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1.
Adv Mater ; 31(12): e1807795, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30721538

RESUMO

Nondestructive, high-efficiency, and on-demand intracellular drug/biomacromolecule delivery for therapeutic purposes remains a great challenge. Herein, a biomechanical-energy-powered triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG)-driven electroporation system is developed for intracellular drug delivery with high efficiency and minimal cell damage in vitro and in vivo. In the integrated system, a self-powered TENG as a stable voltage pulse source triggers the increase of plasma membrane potential and membrane permeability. Cooperatively, the silicon nanoneedle-array electrode minimizes cellular damage during electroporation via enhancing the localized electrical field at the nanoneedle-cell interface and also decreases plasma membrane fluidity for the enhancement of molecular influx. The integrated system achieves efficient delivery of exogenous materials (small molecules, macromolecules, and siRNA) into different types of cells, including hard-to-transfect primary cells, with delivery efficiency up to 90% and cell viability over 94%. Through simple finger friction or hand slapping of the wearable TENGs, it successfully realizes a transdermal biomolecule delivery with an over threefold depth enhancement in mice. This integrated and self-powered system for active electroporation drug delivery shows great prospect for self-tuning drug delivery and wearable medicine.


Assuntos
Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos/instrumentação , Fontes de Energia Elétrica/provisão & distribução , Nanoestruturas/química , Animais , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Liberação Controlada de Fármacos , Eletricidade , Eletrodos , Desenho de Equipamento/instrumentação , Fricção , Humanos , Células MCF-7 , Camundongos , Agulhas , Silício/química
3.
J Prim Care Community Health ; 9: 2150132718813494, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30470157

RESUMO

One year ago, Hurricane Maria passed over the archipelago of Puerto Rico, leaving widespread disruption of nearly all human services, including the health care sector. In the aftermath of the hurricane, limited access to medical care and prescription medications presented a serious challenge to maintaining control of preexisting chronic diseases. Many patients did not have access to refrigeration for heat-sensitive medications. Significant dietary changes due to the limited availability of shelf-stable foods further exacerbated chronic conditions such as heart failure and diabetes. The role of community pharmacists following a natural disaster has previously been documented, and may include the triage of evacuees, assessment of immunization needs, and provision of prescription medications under a collaborative practice agreement. However, our experience in Puerto Rico demonstrated a variety of barriers limited pharmacists' ability to adequately respond to the magnitude of this disaster. These included medication shortages, extended loss of power, and limited telecommunications for contacting prescribers, disaster relief agencies, and third-party payers. Ultimately, the lack of preexisting emergency protocols made overcoming such barriers difficult. As the first and sometimes only accessible health care provider to many patients following a natural disaster, we must build a solid evidence base and better understanding of the individual, interpersonal, and environmental factors that contribute to the community pharmacist response. To date, however, a paucity of data exists on both the pharmacist and patient factors, which may contribute to an effective immediate response to patient needs at the community pharmacy following a natural disaster. Future research must focus on these multi-level factors to better inform public policy and effective disaster planning. Ultimately, such research and planning will lead to increased resiliency in our primary health care systems in the face of future disasters.


Assuntos
Serviços Comunitários de Farmácia/organização & administração , Tempestades Ciclônicas , Desastres Naturais , Planejamento em Desastres/organização & administração , Armazenamento de Medicamentos/métodos , Fontes de Energia Elétrica/provisão & distribução , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Humanos , Medicamentos sob Prescrição/provisão & distribução , Porto Rico , Telecomunicações/provisão & distribução
4.
J Vis Exp ; (135)2018 05 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29889204

