting, producing CoO and NiO benefit to a lower energy consumption, no H2 emission in the leaching process, and more facile conditions for complete leaching. More than 99% of Ni, Co and Li were extracted, and more than 97% of Mn was leached without adding reductant under the optimum conditions: 1.05 times of theoretical H2SO4 consumption, and L/S = 6 ml·g-1 at 85 °C for 1 h. This promising process can not only make efficient use of waste anode graphite, save energy consumption, but also avoid generation of massive H2 in the subsequent facile leaching of valuable metals.


Assuntos
Fontes de Energia Elétrica , Lítio , Eletrodos , Metais , Reciclagem
9.
Carbohydr Polym ; 227: 115346, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31590873

RESUMO

This study reports excellent supercapacitor performance of hierarchical composite porous carbon (HPC) materials successfully fabricated by one-step carbonization and activation process derived from polysaccharides carboxymethyl cellulose, bacterial cellulose, and citric acid. The resultant HPC displayed unique porous nanosheet morphology with high specific surface area (2490 m2 g-1) and rich oxygen content (7.3%). The developed structures with macropores, mesopore walls, micropores, and high oxygen content led to excellent electrochemical performance for electrode of electric double-layer capacitors (EDLCs). In a three-electrode system, the HPC electrode showed a high specific capacitance of 350 F g-1, good rate performance, and excellent cycling stability. The energy density of supercapacitor based on HPC was comparable to or higher than that of commercially supercapacitors. More importantly, two series-wound devices were easy to light light-emitting diode (LED, 3.0 V). These results suggest that the current material is a promising candidate for low-cost and eco-friendly energy storage devices.


Assuntos
Celulose/química , Ácido Cítrico/química , Capacitância Elétrica , Polissacarídeos Bacterianos/química , Carbono/química , Fontes de Energia Elétrica , Eletrodos , Porosidade
10.
J Urol ; 203(1): 185-192, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31347955

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Sacral neuromodulation is a guideline recommended treatment of urinary dysfunction and fecal incontinence in patients in whom conservative treatments have failed. Historically sacral neuromodulation has been delivered using a nonrechargeable device with an average life span of 4.4 years. Surgery is required to replace the implanted neurostimulator due to battery depletion. Implantation of a long-lived implanted neurostimulator can eliminate the need for replacement surgeries, potentially reducing patient surgical risks and health care costs. The Axonics r-SNM System™ is a miniaturized, rechargeable sacral neuromodulation system designed to deliver therapy for at least 15 years. The ARTISAN-SNM (Axonics® Sacral Neuromodulation System for Urinary Urgency Incontinence Treatment) study is a pivotal study using rechargeable sacral neuromodulation therapy to treat urinary urgency incontinence. Six-month results are presented. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 129 eligible patients with urinary urgency incontinence were treated. All participants were implanted with a tined lead and the rechargeable sacral neuromodulation system in a nonstaged procedure. Efficacy data were collected using a 3-day bladder diary, the validated ICIQ-OABqol (International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire Overactive Bladder quality of life) questionnaire and a participant satisfaction questionnaire. Therapy responders were identified as participants with a 50% or greater reduction in urinary urgency incontinence episodes compared to baseline. We performed an as-treated analysis in all implanted participants. RESULTS: At 6 months 90% of participants were therapy responders. The mean ± SE number of urinary urgency incontinence episodes per day was reduced from 5.6 ± 0.3 at baseline to 1.3 ± 0.2. Participants experienced a clinically meaningful 34-point improvement on the ICIQ-OABqol questionnaire. There were no serious device related adverse events. CONCLUSIONS: The Axonics r-SNM System is safe and effective with 90% of participants experiencing clinically and statistically significant improvements in urinary urgency incontinence symptoms.


Assuntos
Neuroestimuladores Implantáveis , Incontinência Urinária de Urgência/terapia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Fontes de Energia Elétrica , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Satisfação do Paciente , Qualidade de Vida , Sacro , Incontinência Urinária de Urgência/fisiopatologia
11.
Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao ; 35(12): 2367-2385, 2019 Dec 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31880142

RESUMO

Nanogenerator (triboelectric nanogenerator and piezoelectric nanogenerator) has experienced a rapid development since it was proposed. This technique can covert various mechanical energies into electric energy, including human motion energy, wind energy, acoustic energy and ocean energy. The converted electricity can be used for health monitoring and physiological function regulation, such as pulse detection, bioelectrical stimulation and cardiac pacing. This review summarizes the structure, working mechanism, output performance of nanogenerator and its latest progress in circulatory system, nervous system, biological tissue, sleep and rescue system. Additionally, a further analysis was also made on the application challenge of nanogenerator in clinical treatment. In the future, nanogenerator is expected to be an auxiliary power source, or even to replace battery to power medical electronic device and realize the self-powered health monitoring and physiological function regulation of human body.


Assuntos
Fontes de Energia Elétrica , Eletricidade , Humanos
12.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 55(100): 15117-15120, 2019 Dec 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31782438

RESUMO

A nitrogen doped bio-carbon catalyst with high specific surface area and a hierarchical interconnected porous structure was fabricated by an in situ gas-foaming strategy from sodium alginate and ammonium chloride. The optimized catalyst displays a fabulous ORR activity, providing a facile approach for the mass production of metal-free bio-carbon catalysts in fuel cells and metal-air batteries.


