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1.
Rev Prat ; 69(4): 438-443, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31626503

RESUMO

The prescription of physical activity for patients living with a long-term condition has been enshrined in legislation since 2016. The French National Cancer Institute published a literature review on the expected effects of physical activity in patients living with cancer. The benefits are prevention or correction of physical deconditioning, a preservation and/or a normalization of body composition, a reduction of cancerrelated fatigue, an overall quality-of-life improvement, the improvement of treatments tolerance and their medium and long-term effects, an increased life expectancy and a lower risk of cancer recurrence. These effects can be observed for a mixed physical activity program -cardio respiratory fitness and muscular strength-, with moderate to vigorous intensity activity, 30 minutes a day at least 5 days a week. The benefits are all the more important as physical activity starts early. Health professionals have an important part to play in helping patients engage in physical activity, with a regular even moderate practice which is always beneficial as compared with sedentary behaviors.


Assuntos
Exercício , Neoplasias , Exercício/fisiologia , Promoção da Saúde , Humanos , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Neoplasias/reabilitação , Aptidão Física/fisiologia , Comportamento Sedentário
2.
Codas ; 31(5): e20180077, 2019.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31644716

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To verify the elastic therapeutic tape effects on the trapezius muscle in healthy adults, using data from surface electromyography and a self-reported questionnaire. METHODS: A total of 51 across sex healthy adults were enrolled in this study, whose age range was 20 to 35 years.. The individuals were divided into three groups: G1, who wore the elastic therapeutic tape applied with tension; G2, who wore the elastic therapeutic tape applied with no tension; and G3, control group, who did not wear the elastic therapeutic tape. The elastic therapeutic tape was bilaterally applied on the trapezius muscle. For measuring results, surface electromyography signals were collected before, while and after the elastic therapeutic tape was worn, and a qualitative questionnaire was applied. RESULTS: There were no significant differences in either pre- or post-electromyography findings within each group, or when groups were compared. When comparing G1 and G2 moments before and while the elastic therapeutic tape was worn, a statistically significant difference was noted during the maximum voluntary contraction variable on the individuals' left side. When answering the questionnaire, most individuals mentioned a relaxing feeling while wearing the elastic therapeutic tape. CONCLUSION: The individuals wearing the elastic therapeutic tape in this sample did not present any significant differences during the surface electromyography assessment. As for the questionnaire, most of the individuals investigated reported a relaxing feeling after wearing the elastic therapeutic tape.


Assuntos
Fita Atlética , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Adulto , Eletromiografia , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Masculino , Autorrelato , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
3.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(38): e17290, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31568013

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous studies have reported that self-selection of the training intensity can be an interesting strategy to improve adherence in aerobic exercise programs. However, its effectiveness with weight training has not been systematically reviewed and remains unclear. In this study, we will describe a systematic review protocol that aims to investigate if people are able to self-select an intensity during weight training sufficient to enhance muscular strength. METHODS: This protocol is guided by the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses Protocols. In this study, we will search the following electronic databases: PubMed, Science Direct, Scopus, Web of Science and SPORTDiscus. Intervention studies with at least one weight training session performed at self-selected intensity, with people from both genders and all age ranges will be included. The Downs & Black checklist will be used for methodological quality assessment. Two experienced reviewers will independently perform the selection of studies, data extraction, and evaluation of the methodological quality. CONCLUSION: This will be the first systematic review describing the results of weight training intervention studies with self-selected intensity. This study will provide high-quality and reliable evidence for health professionals and may direct methodological recommendations for further studies. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42019120323.