RESUMO

As lithium-ion batteries find use in high energy and power applications, such as in electric and hybrid-electric vehicles, monitoring the degradation and subsequent safety issues becomes increasingly important. In a Li-ion cell setup, the voltage measurement across the positive and negative terminals inherently includes the effect of the cathode and anode which are coupled and sum to the total cell performance. Accordingly, the ability to monitor the degradation aspects associated with a specific electrode is extremely difficult because the electrodes are fundamentally coupled. A three-electrode setup can overcome this problem. By introducing a third (reference) electrode, the influence of each electrode can be decoupled, and the electrochemical properties can be measured independently. The reference electrode (RE) must have a stable potential that can then be calibrated against a known reference, for example, lithium metal. The three-electrode cell can be used to run electrochemical tests such as cycling, cyclic voltammetry, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Three-electrode cell EIS measurements can elucidate the contribution of individual electrode impedance to the full cell. In addition, monitoring the anode potential allows the detection of electrodeposition due to lithium plating, which can cause safety concerns. This is especially important for the fast charging of Li-ion batteries in electric vehicles. In order to monitor and characterize the safety and degradation aspects of an electrochemical cell, a three-electrode setup can prove invaluable. This paper aims to provide a guide to constructing a three-electrode coin cell setup using the 2032-coin cell architecture, which is easy to produce, reliable, and cost-effective.


Assuntos
Espectroscopia Dielétrica/métodos , Fontes de Energia Elétrica/provisão & distribução , Eletrodos/provisão & distribução , Galvanoplastia/métodos , Lítio/química
5.
Environ Manage ; 61(4): 615-623, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29282533

RESUMO

Changes in the pattern of electric power consumption in India have influenced energy utilization processes and socio-economic development to greater extent during the last few decades. Assessment of spatial distribution of electricity consumption is, thus, essential for projecting availability of energy resource and planning its infrastructure. This paper makes an attempt to model the future electricity demand for sustainable energy and its management in India. The nighttime light database provides a good approximation of availability of energy. We utilized defense meteorological satellite program-operational line-scan system (DMSP-OLS) nighttime satellite data, electricity consumption (1993-2013), gross domestic product (GDP) and population growth to construct the model. We also attempted to examine the sensitiveness of electricity consumption to GDP and population growth. The results revealed that the calibrated DMSP and model has provided realistic information on the electric demand with respect to GDP and population, with a better accuracy of r 2 = 0.91. The electric demand was found to be more sensitive to GDP (r = 0.96) than population growth (r = 0.76) as envisaged through correlation analysis. Hence, the model proved to be useful tool in predicting electric demand for its sustainable use and management.


Assuntos
Fontes de Energia Elétrica/provisão & distribução , Eletricidade , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Luz , Energia Renovável , Imagens de Satélites , Países em Desenvolvimento , Produto Interno Bruto , Índia , Modelos Teóricos
6.
Respir Care ; 62(12): 1582-1587, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28951467

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Widespread access to medical oxygen would reduce global pneumonia mortality. Oxygen concentrators are one proposed solution, but they have limitations, in particular vulnerability to electricity fluctuations and failure during blackouts. The low-pressure oxygen storage system addresses these limitations in low-resource settings. This study reports testing of the system in Melbourne, Australia, and nonclinical field testing in Mbarara, Uganda. METHODS: The system included a power-conditioning unit, a standard oxygen concentrator, and an oxygen store. In Melbourne, pressure and flows were monitored during cycles of filling/emptying, with forced voltage fluctuations. The bladders were tested by increasing pressure until they ruptured. In Mbarara, the system was tested by accelerated cycles of filling/emptying and then run on grid power for 30 d. RESULTS: The low-pressure oxygen storage system performed well, including sustaining a pressure approximately twice the standard working pressure before rupture of the outer bag. Flow of 1.2 L/min was continuously maintained to a simulated patient during 30 d on grid power, despite power failures totaling 2.9% of the total time, with durations of 1-176 min (mean 36.2, median 18.5). CONCLUSIONS: The low-pressure oxygen storage system was robust and durable, with accelerated testing equivalent to at least 2 y of operation revealing no visible signs of imminent failure. Despite power cuts, the system continuously provided oxygen, equivalent to the treatment of one child, for 30 d under typical power conditions for sub-Saharan Africa. The low-pressure oxygen storage system is ready for clinical field trials.


