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1.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4479, 2020 09 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32900999

RESUMO

The giant protein titin is thought to be required for sarcomeric integrity in mature myocytes, but direct evidence for this hypothesis is limited. Here, we describe a mouse model in which Z-disc-anchored TTN is depleted in adult skeletal muscles. Inactivation of TTN causes sarcomere disassembly and Z-disc deformations, force impairment, myocyte de-stiffening, upregulation of TTN-binding mechanosensitive proteins and activation of protein quality-control pathways, concomitant with preferential loss of thick-filament proteins. Interestingly, expression of the myosin-bound Cronos-isoform of TTN, generated from an alternative promoter not affected by the targeting strategy, does not prevent deterioration of sarcomere formation and maintenance. Finally, we demonstrate that loss of Z-disc-anchored TTN recapitulates muscle remodeling in critical illness 'myosinopathy' patients, characterized by TTN-depletion and loss of thick filaments. We conclude that full-length TTN is required to integrate Z-disc and A-band proteins into the mature sarcomere, a function that is lost when TTN expression is pathologically lowered.


Assuntos
Fibras Musculares Esqueléticas/fisiologia , Proteínas Quinases/fisiologia , Sarcômeros/fisiologia , Animais , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Atrofia Muscular/etiologia , Atrofia Muscular/patologia , Atrofia Muscular/fisiopatologia , Doenças Musculares/patologia , Doenças Musculares/fisiopatologia , Miosinas/metabolismo , Proteínas Quinases/deficiência , Proteínas Quinases/genética , Sarcômeros/patologia , Ubiquitinação
2.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238352, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32881921

RESUMO

The dose of progressive active mobilization is still uncertain. The purpose of this study is to identify if the addition of a protocol of progressive active mobilization with dose and training load control to usual care is effective in reducing the length of stay in intensive care unit (ICU) and the improvement of the functioning, incidence of ICU-acquired weakness (ICUAW), mechanical ventilation duration and mortality rate in patients hospitalized in ICU. It is Double-blind randomised clinical trial. The setting for this trial will be medical and surgical ICU of a university hospital. The study participants will be 118 patients aged> 18 years admitted to ICU for less than 72 hours. Participants will be randomized to either an experimental or control group. The experimental group will undertake addition of a protocol of progressive active mobilization with dose and training load control to usual care, while the control group will undertake only usual care. The primary outcome will be length of ICU stay. The secondary outcomes will be Cross-sectional area and muscle thickness of the rectus femoris and biceps brachii, Change in muscle strength from the baseline, Functional Status, incidence of ICUAW, Days with mechanical ventilation and Mortality. All statistical analyses will be conducted following intention-to-treat principles. It has a detailed description of the dose of exercise, was designed with the strictest methodological criteria. These characteristics allow to investigate with greater certainty the results progressive active mobilization in critical patients, allowing replication and future combinations in meta-analyzes.


Assuntos
Estado Terminal/terapia , Adulto , Protocolos Clínicos , Estado Terminal/mortalidade , Método Duplo-Cego , Exercício Físico , Músculos Isquiossurais/fisiologia , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Tempo de Internação , Força Muscular , Músculo Quadríceps/fisiologia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Respiração Artificial , Adulto Jovem
3.
J Frailty Aging ; 9(4): 214-218, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32996557

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is known that maintenance of muscle mass cannot prevent loss of muscle strength in older adults. Recent evidence suggests that fat mass can weaken the relationship between muscle mass and functional performance. No information exists if fat mass can independently affect muscle strength and jump test performance in middle-aged and older adults. OBJECTIVE: To assess the independent relationships between fat mass, leg muscle mass, lower extremity muscle strength, and jump test performance in adults, 55-75 years of age. DESIGN: Cross-sectional. SETTING: University laboratory. PARTICIPANTS: Fifty-nine older adults (men, n = 27, age = 64.8 ± 6.5 years; women, n = 32, age = 62.5 ± 5.1 years) participated in this study. MEASUREMENTS: Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry was used to measure fat mass and leg muscle mass. An average of 3 maximal countermovement jumps was used to calculate jump power and jump height. Two leg press and hip abduction strength were assessed by 1-repetition maximum testing. RESULTS: Stepwise sequential regression analysis of fat mass and leg muscle mass versus jump test performance and measures of muscle strength after adjusting for age, height, and physical activity revealed that fat mass was negatively associated with jump height (p = 0.047, rpartial = -0.410) in men. In women, fat mass was negatively associated with jump height (p = 0.003, rpartial = -0.538), leg press (p = 0.002, rpartial = -0.544), and hip abduction strength (p < 0.001, rpartial = -0.661). Leg muscle mass was positively associated with jump power in women (p = 0.047, rpartial = 0.372) only. CONCLUSIONS: Fat mass has an independent negative relationship with jump test performance in middle-aged and older men and women. This has clinical implications for rehabilitating neuromuscular performance in middle-aged and older adults.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/fisiologia , Teste de Esforço , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Desempenho Físico Funcional , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
4.
Med Probl Perform Art ; 35(3): 145-152, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32870966

