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1.
Sports Biomech ; 19(1): 1-25, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29781788

RESUMO

The use of isometric strength testing, particularly the isometric mid-thigh pull (IMTP) has increased dramatically over the last decade. The IMTP and isometric squat (ISqT) provide one aspect of performance monitoring with variables such as peak force and rate of force development being derived from the force-time curve. The reliability of some of these variables is conflicting in the literature, and the reporting of the reliability is not standardised across the research. The majority of research only reports intraclass correlation coefficients with very few studies reporting coefficient of variation and 90% confidence intervals. Additionally, methods used to calculate variables from the force-time curve differ across studies. An aim of muscle strength testing is to provide normative values for specific sports, allowing coaches to distinguish between performance levels or evaluate the effects of training on performance. This narrative review aims to evaluate studies that have researched the reliability and/or reported normative data for both tests. Additionally, the testing protocols and the force-time curve analysis techniques utilised are discussed, concluding with practical applications for coaches on the uses and limitations of these tests. Results demonstrate that peak force is the most reliable measure and can be used to determine maximum strength capabilities.


Assuntos
Teste de Esforço/métodos , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Coxa da Perna/fisiologia , Levantamento de Peso , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Humanos , Contração Isométrica/fisiologia , Valores de Referência , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Esportes/fisiologia
2.
Sports Biomech ; 19(1): 26-54, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29895216

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to conduct a systematic review to determine the quality of evidence of studies assessing isokinetic hip muscle strength in adult non-injured individuals. We also aimed to summarise and pool data of normative values for hip muscle strength. The influence of methodological and participant-related factors on hip strength performance was explored as well. Guidelines proposed in the PRISMA were used to undertake a search strategy involving the keyword 'hip' associated with a set of keywords reflecting muscle strength. Five databases were searched: ProQuest, PubMed, Science Direct, Scopus and Web of Science. From the 2,939 records initially retained, 28 articles were included in this systematic review. Eight articles were classified as high quality. This systematic review exposed the methodological fragility of most studies assessing hip strength in non-injured adult population. Only data from studies with a small number of participants are available to be used as reference. A few individual studies suggest no differences in torque parameters between dominant and non-dominant lower limbs; differences in torque parameters between age groups; and between male and female participants. Overall, reference values for hip muscle performance in isokinetic tests are mostly unclear.


Assuntos
Quadril/fisiologia , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Exercício/fisiologia , Humanos , Dinamômetro de Força Muscular , Valores de Referência , Projetos de Pesquisa/normas , Fatores Sexuais , Torque
3.
Clin Interv Aging ; 14: 2163-2171, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31853176

RESUMO

Purpose: Handgrip strength is a key diagnostic criterion for sarcopenia, and sodium is an essential mineral for muscle contraction. We investigated the association between grip strength and sodium intake using sodium density. Patients and methods: A total of 2982 older adults (aged ≥65 years) from the 2014-2016 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were included. Dietary intake was assessed by a 24 hr dietary recall, and grip strength was measured using a digital grip strength dynamometer. Based on the recommendation of the Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia, low grip strength (dynapenia) was defined as <26 kg for men and <18 kg for women. Multivariable logistic regression was performed to estimate the adjusted odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) and to investigate the association between the quartiles of sodium per calorie (mg/1000 kcal; sodium density) and dynapenia. Results: A total of 577 subjects (19.3%) had dynapenia. Subjects in the second quartile of sodium density had the lowest prevalence of dynapenia and were defined as the reference group. Among women, those in the highest quartile of sodium density showed a significantly higher risk for dynapenia (OR 1.51, 95% CI 1.10-2.07). ORs in the first and third quartiles of sodium density were 1.01 (95% CI 0.74-1.38) and 1.18 (95% CI 0.89-1.58), respectively. However, there was no association between sodium density and dynapenia in men. Conclusion: High sodium density was associated with dynapenia in older women. A balanced diet of minerals is important to preserve muscle strength among older adults.