Assuntos
Ar Comprimido/provisão & distribução , Países em Desenvolvimento , Fontes de Energia Elétrica/provisão & distribução , Oxigenoterapia/métodos , Oxigênio/provisão & distribução , Recursos em Saúde , Humanos , Pneumonia/terapia , Pressão , Uganda , Vitória
7.
PLoS One ; 12(7): e0180019, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28708840

RESUMO

This paper presents the precise dosimetry for highly resonant wireless power transfer (HR-WPT) system using an anatomically realistic human voxel model. The dosimetry for the HR-WPT system designed to operate at 13.56 MHz frequency, which one of the ISM band frequency band, is conducted in the various distances between the human model and the system, and in the condition of alignment and misalignment between transmitting and receiving circuits. The specific absorption rates in the human body are computed by the two-step approach; in the first step, the field generated by the HR-WPT system is calculated and in the second step the specific absorption rates are computed with the scattered field finite-difference time-domain method regarding the fields obtained in the first step as the incident fields. The safety compliance for non-uniform field exposure from the HR-WPT system is discussed with the international safety guidelines. Furthermore, the coupling factor concept is employed to relax the maximum allowable transmitting power. Coupling factors derived from the dosimetry results are presented. In this calculation, the external magnetic field from the HR-WPT system can be relaxed by approximately four times using coupling factor in the worst exposure scenario.


Assuntos
Fontes de Energia Elétrica/provisão & distribução , Campos Eletromagnéticos , Tecnologia sem Fio/normas , Humanos , Modelos Anatômicos , Radiometria
8.
J Glob Health ; 7(1): 010411, 2017 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28567280

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pneumonia is the largest cause of child deaths in Papua New Guinea (PNG), and hypoxaemia is the major complication causing death in childhood pneumonia, and hypoxaemia is a major factor in deaths from many other common conditions, including bronchiolitis, asthma, sepsis, malaria, trauma, perinatal problems, and obstetric emergencies. A reliable source of oxygen therapy can reduce mortality from pneumonia by up to 35%. However, in low and middle income countries throughout the world, improved oxygen systems have not been implemented at large scale in remote, difficult to access health care settings, and oxygen is often unavailable at smaller rural hospitals or district health centers which serve as the first point of referral for childhood illnesses. These hospitals are hampered by lack of reliable power, staff training and other basic services. METHODS: We report the methodology of a large implementation effectiveness trial involving sustainable and renewable oxygen and power systems in 36 health facilities in remote rural areas of PNG. The methodology is a before-and after evaluation involving continuous quality improvement, and a health systems approach. We describe this model of implementation as the considerations and steps involved have wider implications in health systems in other countries. RESULTS: The implementation steps include: defining the criteria for where such an intervention is appropriate, assessment of power supplies and power requirements, the optimal design of a solar power system, specifications for oxygen concentrators and other oxygen equipment that will function in remote environments, installation logistics in remote settings, the role of oxygen analyzers in monitoring oxygen concentrator performance, the engineering capacity required to sustain a program at scale, clinical guidelines and training on oxygen equipment and the treatment of children with severe respiratory infection and other critical illnesses, program costs, and measurement of processes and outcomes to support continuous quality improvement. CONCLUSIONS: This study will evaluate the feasibility and sustainability issues in improving oxygen systems and providing reliable power on a large scale in remote rural settings in PNG, and the impact of this on child mortality from pneumonia over 3 years post-intervention. Taking a continuous quality improvement approach can be transformational for remote health services.


Assuntos
Países em Desenvolvimento/economia , Fontes de Energia Elétrica/provisão & distribução , Hipóxia/complicações , Oximetria/instrumentação , Oxigenoterapia/métodos , Oxigênio/provisão & distribução , Pneumonia/mortalidade , Energia Solar/estatística & dados numéricos , Criança , Mortalidade da Criança , Pré-Escolar , Países em Desenvolvimento/estatística & dados numéricos , Fontes de Energia Elétrica/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos de Viabilidade , Instalações de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitais Rurais/normas , Humanos , Hipóxia/terapia , Oximetria/economia , Papua Nova Guiné/epidemiologia , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde/métodos , Melhoria de Qualidade , População Rural , Energia Solar/economia
9.
Disaster Med Public Health Prep ; 11(5): 625-632, 2017 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28416042