Assuntos
Treinamento de Resistência/métodos , Autocuidado , Humanos , Força Muscular , Resistência Física , Autocuidado/psicologia
4.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(39): e17358, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31574881

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Previous studies comparing adductor canal block (ACB) with femoral nerve block (FNB) are inconclusive with regard to patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) induced by opioids. Moreover, some postoperative pain severity results differ between previous randomized controlled trials (RCTs). The primary aim of the current study was to compare total intravenous morphine consumption administered via PCA during the first postoperative day in continuous FNB and ACB groups after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Secondary aims included evaluation of postoperative pain via a visual analog scale, degree of knee extension, quadriceps muscle strength, and ability to sit, stand upright, and walk. METHODS: The study was a RCT. Inclusion criteria were presence of gonarthrosis, age >18 and <75 years, and scheduled for TKA under single-shot spinal anesthesia. RESULTS: A number of morphine uses was lower in the FNB group than in the ACB group (14, range 12-15 vs 20, range 18-22; P = .0001), and they perceived less severe pain at the 8th (P = .00003) and 24th hours. However, ACB was significantly superior with regard to most of the other parameters pertaining to mobility, including muscle strength at the 8th and 24th hours, degree of knee extension at the 8th hour, sitting at the 8th hour, standing upright at the 24th hour, and walking at the 24th and 48th hours. DISCUSSION: FNB was associated with the perception of less severe pain after TKAs. However, ACB was associated with earlier mobility rehabilitation.


Assuntos
Artroplastia do Joelho/efeitos adversos , Nervo Femoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Bloqueio Nervoso/métodos , Manejo da Dor/métodos , Dor Pós-Operatória/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Morfina/uso terapêutico , Força Muscular/efeitos dos fármacos , Medição da Dor , Dor Pós-Operatória/etiologia , Músculo Quadríceps , Amplitude de Movimento Articular/efeitos dos fármacos , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica/efeitos dos fármacos , Resultado do Tratamento
5.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(40): e17304, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31577721

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tongue strengthening exercise (TSE) is a remedial method for the training of swallowing-related muscles in the oropharyngeal phase. However, clinical evidence of its effectiveness is insufficient. METHODS: To investigate the effect of TSE on the oropharyngeal muscles associated with swallowing in older adults, in this study, 40 elder adults living in the community were recruited and assigned to 2 groups. The experimental group performed a TSE with a 1-repetition maximum resistance level of 70%. The exercise was divided into an isometric and isotonic part. The control group did not perform an exercise. We measured the muscle strength and thickness of the tongue and suprahyoid muscles using an Iowa Oral Performance Instrument and ultrasonography. RESULTS: The experimental group showed a statistically significant increase in tongue muscle strength and thickness in the oral phase (P = .001 and <.001, respectively). In the pharyngeal phase, the experimental group showed a statistically significant increase in the mylohyoid and digastric muscles (suprahyoid muscles) (P = .045 and .019, respectively). The control group showed no statistically significant changes. CONCLUSION: TSE is effective in increasing the strength and thickness of the oropharyngeal muscles of elder adults and is recommended for those who are vulnerable to swallowing difficulties.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Deglutição/prevenção & controle , Deglutição/fisiologia , Terapia por Exercício/métodos , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Treinamento de Resistência/métodos , Língua/fisiologia , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , República da Coreia
6.
Einstein (Sao Paulo) ; 17(4): eAO4632, 2019 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31433007

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the potential value of sarcopenia and sarcopenic obesity as prognostic predictors in hospitalized elderly patients with acute myocardial infarction. METHODS: A cross-sectional study based on data collected from elderly patients with acute myocardial infarction, admitted to a public hospital located in the Northeastern region of Brazil, from April to July 2015. The diagnosis of sarcopenia was based on muscle mass, muscle strength and physical performance measurements. Cardiovascular risk and prognostic markers, such as troponin and creatine kynase MB isoenzyme values, acute myocardial infarction classification according to ST segment elevation, and thrombolysis in myocardial infarction score were used. RESULTS: The sample comprised 99 patients with mean age of 71.6 (±7.4) years. Prevalence of sarcopenia and sarcopenic obesity was 64.6% and 35.4%, respectively. Sarcopenia was more prevalent among males (p=0.017) aged >80 years (p=0.008). Thrombolysis in myocardial infarction was the only marker of cardiovascular risk significantly associated with sarcopenia (p=0.002). CONCLUSION: Prevalence of sarcopenia was high and associated with thrombolysis in myocardial infarction risk score. Sarcopenic obesity affected approximately one-third of patients and was not associated with any of the prognostic predictors.