Assuntos
Força da Mão , Força Muscular , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Sódio , Atividades Cotidianas , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Força da Mão/fisiologia , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Minerais , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Prevalência , República da Coreia , Sarcopenia/epidemiologia
4.
Bone Joint J ; 101-B(11): 1459-1463, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31674236

RESUMO

AIMS: Rotational acetabular osteotomy (RAO) is an effective joint-preserving surgical treatment for acetabular dysplasia. The purpose of this study was to investigate changes in muscle strength, gait speed, and clinical outcome in the operated hip after RAO over a one-year period using a standard protocol for rehabilitation. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 57 patients underwent RAO for acetabular dysplasia. Changes in muscle strength of the operated hip, 10 m gait speed, Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) hip score, and factors correlated with hip muscle strength after RAO were retrospectively analyzed. RESULTS: Three months postoperatively, the strength of the operated hip in flexion and abduction and gait speed had decreased from their preoperative levels. After six months, the strength of flexion and abduction had recovered to their preoperative level, as had gait speed. At one-year follow-up, significant improvements were seen in the strength of hip abduction and gait speed, but muscle strength in hip flexion remained at the preoperative level. The mean JOA score for hip function was 91.4 (51 to 100)) at one-year follow-up. Body mass index (BMI) showed a negative correlation with both strength of hip flexion (r = -0.4203) and abduction (r = -0.4589) one year after RAO. Although weak negative correlations were detected between strength of hip flexion one year after surgery and age (r = -0.2755) and centre-edge (CE) angle (r = -0.2989), no correlation was found between the strength of abduction and age and radiological evaluations of CE angle and acetabular roof obliquity (ARO). CONCLUSION: Hip muscle strength and gait speed had recovered to their preoperative levels six months after RAO. The clinical outcome at one year was excellent, although the strength of hip flexion did not improve to the same degree as that of hip abduction and gait speed. A higher BMI may result in poorer recovery of hip muscle strength after RAO. Radiologically, acetabular coverage did not affect the recovery of hip muscle strength at one year's follow-up. A more intensive rehabilitation programme may improve this. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2019;101-B:1459-1463.


Assuntos
Acetábulo/cirurgia , Luxação do Quadril/fisiopatologia , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Osteotomia/métodos , Adulto , Feminino , Marcha/fisiologia , Luxação do Quadril/cirurgia , Articulação do Quadril/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Osteotomia/reabilitação , Cuidados Pós-Operatórios/métodos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Velocidade de Caminhada/fisiologia , Suporte de Carga/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
5.
Endocrinol. diabetes nutr. (Ed. impr.) ; 66(9): 563-570, nov. 2019.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-184379

RESUMO

Objetivo: Evaluar en el paciente diabético anciano la probabilidad de mejorar la fragilidad tras realizar ejercicios de fuerza con una banda elástica y ejercicio aeróbico. Métodos: Estudio prospectivo de pacientes diabéticos mayores de 70 años, con Barthel > 80 puntos y Global Deterioration Scale-Functional Assessment Staging < 3 puntos. Se recomendaron ejercicios de fuerza con una banda elástica 3 días a la semana y caminar 30 min al día 5 días a la semana. Se revisó la adherencia a los ejercicios mediante la pregunta de Haynes-Sacket. En el momento basal y a los 6 meses se evaluaron la fragilidad según los criterios de Fried y la capacidad funcional mediante el Short Physical Performance Battery. Resultados: Un total de 44 pacientes completaron los 6 meses de seguimiento. Se produjo falta de adherencia a los ejercicios aeróbicos en el 38,6% de los casos y a los ejercicios con bandas elásticas en el 47,7%. La prevalencia de fragilidad disminuyó del 34,1% inicial al 25% a los 6 meses (p = 0,043), y el porcentaje de sujetos con una limitación funcional moderada-grave se redujo del 26,2 al 21,4% (p = 0,007). La adherencia a los ejercicios aeróbicos (p = 0,034) y la ausencia de cardiopatía isquémica coronaria (p = 0,043) predispusieron a mejorar la fragilidad. Conclusiones: Realizar durante 6 meses ejercicios de fuerza con una banda elástica y ejercicio aeróbico reduce la prevalencia de fragilidad en pacientes diabéticos ancianos. La probabilidad de mejorar la fragilidad disminuye en caso de cardiopatía isquémica coronaria y aumenta con la adherencia a los ejercicios aeróbicos


