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1.
J Orthop Res ; 38(2): 329-335, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31531986

RESUMO

The recommended treatment varies depending on the severity of muscle injuries. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro myoblast proliferation and the in vivo histologic and physiologic effects of hyperbaric oxygen treatment on muscle healing after contusion. Cells from the C2C12 myoblast cell line were exposed to 100% O2 for 25 min then to air for 5 min at 2.5 atmospheres absolute in a hyperbaric chamber for a total treatment duration of 90 min per 48 h at intervals of 2, 4, 6 and 8 days. Cell growth measurements and western blot analysis of myogenin and actin were performed. Then, 18 mice aged 8-10 weeks were used in the muscle contusion model. The histologic and physiologic effects and muscle regeneration after hyperbaric oxygen treatment were evaluated. The myoblast growth rate was significantly higher (p < 0.05) after hyperbaric oxygen treatment. Densitometric evaluation demonstrated a 39% (p < 0.05) and 25% (p < 0.05) increase in myogenin and actin protein levels, respectively, in the cells treated with 1 dose of hyperbaric oxygen. Similarly, the myogenin and actin protein levels increased for samples receiving multiple hyperbaric oxygen treatments when compared with the control. Physiologic evaluation of fast twitch and tetanus strength revealed a significant difference between the control group and the 14-day hyperbaric oxygen group. In conclusion, hyperbaric oxygen treatment increases the myoblast growth rate and myogenin and actin production. Better histologic and physiologic performance were found after hyperbaric oxygen treatment in animal contusion model. © 2019 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 38:329-335, 2020.


Assuntos
Contusões/terapia , Oxigenação Hiperbárica , Mioblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Oxigênio/uso terapêutico , Actinas/metabolismo , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Contusões/patologia , Camundongos , Força Muscular/efeitos dos fármacos , Músculos/efeitos dos fármacos , Músculos/patologia , Miogenina/metabolismo , Oxigênio/farmacologia , Regeneração/efeitos dos fármacos
2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(50): e18356, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31852139

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is accompanied by moderate to severe postoperative pain. Multimodal analgesia, such as femoral nerve block, periarticular infiltration analgesia (PIA), and patient-controlled intravenous analgesia, have been used for postoperative analgesia. Recently, randomized controlled trials have compared the efficacy of the adductor canal block (ACB) and the PIA in patients undergoing TKA. However, there is no definite answer as to the efficacy and safety of the ACB compared with the PIA. METHOD: Randomized controlled trials about relevant studies were searched from PubMed (1996 to May 2019), Embase (1980 to May 2019), and Cochrane Library (CENTRAL, May 2019). Five studies which compared the ACB with the PIA methods were included in our meta-analysis. RESULTS: Five studies containing 413 patients met the inclusion criteria. There were no significant differences between the ACB and the PIA group in visual analog scale (VAS) score at rest (P = .14) and movement (P = .18), quadriceps muscle strength (P = .95), complications (P = .78), length of stay (LOS) (P = .54), and time up and go (TUG) test (P = .09), While patients in the ACB group had less equivalent morphine consumption (P < .05) compared with the PIA group. CONCLUSIONS: Our pooled data indicated the ACB group reduced the equivalent morphine consumption compared with the PIA group, with no statistically significant differences in the VAS score, quadriceps muscle strength, TUG test, complications, and LOS.


Assuntos
Analgesia/métodos , Artroplastia do Joelho/efeitos adversos , Bloqueio Nervoso/métodos , Manejo da Dor/métodos , Dor Pós-Operatória/tratamento farmacológico , Anestesia por Condução/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Articulação do Joelho/cirurgia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Força Muscular/efeitos dos fármacos , Dor Pós-Operatória/etiologia , Músculo Quadríceps/efeitos dos fármacos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Coxa da Perna , Resultado do Tratamento
3.
J Int Soc Sports Nutr ; 16(1): 47, 2019 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31660991