RESUMO

Earthquakes are a major natural calamity with pervasive effects on human life and nature. Similar effects are mimicked by man-made disasters such as fuel crises and power outages in developing countries. Natural and man-made disasters can cause intangible human suffering and often leave scars of lifelong psychosocial damage. Lessons from these disasters are frequently not implemented. The main objective of this study was to review the effects of the 2015 earthquakes, fuel crisis, and power outages on the health services of Nepal and formulate recommendations for the future. The impacts of earthquakes on health can be divided into immediate, intermediate, and long-term effects. Power outages and fuel crises have health hazards at all stages. It is imperative to understand the temporal effects of earthquakes, because the major needs soon after the earthquake (emergency care) are vastly different from long-term needs such as rehabilitation and psychosocial support. In Nepal, the inadequate and nearly nonexistent specialized health care at the peripheral level claimed many lives during the earthquakes and left many people disproportionately injured. Preemptive strategies such as mobile critical care units at primary health centers, intensive care training for health workers, and alternative plans for emergency care must be prioritized. Similarly, infrastructural damage led to poor sanitation, and alternative plans for temporary settlements (water supply, food, settlements logistics, space for temporary settlements) must be in place where the danger of disease outbreak is imminent. While much of these strategies are implementable and are often set as priorities, long-term effects of earthquakes such as physical and psychosocial supports are often overlooked. The burden of psychosocial stresses, including depression and physical disabilities, needs to be prioritized by facilitating human resources for mental health care and rehabilitation. In addition, inclusion of mental health and rehabilitation facilities in government health care services of Nepal needs to be prioritized. Similarly, power outages and fuel crises affect health care disproportionately. In the current context where permanent solutions may not be possible, mitigating health hazards, especially cold chain maintenance for essential medicines and continuation of life-saving procedures, are mandatory and policies to regulate all health care services must be undertaken. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2017;11:625-632).


Assuntos
Assistência à Saúde/tendências , Terremotos , Fontes de Energia Elétrica/normas , Combustíveis Fósseis/provisão & distribução , Assistência à Saúde/economia , Países em Desenvolvimento/economia , Planejamento em Desastres/métodos , Fontes de Energia Elétrica/provisão & distribução , Serviços Médicos de Emergência/métodos , Serviços Médicos de Emergência/tendências , Humanos , Nepal
10.
Disaster Med Public Health Prep ; 10(3): 314-9, 2016 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27087495

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study describes findings of the impacts of Hurricane Sandy on environmental factors including power outages, air quality, water quality, and weather factors and how these affected mental health during the hurricane. METHODS: An ecological study was conducted at the county level to describe changes in environmental factors-especially power outages-and their relationships to emergency department (ED) visits for mental health problems by use of a Poisson regression model. RESULTS: We found that many environmental hazards occurred as co-exposures during Hurricane Sandy in addition to flooding. Mental health ED visits corresponded with the peak of maximum daily power blackouts, with a 3-day lag, and were positively associated with power blackouts in Bronx (prevalence ratio [PR]: 8.82, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.27-61.42) and Queens (PR: 2.47, 95% CI: 1.05-5.82) counties. A possible dose-response relationship was found between the quantile of maximum blackout percentage and the risk of mental health in the Bronx. CONCLUSION: We found that multiple co-environmental hazards occurred during Hurricane Sandy, especially power blackouts that mediated this disaster's impacts. The effects of power outage on mental health had large geographic variations and were substantial, especially in communities with low sociodemographic status. These findings may provide new insights for future disaster response and preparedness efforts. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2016;10:314-319).


Assuntos
Tempestades Ciclônicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Meio Ambiente , Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Prevalência , Fontes de Energia Elétrica/estatística & dados numéricos , Fontes de Energia Elétrica/provisão & distribução , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Saúde Mental/tendências , New York , Material Particulado , Saúde Pública/normas , Fatores Socioeconômicos
11.
Ann Am Thorac Soc ; 13(2): 147-55, 2016 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26784922

RESUMO

The Syrian crisis, now in its fifth year, has created an unprecedented strain on health services and systems due to the protracted nature of the warfare, the targeting of medics and health care infrastructure, the exodus of physicians and nurses, the shortage of medical supplies and medications, and the disruption of medical education and training. Within a few short years, the life expectancy of resident Syrians has declined by 20 years. Over the first 4 years of the conflict, more than 75,000 civilians died from injuries incurred in the violence. More than twice as many civilians, including many women and children, have died prematurely of infectious and noninfectious chronic diseases for want of adequate health care. Doctors, local administrators, and nongovernmental organizations are struggling to manage the consequences of the conflict under substandard conditions, often using unorthodox methods of health care delivery in field hospitals and remotely by telehealth communication. Much-needed medical supplies are channeled through dangerous routes across the borders from Lebanon, Jordan, and Turkey. Physicians in the United States and other western nations have helped Syrian physicians make the most of the situation by providing training on introducing innovations in technology and treatment. Portable ultrasound machines have been introduced and are being used extensively in the management of trauma and shock. This report, prepared by members of the Syrian American Medical Society, documents current needs for health care relief within Syria, focusing on pulmonary, critical care, and sleep medicine, and some of the efforts currently underway to meet those needs.