Aim: To evaluate in the elderly diabetic patient the probability of improving the frailty after performing strength exercises with an elastic band and aerobic exercise. Methods: Prospective study of diabetic patients older than 70 years, with Barthel > 80 points and Global Deterioration Scale -Functional Assessment Staging < 3 points. Strength exercises with an elastic band 3 days a week and walk 30 min a day 5 days a week were recommended. Adherence to the exercises was assessed using the Haynes-Sacket test. Frailty was assessed by the Fried criteria and functional capacity by the Short Physical Performance Battery at baseline and at 6 months. Results: 44 patients completed 6 months of follow-up. There was non-adherence to aerobic exercises in 38.6% of cases and to exercises with elastic bands in 47.7%. The prevalence of frailty decreased from an initial 34.1% to 25% at 6 months (p = 0.043) and the percentage of patients with a moderate-severe functional limitation was reduced from 26.2% to 21.4% (p = 0.007). Adherence to aerobic exercises (p = 0.034) and absence of coronary ischemic heart disease (p = 0.043) predisposed to improve frailty. Conclusions: Performing 6-month strength exercises with an elastic band and aerobic exercise reduces the prevalence of frailty in elderly diabetic patients. The probability of improving frailty decreases in case of coronary ischemic heart disease and increases with adherence to aerobic exercises


Assuntos
Humanos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Exercício/fisiologia , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Idoso Fragilizado , Debilidade Muscular/terapia , Terapia por Exercício , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Cooperação e Adesão ao Tratamento
6.
Codas ; 31(5): e20180077, 2019.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31644716

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To verify the elastic therapeutic tape effects on the trapezius muscle in healthy adults, using data from surface electromyography and a self-reported questionnaire. METHODS: A total of 51 across sex healthy adults were enrolled in this study, whose age range was 20 to 35 years.. The individuals were divided into three groups: G1, who wore the elastic therapeutic tape applied with tension; G2, who wore the elastic therapeutic tape applied with no tension; and G3, control group, who did not wear the elastic therapeutic tape. The elastic therapeutic tape was bilaterally applied on the trapezius muscle. For measuring results, surface electromyography signals were collected before, while and after the elastic therapeutic tape was worn, and a qualitative questionnaire was applied. RESULTS: There were no significant differences in either pre- or post-electromyography findings within each group, or when groups were compared. When comparing G1 and G2 moments before and while the elastic therapeutic tape was worn, a statistically significant difference was noted during the maximum voluntary contraction variable on the individuals' left side. When answering the questionnaire, most individuals mentioned a relaxing feeling while wearing the elastic therapeutic tape. CONCLUSION: The individuals wearing the elastic therapeutic tape in this sample did not present any significant differences during the surface electromyography assessment. As for the questionnaire, most of the individuals investigated reported a relaxing feeling after wearing the elastic therapeutic tape.


Assuntos
Fita Atlética , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Adulto , Eletromiografia , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Masculino , Autorrelato , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
7.
Orthopade ; 48(12): 992-997, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31659422

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The need for effective training methods for positive adaptations in muscle strength and bone mineralization, suitable for all groups of patients, arises in both rehabilitation and pre-habilitation. In addition to mechanical stress, an increased metabolic stress, by means of reduced blood supply of the muscle, seems to induce positive adaptations as well. OBJECTIVES: Description of the effects of resistance training and opportunities of blood-flow restriction training in a clinical setting. METHODS: Key and specialized literature RESULTS: Regularly applied high mechanical loads are suitable to induce increases in muscle strength and mass as well as bone mineralization. In principle, the trainability of these tissues is given over the entire life span, although the adaptation of the muscle mass is reduced in the prepubertal and later stages of life. Classic strength training is particularly suitable as a training method to apply this stimulus quality (mechanical stress). For some years now, however, there has been increasing evidence that even low-intensity resistance training associated with metabolic stress is capable of producing hypertrophic effects and increasing muscle strength. This observation is particularly interesting for target groups whose mechanical capacity of the musculoskeletal system is reduced. Blood-flow-restriction training is particularly suitable as a training method for the application of this stimulus quality (metabolic stress). The data available on the effectiveness of low-intensity stress protocols on bone structure is still insufficient. Further research is needed to make evidence-based recommendations.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica/fisiologia , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/irrigação sanguínea , Treinamento de Resistência/métodos , Estresse Mecânico , Metabolismo Energético/fisiologia , Humanos , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia
8.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(40): e17304, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31577721