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: TeaCrine® is the synthetic version to naturally occurring theacrine (1, 3, 7, 9-tetramethyluric acid) found in the leaves of Camellia kucha tea plants. A few studies have examined the effects of TeaCrine® on cognitive perception, but no research exists examining its effects on resistance exercise performance. The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of TeaCrine®, a caffeine-like compound, on maximal muscular strength, endurance, and power performance in resistance-trained men. METHODS: Twelve resistance-trained men participated in a randomized, double-blind, cross-over designed study. Each participant performed one-repetition maximum (1RM) bench press, 1RM squat, bench press repetitions to failure (RTF) at 70% 1RM, squat RTF at 70% 1RM, and 2-km rowing time trial 90 min after consumption of: (1) Caffeine 300 mg (CAFF300); (2) TeaCrine® 300 mg (TEA300); (3) TeaCrine® + Caffeine (COMBO; 150 mg/150 mg); (4) Placebo 300 mg (PLA). Power and velocity were measured using a TENDO Power Analyzer. Visual analogue scales for energy, focus, motivation to exercise, and fatigue were administered at baseline and 90 min post-treatment ingestion (pre-workout). Rating of perceived exertion was assessed after bench press RTF and squat RTF. RESULTS: There were no differences between groups for 1RM, RTF, and power in the bench press and squat exercises. Only CAFF300 resulted in significant increases in perceived energy and motivation to exercise vs. TEA300 and PLA (Energy: + 9.8%, 95% confidence interval [3.3-16.4%], p < 0.01; + 15.3%, 95% CI [2.2-28.5%], p < 0.02; Motivation to exercise: + 8.9%, 95% CI [0.2-17.6%], p = 0.04, + 14.8%, 95% CI [4.7-24.8%], p < 0.01, respectively) and increased focus (+ 9.6%, 95% CI [2.1-17.1%], p = 0.01) vs. TEA300, but there were no significant differences between CAFF300 and COMBO (Energy + 3.9% [- 6.9-14.7%], Focus + 2.5% [- 6.3-11.3%], Motivation to exercise + 0.5% [- 11.6-12.6%]; p > 0.05). CONCLUSION: Neither TEA300, CAFF300, COMBO, or PLA (when consumed 90 min pre-exercise) improved muscular strength, power, or endurance performance in resistance-trained men. Only CAFF300 improved measures of focus, energy, and motivation to exercise.


Assuntos
Cafeína/farmacologia , Força Muscular/efeitos dos fármacos , Músculo Esquelético/efeitos dos fármacos , Substâncias para Melhoria do Desempenho/farmacologia , Resistência Física/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácido Úrico/análogos & derivados , Adulto , Estudos Cross-Over , Método Duplo-Cego , Humanos , Masculino , Treinamento de Resistência , Ácido Úrico/farmacologia , Adulto Jovem
4.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(39): e17358, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31574881

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Previous studies comparing adductor canal block (ACB) with femoral nerve block (FNB) are inconclusive with regard to patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) induced by opioids. Moreover, some postoperative pain severity results differ between previous randomized controlled trials (RCTs). The primary aim of the current study was to compare total intravenous morphine consumption administered via PCA during the first postoperative day in continuous FNB and ACB groups after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Secondary aims included evaluation of postoperative pain via a visual analog scale, degree of knee extension, quadriceps muscle strength, and ability to sit, stand upright, and walk. METHODS: The study was a RCT. Inclusion criteria were presence of gonarthrosis, age >18 and <75 years, and scheduled for TKA under single-shot spinal anesthesia. RESULTS: A number of morphine uses was lower in the FNB group than in the ACB group (14, range 12-15 vs 20, range 18-22; P = .0001), and they perceived less severe pain at the 8th (P = .00003) and 24th hours. However, ACB was significantly superior with regard to most of the other parameters pertaining to mobility, including muscle strength at the 8th and 24th hours, degree of knee extension at the 8th hour, sitting at the 8th hour, standing upright at the 24th hour, and walking at the 24th and 48th hours. DISCUSSION: FNB was associated with the perception of less severe pain after TKAs. However, ACB was associated with earlier mobility rehabilitation.


Assuntos
Artroplastia do Joelho/efeitos adversos , Nervo Femoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Bloqueio Nervoso/métodos , Manejo da Dor/métodos , Dor Pós-Operatória/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Morfina/uso terapêutico , Força Muscular/efeitos dos fármacos , Medição da Dor , Dor Pós-Operatória/etiologia , Músculo Quadríceps , Amplitude de Movimento Articular/efeitos dos fármacos , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica/efeitos dos fármacos , Resultado do Tratamento
5.
Int J Sports Med ; 40(13): 842-849, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31491790

RESUMO

The purpose was to analyze the influence of oral contraceptive use on body composition and strength levels in trained women. Twenty-three resistance-trained women participated in this study (age=27.4±3.4 years; fat mass=28.0±5.0%; BMI=22.9±2.7 kg∙m-2). Subjects performed an 8-week non-linear resistance-training program. Participants were assigned to either a group that consumed oral contraceptives (n=12, OC) or to a group that did not consume (n=11, NOC). Changes in body composition were measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Strength performance was assessed via the one maximum repetition (1RM) test in the squat and bench press, and muscular power was evaluated using the countermovement jump (CMJ) test. Fat free mass increased significantly in OC but no changes were seen in NOC. There were no changes in fat mass for either OC or NOC. Significant changes were found in bench press 1RM for both OC and NOC; similarly, increases in squat 1RM were reported in OC and NOC. Alternatively, no significant changes were found in CMJ in both OC and NOC. No significant between-group differences were detected in any of the studied variables. The use of oral contraceptives during resistance training did not negatively affect body composition or strength levels in trained women.