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To begin to establish normative data for shoulder range of motion (ROM) and strength in the circus acrobats and to compare these values based on age, sex, hand dominance, and acrobatic subgroup. METHODS: Active (AROM) and passive (PROM) of the full shoulder complex and PROM of the isolated glenohumeral joint were measured in 193 circus acrobats using standardized techniques for anterior elevation (flexion), posterior elevation (extension), lateral elevation (abduction), and external and internal rotation. Shoulder strength was measured using a hand-held dynamometer in all planes of motion. Measurements were taken twice and averaged. Mixed ANOVA were performed. One-sample t-tests were used to compare with general population. RESULTS: Several significant differences were noted between dominant and non-dominant sides, but not between the sex or age groups tested. Acrobats who did both aerial and ground acrobatics had significantly greater full shoulder complex flexion AROM than the aerial group, and AROM extension than the ground group. Circus acrobats had significantly greater AROM full shoulder complex extension, abduction, internal and external rotation, and shoulder strength than the general population. CONCLUSION: Overall, results from this cross-sectional study revealed that circus acrobats had greater shoulder strength and ROM than the general population, which could affect the way these patients should be treated in a clinical setting. Age and sex seemed to have minimal effects, but there was clearly an effect of hand dominance. Acrobats who train both aerial and ground acrobatics may have greater ROM in certain planes than those who train in only one type of discipline.


Assuntos
Ginástica , Articulação do Ombro , Ombro , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Força Muscular , Amplitude de Movimento Articular , Rotação
5.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238445, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32877421

RESUMO

AIM: Our aim was to determine if synergy weights and activations are altered in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) and if these alterations could be linked to muscle weakness. METHODS: In 22 children with DMD and 22 typical developing (TD) children of a similar age, surface electromyography (sEMG) of the gluteus medius, rectus femoris (REF), medial hamstrings, tibialis anterior, and medial gastrocnemius (GAS) were recorded during gait. Muscle weakness was assessed with maximal voluntary isometric contractions (MVIC). Synergies were calculated with non-negative matrix factorization. The number of synergies explaining ≥90% of the variance in the sEMG signals (N90), were extracted and grouped with k-means cluster analysis. We verified differences in weights with a Mann-Whitney U test. Statistical non-parametric mapping (Hotelling's T2 test and two-tailed t-test) was used to assess group differences in synergy activations. We used Spearman's rank correlation coefficients and canonical correlation analysis to assess if weakness was related to modifications in weights and activations, respectively. RESULTS: For both groups, average N90 was three. In synergy one, characterized by activity at the beginning of stance, the DMDs showed an increased REF weight (p = 0.001) and decreased GAS weight (p = 0.007). Synergy activations were similar, with only a small difference detected in mid-swing in the combined activations (p<0.001). Weakness was not associated with these differences. CONCLUSION: Despite the apparent weakness in DMD, synergy weights and activations were similar between the two groups. Our findings are in line with previous research suggesting non-neural alterations have limited influence on muscle synergies.