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tongue strengthening exercise (TSE) is a remedial method for the training of swallowing-related muscles in the oropharyngeal phase. However, clinical evidence of its effectiveness is insufficient. METHODS: To investigate the effect of TSE on the oropharyngeal muscles associated with swallowing in older adults, in this study, 40 elder adults living in the community were recruited and assigned to 2 groups. The experimental group performed a TSE with a 1-repetition maximum resistance level of 70%. The exercise was divided into an isometric and isotonic part. The control group did not perform an exercise. We measured the muscle strength and thickness of the tongue and suprahyoid muscles using an Iowa Oral Performance Instrument and ultrasonography. RESULTS: The experimental group showed a statistically significant increase in tongue muscle strength and thickness in the oral phase (P = .001 and <.001, respectively). In the pharyngeal phase, the experimental group showed a statistically significant increase in the mylohyoid and digastric muscles (suprahyoid muscles) (P = .045 and .019, respectively). The control group showed no statistically significant changes. CONCLUSION: TSE is effective in increasing the strength and thickness of the oropharyngeal muscles of elder adults and is recommended for those who are vulnerable to swallowing difficulties.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Deglutição/prevenção & controle , Deglutição/fisiologia , Terapia por Exercício/métodos , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Treinamento de Resistência/métodos , Língua/fisiologia , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , República da Coreia
9.
Rev Prat ; 69(4): 438-443, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31626503

RESUMO

The prescription of physical activity for patients living with a long-term condition has been enshrined in legislation since 2016. The French National Cancer Institute published a literature review on the expected effects of physical activity in patients living with cancer. The benefits are prevention or correction of physical deconditioning, a preservation and/or a normalization of body composition, a reduction of cancerrelated fatigue, an overall quality-of-life improvement, the improvement of treatments tolerance and their medium and long-term effects, an increased life expectancy and a lower risk of cancer recurrence. These effects can be observed for a mixed physical activity program -cardio respiratory fitness and muscular strength-, with moderate to vigorous intensity activity, 30 minutes a day at least 5 days a week. The benefits are all the more important as physical activity starts early. Health professionals have an important part to play in helping patients engage in physical activity, with a regular even moderate practice which is always beneficial as compared with sedentary behaviors.


Assuntos
Exercício , Neoplasias , Exercício/fisiologia , Promoção da Saúde , Humanos , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Neoplasias/reabilitação , Aptidão Física/fisiologia , Comportamento Sedentário
10.
Codas ; 31(5): e20180163, 2019.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31664370

RESUMO

This research had the objective of reporting a clinical case in which the rehabilitation of tongue strength with biofeedback strategy was performed. This case report addresses a 20-year-old patient whose orofacial myofunctional evaluation revealed a severe decrease in the force of the anterior third of the tongue and changes in lingual mobility and coordination. The measurement of tongue pressure was performed using the Iowa Oral Performance Instrument (IOPI) during elevation, protrusion and lateralization, and it was verified a reduction in the values ​​obtained in all measured directions, compared with normality patterns. We performed 11 sessions of therapy, with weekly frequency, using a biofeedback strategy that consisted of computer games controlled by the tongue. An instrument embedded in the oral cavity functioned as a joystick as the input method for specific digital games. The patient performed at home the isometric exercises of pressing the tip of the tongue against a spatula, exaggerated retraction of tongue, tongue tapering, and isotonic exercise of touching the commissures and lips alternately, daily. After eight sessions, in relation to the elevation pressure, there was an improvement of 28.6% for the apex and 7.1% for the dorsum. As for protrusion, there was an improvement of 123.5%. In the measurements of left and right lateralization, the values ​​increased 53.8% and 7.4%, respectively. After twelve sessions, it was observed an improvement of 35.7%, 7.4%, 164%, 76.9% and 40.7% in relation to the initial evaluation, for apex elevation, dorsum elevation, protrusion, and lateralization to left and right, respectively. Despite the increase, values ​​recommended in the literature as normal for sex and age were not reached after 12 therapy sessions.


Assuntos
Terapia por Exercício/métodos , Força Muscular , Língua/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Biorretroalimentação Psicológica , Exercício , Terapia por Exercício/instrumentação , Paralisia Facial/complicações , Paralisia Facial/reabilitação , Feminino , Humanos , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
11.
Nutr. hosp ; 36(5): 1055-1060, sept.-oct. 2019. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-184626