Assuntos
Atividade Motora/fisiologia , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/etiologia , Obesidade/complicações , Sarcopenia/complicações , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Avaliação Geriátrica , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/fisiopatologia , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Fatores de Risco , Sarcopenia/fisiopatologia
7.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1155: 25-34, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31468383

RESUMO

Most studies of taurine on athletic performance have been conducted at acute and high doses in rodents. These doses and duration of administration are not reasonable for normal human life. Thus, it is not valid to extrapolate these animal results to people. Dose and duration that mimic human use of taurine in normal life can help to clarify the taurine effect in humans. This study investigated whether long-term, low-dose taurine (2% taurine drinking water for 25 weeks), similar to normal taurine intake in humans, can affect endurance exercise and body composition. Twenty ICR mice were divided into two groups. The control group received normal drinking water, and the taurine treated group received 2% taurine drinking water for 25 weeks. The mice were evaluated for body composition by mass and for physical strength by treadmill exhaustion and suspension tests. The supply of chronic 2% taurine drinking water has a slight effect on weight gain. In body composition analysis, a slight increase in body weight was due to an increase in muscle mass, not an increase in body fat. However, taurine ingestion did not increase endurance exercise. In conclusion, these results indirectly suggest that acute, high-dose taurine treatment is better than long-term, low-dose treatment to increase athletic performance.


Assuntos
Composição Corporal , Força Muscular , Taurina/farmacologia , Animais , Teste de Esforço , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Condicionamento Físico Animal
8.
Sportverletz Sportschaden ; 33(3): 149-159, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31419809

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of combined resistance training including handball-specific drill (CRT) with resistance training excluding handball-specific drill training (NSDT). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-two male handball players who studied physical education were randomly assigned to two groups: CRT (combined resistance training with sport-specific drill; n = 12) and NSDT (resistance training without any sport-specific drill training; n = 10). Over a 10-week period during the competitive season, the players performed a specific training program twice per week, which replaced their normal team handball training. The CRT regimen consisted of a combined (associated) resistance training and handball-specific drill, whereas the NSDT program consisted of a resistance training without handball-specific drill (dissociated). Pre- and post-test measures included squat jump and countermovement jumps, bench press, back half squats, throwing velocity during a 3-step jump throw, and a jump shot, repeated-sprint ability (six 2 × 15-m shuttle sprints) (RSA), medicine ball throw and anthropometric measurements. RESULTS: In both groups, significant intervention effects (d ≥ 1.0) were seen for all sprint (3/3), throwing (3/3) and jump (2/2) measures. Regarding maximal strength parameters, an effect size lower than 0.5 was only detected in the NSDT group for half back squats (d = 0.48). The largest effects were observed in the NSDT group for squat jump (d = 6.20) and medicine ball throw (d = 6.07). Interaction effects (group × time) were found for 50 % (5/10) of parameters. The greatest difference between groups regarding performance development over time was detected for jump shot (interaction effect: η²â€Š= 0.748). In contrast, there was no difference in performance development in both groups over time for RSAbest (interaction effect: η²â€Š= 0.025). CONCLUSIONS: The current findings suggest that during the competitive season, 10 weeks of CRT with only two training sessions per week improved numerous measures of athletic performance in handball students of physical education. Such conditioning should be highly recommended as part of the annual training program of handball players.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Educação Física e Treinamento/métodos , Treinamento de Resistência/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Estações do Ano
9.
Curr Sports Med Rep ; 18(6): 229-238, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31385839

RESUMO

Lacrosse imposes multiple simultaneous physical demands during play including throwing and catching a ball while holding a crosse, running, cutting, and jumping. Often, these skills are completed while experiencing contact from another player leading to both on-and-off platform movements. Other motions include defensive blocking and pushing past defenders. Repetitive motions over sustained durations in practice or competition impart mechanical stresses to the shoulder or elbow joints, supportive muscles, and connective tissue. Preparation for lacrosse participation involves bilateral optimization of strength and durability of stabilizer muscles. Passing and shooting skills are encouraged to be equally effective on both sides; therefore, symmetric strength and flexibility are vital for prehabilitation and rehabilitation efforts. This article will: 1) provide insights on the upper-extremity musculoskeletal demands of lacrosse and related sports with similar throwing motion and 2) describe prehabilitation and rehabilitation methods that improve athlete durability and reduce likelihood of upper-extremity injury.