Assuntos
Marcha/fisiologia , Debilidade Muscular/fisiopatologia , Distrofia Muscular de Duchenne/fisiopatologia , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Criança , Eletromiografia/métodos , Feminino , Transtornos Neurológicos da Marcha/complicações , Humanos , Contração Isométrica , Masculino , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Distrofia Muscular de Duchenne/metabolismo
6.
Phys Ther ; 100(10): 1825-1851, 2020 09 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32949239

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) are reported to have lower levels of strength and anaerobic capacity. The purpose of this study was to (1) identify field-based tests for strength and anaerobic capacity used in studies comparing children with DCD and children who were typically developing (TD), (2) examine the methodological quality of studies reporting psychometric properties and rate the psychometric properties of the examined test, and (3) summarize available evidence by combining the methodological quality of the studies and the quality of the psychometric properties of the test. METHODS: An electronic search was conducted in July 2019 in 4 electronic databases. For purpose 1, primary studies were included with no exclusion of study design in which children aged 4 to 18 years with DCD were compared with children who were TD on strength and/or anaerobic capacity measures. For purpose 2, primary studies were included with no exclusion of study design in which a psychometric property was investigated. The Consensus-Based Standards for Selection of Health Measurement Instruments (COSMIN) was used to evaluate the methodological quality of the 34 studies and rate the psychometric properties of the tests used. RESULTS: Hand-held dynamometer, bent knee push-up, vertical jump, standing long-jump, functional strength measurement, fitness test, and test battery can be recommended for TD, and the shuttle run item of the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency-Second Edition and 10 m × 5 m sprints (straight and slalom) can be recommended for DCD. CONCLUSION: Information regarding psychometric properties of field-based tests for strength and anaerobic capacity in children with DCD is lacking. IMPACT: Information about the psychometric properties of field-based tests for strength and anaerobic capacity in children with DCD is lacking. More information is available on TD children, but it is also not complete; information regarding validity and responsiveness, especially, is missing. When using measures in children with DCD, it is important to keep in mind this lack of evidence for the validity and reliability of the outcomes for this target group.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil , Transtornos das Habilidades Motoras/reabilitação , Destreza Motora/fisiologia , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Aptidão Física/fisiologia , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Atividade Motora/fisiologia , Transtornos das Habilidades Motoras/fisiopatologia , Resistência Física
7.
Geriatr Gerontol Int ; 20(10): 899-903, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32886828

RESUMO

AIM: Exercise therapy is a key intervention in the management of knee osteoarthritis (OA). This study aimed to test the 6-month effectiveness of Wu Qin Xi Qigong (WQXQ) exercise versus a conventional physical therapy (control group [CG]) on physical functioning in patients with early knee OA. METHODS: This study was a 6-month follow-up from a randomized controlled trial. Participants with knee OA were randomly allocated to the WQXQ or CG. Data from the Berg Balance Scale, Timed Up and Go Test, 6-Minute Walk Test, 30-Second Chair Stand Test, the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index, knee extension strength and knee flexion strength were collected before and after the 6-month intervention. RESULTS: Both treatment groups demonstrated large (20%-50%) and clinically relevant reductions in activity limitations, pain and knee instability, which were sustained at 6 months post-treatment. No differences in effectiveness between experimental and control treatment were found on Timed Up and Go Test, 6-Minute Walk Test, knee extension strength and knee flexion strength except for a higher Berg Balance Scale score (P = 0.029) and lower Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index pain score (P = 0.031) in the WQXQ group. CONCLUSIONS: Both WQXQ and conventional physical therapy exercise programs were highly effective in reducing activity limitations and pain, and promoting balance and muscle power. WQXQ was found to be more effective in promoting balance and reducing pain than conventional physical therapy exercise in patients with knee OA. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2020; 20: 899-903.


Assuntos
Osteoartrite do Joelho/terapia , Modalidades de Fisioterapia , Qigong/métodos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , China , Terapia por Exercício , Feminino , Humanos , Articulação do Joelho/fisiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Dor/reabilitação , Manejo da Dor/métodos , Medição da Dor , Equilíbrio Postural/fisiologia , Estudos de Tempo e Movimento , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
Geriatr Gerontol Int ; 20(10): 980-987, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32886834