RESUMO

Introducción: el sobrepeso y la obesidad alcanzan una alta prevalencia desde la infancia en España. Objetivo: describir el efecto del sobrepeso y la obesidad en niños escolares de once años de edad, en pruebas que valoran la fuerza, tanto de las extremidades inferiores como de las superiores, así como la velocidad. Método: participaron en el estudio 423 escolares de once años de edad. Se obtuvieron características básicas antropométricas y desarrollaron diversos test de la batería EUROFIT. Resultados: los niños y niñas que se encuentran en normopeso poseen mejores puntuaciones en las pruebas de condición física en general. De este modo, los saltos verticales y horizontales, suspensión en barra y abdominales son superiores en los participantes con normopeso (p < 0,05). Además, recorren en menos tiempo un circuito de velocidad en ambos sexos (p < 0,001); sin embargo, en la fuerza isométrica manual, en el grupo de niñas poseen mejores resultados aquellas que se encuentran en sobrepeso u obesidad (p < 0,01). Conclusiones: los niños de once años con sobrepeso y obesidad muestran una menor prestación muscular, salvo en el caso de la fuerza isométrica manual. También se han determinado diversas ecuaciones de predicción de resultados de las pruebas físicas llevadas a cabo, como saltos, dinamometría y velocidad, a través del sexo e índice de masa corporal (IMC)


Introduction: overweight and obesity reach a high prevalence since childhood in Spain. Objective: to describe the effect of overweight and obesity, in schoolchildren of eleven years of age, in tests that assess the strength of both the lower and upper extremities, as well as speed. Method: four hundred and twenty-three schoolchildren of eleven years of age participated in the study. Basic anthropometric characteristics were obtained and several tests of the EUROFIT battery were developed. Results: normal-weight boys and girls had better scores in physical condition tests in general. Therefore, the vertical and horizontal jumps, bar suspension and abdominals were higher in the participants with normal-weight (p < 0.05). In addition, they performed in less time a speed circuit in both sexes (p < 0.001); however, in relation to the manual isometric strength, in the group of girls those who are overweight or obese have better results (p < 0.01). Conclusions: overweight and obese children of eleven year-olds showed a lower muscular performance, except in the case of manual isometric strength. Several equations haven been also determined for predicting the results of physical tests carried out such as jumps, dynamometry and speed, through sex and body mass index (BMI)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Dinamômetro de Força Muscular , Obesidade Pediátrica/complicações , Sobrepeso/complicações , Índice de Massa Corporal , Análise de Classes Latentes
12.
Nutr. hosp ; 36(5): 1101-1108, sept.-oct. 2019. tab, graf, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-184633

RESUMO

Purpose: the main purpose of this study was to diagnose pre-sarcopenia in cancer patients who had lack of computed tomography (CT) abdominal images, with a newly discovered method based on cervical images. Material and methods: a sample of 37 patients with either lung cancer or a cancer that affected the upper digestive system underwent radiotherapy computed simulation which included measurements at C3 and L3 regions. Skeletal muscle mass (SMM) and skeletal muscle index (SMI) were determined by Hounsfield units and compared in both regions. Pre-sarcopenia was identified according to the cut-points currently established: ≤ 41 cm2/m2 in females, ≤ 43 cm2/m2 in males with a BMI ≤ 25 kg/m2, and ≤ 53 cm2/m2 in males with a BMI > 25 kg/m2. Results: the correlation of SMM and SMI between the C3 and L3 regions was R2 = 0.876 and R2 = 0.805, respectively. Moreover, there was a positive association (86.49%) in terms of the diagnosis of pre-sarcopenia according to both regions. In total, eleven pre-sarcopenic patients (29.37%) were identified; three of them being overweight (27.27%) and two of them being obese (18.18%). Conclusion: a single sectional cross at the level of C3 can be used for the diagnosis of pre-sarcopenia. This new method avoids unnecessary irradiation, saves hospital costs and detects malnutrition before starting radiotherapy treatment in cancer patients who have lack of CT abdominal imaging


Propósito: el propósito de este estudio fue diagnosticar la presarcopenia en pacientes con cáncer que no disponen de imágenes por tomografía computarizada (TC) a nivel abdominal mediante un método novedoso basado en cortes a nivel cervical. Material y métodos: se analizaron y se compararon mediante unidades la masa muscular y la masa muscular esquelética en 37 pacientes con cáncer de pulmón y neoplasias del aparato digestivo superior que incluían cortes en la TC de planificación a nivel de C3 y L3. La presarcopenia se identificó de acuerdo con los puntos de corte establecidos actualmente: ≤ 41 cm2/m2 para mujeres, ≤ 43 cm2/m2 en hombres con un IMC ≤ 25 kg/m2 y ≤ 53 cm2/m2 en hombres con IMC > 25 kg/m2. Resultados: la correlación de la masa muscular y el índice musculoesquelético entre las regiones C3 y L3 fue R2 = 0.876 y R2 = 0.805, respectivamente. Además, hubo una asociación positiva (86,49%) en términos del diagnóstico de presarcopenia según ambas regiones. En total, se identificaron once pacientes con presarcopenia (29,37%); tres de ellos con sobrepeso (27,27%) y dos con obesidad (18,18%). Conclusión: un solo corte transversal a nivel de la vértebra C3 puede diagnosticar la presarcopenia. Este nuevo método evita la irradiación innecesaria, ahorra costos hospitalarios y detecta la desnutrición antes de iniciar el tratamiento de radioterapia en pacientes con cáncer que no disponen de imágenes a nivel abdominal