Assuntos
Cuidados Críticos , Assistência à Saúde , Desastres , Equipamentos e Provisões/provisão & distribução , Pneumologia , Medicina do Sono , Exposição à Guerra/efeitos adversos , Guerra Química , Fontes de Energia Elétrica/provisão & distribução , Instalações de Saúde/provisão & distribução , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde , Mão de Obra em Saúde , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/terapia , Unidades Móveis de Saúde , Neonatologia , Pediatria , Preparações Farmacêuticas/provisão & distribução , Saúde Pública , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/terapia , Socorro em Desastres , Doenças Respiratórias/terapia , Infecções Respiratórias/terapia , Fumar , Síria , Tuberculose Pulmonar/terapia
12.
Disaster Med Public Health Prep ; 8(6): 548-52, 2014 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25491761

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to clarify the management of emergency electric power and the operation of radiology diagnostic devices after the Great East Japan Earthquake. METHODS: Timing of electricity restoration, actual emergency electric power generation, and whether radiology diagnostic devices were operational and the reason if not were investigated through a questionnaire submitted to all 14 disaster base hospitals in Miyagi Prefecture in February and March 2013. RESULTS: Commercial electricity supply resumed within 3 days after the earthquake at 13 of 14 hospitals. Actual emergency electric power generation was lower than pre-disaster estimates at most of the hospitals. Only 4 of 11 hospitals were able to generate 60% of the power normally consumed. Under emergency electric power, conventional X-ray and computed tomography (CT) scanners worked in 9 of 14 (64%) and 8 of 14 (57%) hospitals, respectively. The main reason conventional X-ray and CT scanners did not operate was that hospitals had not planned to use these devices under emergency electric power. Only 2 of the 14 hospitals had a pre-disaster plan to allocate emergency electric power, and all devices operated at these 2 hospitals. CONCLUSIONS: Pre-disaster plans to allocate emergency electric power are required for disaster base hospitals to effectively operate radiology diagnostic devices after a disaster. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2014;8:548-552).


Assuntos
Planejamento em Desastres , Terremotos , Fontes de Energia Elétrica/provisão & distribução , Hospitais , Radiografia/instrumentação , Coleta de Dados , Humanos , Japão
14.
Disaster Med Public Health Prep ; 8(3): 252-9, 2014 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24992943

RESUMO

Modern health care and disaster response are inextricably linked to high volume, reliable, quality power. Disasters place major strain on energy infrastructure in affected communities. Advances in renewable energy and microgrid technology offer the potential to improve mobile disaster medical response capabilities. However, very little is known about the energy requirements of and alternative power sources in disaster response. A gap analysis of the energy components of modern disaster response reveals multiple deficiencies. The MED-1 Green Project has been executed as a multiphase project designed to identify energy utilization inefficiencies, decrease demands on diesel generators, and employ modern energy management strategies to expand operational independence. This approach, in turn, allows for longer deployments in potentially more austere environments and minimizes the unit's environmental footprint. The ultimate goal is to serve as a proof of concept for other mobile medical units to create strategies for energy independence.


Assuntos
Defesa Civil/organização & administração , Medicina de Desastres/organização & administração , Planejamento em Desastres , Fontes de Energia Elétrica/provisão & distribução , Modelos Organizacionais , North Carolina , Trabalho de Resgate/organização & administração
15.
Health Estate ; 68(5): 61-3, 2014 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24930187

RESUMO

Hospitals and other healthcare facilities unprepared for the power cuts predicted by energy observers in the light of what they say are insufficient U.K. power reserves, and particularly electrical energy capacity, could face 'catastrophic' consequences, warns Bill Wright, head of Energy Solutions at the Electrical Contractors' Association (ECA). In this opinion piece for HEJ he 'shines a spotlight on the consequences of the energy generation problem', and explains how electrical contractors can 'deliver the solution'.