RESUMO

AIMS: Sarcopenia is a serious problem because of its poor prognosis. Growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF15) is associated with mitochondrial dysfunction, inflammation, insulin resistance and oxidative stress, which may play crucial roles for the development of sarcopenia. We aimed to examine whether serum GDF15 level is associated with muscle mass, strength and lower extremity function in older patients with cardiometabolic disease. METHODS: Serum GDF15 levels were measured in 257 patients with cardiometabolic diseases (including 133 patients with diabetes) who had visited the frailty clinic, using a latex turbidimetric immunoassay. Appendicular skeletal muscle index, handgrip strength, timed-up-and-go test and gait speed were evaluated. Power, speed, balance and total scores based on the sit-to-stand test were calculated to assess lower extremity function. RESULTS: The highest tertile of serum GDF15 was independently associated with low handgrip strength, low gait speed, long timed-up-and-go time and scores of lower extremity function but not an appendicular skeletal muscle index in multiple logistic regression analyses after adjustment for covariates. Patients in the highest tertile of GDF15 were at the risk of having three to nine times lower grip strength, three times lower gait speed, five to six times lower mobility and five to 11 times reduction in lower extremity function as compared with those in the lowest GDF15 tertile dependent on the models. CONCLUSIONS: Elevated serum GDF15 level was independently associated with low muscle strength and lower extremity function in older patients with cardiometabolic disease. Serum GDF15 could be one of the biomarkers for muscle weakness and low physical performance. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2020; 20: 980-987.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus/sangue , Fator 15 de Diferenciação de Crescimento/sangue , Extremidade Inferior/fisiopatologia , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Sarcopenia/sangue , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/fisiopatologia , Diabetes Mellitus/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Fragilidade , Força da Mão , Humanos , Masculino , Músculo Esquelético/fisiopatologia , Sarcopenia/fisiopatologia , Estudos de Tempo e Movimento , Velocidade de Caminhada/fisiologia
9.
Am J Phys Med Rehabil ; 99(10): 902-908, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32941253

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to explore an individualized sonographic muscle thickness ratio and its cutoff values in the diagnosis of sarcopenia. DESIGN: A total of 326 community-dwelling adults were included in this cross-sectional study. Total skeletal muscle mass was evaluated by bioelectrical impedance analysis, and nine-site muscle thickness measurements using ultrasound. Isometric handgrip and knee extension strengths were assessed. Physical performance was evaluated by usual Gait Speed, Chair Stand Test, and Timed Up and Go Test. RESULTS: Because the anterior thigh muscle thickness was the most significantly decreasing measurement with aging and the most significantly related value with body mass and height; sonographic thigh adjustment ratio was calculated by dividing it with body mass index. Using the two standard deviation values of our healthy young adults, sonographic thigh adjustment ratio cutoff values were found as 1.4 and 1.0 for male and female subjects, respectively. Sonographic thigh adjustment ratio values were negatively correlated with Chair Stand Test and Timed Up and Go Test in both sexes (all P < 0.05) and positively correlated with gait speed in female subjects and knee extension strength in male subjects (both P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Our results imply that regional (rather than total) muscle mass measurements should be taken into consideration for the diagnosis of sarcopenia.


Assuntos
Sarcopenia/diagnóstico por imagem , Coxa da Perna/diagnóstico por imagem , Ultrassonografia/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Impedância Elétrica , Feminino , Força da Mão/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Força Muscular/fisiologia
10.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0227394, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32866148

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to assess the impact of a 6-week specialized training program aimed at strengthening core muscles to improve the effectiveness of selected elements of a swimming race on a group of Polish swimmers. Sixteen male national level swimmers (21.6 ± 2.2 years) participated in the research. The competitors were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 groups before the data collection process: an experimental (EG, n = 8) and a control (CG, n = 8) group. Both groups of swimmers underwent the same training program in the water environment (volume and intensity), while swimmers from the EG additionally performed specific core muscle training. The task of the swimmers was an individual front crawl swim of 50 m, during which the kinematic parameters of the start jump, turn and swimming techniques were recorded using a video camera system. In both groups, a minor increase in the flight phase was observed at the start (EG = 0.06 m, 1.8%; p = 0.088; CG = 0.08 m, 2.7%; p = 0.013). The time to cover a distance of 5 m after the turn and the recorded average speed in swimming this distance for the EG statistically significantly improved by 0.1 s (-28.6%; p < 0.001) and 3.56 m∙s-1 (23.2%; p = 0.001), respectively. In the EG, a statistically significant improvement in 50 m front crawl swimming performance of 0.3 s (-1.2%, p = 0.001) was observed. The results of the research show that the implementation of isolated strengthening of the stabilizing muscles seems to be a valuable addition to the standard training of swimmers.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Condicionamento Físico Humano/métodos , Natação/fisiologia , Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Terapia por Exercício , Humanos , Masculino , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Músculos , Polônia , Treinamento de Resistência/métodos , Adulto Jovem
11.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(38): e22131, 2020 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32957334