Assuntos
Traumatismos em Atletas/prevenção & controle , Traumatismos em Atletas/reabilitação , Esportes com Raquete/lesões , Extremidade Superior/lesões , Terapia por Exercício , Humanos , Força Muscular
10.
Postgrad Med ; 131(7): 453-460, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31469966

RESUMO

Objectives: Recent evidence suggests an association between functional capacity and cognitive function, at least in older adults. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to examine the association between cognitive function, functional capacity, isokinetic leg strength, health-related quality of life (HRQOL), sleep quality, body fat, handgrip strength, and fatigue among a sample of MS patients. Methods: Fifty-one relapsing-remitting MS patients (age: 38.4 ± 7.1 yrs; 30 females) were recruited and agreed to participate in this study. Cognitive function was assessed by the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test (PASAT). Functional capacity was examined using various functional tests commonly used in MS patients. Maximal voluntary unilateral leg strength was assessed using isokinetic dynamometer. Isometric handgrip strength was assessed by a dynamometer. Total body and visceral fat levels were assessed via bioelectrical impedance analyzers. Finally, the patients' HRQOL, sleep quality, and fatigue levels were evaluated using specific questionnaires. Results: A significant association was found between the PASAT score and the performance score in various functional capacity tests (p < 0.050). On the other hand, a weak but statistically significant association was found between the PASAT score and isokinetic strength of knee extensors (r = 0.319, p = 0.022) and knee flexors (r = 0.354 p = 0.011). Poor sleep quality was associated with lower performance in all the functional capacity tests examined (p < 0.05) whilst was negatively associated with the PASAT score (r = -0.334, p = 0.017). The multivariate regression analysis revealed that the performance on the TUG test was a significant predictor of cognitive function. Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, functional capacity was found to be associated with both impaired cognitive performance and low HRQOL in MS patients. In addition, an association between sleep quality and cognitive performance was revealed, confirming existing literature. Functional capacity as assessed by the TUG test emerged as the best predictor of cognitive function.


Assuntos
Cognição , Fadiga/fisiopatologia , Força da Mão/fisiologia , Esclerose Múltipla Recidivante-Remitente/fisiopatologia , Qualidade de Vida , Tecido Adiposo , Adulto , Composição Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Impedância Elétrica , Fadiga/psicologia , Feminino , Músculos Isquiotibiais , Humanos , Gordura Intra-Abdominal , Perna (Membro) , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Esclerose Múltipla Recidivante-Remitente/psicologia , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Músculo Quadríceps , Sono , Inquéritos e Questionários , Teste de Caminhada
11.
Harefuah ; 158(8): 506-508, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Hebraico | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31407537

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: This editorial focuses on strength training, an integral part of the exercise prescription for children, adolescents and adults. While filling the complete exercise prescription of aerobic and strength components provides maximal health benefits, it is noteworthy that even performing only aerobic activities or strength training is still better than no activity. The exercise prescription should be individually tailored to every person, according to her/his preferences, physical or technical limitations, medical conditions, etc. Some prefer, or are limited to, strength training only. Such activities improve muscle strength and athletic capabilities, in children mostly via improved neuromuscular control, and in youth and adults through muscle hypertrophy as well. From a health perspective, strength training had only been associated with better cardiovascular risk profiles in youth and with reduced mortality risks in adults. Interventional studies demonstrated that such training improves cardiovascular risk and physical functioning in youth and in adults, in healthy individuals and in those with chronic health conditions. Undoubtedly, strength training is medicine.