Assuntos
Composição Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Anticoncepcionais Orais/farmacologia , Força Muscular/efeitos dos fármacos , Treinamento de Resistência , Adaptação Fisiológica , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Dieta , Teste de Esforço/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Exercício Pliométrico , Adulto Jovem
6.
Nutrients ; 11(8)2019 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31443220

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The main goal of this study was to assess the acute effects of the intake of 9 and 11 mg/kg/ body mass (b.m.) of caffeine (CAF) on maximal strength and muscle endurance in athletes habituated to caffeine. METHODS: The study included 16 healthy strength-trained male athletes (age = 24.2 ± 4.2 years, body mass = 79.5 ± 8.5 kg, body mass index (BMI) = 24.5 ± 1.9, bench press 1RM = 118.3 ± 14.5 kg). All participants were habitual caffeine consumers (4.9 ± 1.1 mg/kg/b.m., 411 ± 136 mg of caffeine per day). This study had a randomized, crossover, double-blind design, where each participant performed three experimental sessions after ingesting either a placebo (PLAC) or 9 mg/kg/b.m. (CAF-9) and 11 mg/kg/b.m. (CAF-11) of caffeine. In each experimental session, participants underwent a 1RM strength test and a muscle endurance test in the bench press exercise at 50% 1RM while power output and bar velocity were measured in each test. RESULTS: A one-way repeated measures ANOVA revealed a significant difference between PLAC, CAF-9, and CAF-11 groups in peak velocity (PV) (p = 0.04). Post-hoc tests showed a significant decrease for PV (p = 0.04) in the CAF-11 compared to the PLAC group. No other changes were found in the 1RM or muscle endurance tests with the ingestion of caffeine. CONCLUSION: The results of the present study indicate that high acute doses of CAF (9 and 11 mg/kg/b.m.) did not improve muscle strength nor muscle endurance in athletes habituated to this substance.


Assuntos
Atletas , Cafeína/administração & dosagem , Café , Comportamento Alimentar , Força Muscular/efeitos dos fármacos , Resistência Física/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto , Cafeína/efeitos adversos , Estudos Cross-Over , Método Duplo-Cego , Humanos , Masculino , Polônia , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
7.
Nutrients ; 11(8)2019 Aug 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31382666

RESUMO

The active form of vitamin D (calcitriol) exerts its biological effects by binding to nuclear vitamin D receptors (VDRs), which are found in most human extraskeletal cells, including skeletal muscles. Vitamin D deficiency may cause deficits in strength, and lead to fatty degeneration of type II muscle fibers, which has been found to negatively correlate with physical performance. Vitamin D supplementation has been shown to improve vitamin D status and can positively affect skeletal muscles. The purpose of this study is to summarize the current evidence of the relationship between vitamin D, skeletal muscle function and physical performance in athletes. Additionally, we will discuss the effect of vitamin D supplementation on athletic performance in players. Further studies are necessary to fully characterize the underlying mechanisms of calcitriol action in the human skeletal muscle tissue, and to understand how these actions impact the athletic performance in athletes.


Assuntos
Atletas , Desempenho Atlético , Calcitriol/administração & dosagem , Suplementos Nutricionais , Contração Muscular/efeitos dos fármacos , Força Muscular/efeitos dos fármacos , Músculo Esquelético/efeitos dos fármacos , Estado Nutricional , Deficiência de Vitamina D/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Calcitriol/efeitos adversos , Suplementos Nutricionais/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Músculo Esquelético/fisiopatologia , Receptores de Calcitriol/agonistas , Receptores de Calcitriol/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Deficiência de Vitamina D/sangue , Deficiência de Vitamina D/fisiopatologia
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31369394

RESUMO

Background Caffeinated coffee, a psycho-stimulant, is widely consumed throughout the globe. However, its chronic consumption has deleterious effects on human health. Meanwhile, decaffeinated coffee has low content of caffeine and thus can be an alternative to caffeinated coffee. Therefore, the study was undertaken to explore and compare the acute effects of decaffeinated and caffeinated coffee on reaction time, mood and skeletal muscle strength in healthy volunteers. Methods This was a prospective, interventional, comparative type of study. The study included 70 healthy adults divided into two groups (Caffeinated coffee group and Decaffeinated coffee group). The following parameters were assessed: reaction time was assessed by digital display multiple-choice apparatus, mood by Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) and Profile of Mood States revised version (POMS) and skeletal muscle strength by hand dynamometer. All parameters in both groups were assessed pre-intervention (baseline) and 30 min post-intervention. Results In both groups (decaffeinated and caffeinated coffee) post-intervention, there was a statistically significant (p < 0.05) improvement in the reaction time (VRT) and mood (VAS, POMS) from the baseline. However, both groups did not show any significant effects on the skeletal muscle strength. Upon comparing the two groups, we found that caffeinated coffee showed higher and significant improvement of mood than decaffeinated coffee. Conclusions Decaffeinated coffee exerts an acute significant stimulatory effect on the reaction time and mood. However, these effects in comparison to caffeinated coffee are low. Further randomized control clinical trials are thus needed to validate these interesting findings.