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: In activities involving upper limbs, patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) report an increase in dyspnea. For this reason, the authors of the recommendations about pulmonary rehabilitation propose to perform upper limbs muscle strengthening in patients with COPD. However, the modalities of strengthening are not clearly established.The aim of this study is to compare the effects of upper limbs endurance strengthening versus upper limbs force strengthening, in patients with COPD during a pulmonary rehabilitation program. METHODS: This study is a randomized, open-label, bi-center controlled trial in parallel groups distributed in a ratio (1:1) comparing upper limbs force strengthening (group F) to the upper limbs endurance strengthening (group E) during a pulmonary rehabilitation program in patients with COPD stages 2 to 4 (A-D).After randomization, patients will be allocated to follow: A 4 weeks pulmonary rehabilitation program with upper limbs resistance strengthening (group F). A 4 weeks pulmonary rehabilitation program with upper limbs endurance strengthening (group E).The primary outcome is dyspnea measured with the London Chest Activity of daily Living questionnaire. The secondary outcomes are dyspnea (using Modified Medical Research Council dyspnea Scale, dyspnea-12 questionnaire, multidimensional dyspnea profile questionnaire), upper limb exercise capacity (using the 6-minute Peg Board and Ring Test), Maximal voluntary strength of deltoid, biceps, and brachial triceps.The sample size calculated is 140 patients per group, or 280 in total. DISCUSSION: The modalities of upper limb strengthening are not very well known, and evidence based is lacking to recommend endurance or resistance upper limb strengthening.We anticipate that the results of this study will be of relevance to clinical practice. They will bring information about the best modality of upper limb strengthening to use during a pulmonary rehabilitation program. TRIAL REGISTRATION: IdRCB n°2018-A00955-50; V1.1 du 11/07/2018; REHABSUP, clinical trial.gov (NCT03611036), registered August 02, 2018, https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03611036.


Assuntos
Dispneia/reabilitação , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/reabilitação , Treinamento de Resistência/métodos , Extremidade Superior , Dispneia/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/fisiopatologia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
12.
Rev Col Bras Cir ; 47: e20202548, 2020.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32844909

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: compare an accelerated physiotherapeutic protocol to a conventional physiotherapeutic protocol in total hip arthroplasty patients. METHODS: a randomized double blinded clinical trial performed from August 2013 to November 2014. Forty-eight patients diagnosed with hip osteoarthritis submitted to a total hip arthroplasty surgery. An accelerated rehabilitation physiotherapy applied three times a day and start gait training on the first day or standard physiotherapy applied once a day and start gait training on the second or third day of hospitalization. The Merle dAubigné and Postel score (mobility, pain and gait), muscle strength force, range of motion, in hospital stay and time to start of gait training, were the outcomes. RESULTS: the mean age was 64.46 years (10.37 years standard deviation). No differences were observed in age in different genders, and the two randomization groups were homogeneous. In hospital stay was lower in the intervention group compared to the control group, 3 (3-4) days [median (interquartile range)] versus 4 (4-5) days. Time to the start of gait training was early in the intervention group compared to the control group, 1 (1-1) days versus 2 (2-2) days. Higher muscle strength values were observed in the postoperative results in the intervention group compared to the control group for internal rotation, external rotation and abduction. CONCLUSIONS: an accelerated physiotherapeutic protocol should be encouraged, because it shows favourable results in gait, muscle strength and length of hospital stay, even upon hospital discharge.