Assuntos
Treinamento de Resistência , Esportes , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Exercício , Terapia por Exercício , Feminino , Humanos , Força Muscular
12.
Saude e pesqui. (Impr.) ; 12(2): 351-357, maio/ago 2019.
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1016572

RESUMO

Este estudo teve o objetivo de analisar os efeitos do método Pilates no solo na qualidade de vida, função pulmonar e força muscular respiratória em mulheres idosas. Estudo quasi-experimental, realizado com 19 idosas no município de Maringá, Paraná, avaliadas por meio do SF-36, da espirometria e manovacuometria. As idosas foram submetidas a dez sessões de Pilates no solo, realizadas três vezes por semana, durante 60 minutos. Ao término do tratamento as pacientes foram reavaliadas e os dados analisados pelos testes de Wilcoxon e Mann Whitney (p < 0,05). Houve melhora da força muscular inspiratória (40,5%), expiratória (42,9%), da capacidade vital forçada (9,1%), do volume expiratório forçado no primeiro minuto (13,3%); e principalmente na qualidade de vida nos domínios de limitação por aspectos físicos (68,42%), aspectos emocionais (43,42%), capacidade funcional (35,0%) e dor (34,37%). O método Pilates no solo mostrou-se eficaz para melhorar a qualidade de vida, na função pulmonar e força muscular respiratória.


The effects of the Pilates method on life quality, lung functions and respiratory muscular force in elderly females were analyzed. The quasi-experimental study was undertaken with 19 elderly women in Maringá, Brazil, and evaluated by SF-36, spirometry and manovacuometry. Elderly females underwent ten Pilates sessions on the ground, during 60 min, three times a week. Patients were then re-evaluated and data analyzed by Wilcoxon´s and Mann Whitney´s tests (p < 0.05). Improvement in inspiratory muscular force (40.5%), expiratory (42.9%) muscular force, forced vital ability (9.1%), forced expiratory volume at the first minute (13.3%) and mainly in life quality in domains limitation by physical aspects (68.42%), emotional aspects (43.42%), functional ability (35.0%) and pain (34.37%). Pilates method was efficient to improve life quality, and for lung functioning and respiratory muscular force.


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Idoso , Envelhecimento , Exercício , Atividade Motora , Qualidade de Vida , Saúde da Mulher , Técnicas de Exercício e de Movimento , Força Muscular
13.
Health Qual Life Outcomes ; 17(1): 121, 2019 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31307472

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Muscle weakness is a defining characteristic of Muscular Dystrophy (MD); however, yet while speculated, objective measures of muscle weakness has not been reported in relation to quality of life in adults with MD. OBJECTIVES: 1) compare the self-reported QoL of adults with Duchenne MD (DMD), Beckers MD (BMD), Limb-Girdle MD (LGMD) and Fascioscapulohumeral MD (FSHD, and a non-MD (CTRL) group; 2) present and compare between groups measures of Impairment (Muscle Strength and Activities of Daily Living) and Perception (Fatigue, Pain and Self-Efficacy); and 3) identify associations between QoL domains and measures of Impairment and Perception (See above). METHODS: Seventy-Five males, including MD classifications DMD, BMD, LGMD, FSHD and CTRL, completed measures for QoL, Knee-Extension Maximal Voluntary Contraction (KEMVC), Fatigue, Pain, Self-Efficacy and Activities of Daily Living (ADL). RESULTS: QoL was lower across many domains in MD than CTRL. FSHD scored lower than DMD for mental wellbeing domains. KEMVC associated with Physical-Function domain for BMD. Pain, Self-Efficacy and ADLs associated with QoL domains, with Fatigue the most consistently associated. CONCLUSION: The present study identified differences between MD classifications within self-perceptions of mental-health. Muscle weakness is a defining feature of MD; however, it doesn't define QoL in adults with MD. A greater understanding of mental wellbeing, independence, and management of fatigue and pain, are required to improve QoL for adults with MD.