Assuntos
Afeto/efeitos dos fármacos , Cafeína/farmacologia , Café/química , Força Muscular/efeitos dos fármacos , Músculo Esquelético/efeitos dos fármacos , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Tempo de Reação/efeitos dos fármacos , Adolescente , Adulto , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Masculino , Dinamômetro de Força Muscular , Estudos Prospectivos , Adulto Jovem
9.
Life Sci ; 232: 116604, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31260684

RESUMO

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients present L-arginine (L-arg) deficiency and L-arg supplementation has been used as a treatment. In addition, sarcopenia is another common problem in CKD population, resistance training (RT) is one of the conservative strategies developed to prevent CKD progression, and however there are no evidences of a combination of these two strategies to treat CKD outcomes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of oral L-arg supplementation combined with RT in an experimental model of CKD. Twenty-five Munich-Wistar male rats, 8-week-old were divided in 5 groups: Sham (sedentary control), Nx (CKD sedentary), Nx L-arg (CKD sedentary supplemented with 2% of L-arg), Nx RT (CKD exercised) Nx RT + L-arg (CKD exercised and supplemented with 2% of L-arg). CKD model was obtained by a subtotal 5/6 nephrectomy. RT was performed on a ladder climbing, three weekly sessions on non-consecutive days, with an intensity of 70% maximum carrying capacity. They were submitted to RT and/or L-arg supplementation for 10 weeks. There was a significant improvement in muscle strength, renal function, anti-inflammatory cytokines, arginase metabolism and renal fibrosis after RT. However, the combination of RT and L-arg impaired all the improvements promoted by RT alone. The L-arg supplementation alone did not impair renal fibrosis and renal function. In conclusion, RT improved inflammatory balance, muscle strength, renal function and consequently decreased renal fibrosis. Nevertheless, the association with L-arg supplementation prevented all these effects promoted by RT.


Assuntos
Arginina/farmacologia , Condicionamento Físico Animal/fisiologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/dietoterapia , Animais , Arginina/metabolismo , Citocinas/metabolismo , Suplementos Nutricionais , Progressão da Doença , Fibrose/metabolismo , Rim/metabolismo , Masculino , Força Muscular/efeitos dos fármacos , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Condicionamento Físico Animal/métodos , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/metabolismo , Treinamento de Resistência/métodos
10.
Nutrients ; 11(7)2019 06 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31261645

RESUMO

In recent years, the consumption of chocolate and, in particular, dark chocolate has been "rehabilitated" due to its high content of cocoa antioxidant polyphenols. Although it is recognized that regular exercise improves energy metabolism and muscle performance, excessive or unaccustomed exercise may induce cell damage and impair muscle function by triggering oxidative stress and tissue inflammation. The aim of this review was to revise the available data from literature on the effects of cocoa polyphenols on exercise-associated tissue damage and impairment of exercise performance. To this aim, PubMed and Web of Science databases were searched with the following keywords: "intervention studies", "cocoa polyphenols", "exercise training", "inflammation", "oxidative stress", and "exercise performance". We selected thirteen randomized clinical trials on cocoa ingestion that involved a total of 200 well-trained athletes. The retrieved data indicate that acute, sub-chronic, and chronic cocoa polyphenol intake may reduce exercise-induced oxidative stress but not inflammation, while mixed results are observed in terms of exercise performance and recovery. The interpretation of available results on the anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory activities of cocoa polyphenols remains questionable, likely due to the variety of physiological networks involved. Further experimental studies are mandatory to clarify the role of cocoa polyphenol supplementation in exercise-mediated inflammation.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Chocolate/análise , Metabolismo Energético/efeitos dos fármacos , Exercício , Força Muscular/efeitos dos fármacos , Músculo Esquelético/efeitos dos fármacos , Miosite/prevenção & controle , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Polifenóis/uso terapêutico , Adolescente , Adulto , Anti-Inflamatórios/efeitos adversos , Anti-Inflamatórios/análise , Antioxidantes/efeitos adversos , Antioxidantes/análise , Chocolate/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Masculino , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Músculo Esquelético/patologia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiopatologia , Miosite/etiologia , Miosite/metabolismo , Miosite/fisiopatologia , Polifenóis/efeitos adversos , Polifenóis/análise , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
11.
Nutrients ; 11(7)2019 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31336654