Assuntos
Artroplastia de Quadril/reabilitação , Marcha , Osteoartrite do Quadril/cirurgia , Cuidados Pós-Operatórios/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Força Muscular , Modalidades de Fisioterapia , Amplitude de Movimento Articular , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237921, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32841300

RESUMO

Power declines at a greater rate during ageing and is more relevant for functional deterioration than either loss of maximum strength or muscle mass. Human movement typically consists of stretch-shortening cycle action. Therefore, plyometric exercises, using an eccentric phase quickly followed by a concentric phase to optimize power production, should resemble daily function more than traditional resistance training, which primarily builds force production capacity in general. However, it is unclear whether older adults can sustain such high-impact training. This study compared the effects of plyometric exercise (PLYO) on power, force production, jump and functional performance to traditional resistance training (RT) and walking (WALK) in older men. Importantly, feasibility was investigated. Forty men (69.5 ± 3.9 years) were randomized to 12-weeks of PLYO (N = 14), RT (N = 12) or WALK (N = 14). Leg press one-repetition maximum (1-RM), leg-extensor isometric maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) and rate of force development (RFD), jump and functional performance were evaluated pre- and post-intervention. One subject in RT (low back pain) and three in PLYO (2 muscle strains, 1 knee pain) dropped out. Adherence to (91.2 ± 4.4%) and acceptability of (≥ 7/10) PLYO was high. 1-RM improved more in RT (25.0 ± 10.0%) and PLYO (23.0 ± 13.6%) than in WALK (2.9 ± 13.7%) (p < 0.001). PLYO improved more on jump height, jump power, contraction time of jumps and stair climbing performance compared to WALK and/or RT (p < 0.05). MVC improved in RT only (p = 0.028) and RFD did not improve (p > 0.05). To conclude, PLYO is beneficial over RT for improving power, jump and stair climbing performance without compromising gains in strength. This form of training seems feasible, but contains an inherent higher risk for injuries, which should be taken into account when designing programs for older adults.


Assuntos
Locomoção/fisiologia , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Exercício Pliométrico , Treinamento de Resistência , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Viabilidade , Humanos , Masculino , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Caminhada
14.
J Sports Sci ; 38(17): 1936-1942, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32731786

RESUMO

We performed a randomized, controlled trial to analyse the effects of resistance training (RT) on cognitive and physical function among older adults. Fifty participants (mean age 67 years, ~60% woman) were randomly assigned to an RT program or a control group. Participants allocated to RT performed three sets of 10-15RM in nine exercises, three times per week, for 12-weeks. Control group did not perform any exercise. Variables included cognitive (global and executive function) and physical function (gait, mobility and strength) outcomes. At completion of the intervention, RT was shown to have significantly mitigated the drop in selective attention and conflict resolution performance (Stroop test: -494.6; 95%CI: -883.1; -106.1) and promoted a significant improvement in working memory (digit span forward: -0.6; 95%CI: -1.0; -0.1 and forward minus backward: -0.9; 95% CI: -1.6; -0.2) and verbal fluency (animal naming: +1.4, 95%CI 0.3, 2.5). No significant between-group differences were observed for other cognitive outcomes. Regarding physical function, at completion of the intervention, the RT group demonstrated improved fast-pace gait performance (-0.3; 95% CI: -0.6; -0.0) and 1-RM (+21.4 kg; 95%CI: 16.6; 26.2). No significant between-group differences were observed for other mobility-related outcomes. In conclusion, RT improves cognitive and physical function of older adults.


Assuntos
Cognição/fisiologia , Desempenho Físico Funcional , Treinamento de Resistência , Idoso , Função Executiva/fisiologia , Feminino , Marcha/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Movimento/fisiologia , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Treinamento de Resistência/métodos
15.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237454, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32764814

RESUMO

There is growing interest in "osteosarcopenia" as the coexistence of osteoporosis and sarcopenia exacerbates negative outcomes. However, limited information is available regarding the risk factors of osteosarcopenia development in patients with osteoporosis. Therefore, we retrospectively reviewed 276 consecutive patients with postmenopausal osteoporosis who regularly visited Showa University Hospital. Patients were eligible for the study if they were ≥65 years of age and underwent dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, blood sampling, and physical performance assessment. Patients were divided into the osteosarcopenia and osteoporosis alone groups according to the diagnostic criteria of the Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia. Of the 276 patients with osteoporosis, 54 patients (19.6%) had osteosarcopenia. Patients in the osteosarcopenia group had a greater risk of frailty than did those in the osteoporosis alone group (odds ratio 2.33; 95% confidence interval, 1.13-4.80, P = 0.028). Low body mass index seemed to be the strongest factor related to the development of osteosarcopenia, and none of the patients in the osteosarcopenia group were obese (BMI ≥27.5 kg/m2). Multiple logistic analyses revealed that patients aged 65-74 years who had comorbidities such as kidney dysfunction and high levels of HbA1c were at risk of developing osteosarcopenia. Thus, we strongly recommend the assessment of the key components of the diagnosis of osteosarcopenia in an osteoporosis clinic for patients with low body mass index. Furthermore, appropriate assessments, including comorbidities, will help in identifying patients at greater risk of developing osteosarcopenia.