Assuntos
Carbono/química , Fontes de Energia Elétrica , Gases/química , Nitrogênio/química , Ar , Alginatos/química , Cloreto de Amônio/química , Catálise , Porosidade , Zinco/química
13.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4597, 2019 10 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31601812

RESUMO

While high sulfur loading has been pursued as a key parameter to build realistic high-energy lithium-sulfur batteries, less attention has been paid to the cathode porosity, which is much higher in sulfur/carbon composite cathodes than in traditional lithium-ion battery electrodes. For high-energy lithium-sulfur batteries, a dense electrode with low porosity is desired to minimize electrolyte intake, parasitic weight, and cost. Here we report the profound impact on the discharge polarization, reversible capacity, and cell cycling life of lithium-sulfur batteries by decreasing cathode porosities from 70 to 40%. According to the developed mechanism-based analytical model, we demonstrate that sulfur utilization is limited by the solubility of lithium-polysulfides and further conversion from lithium-polysulfides to Li2S is limited by the electronically accessible surface area of the carbon matrix. Finally, we predict an optimized cathode porosity to maximize the cell level volumetric energy density without sacrificing the sulfur utilization.


Assuntos
Fontes de Energia Elétrica , Lítio , Enxofre , Eletroquímica/métodos , Eletrodos , Lítio/química , Porosidade , Sulfetos/química
14.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31620820

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Exposure of children under 5 years to button batteries may result in severe corrosive injury, especially when they get stuck in the oesophagus. The injury is caused by the discharge current of the batteries. An increasing number of button battery ingestions have been described worldwide. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to describe incidence and complications after battery ingestion in children in Germany. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Paediatric gastroenterologists and paediatric surgeons were asked to report complicated battery ingestions in children between 2011 and 2016 retrospectively. The survey was done using a structured questionnaire. In addition, button battery ingestion calls to a German poison centre were analysed retrospectively. RESULTS: In 116 cases the button battery was located in the oesophagus. Severe complications developed in 47 patients and 5 of these children died. Serious complications occurred also in children with removal of the button batteries within less than 3 h after the intake. The Freiburg poison centre received 258 paediatric ingestions of button batteries. Out of these, seven button batteries were stuck in the oesophagus and five in the nose causing corrosion injury. CONCLUSIONS: Serious complications and even death after button battery ingestion are described in Germany. Button batteries impacted in the oesophagus should be removed emergently to minimize corrosive injury. Because no symptoms or only slight discomfort are developed initially, awareness of button batteries as a unique corrosive hazard among the public and clinicians is an important requirement for prompt diagnosis and treatment resulting in a satisfactory outcome.


Assuntos
Fontes de Energia Elétrica , Corpos Estranhos , Criança , Ingestão de Alimentos , Alemanha , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos
15.
Environ Sci Technol ; 53(20): 11657-11665, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31577427

RESUMO

Electrification of the transport sector will support its decarbonization, yet significantly change material requirements. This calls for an integrated modeling approach internalizing metal demand-supply dynamics in low-carbon scenarios to support the Paris agreement on climate change and sustainable material circulation. Here we develop a step toward the integrated simulation of energy-materials scenarios by unifying a stock-flow dynamics model for low-carbon scenarios using linear programming. The modeling framework incorporates lithium supply from both mines and end-of-life (EoL) recycling for projected use in electric vehicles on a global basis. The results show that supply constraints, which could become apparent from around 2030 in the case of current recycling rates (<1%), would impede the deployment of battery electric vehicles (BEVs), leading to the generation of an additional 300 Mt-CO2 of emissions for vehicle operation in 2050. Another important finding is that increasing the recycling rate to 80% could substantially relieve restrictions on the introduction of BEVs without requiring primary supply from natural deposits far beyond historical rates of expansion. While EoL recycling is important from a long-term perspective, an EoL-oriented strategy has little effect on the short/medium-term (such as to 2030) lithium demand-supply balance because of exponential demand growth and long living batteries. Importantly, findings in this study emphasize the necessity of tackling climate change and resource circulation in an integrated manner.


Assuntos
Carbono , Lítio , Fontes de Energia Elétrica , Eletricidade , Reciclagem
16.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 55(80): 12040-12043, 2019 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31531449

RESUMO

A visible light-induced self-powered sensor for the detection of tyrosinase activity was proposed. A tyrosinase-responsive photoelectrochemical-chemical redox cycling strategy was integrated with a photofuel cell for signal amplification.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais/métodos , Monofenol Mono-Oxigenase/análise , Nanoestruturas/química , Técnicas Biossensoriais/instrumentação , Bismuto/química , Catálise , Catecóis/química , Fontes de Energia Elétrica , Técnicas Eletroquímicas/métodos , Eletrodos , Grafite/química , Hemina/química , Luz , Nitrilos/química , Oxirredução , Fosfinas/química , Sulfetos/química
17.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(32): 33427-33439, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31522403