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study evaluates whether the initial amount of dietary protein intake could influence the combined effect of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and citrulline (CIT), or HIIT alone, on body composition, muscle strength, and functional capacities in obese older adults. METHODS: Seventy-three sedentary obese older men and women who completed a 12-week elliptical HIIT program with double-blinded randomized supplementation of CIT or placebo (PLA) were divided into four groups according to their initial protein intake (CIT-PROT+: n = 21; CIT-PROT-: n = 19; PLA-PROT+: n = 19; PLA-PROT-: n = 14). Body composition (fat and fat-free masses), handgrip (HSr) strength, knee extensor (KESr) strength, muscle power, and functional capacities were measured pre-intervention and post-intervention. RESULTS: Following the intervention, the four groups improved significantly regarding all the parameters measured. For the same initial amount of protein intake, the CIT-PROT- group decreased more gynoid fat mass (p = 0.04) than the PLA-PROT- group. The CIT-PROT+ group increased more KESr (p = 0.04) than the PLA-PROT+ group. In addition, the CIT-PROT- group decreased more gynoid FM (p = 0.02) and improved more leg FFM (p = 0.02) and HSr (p = 0.02) than the CIT-PROT+ group. CONCLUSION: HIIT combined with CIT induced greater positive changes than in the PLA groups. The combination seems more beneficial in participants consuming less than 1 g/kg/d of protein, since greater improvements on body composition and muscle strength were observed.


Assuntos
Citrulina/farmacologia , Proteínas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Proteínas na Dieta/farmacologia , Treinamento Intervalado de Alta Intensidade , Força Muscular/efeitos dos fármacos , Músculo Esquelético/efeitos dos fármacos , Adaptação Fisiológica , Idoso , Citrulina/administração & dosagem , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Músculo Esquelético/química
12.
Nutrients ; 11(8)2019 Jul 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31349650

RESUMO

Calendula officinalis, Ribes nigrum, and Vaccinium myrtillus (CRV) possess a high phenolic compound content with excellent antioxidant activity. Dietary antioxidants can reduce exercise-induced oxidative stress. Consumption of large amounts of phenolic compounds is positively correlated with reduction in exercise-induced muscle damage. Research for natural products to improve exercise capacity, relieve fatigue, and accelerate fatigue alleviation is ongoing. Here, CRV containing a large total phenolic content (13.4 mg/g of CRV) demonstrated antioxidant activity. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography quantification revealed 1.95 ± 0.02 mg of salidroside in 1 g of CRV. In the current study, CRV were administered to mice for five weeks, and the antifatigue effect of CRV was evaluated using the forelimb grip strength test; weight-loaded swimming test; and measurement of fatigue-related biochemical indicators, such as blood lactate, ammonia, glucose, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), and creatine kinase (CK) activity; and muscle and liver glycogen content. The results indicated that in CRV-treated mice, the forelimb grip strength significantly increased; weight-loaded swimming time prolonged; their lactate, ammonia, BUN, and CK activity decreased, and muscle and liver glucose and glycogen content increased compared with the vehicle group. Thus, CRV have antifatigue activity and can increase exercise tolerance.


Assuntos
Antocianinas/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Calendula , Tolerância ao Exercício/efeitos dos fármacos , Fadiga Muscular/efeitos dos fármacos , Músculo Esquelético/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenóis/farmacologia , Ribes , Vaccinium myrtillus , Animais , Antocianinas/isolamento & purificação , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Biomarcadores/sangue , Calendula/química , Glicogênio/metabolismo , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Força Muscular/efeitos dos fármacos , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Fenóis/isolamento & purificação , Ribes/química , Fatores de Tempo , Vaccinium myrtillus/química
13.
J Strength Cond Res ; 33(9): 2330-2337, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31306390