Assuntos
Osteoporose/diagnóstico , Osteossarcoma/diagnóstico , Absorciometria de Fóton , Acidentes por Quedas/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Feminino , Fragilidade/complicações , Fragilidade/diagnóstico , Humanos , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/análise , Modelos Logísticos , Força Muscular , Razão de Chances , Osteoporose/complicações , Osteossarcoma/complicações , Pós-Menopausa , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Sarcopenia/complicações , Sarcopenia/diagnóstico
16.
Rev Med Suisse ; 16(701): 1405-1411, 2020 Aug 05.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32833355

RESUMO

Muscle injuries are one of the most common injuries in professional and recreational sports. Their impact on absence during the games is therefore major. There are many risk factors, the main ones being a previous muscle injury, a lack of strength in the muscle in question, and the age of the athlete. Preventive medicine in this field, although essential, remains perfectible and the various preventive measures are sometimes not fully studied, or present variable evidence. Stretching, neuro-muscular exercises, muscle strengthening, nutrition or genetics can all be part of the most comprehensive preventive possible approach.


Assuntos
Traumatismos em Atletas/prevenção & controle , Extremidade Inferior , Esportes , Traumatismos em Atletas/genética , Exercício Físico , Terapia por Exercício , Humanos , Força Muscular
17.
Neuron ; 107(3): 580-589.e6, 2020 08 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32778224

RESUMO

To induce brain plasticity in humans, we casted the dominant upper extremity for 2 weeks and tracked changes in functional connectivity using daily 30-min scans of resting-state functional MRI (rs-fMRI). Casting caused cortical and cerebellar regions controlling the disused extremity to functionally disconnect from the rest of the somatomotor system, while internal connectivity within the disused sub-circuit was maintained. Functional disconnection was evident within 48 h, progressed throughout the cast period, and reversed after cast removal. During the cast period, large, spontaneous pulses of activity propagated through the disused somatomotor sub-circuit. The adult brain seems to rely on regular use to maintain its functional architecture. Disuse-driven spontaneous activity pulses may help preserve functionally disconnected sub-circuits.


Assuntos
Córtex Motor/diagnóstico por imagem , Plasticidade Neuronal/fisiologia , Restrição Física , Atividades Cotidianas , Moldes Cirúrgicos , Feminino , Lateralidade Funcional , Neuroimagem Funcional , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Córtex Motor/fisiologia , Destreza Motora/fisiologia , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Vias Neurais/diagnóstico por imagem , Vias Neurais/fisiologia , Extremidade Superior
18.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0230224, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32764766

RESUMO

The term "oral frailty" reflects the fact that oral health is associated with physical frailty and mortality. The gold standard methods for evaluating the swallowing function have several problems, including the need for specialized equipment, the risk of radiation exposure and aspiration, and general physicians not possessing the requisite training to perform the examination. Hence, several simple and non-invasive techniques have been developed for evaluating swallowing function, such as those for measuring tongue pressure and tongue thickness. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between tongue thickness ultrasonography and tongue pressure in the Japanese elderly. We evaluated 254 elderly patients, who underwent tongue ultrasonography and tongue pressure measurement. To determine tongue thickness, we measured the vertical distance from the surface of the mylohyoid muscle to the tongue dorsum using ultrasonography. The results of the analyses revealed that tongue thickness was linearly associated with tongue pressure in both sexes. In male participants, dyslipidemia, lower leg circumference, and tongue pressure were independently and significantly associated with tongue thickness. In female participants, body mass index and tongue pressure were independently and significantly associated with tongue thickness. The optimal cutoff for tongue thickness to predict the tongue pressure of < 20 kPa was 41.3 mm in males, and 39.3 mm in females. In the Japanese elderly, tongue thickness using ultrasonography is associated with tongue pressure. Tongue thickness and tongue pressure, which are sensitive markers for oral frailty, decrease with age. We conclude that tongue ultrasonography provides a less invasive technique for determining tongue thickness and predicts oral frailty for elderly patients.