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Sarcopenia/diagnóstico por imagem , Sarcopenia/radioterapia , Estudos de Coortes , Projetos Piloto , Tomografia Computadorizada de Emissão , Estudos Retrospectivos , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Composição Corporal , Neoplasias Pulmonares/complicações
13.
Int J Sports Med ; 40(12): 747-755, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31476783

RESUMO

Concurrent resistance and aerobic training (CT) has been applied to optimize both strength and aerobic performance. However, it should be carefully prescribed, as there are some factors, as the training intensity, which have strong influence on training adaptations. Thus, we conducted a systematic review to analyze the scientific evidence regarding aerobic and resistance exercise intensities during CT and their effect on performance outcomes. The effects of exercise intensity on a subsequent detraining period were also assessed. Nine studies met the inclusion criteria, the risk of bias was assessed, and the percentage of changes and effect sizes were quantified. CT improved running times (10 m, 30 m and 10 km) and strength performance (one-repetition maximum, countermovement jump) regardless of exercise intensity used (4-47%, ES=0.4-2.8). Nevertheless, higher aerobic training intensities (≥ lactate threshold intensity) resulted in higher aerobic gains (5-10%, ES=0.3-0.6), and greater neuromuscular adaptations were found when higher resistance loads (≥ 70% of maximal strength) were used (10-14%, ES=0.4-1.3). Most training-induced gains were reversed after 2-4 weeks of detraining. Although further research is needed, it seems that higher intensities of aerobic or resistance training induce greater aerobic or neuromuscular gains, respectively. Nevertheless, it seems that higher resistance training loads should be combined with lower aerobic training intensities for increased strength gains and minimal losses after detraining.


Assuntos
Força Muscular/fisiologia , Condicionamento Físico Humano/métodos , Resistência Física/fisiologia , Treinamento de Resistência/métodos , Adaptação Fisiológica , Humanos
14.
Int J Sports Med ; 40(11): 696-703, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31445504

RESUMO

There is a well-conceived notion that rate of recovery from strenuous exercise gets slower with age. However, it is unclear whether older adults who exercise habitually demonstrate slower rates of recovery. We determined whether older adults who are physically active demonstrate slower rates of recovery from unaccustomed strenuous exercise compared with younger peers. Healthy young sedentary (n=10, 28±2 years), young endurance-trained (n=15, 27±2 years), and older endurance-trained (n=14, 58±2 years) men and women were studied. Participants performed 45 min of downhill running at 65% of their maximal oxygen consumption. Visual analog pain scores of muscle groups increased at 24, 48, and 72 h in all three groups (p<0.05), and changes in the muscular pain scale of the legs was smaller in the older trained group than in the young trained group. Maximum isometric strengths at 90° decreased in all groups at 24 h, but the recovery rates were not different at 72 h among the groups. Plasma creatine kinase activity and myoglobin concentration increased at 24 h following downhill running and returned to baseline at 48 h in both the young and older trained groups. The present findings are not consistent with the prevailing notion that older trained adults have a slower rate of recovery from strenuous exercise.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Mialgia/fisiopatologia , Resistência Física/fisiologia , Aptidão Física/fisiologia , Corrida/fisiologia , Adulto , Creatina Quinase/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/lesões , Músculo Esquelético/fisiopatologia , Mialgia/etiologia , Mioglobina/sangue , Consumo de Oxigênio/fisiologia , Amplitude de Movimento Articular , Corrida/lesões
15.
Postgrad Med ; 131(7): 453-460, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31469966