RESUMO

Hoffman, JR, Hoffman, MW, Zelicha, H, Gepner, Y, Willoughby, DS, Feinstein, U, and Ostfeld, I. The Effect of 2-Weeks of Inactivated Probiotic Bacillus coagulans on Endocrine, Inflammatory and Performance Responses During Self-Defense Training in Soldiers. J Strength Cond Res 33(9): 2330-2337, 2019-The effect of 2 weeks of inactivated Bacillus coagulans (iBC) ingestion on performance and inflammatory cytokines was examined during a self-defense course in soldiers. Sixteen male soldiers were randomly assigned to either iBC (n = 8) or placebo (PL; n = 8) in this double-blind study. Participants were garrisoned on base and participated in the same training tasks. Assessments were conducted in a single day before (PRE) and after the supplementation period (POST). During each testing session, participants were assessed for vertical jump power (VJP), muscle endurance, simulated casualty drag, and 2 100-m shuttle runs. Resting blood measures for testosterone, cortisol, creatine kinase, and inflammatory cytokines were also assessed. Mann-Whitney analysis of change (Δ) scores indicated no significant change (p's > 0.05) in any of the performance or blood variables. However, a trend (p = 0.089) was noted in the Δ score for VJP in iBC compared with PL. In addition, trends were observed in the change in IL-10 (p = 0.057) and IFNγ (p = 0.057). Magnitude based inferential analysis indicated that changes in VJP and simulated casualty drag were likely beneficial (90.7 and 80.4% likelihood effect, respectively) for iBC. In addition, iBC supplementation very likely augmented IL-10 concentrations, but was possibly negative for changes in IL-6, and likely negative for changes in TNFα and IFNγ. Changes in all other performance and blood markers were unclear. Results indicated that 2 weeks of iBC supplementation appeared to be beneficial for maintaining power and short-term speed performance, while attenuating the inflammatory response during intense training in a military self-defense course.


Assuntos
Bacillus coagulans , Citocinas/sangue , Exercício/fisiologia , Artes Marciais/fisiologia , Militares , Probióticos/farmacologia , Creatina Quinase/sangue , Método Duplo-Cego , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/sangue , Inflamação/sangue , Interferon gama/sangue , Interleucina-10/sangue , Interleucina-6/sangue , Israel , Masculino , Artes Marciais/educação , Força Muscular/efeitos dos fármacos , Resistência Física/efeitos dos fármacos , Corrida , Testosterona/sangue , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/sangue , Adulto Jovem
14.
Med Sci Sports Exerc ; 51(7): 1429-1437, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31210648

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Statins are widely used in both primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. The treatment increases the risk of muscle pain (myalgia) which can affect muscle function and levels of physical activity. We investigated whether statin-associated myalgia is coupled to impaired aerobic exercise performance including fat oxidation as well as impaired muscle strength. METHODS: A population-based survey (6000 people) was performed to assess the prevalence of statin-associated myalgia in the Danish population. In addition, 64 statin users in primary prevention with myalgia (M; n = 25; 61 ± 1 yr) or without myalgia (NM; n = 37; 63 ± 1 yr) as well as a control group not taking statins (C; n = 20; 60 ± 2 yr) were enrolled in a cross-sectional study where they performed aerobic exercise and muscle strength tests. RESULTS: The response rate for the survey was 51% and data showed a prevalence of statin-associated myalgia in 19% of responders using statins. The experimental study showed no difference between the groups in aerobic capacity (C, 29 ± 1 mL O2·min·kg; M, 27 ± 1 mL O2·min·kg; NM, 28 ± 1 mL O2·min·kg) or maximal fat oxidation (C, 247 ± 26 mg·min; M, 295 ± 24 mg·min; NM, 279 ± 17 mg·min). Measurements of strength were similar in all three groups including rate of force development (C, 795 ± 56 N·m·s; M, 930 ± 93 N·m·s; NM, 971 ± 57 N·m·s) and leg extension power (C: 2.6 ± 0.2; M: 2.3 ± 0.1; NM: 2.4 ± 0.1 W·kg). All results are mean ± SEM. CONCLUSION: Statin users in primary prevention experiencing myalgia do not have impaired aerobic exercise performance or muscle strength compared to nonmyalgic statin users or control subjects.


Assuntos
Tolerância ao Exercício/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/farmacologia , Força Muscular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sinvastatina/farmacologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/efeitos adversos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mialgia/induzido quimicamente , Cadeias Pesadas de Miosina/metabolismo , Prevenção Primária , Sinvastatina/efeitos adversos
15.
Geriatr Psychol Neuropsychiatr Vieil ; 17(2): 137-143, 2019 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31162116

RESUMO

Minimum levels of protein intake are essential for the preservation of muscle mass and function, which is a major preventive issue of successful aging. Epidemiological studies suggest strong associations between protein intake and the different elements of sarcopenia, namely maintenance of lean mass and muscle strength. Most often, protein intakes among older patients are below requirements, independently from situations of under nutrition. This opens the path for nutritional interventions to prevent the consequences of sarcopenia in older patients. Isolated amino-acids such as leucine have shown positive effects in the short term only. The positive effects of protein supplementations on muscle strength and function are currently not established in the absence of concomitant exercise training. The highest level of evidence supports interventions combining exercise and nutrition.