Assuntos
Deglutição/fisiologia , Língua/fisiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Índice de Massa Corporal , Feminino , Fragilidade , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Saúde Bucal , Pressão , Ultrassonografia/métodos
19.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237097, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32810864

RESUMO

Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is a genetic disorder that affects a range of tissue systems, however the associated muscle weakness and fatigability can have a profound impact on quality of life. Prior studies using the limb-specific Nf1 knockout mouse (Nf1Prx1-/-) revealed an accumulation of intramyocellular lipid (IMCL) that could be rescued by a diet supplemented with L-carnitine and enriched for medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs). In this study we used the Nf1Prx1-/- mouse to model a range of dietary interventions designed to reduce IMCL accumulation, and analyze using other modalities including in situ muscle physiology and lipid mass spectrometry. Histological IMCL accumulation was significantly reduced by a range of treatments including L-carnitine and high MCFAs alone. A low-fat diet did not affect IMCL, but did provide improvements to muscle strength. Supplementation yielded rapid improvements in IMCL within 4 weeks, but were lost once treatment was discontinued. In situ muscle measurements were highly variable in Nf1Prx1-/- mice, attributable to the severe phenotype present in this model, with fusion of the hips and an overall small hind limb muscle size. Lipidome analysis enabled segregation of the normal and modified chow diets, and fatty acid data suggested increased muscle lipolysis with the intervention. Acylcarnitines were also affected, suggestive of a mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation disorder. These data support the theory that NF1 is a lipid storage disease that can be treated by dietary intervention, and encourages future human trials.


Assuntos
Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Força Muscular , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Neurofibromatose 1/dietoterapia , Animais , Carnitina/administração & dosagem , Carnitina/uso terapêutico , Suplementos Nutricionais , Ácidos Graxos/administração & dosagem , Ácidos Graxos/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Camundongos , Músculo Esquelético/fisiopatologia , Neurofibromatose 1/genética , Neurofibromina 1/genética
20.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237133, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32760097

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Accessory nerve shoulder dysfunction is common after neck dissection in oral cancer survivors. This study aimed to investigate the short-term effects of scapular muscle strengthening exercises with motor-control techniques on neck dissection-related shoulder dysfunction in oral cancer survivors before the initiation of radiotherapy. METHODS: Thirty-eight participants were randomly allocated into the motor-control and regular-exercise groups. Each group received conventional physical therapy and specific scapular muscle strengthening exercises for 1 month immediately after neck dissection. Motor control techniques were integrated with scapular strengthening exercises for the motor-control group. Shoulder pain, active range of motion (AROM) of shoulder abduction, and scapular muscle activities including upper trapezius (UT), middle trapezius (MT), lower trapezius (LT), and serratus anterior (SA) when performing maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) and scapular muscle exercises were evaluated at baseline and after 1 month of training. RESULTS: Both groups reduced shoulder pain and increased muscle activity of maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) of each muscle after the intervention. Increased AROM of shoulder abduction was only observed in the motor-control group (95% CI 3.80 to 20.51, p = 0.004). Relative to baseline evaluation, muscle activities of UT decreased in the motor-control group when performing shoulder shrug with 1-kg weight (95% CI -33.06 to -1.29, p = 0.034). Moreover, the SA activity decreased in the motor-control group (95% CI -29.73 to -27.68, p<0.001) but increased in the regular-exercise group (95% CI 28.16 to 30.05, p<0.001) when performing shoulder horizontal adduction and flexion. CONCLUSION: Early strengthening exercise with motor control techniques has greater benefits for improving AROM of shoulder abduction, muscle economy, and reducing compensatory scapular muscle activities in patients with neck dissection-related shoulder dysfunction before the initiation of radiotherapy.


Assuntos
Terapia por Exercício/métodos , Neoplasias Bucais/cirurgia , Força Muscular , Esvaziamento Cervical/efeitos adversos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/terapia , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Bucais/radioterapia , Contração Muscular , Amplitude de Movimento Articular , Ombro/fisiopatologia , Músculos Superficiais do Dorso/fisiopatologia
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