Assuntos
Atividades Cotidianas/psicologia , Força Muscular , Distrofia Muscular de Duchenne/psicologia , Qualidade de Vida , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Fadiga/psicologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Debilidade Muscular , Dor/psicologia , Autoeficácia , Autorrelato , Adulto Jovem
14.
J Strength Cond Res ; 33 Suppl 1: S140-S151, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31260419

RESUMO

Zaroni, RS, Brigatto, FA, Schoenfeld, BJ, Braz, TV, Benvenutti, JC, Germano, MD, Marchetti, PH, Aoki, MS, and Lopes, CR. High resistance-training frequency enhances muscle thickness in resistance-trained men. J Strength Cond Res 33(7S): S140-S151, 2019-The purpose of this study was to compare the effect a split training routine with muscle groups trained once per week (SPLIT) vs. whole-body split training routine with muscle groups trained 5 days per week (TOTAL) on neuromuscular adaptations in well-trained men. Eighteen healthy men (height = 177.8 ± 6.6 cm; total body mass = 84.4 ± 8.1 kg; age = 26.4 ± 4.6 years) were recruited to participate in this study. The experimental groups were matched according to baseline strength and then randomly assigned to 1 of the 2 experimental groups: SPLIT (n = 9) or TOTAL (n = 9). Prestudy and poststudy testing included 1RM for bench press, parallel back-squat and machine close-grip seated row, as well as an ultrasound analysis of the muscle thickness (MT) of the elbow flexors, triceps brachii, and vastus lateralis. After 8 weeks of training, no significant difference between groups was noted for all 1RM tests (p > 0.05). TOTAL induced a significantly greater increase in MT of the forearm flexors and vastus lateralis (p < 0.05). In conclusion, muscle strength increment is similar regardless of the experimental conditions studied; however, TOTAL may confer a potentially superior hypertrophic effect.


Assuntos
Músculo Esquelético/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Treinamento de Resistência/métodos , Fatores de Tempo , Adaptação Fisiológica , Adulto , Braço , Antebraço , Humanos , Masculino , Força Muscular , Músculo Esquelético/diagnóstico por imagem , Ultrassonografia , Adulto Jovem
15.
Yonsei Med J ; 60(8): 742-750, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31347329

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Muscle mass, strength, and composition determine muscle quantity and quality. However, data on muscle properties in relation to bone mass or insulin resistance are limited in Asian populations. This study aimed to investigate the relative importance of muscle measurements in regards to their relationship with lower bone mass and insulin resistance. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this study, 192 postmenopausal women (age, 72.39±6.07 years) were enrolled. We measured muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) and attenuation at the gluteus maximus and quadriceps muscles through quantitative computed tomography. Muscle strength and physical performance were evaluated with the hand grip test and Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB). Pearson correlation analysis and linear regression were performed to evaluate the relationship between muscle properties and homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) or bone mineral density (BMD). RESULTS: Muscle CSA, hand grip strength, and SPPB score held positive correlations with spine and hip BMDs, but not with insulin resistance. In contrast, muscle attenuation of the gluteus maximus or quadriceps was inversely related to HOMA-IR (r=-0.194, p=0.018 and r=-0.292, p<0.001, respectively), but not BMD. Compared with the control group, muscle CSA was significantly decreased in patients with osteoporosis; however, decreased muscle attenuation, indicating high fat infiltration, was found only in patients with diabetes. CONCLUSION: Muscle mass, strength, and physical performance were associated with low bone mass, and accumulation of intramuscular fat, a histological hallmark of persistently damaged muscles, may play a major role in the development of insulin resistance in Korean postmenopausal women.


Assuntos
Osso e Ossos/anatomia & histologia , Resistência à Insulina , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/anatomia & histologia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Pós-Menopausa/fisiologia , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Densidade Óssea/fisiologia , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Mellitus/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Força da Mão/fisiologia , Humanos , Tamanho do Órgão , Osteoporose/fisiopatologia , República da Coreia
16.
Life Sci ; 232: 116604, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31260684