RESUMO

Objectives: Recent evidence suggests an association between functional capacity and cognitive function, at least in older adults. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to examine the association between cognitive function, functional capacity, isokinetic leg strength, health-related quality of life (HRQOL), sleep quality, body fat, handgrip strength, and fatigue among a sample of MS patients. Methods: Fifty-one relapsing-remitting MS patients (age: 38.4 ± 7.1 yrs; 30 females) were recruited and agreed to participate in this study. Cognitive function was assessed by the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test (PASAT). Functional capacity was examined using various functional tests commonly used in MS patients. Maximal voluntary unilateral leg strength was assessed using isokinetic dynamometer. Isometric handgrip strength was assessed by a dynamometer. Total body and visceral fat levels were assessed via bioelectrical impedance analyzers. Finally, the patients' HRQOL, sleep quality, and fatigue levels were evaluated using specific questionnaires. Results: A significant association was found between the PASAT score and the performance score in various functional capacity tests (p < 0.050). On the other hand, a weak but statistically significant association was found between the PASAT score and isokinetic strength of knee extensors (r = 0.319, p = 0.022) and knee flexors (r = 0.354 p = 0.011). Poor sleep quality was associated with lower performance in all the functional capacity tests examined (p < 0.05) whilst was negatively associated with the PASAT score (r = -0.334, p = 0.017). The multivariate regression analysis revealed that the performance on the TUG test was a significant predictor of cognitive function. Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, functional capacity was found to be associated with both impaired cognitive performance and low HRQOL in MS patients. In addition, an association between sleep quality and cognitive performance was revealed, confirming existing literature. Functional capacity as assessed by the TUG test emerged as the best predictor of cognitive function.


Assuntos
Cognição , Fadiga/fisiopatologia , Força da Mão/fisiologia , Esclerose Múltipla Recidivante-Remitente/fisiopatologia , Qualidade de Vida , Tecido Adiposo , Adulto , Composição Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Impedância Elétrica , Fadiga/psicologia , Feminino , Músculos Isquiotibiais , Humanos , Gordura Intra-Abdominal , Perna (Membro) , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Esclerose Múltipla Recidivante-Remitente/psicologia , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Músculo Quadríceps , Sono , Inquéritos e Questionários , Teste de Caminhada
16.
Einstein (Sao Paulo) ; 17(4): eAO4632, 2019 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31433007

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the potential value of sarcopenia and sarcopenic obesity as prognostic predictors in hospitalized elderly patients with acute myocardial infarction. METHODS: A cross-sectional study based on data collected from elderly patients with acute myocardial infarction, admitted to a public hospital located in the Northeastern region of Brazil, from April to July 2015. The diagnosis of sarcopenia was based on muscle mass, muscle strength and physical performance measurements. Cardiovascular risk and prognostic markers, such as troponin and creatine kynase MB isoenzyme values, acute myocardial infarction classification according to ST segment elevation, and thrombolysis in myocardial infarction score were used. RESULTS: The sample comprised 99 patients with mean age of 71.6 (±7.4) years. Prevalence of sarcopenia and sarcopenic obesity was 64.6% and 35.4%, respectively. Sarcopenia was more prevalent among males (p=0.017) aged >80 years (p=0.008). Thrombolysis in myocardial infarction was the only marker of cardiovascular risk significantly associated with sarcopenia (p=0.002). CONCLUSION: Prevalence of sarcopenia was high and associated with thrombolysis in myocardial infarction risk score. Sarcopenic obesity affected approximately one-third of patients and was not associated with any of the prognostic predictors.


Assuntos
Atividade Motora/fisiologia , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/etiologia , Obesidade/complicações , Sarcopenia/complicações , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Avaliação Geriátrica , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/fisiopatologia , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Fatores de Risco , Sarcopenia/fisiopatologia
17.
Int J Sports Med ; 40(12): 796-802, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31434138

RESUMO

The aims of this study were to analyse the effect of chronic strength training over concentric power (CON), eccentric power (ECC), ECC/CON ratio, and 20 m linear sprint performance in elite young soccer players. Twenty young elite Spanish soccer players were assigned to an experimental group (CPG) which performed a front-step exercise using a conical pulley, 2-3 sets of 6 repetitions each leg, during 9 weeks (CPG, n=10) in addition to its usual strength training, or to a control group (CG, n=10). The improvements in the ECC mean power (36%, ES=1.61), and ECC / CON ratio (17%, ES=1.77) were substantially greater in the CPG than in the CG while the CON mean power (16%, ES=0.83) was substantially greater in the CG than in the CPG. The sprinting time for 10 m (2.8%, ES=0.78) and the 10 m flying time between 10-20 m (1.72%, ES=0.41) were substantially enhanced in CPG and CG respectively. To be efficient when defining a functional strength training and performance increments using an inertial device, the mean power output need to be measured during the CON and ECC phases and an analysis of the ECC / CON ratio should be included.