RESUMO

The efficient removal of heavy metals from aqueous environment is imperative and challenging. A novel ternary composite constructed of diaminopyridine polymers, graphene oxide, and ferrite magnetic nanoparticles was designed by a facile in situ polymerization strategy for the removal of Pb(II) from aqueous solution. Detailed characterization of morphological, chemical, and magnetic properties was employed systematically to confirm the formation of the composite material. Batch adsorption experiment studies suggested that the composite was an excellent adsorbent for Pb(II) which was easily collected after use via exposure to an external magnetic field for 30 s. The effects of different parameters such as solution pH, adsorbent dosage, contact time, initial Pb(II) concentration, temperature, and co-existing ions were examined. The maximum adsorption capacity at pH = 5 was estimated to be 387.2 mg g-1 at 298 K by the Langmuir isotherm model, accompanied by favorable adsorption recyclability according to the investigation of regeneration experiments. Thermodynamic studies revealed that the Pb(II) adsorption via our ternary composite was endothermic and spontaneous. The corresponding removal performance for effluent containing Pb(II) from the battery industry was successfully examined. The present results indicated that our designed adsorbent is beneficial to the practical Pb(II) removal in wastewater purification.


Assuntos
Fontes de Energia Elétrica , Chumbo/química , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos/métodos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Adsorção , Compostos Férricos , Grafite , Cinética , Fenômenos Magnéticos , Magnetismo , Metais Pesados , Polimerização , Temperatura Ambiente , Termodinâmica , Águas Residuárias/química , Água/química , Purificação da Água/métodos
18.
Waste Manag Res ; 37(12): 1217-1228, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31486742

RESUMO

With the rapid development of the electric vehicle market since 2012, lithium-iron phosphate (LFP) batteries face retirement intensively. Numerous LFP batteries have been generated given their short service life. Thus, recycling spent LFP batteries is crucial. However, published information on the recovery technology of spent LFP batteries is minimal. Traditional separators and separation theories of recovering technologies were unsuitable for guiding the separation process of recovering metals from spent LFP batteries. The separation rate of the current method for recovering spent LFP batteries was rather low. Furthermore, some wastewater was produced. In this study, spent LFP batteries were dismantled into individual parts of aluminium shells, cathode slices, polymer diaphragms and anode slices. The anode pieces were scraped to separate copper foil and anode powder. The cathode pieces were thermally treated to reduce adhesion between the cathode powder and the aluminium foil. The dissociation rate of the cathode slices reached 100% after crushing when the temperature and time reached 300℃ and 120 min, respectively. Eddy current separation was performed to separate nonferrous metals (aluminium) from aluminium and LFP mixture. The optimized operation parameters for the eddy current separation were feeding speed of 1 m/s and magnetic field rotation speed of 4 m/s. The separation rate of the eddy current separation reached 100%. Mass balance of the recovered materials was conducted. Results showed that the recovery rate of spent LFP can reach 92.52%. This study established a green and full material recovery process for spent LFP batteries.


Assuntos
Alumínio , Lítio , Fontes de Energia Elétrica , Eletrodos , Ferro , Fosfatos , Reciclagem
19.
Molecules ; 24(17)2019 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31484333

RESUMO

Base metal catalysis offers an alternative to reactions, which were once dominated by precious metals in hydrofunctionalization reactions. This review article details the development of some base metals (Fe, Co, and Ni) in the hydroboration and hydrosilylation reactions concomitant with a brief overview of recent advances in the field. Applications of both commercially available metal salts and well-defined metal complexes in catalysis and opportunities to further advance the field is discussed as well.


Assuntos
Cobalto/química , Ferro/química , Catálise , Fontes de Energia Elétrica , Eletrodos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/química
20.
Waste Manag ; 100: 1-9, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31493683

RESUMO

Eddy current separation (ECS) is an environment-friendly technology for separating nonferrous metallic particles whose size was from 2 mm to 10 mm. No wastes are generated in ECS. ECS quality of nonferrous metals from solid wastes is rather low in the production practice of spent lithium iron phosphate (LFP) batteries recovering. Repeating separation even manual sorting is required in the production. The traditional method of falling point prediction based on eddy current mechanics uses equivalent acceleration to replace separation motion curves. These curves have low precision and are unsuitable for predicting the motion trajectory of small particle size of sorted materials. In this work, eddy current separation of positive and negative plates in a crushed product of spent lithium iron phosphate battery is used as an example to establish the force and kinematics models of different materials in the eddy current separation. An iterative method, rather than average speed method, is used to improve the accuracy of the model. Displacement interval replaces disengagement angle as a separating index to improve the model's intuitiveness and practical guidance. In the range of 2-20 mm, test results are consistent with simulation results. The copper and aluminium foils at a magnetic roller speed of 800r/min can be separated to a maximum particle size ratio of 1.72, and the maximum particle size ratio of copper and positive electrode sheets can be large. This paper provided an environmental-friendly and effective technology for separating nonferrous metals from crushed spent LFP batteries.


Assuntos
Lítio , Reciclagem , Fontes de Energia Elétrica , Ferro , Fosfatos
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