Assuntos
Planejamento em Desastres , Fontes de Energia Elétrica/provisão & distribução , Hospitais Públicos , Reino Unido
17.
J Bus Contin Emer Plan ; 7(3): 193-204, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24578021

RESUMO

Information in this paper is the result of recommendations and remedies developed at 'Local Supply Chain Capacity in a Crisis Summit Exercise' held in Arlington, VA on 30th-31st January,2013. At the event, which was funded through the Regional Catastrophic Preparedness Grant Program, national private sector and not-for-profit essential resource provider experts in sectors such as transportation, communication systems, energy/power, financial resources, medical supplies and other vital supplies, together with emergency managers, discussed best practices, major challenges and exchanged remedy recommendations.


Assuntos
Planejamento em Desastres/métodos , Desastres , Resiliência Psicológica , Comunicação , Fontes de Energia Elétrica/provisão & distribução , Sistemas de Comunicação entre Serviços de Emergência , Equipamentos e Provisões/provisão & distribução , Recursos em Saúde/provisão & distribução , Humanos , Renda , Governo Local , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , Transportes
18.
J Emerg Manag ; 11(3): 181-7, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24180061

RESUMO

Energy-related emergencies, such as power outages or interruptions to other energy supplies, can arise from a number of factors. Common causes include severe weather events--such as snowstorms, hurricanes, or summer storms with strong winds--as well as energy infrastructure that is overburdened, aging, or in need of repair. As past experience indicates, jurisdictions will continue to experience severe weather events, as well as confront infrastructure issues that make future power outages likely. As a result, state and local governments have turned to energy assurance planning, an energy-specific form of planning that helps jurisdictions prepare for and recover from energy emergencies. Energy assurance recognizes that power loss/disruption cannot be eradicated completely, but jurisdictions can mitigate the impact of power loss through effective planning. This article discusses the role of energy assurance planning and provides a description of what energy assurance means and why developing such plans at the state and local levels is important. In addition, this article discusses the role of statutory gap analyses in energy assurance planning and discusses how a gap analysis can be used by planners to identify trends and gaps in energy assurance. To provide context, a recently conducted statutory gap analysis analyzing national emergency backup power trends is provided as a case study. A summary of this project and key findings is included. Finally, this article briefly touches on legislation as an alternative to energy assurance planning, and provides summaries of recent legislative proposals introduced in the aftermath of Hurricane Sandy.


Assuntos
Planejamento em Desastres/legislação & jurisprudência , Fontes de Energia Elétrica/provisão & distribução , Emergências , Planejamento em Desastres/normas , Humanos , Governo Local , Maryland , Estados Unidos
20.
No Shinkei Geka ; 40(9): 759-64, 2012 Sep.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22915697

RESUMO

All people in Japan have been affected significantly by the great earthquake in east Japan. We surveyed the care for patients with disturbed consciousness during the disaster, and report the results and lessons learned to prepare for the future. We sent questionnaires about the management strategy for the patients to 17 centers that had reported at the Japan Coma Society meeting in July 2011. Fifteen centers (88%) replied to the questionnaire. Collective results include the following: (1)Disaster strategy manuals exist in 87% of the institutions. (2)Forty-six percent of the manuals have been made during the last 5 years. (3)Manuals, which had been helpful during previous disasters, were effectively used in training for behavioral assessment. (4)Doctors, nurses and facilities management participated in the creation of the manual. (5)There was no tendency for stocking consumable goods. (6)A system for providing needed electricity and fuel during a disaster situation was consistently present. (7)Self-generating electrical power could be continuously provided within 24 hours in 29% of institutions. (8)Provision of batteries to home-care patients was available only in 13% of the institutions. Many institutions had disaster strategy manuals that had been created before the earthquake and these were effectively utilized. Stock control and self-generating emergency power need to be planned for future disaster response. Disaster response for those needing home care is difficult to provide over a long period.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Consciência/terapia , Terremotos , Planejamento em Desastres , Fontes de Energia Elétrica/provisão & distribução , Japão , Manuais como Assunto , Inquéritos e Questionários
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