Assuntos
Proteínas na Dieta/uso terapêutico , Suplementos Nutricionais , Idoso Fragilizado , Fragilidade/prevenção & controle , Força Muscular/efeitos dos fármacos , Músculo Esquelético/anatomia & histologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Proteínas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Músculo Esquelético/efeitos dos fármacos , Músculo Esquelético/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sarcopenia/prevenção & controle
16.
Nutrients ; 11(7)2019 Jun 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31252655

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previously studies confirm ergogenic effects of caffeine (CAF); however there is no available scientific data regarding the influence of acute CAF intake on power output in athletes habitually consuming CAF. The main goal of this study was to assess the acute effect of 3, 6, 9 mg/kg/b.m. doses of CAF intake on power output and bench press bar velocity in athletes habitually consuming CAF. METHODS: The study included 15 healthy strength-trained male athletes (age = 26.8 ± 6.2 years, body mass = 82.6 ± 9.7 kg; BMI = 24.8 ± 2.7; bench press 1RM = 122.3 ± 24.5 kg). All participants were habitual caffeine consumers (5.2 ± 1.2 mg/kg/b.m.; 426 ± 102 mg of caffeine per day). This study had a randomized, crossover, double-blind study design where each participant performed four different experimental sessions, with one week interval between each trial. In every experimental session participants performed bench press, three sets of five repetitions at 50% 1RM. The power output and bar velocity assessments under four different conditions: a placebo (PLAC), and three doses of caffeine ingestion: 3 mg/kg/b.m. (CAF-3), 6 mg/kg/b.m. (CAF-6) and 9 mg/kg/b.m. (CAF-9). RESULTS: The statistical significance was set at p < 0.05. The repeated measures ANOVA between PLAC and CAF-3; CAF-6; CAF-9 revealed no statistically significant differences in power output and velocity of the bar during the bench press exercise. A large effect size (ES) in mean power-output was found between PLAC and CAF-9 in Sets 1 and 2. A large ES in peak power-output was found between PLAC and CAF-6 in Set 2, and between PLAC and CAF-9 in Sets 1 and 2. A large ES in peak velocity was found between PLAC and CAF-9 in Sets 1-3. CONCLUSION: The results of the present study indicate that acute doses of CAF before exercise does not have a significant effect on power output and bar velocity in a group of habitual caffeine users.


Assuntos
Atletas , Cafeína/administração & dosagem , Estimulantes do Sistema Nervoso Central/administração & dosagem , Força Muscular/efeitos dos fármacos , Treinamento de Resistência , Adulto , Estudos Cross-Over , Método Duplo-Cego , Hábitos , Humanos , Masculino , Polônia , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
17.
Nutrients ; 11(6)2019 Jun 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31200437

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a moderate increase in protein intake on muscle strength, functional capacity and lean mass quality improvements in postmenopausal women following resistance exercise. Forty-seven postmenopausal women were randomized in two groups: Normal protein (NP, n = 25), who received a dietary plan containing ~0.8 g protein·kg-1·d-1 (recommended dietary allowance-RDA recommendations); and higher protein (HP, n = 22), which a moderate increase in protein intake was recommended (~1.2 g protein·kg-1·d-1). Resistance training was performed for 10 weeks, three times/week. Muscle strength (handgrip strength and one repetition maximum test-1-RM), functional capacity and lean mass (LM) quality (muscle strength to lean mass ratio) were evaluated. Dietary intake was assessed by nine 24 h food recalls. After intervention, both groups increased similarly the leg extension 1-RM and handgrip strength. Regarding functional capacity tests, both groups increased the balance test score (SPPB) and 10 m walk test speed, with no differences between the groups. In addition, an increase in speed to perform the 6 min and 400 m walk tests was observed over the time, with an additional improvement in the HP group (time × group interaction; p = 0.007 and p = 0.004, respectively). About LM quality, leg extension 1-RM/leg LM improved over the time in both groups (p = 0.050), with no time × group interaction. All these significant changes had a low effect size. In conclusion, a moderate increase in protein intake promoted a small additional improvement in functional capacity, but it did not induce a greater increase in strength and LM quality after 10 weeks of resistance exercise in postmenopausal women. This trial was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov as NCT03024125.


Assuntos
Composição Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas na Dieta/farmacologia , Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Força Muscular/efeitos dos fármacos , Treinamento de Resistência , Idoso , Dieta/métodos , Feminino , Força da Mão , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Desempenho Físico Funcional , Pós-Menopausa , Método Simples-Cego
18.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 130: 154-160, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31112704