RESUMO

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients present L-arginine (L-arg) deficiency and L-arg supplementation has been used as a treatment. In addition, sarcopenia is another common problem in CKD population, resistance training (RT) is one of the conservative strategies developed to prevent CKD progression, and however there are no evidences of a combination of these two strategies to treat CKD outcomes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of oral L-arg supplementation combined with RT in an experimental model of CKD. Twenty-five Munich-Wistar male rats, 8-week-old were divided in 5 groups: Sham (sedentary control), Nx (CKD sedentary), Nx L-arg (CKD sedentary supplemented with 2% of L-arg), Nx RT (CKD exercised) Nx RT + L-arg (CKD exercised and supplemented with 2% of L-arg). CKD model was obtained by a subtotal 5/6 nephrectomy. RT was performed on a ladder climbing, three weekly sessions on non-consecutive days, with an intensity of 70% maximum carrying capacity. They were submitted to RT and/or L-arg supplementation for 10 weeks. There was a significant improvement in muscle strength, renal function, anti-inflammatory cytokines, arginase metabolism and renal fibrosis after RT. However, the combination of RT and L-arg impaired all the improvements promoted by RT alone. The L-arg supplementation alone did not impair renal fibrosis and renal function. In conclusion, RT improved inflammatory balance, muscle strength, renal function and consequently decreased renal fibrosis. Nevertheless, the association with L-arg supplementation prevented all these effects promoted by RT.


Assuntos
Arginina/farmacologia , Condicionamento Físico Animal/fisiologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/dietoterapia , Animais , Arginina/metabolismo , Citocinas/metabolismo , Suplementos Nutricionais , Progressão da Doença , Fibrose/metabolismo , Rim/metabolismo , Masculino , Força Muscular/efeitos dos fármacos , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Condicionamento Físico Animal/métodos , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/metabolismo , Treinamento de Resistência/métodos
17.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(27): e16218, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31277132

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Due to demographic changes the world's population is progressively ageing. The physiological decay of the elderly adult may lead to a reduction in the ability to balance and an increased risk of falls becoming an important issue among the elderly. In order to counteract the decay in the ability to balance, physical activity has been proven to be effective. The aim of this study is to systematically review the scientific literature in order to identify physical activity programs able to increase balance in the elderly. METHODS: This review is based on the data from Medline-NLM, Pubmed, ScienceDirect, and SPORTDiscuss and includes randomized control trials that have analyzed balance and physical activity in healthy elderly over 65 years of age during the last decade. A final number of 8 manuscripts were included in the qualitative synthesis, which comprised 200 elderly with a mean age of 75.1 ±â€Š4.4 years. The sample size of the studies varied from 9 to 61 and the intervention periods from 8 to 32 weeks. RESULTS: Eight articles were considered eligible and included in the quantitative synthesis. The articles investigated the effects of resistance and aerobic exercise, balance training, T-bow© and wobble board training, aerobic step and stability ball training, adapted physical activity and Wii Fit training on balance outcomes. Balance measures of the studies showed improvements between 16% and 42% compared to baseline assessments. CONCLUSIONS: Balance is a multifactorial quality that can be effectively increased by different exercise training means. It is fundamental to promote physical activity in the aging adult, being that a negative effect on balance performance has been seen in the no-intervention control groups.


Assuntos
Acidentes por Quedas/prevenção & controle , Terapia por Exercício/métodos , Exercício/fisiologia , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Equilíbrio Postural/fisiologia , Idoso , Humanos
18.
J Sports Med Phys Fitness ; 59(7): 1119-1125, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31332988

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hamstring strain injuries (HSI) are among the most common injuries in field-based team sports with a high-speed running component. The implementation of the Nordic hamstring exercise (NHE) is a well-documented method of improving eccentric hamstring strength to mitigate the risk of HSI occurrence. Sprint training is specific to the injury mechanism and is thought to activate the hamstrings through maximal eccentric contractions. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of sprint training and the NHE on eccentric hamstring strength and sprint performance. METHODS: Twenty-eight participants (mean±SD age=16.21±1.34 years; height=1.75m±0.10m; body mass=68.5kg±12.1kg) completed an eccentric hamstring strength assessment and 40m sprint to assess acceleration and maximum speed. Participants were randomly allocated to either a NHE training or sprint training group. Two sessions per week for four-weeks of training was performed with baseline testing procedures repeated in the week following the intervention. Perceptions of soreness were recorded following the warm-up in each training session. RESULTS: Both the NHE (effect size=0.39, P<0.05) and sprint training (effect size=0.29, P<0.05) groups displayed significant gains in eccentric hamstring strength. The NHE group reported trivial improvements in sprint performance, whilst the sprint training group experienced a moderate improvement, specifically in maximum speed (ES=0.83 Moderate). Sprint training also produced greater perceptions of soreness than the NHE following a four-week training intervention, specifically before the start of the last session (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicate that sprint training had a beneficial effect for both eccentric hamstring strength and sprint performance, whilst also producing greater soreness than the NHE following the final training session. It was concluded that a four-week block of maximum speed training may have both an injury prevention and performance enhancement benefit.