Assuntos
Treinamento de Resistência/métodos , Futebol/fisiologia , Adolescente , Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Teste de Esforço , Humanos , Masculino , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Treinamento de Resistência/instrumentação , Corrida/fisiologia
18.
Br J Nurs ; 28(15): 968-974, 2019 Aug 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31393761

RESUMO

Pelvic floor dysfunction is a common problem, particularly for women. A weakness in the pelvic floor muscles can lead to one or more disorders developing, such as urinary incontinence or a pelvic organ prolapse. To combat this, it is advised that the pelvic floor muscles are exercised to strengthen them and help them become more supportive. However, more than 30% of women are unable to detect their pelvic floor muscles to produce an effective contraction. The introduction of neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) in pelvic healthcare poses a significant benefit in the rehabilitation of the pelvic floor muscles.


Assuntos
Terapia por Estimulação Elétrica , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiopatologia , Diafragma da Pelve/fisiopatologia , Terapia por Exercício/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Contração Muscular/fisiologia , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Resultado do Tratamento , Incontinência Urinária/terapia
19.
Int J Sports Med ; 40(12): 789-795, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31466083

RESUMO

We investigated the effects of sling-based, suspended push-up training on muscle size and function of upper limb and abdominal muscles. Eight men conducted suspended push-ups to failure 3 sets/session, 3 sessions/week, for 8 weeks. The maximum number of push-ups during training gradually and significantly increased from the first to last training session (+92%), suggesting improved muscle endurance. After the training, muscle thickness of the elbow extensors (+16%) and flexors (+3%), as well as abdominal muscles (rectus abdominis: RA,+27%; external oblique: EO,+14%) significantly increased. No changes occurred in maximum isometric strength of elbow extension or flexion, nor in 1-repetition maximum bench press. In a follow-up experiment, electromyograms (EMGs) of RA, EO and internal oblique (IO) during suspended push-ups to failure were measured and normalized to those during maximum voluntary contraction of each muscle (% EMGmvc) in six men. EMG significantly increased when reaching failure in all muscles (RA: 46-88%, EO: 32-50%, IO: 19-52%, start-end), and was particularly high in RA. These results suggest that suspended push-up training can augment size of not only upper limb but also abdominal muscles, likely attributable to high muscle activities during exercise; however, this does not necessarily improve maximum strength after training thus warrants careful interpretation/application.


Assuntos
Músculos Abdominais/anatomia & histologia , Músculos Abdominais/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/anatomia & histologia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Condicionamento Físico Humano/métodos , Extremidade Superior/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Eletromiografia , Humanos , Contração Isométrica/fisiologia , Masculino , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
20.
Sportverletz Sportschaden ; 33(3): 149-159, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31419809

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of combined resistance training including handball-specific drill (CRT) with resistance training excluding handball-specific drill training (NSDT). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-two male handball players who studied physical education were randomly assigned to two groups: CRT (combined resistance training with sport-specific drill; n = 12) and NSDT (resistance training without any sport-specific drill training; n = 10). Over a 10-week period during the competitive season, the players performed a specific training program twice per week, which replaced their normal team handball training. The CRT regimen consisted of a combined (associated) resistance training and handball-specific drill, whereas the NSDT program consisted of a resistance training without handball-specific drill (dissociated). Pre- and post-test measures included squat jump and countermovement jumps, bench press, back half squats, throwing velocity during a 3-step jump throw, and a jump shot, repeated-sprint ability (six 2 × 15-m shuttle sprints) (RSA), medicine ball throw and anthropometric measurements. RESULTS: In both groups, significant intervention effects (d ≥ 1.0) were seen for all sprint (3/3), throwing (3/3) and jump (2/2) measures. Regarding maximal strength parameters, an effect size lower than 0.5 was only detected in the NSDT group for half back squats (d = 0.48). The largest effects were observed in the NSDT group for squat jump (d = 6.20) and medicine ball throw (d = 6.07). Interaction effects (group × time) were found for 50 % (5/10) of parameters. The greatest difference between groups regarding performance development over time was detected for jump shot (interaction effect: η²â€Š= 0.748). In contrast, there was no difference in performance development in both groups over time for RSAbest (interaction effect: η²â€Š= 0.025). CONCLUSIONS: The current findings suggest that during the competitive season, 10 weeks of CRT with only two training sessions per week improved numerous measures of athletic performance in handball students of physical education. Such conditioning should be highly recommended as part of the annual training program of handball players.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Educação Física e Treinamento/métodos , Treinamento de Resistência/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Estações do Ano
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