RESUMO

Triclosan (TCS) is a broad-spectrum antibacterial compound which is used in many cosmetic products, medical devices and house hold products. Toxicity attributed to TCS has recently become a focus of research. Recent studies showed that TCS can easily migrate into the human brain and animal tissues and cause adverse changes in various target organs. Our knowledge of the neurotoxicity of TCS is largely based on very limited data. In this regard, adult male NMRI mice were administered TCS (1000, 2000, and 4000 mg/kg) by gavage for 14 consecutive days, whereas the control animals were given corn oil. At the end of the exposure, all mice were evaluated for locomotor activity, motor coordination and anxiety behaviors through the use of an open-field test, rotarod test, and elevated-plus maze (EPM) test, and for muscle strength in a grip strength test. A significant change in locomotor activity and coordination was observed in TCS treated mice. In parallel anxiety-like behaviors and muscle strength were affected by TCS. Haematoxylin-eosin staining also showed significant adverse effects in brain tissue of the TCS exposed mice. Based on these results, we conclude that a 14-day TCS exposure resulting in some behavioral disturbances in mice.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos Locais/toxicidade , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Triclosan/toxicidade , Animais , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Aprendizagem/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Camundongos , Força Muscular/efeitos dos fármacos , Equilíbrio Postural/efeitos dos fármacos
19.
Nutrients ; 11(5)2019 May 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31108908

RESUMO

Supplementation with vitamin D helps to alleviate weakness and fatigue seen with deficiency. However, large bolus doses appear to worsen the risk of falls. Whether this occurs as a direct result of muscle weakness is currently unknown. Thus, the aims of this study were to examine the muscle function following administration of high doses of vitamin D. Given the safety issues associated with bolus doses, experiments were conducted on C57BL6 mice. Mice at eight weeks of age with otherwise normal levels of vitamin D were supplemented for four weeks with a high dose (HIGH; n = 12) of vitamin D (20000 IU/kg food) designed to provide a year's worth of vitamin D. These mice were compared to another group who received that same yearly dose in a single bolus i.p. injection (YEAR; n = 12). Mice provided with standard mouse chow, which contained 1000 IU/kg food, and injected with the vitamin D vehicle were used as controls (CON; n = 16). Force and fatigue properties of hind limb fast- and slow-twitch muscles were measured. CON animals ingested vitamin D consistent with typical human supplementation. HIGH animals consumed significantly more food than the CON animals, such that they ingested more than a year's worth of vitamin D in four weeks. Despite this, there were few differences in the muscle function compared with CON. YEAR animals demonstrated lower absolute and relative forces in both muscles compared to the HIGH animals, as well as lower force during fatigue and early recovery. Large bolus doses of vitamin D appear to have detrimental effects on the skeletal muscle function, likely being a contributor to increased risk of falls observed with similar doses in humans. Mice ingesting the same amount over four weeks did not demonstrate the same deleterious effects, suggesting this may be a safe way to provide high vitamin D if required.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais , Força Muscular/efeitos dos fármacos , Músculo Esquelético/efeitos dos fármacos , Vitamina D/administração & dosagem , Animais , Composição Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos
20.
Neurology ; 92(18): e2109-e2117, 2019 04 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31036580

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the efficacy and safety of aceneuramic acid extended-release (Ace-ER), a treatment intended to replace deficient sialic acid, in patients with GNE myopathy. METHODS: UX001-CL301 was a phase 3, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized, international study evaluating the efficacy and safety of Ace-ER in patients with GNE myopathy. Participants who could walk ≥200 meters in a 6-minute walk test at screening were randomized 1:1, and stratified by sex, to receive Ace-ER 6 g/d or placebo for 48 weeks and assessed every 8 weeks. The primary endpoint was change in muscle strength over 48 weeks measured by upper extremity composite (UEC) score. Key secondary endpoints included change in lower extremity composite (LEC) score, knee extensor strength, and GNE myopathy-Functional Activity Scale (GNEM-FAS) mobility domain score. Safety assessments included adverse events (AEs), vital signs, and clinical laboratory results. RESULTS: Eighty-nine patients were randomized (Ace-ER n = 45; placebo n = 44). Change from baseline to week 48 for UEC score between treatments did not differ (least square mean [LSM] Ace-ER -2.25 kg vs placebo -2.99 kg; LSM difference confidence interval [CI] 0.74 [-1.61 to 3.09]; p = 0.5387). At week 48, there was no significant difference between treatments for the change in key secondary endpoints: LEC LSM difference (CI) -1.49 (-5.83 to 2.86); knee extension strength -0.40 (-2.38 to 1.58); and GNEM-FAS mobility domain score -0.72 (-2.01 to 0.57). Gastrointestinal events were the most common AEs. CONCLUSIONS: Ace-ER was not superior to placebo in improving muscle strength and function in patients with GNE myopathy. CLASSIFICATION OF EVIDENCE: This study provides Class I evidence that for patients with GNE myopathy, Ace-ER does not improve muscle strength compared to placebo.


Assuntos
Miopatias Distais/tratamento farmacológico , Força Muscular/efeitos dos fármacos , Músculo Esquelético/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácido N-Acetilneuramínico/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Preparações de Ação Retardada/administração & dosagem , Preparações de Ação Retardada/uso terapêutico , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ácido N-Acetilneuramínico/administração & dosagem , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
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