Assuntos
Músculos Isquiotibiais/fisiologia , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Corrida/fisiologia , Adolescente , Exercício/fisiologia , Teste de Esforço/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Lesões dos Tecidos Moles/etiologia , Lesões dos Tecidos Moles/prevenção & controle
19.
Int Heart J ; 60(4): 854-861, 2019 Jul 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31257335

RESUMO

The aim of this single-arm pilot study was to determine the effects of whole-body vibration training (WBVT) on endothelial function in elderly patients with cardiovascular diseases, as well as its safety. A total of 20 elderly patients with stable cardiovascular diseases underwent WBVT, which consisted of five static resistance training exercises (squats, wide stance squats, toe-stands, squats + band, and front lunges). The parameters of WBVT included vertical vibrations, 30 Hz frequency, and a 3-mm peak-to-peak amplitude. Each vibration session lasted 30 seconds, with 120 seconds of rest between sessions. Before and after WBVT, the reactive hyperemia peripheral arterial tonometry index (RH-PAT index) and transcutaneous oxygen pressure (tcPO2) were recorded as a measure of endothelial function and peripheral blood circulation. Systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, heart rate, and arterial oxygen saturation of pulse oximetry (SpO2) were measured at each rest interval as well as before and after WBVT. All patients completed our WBVT protocol without adverse events. The RH-PAT index significantly increased following WBVT (1.42 to 2.06, P < 0.001). There were no significant changes in heart rate (P = 0.777), systolic blood pressure (P = 0.183), diastolic blood pressure (P = 0.925), or SpO2 (P = 0.248) during WBVT. In conclusion, we demonstrated the acute effects of WBVT on endothelial function, with no reports of adverse events. These findings support the need for further randomized controlled studies to investigate the long-term effects of WBVT.


Assuntos
Artérias/fisiopatologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/terapia , Endotélio Vascular/fisiopatologia , Modalidades de Fisioterapia/instrumentação , Vasodilatação/fisiologia , Idoso , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/fisiopatologia , Desenho de Equipamento , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Projetos Piloto , Pletismografia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Vibração
20.
Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992) ; 65(6): 851-856, 2019 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31340316

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The study aims to improve the functional capacity and quality of life (QOL) of nonagenarian women by implementing an individualized muscle strength training program in a geriatric residential care home. STUDY DESIGN: A randomized controlled trial. METHODS: Twenty-six elderly women were randomized into a control group (CG) and an intervention group (SG). The SG carried out a strength program with TheraBands® for 12 weeks, with two weekly sessions. The assessment tools that we used pre- and post-intervention were the Barthel index of daily living activities, the five times sit-to-stand test (FTSTS) and timed up and go (TUG) test with wiva® sensors. RESULTS: The SG maintained the Barthel index scores for activities of daily living and improved in the FTSTS; the CG showed a significant decrease on both tests. The dynamic balance test showed significant differences between groups for the variables sit to stand, peak angular velocity, anterior-posterior range, turning, stand to sit, total time, and speed. CONCLUSIONS: Individualized muscle strength training programs may help promote healthy lifestyles in such populations by maintaining autonomy, improving function and balance.


Assuntos
Exercícios de Alongamento Muscular/métodos , Qualidade de Vida , Atividades Cotidianas , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Análise de Variância , Índice de Massa Corporal , Feminino , Humanos , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
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