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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(1): e23994, 2021 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33429760

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: To date research investigating the associations between handgrip strength and multimorbidity when stratifying by age and sex is limited. Furthermore, this is the first study in a Korean population, and the first to include adults ≥ 19 years of age. Here we investigated the associations between handgrip strength and multimorbidity in Korean adults aged ≥ 19 years.In this cross-sectional study data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were used. Multimorbidity was defined as having 2 or more chronic diseases. A total of 19,779 participants were eligible for the study (8730 male and 11,049 female). We grouped and analysed participants based on age and sex (men and women aged 19-49 years, men and women aged 50-80 years) and examined the associations between handgrip strength and multimorbidity using multivariate logistic regressions using stratification by age, sex and body mass index (BMI).Multivariate logistic regressions revealed a significant inverse association irrespective of sex, between relative handgrip strength and multimorbidity. Participants with the lowest handgrip strength had a significantly higher odds ratio (OR) of multimorbidity (men aged 19-49 years: 3.76 and aged 50 years to 80 years: 2.11; women aged 19 years to 49 years: 1.52 and aged 50-80 years: 2.15) when compared to those with highest handgrip strength after adjusting for confounding variables. The highest OR was observed in men aged 19 years to 49 years with a BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2.In the current study we observed a significant inverse relationship between handgrip strength and multimorbidity in males and females with 2 or more chronic diseases. Male participants with a low handgrip strength aged between 19 years to 49 years with a BMI ≥25 kg/m2 may be at greater risk of multimorbidity. This study highlights the need for further longitudinal studies to investigate the effects of increasing handgrip strength combined with weight loss, as an effective strategy to reduce the incidence of multimorbidity.


Assuntos
Força da Mão/fisiologia , Multimorbidade , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Programas Nacionais de Saúde/organização & administração , Programas Nacionais de Saúde/tendências , Inquéritos Nutricionais/métodos , República da Coreia
2.
Arch Osteoporos ; 15(1): 166, 2020 10 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33079259

RESUMO

In our study investigating the prevalence of osteosarcopenic obesity (OSO) in community-dwelling older adults and possible factors responsible for falls, we have found that prevalence of OSO is 10.7%. OSO does not significantly increase the odds of falling, whereas lower handgrip strength, ALMi and gait speed were independent factors associated with falls. PURPOSES: The purposes of the study were (a) to determine the prevalence of osteosarcopenic obesity (OSO) in community-dwelling older adults and (b) to investigate the association between falls and possible factors in individuals with and without OSO. METHODS: Medical records of patients aged ≥ 65 years were retrospectively reviewed. Individuals were diagnosed with OSO based on their T-score assessed by dual x-ray absorptiometry, handgrip strength, appendicular lean mass index (ALMi), gait speed and body fat percentile. Comorbidities, history of falls, depressive state, medications and anthropometric measures were also noted. RESULTS: A sample of 460 individuals were assessed (337 females; 123 males) and 49 patients were diagnosed with OSO. There was no statistically significant difference in falls between the two groups (OR: 0.768, 95% CI: 0.409-1.440, p: 0.41) and the presence of OSO was not significantly associated with increased odds of falling (OR: 1.755, 95% CI: 0.547-5.628, p: 0.344). Handgrip strength (OR: 0.931, 95% CI: 0.893-0.971, p: 0.001), ALMi (OR: 0.799, 95% CI: 0.708-0.901, p < 0.0001) and gait speed (OR: 0.529, 95% CI: 0.283-0.988, p: 0.046) were independently associated with falls in overall group, whereas interaction analysis did not reveal any significant moderator effect of OSO vs. non-OSO in the associations between risk factors and falls. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of OSO was 10.7%. OSO was not associated with elevated odds of falling, whereas lower handgrip strength, ALMi and gait speed were independent factors associated with falls. Further prospective research is needed to clarify the effect of OSO on odds of falling, in consideration with possible risk factors. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER AND DATE: NCT04288401 /26.02.2020.


Assuntos
Fragilidade/fisiopatologia , Avaliação Geriátrica/métodos , Força da Mão/fisiologia , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Osteoporose Pós-Menopausa/epidemiologia , Osteoporose/epidemiologia , Sarcopenia/epidemiologia , Absorciometria de Fóton/métodos , Idoso , Antropometria/métodos , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Vida Independente , Masculino , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Osteoporose/fisiopatologia , Equilíbrio Postural/fisiologia , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sarcopenia/fisiopatologia
3.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0240165, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33007025

RESUMO

When infants observe a human grasping action, experience-based accounts predict that all infants familiar with grasping actions should be able to predict the goal regardless of additional agency cues such as an action effect. Cue-based accounts, however, suggest that infants use agency cues to identify and predict action goals when the action or the agent is not familiar. From these accounts, we hypothesized that younger infants would need additional agency cues such as a salient action effect to predict the goal of a human grasping action, whereas older infants should be able to predict the goal regardless of agency cues. In three experiments, we presented 6-, 7-, and 11-month-olds with videos of a manual grasping action presented either with or without an additional salient action effect (Exp. 1 and 2), or we presented 7-month-olds with videos of a mechanical claw performing a grasping action presented with a salient action effect (Exp. 3). The 6-month-olds showed tracking gaze behavior, and the 11-month-olds showed predictive gaze behavior, regardless of the action effect. However, the 7-month-olds showed predictive gaze behavior in the action-effect condition, but tracking gaze behavior in the no-action-effect condition and in the action-effect condition with a mechanical claw. The results therefore support the idea that salient action effects are especially important for infants' goal predictions from 7 months on, and that this facilitating influence of action effects is selective for the observation of human hands.


Assuntos
Fixação Ocular/fisiologia , Objetivos , Força da Mão/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Estimulação Luminosa , Fatores de Tempo , Gravação em Vídeo
4.
Niger J Clin Pract ; 23(10): 1437-1442, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33047703

RESUMO

Background: Cardiac autonomic neuropathy (CAN) resulting from seizures has been implicated in sudden unexpected death in epilepsy in persons with epilepsy (PWE), however, there are no previous studies of CAN in PWE from Nigeria. Objectives: This study sought to determine the frequency and pattern of CAN in adult PWE in a tertiary hospital in South-western Nigeria and to determine the relationship between seizure variables and CAN. Methods: A cross-sectional study of 80 adult PWE and 80 matched controls aged between 18 and 60 years was carried out between March 2012 and June 2013 at the Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospital Complex, Ile-Ife, Nigeria. Demographic and clinical data were obtained from all the study participants. Anxiety was excluded using the Hamilton Anxiety Scale. Those with conditions that could affect autonomic function, such as chronic renal failure, heart failure, Parkinson's disease, diabetes mellitus, anxiety, and psychiatric disorders and pregnant women were excluded. Five bedside cardiovascular reflex tests were performed on each subject after baseline heart rate and blood pressure (BP) had been recorded. Results: The mean age of onset of epilepsy was 19 ± 10 years, whereas the mean duration of epilepsy was 10 ± 8 years. The mean seizure frequency was 14 ± 30 per month (median three seizures per month). Of the 80 patients evaluated, 42 (52.5%) had CAN, whereas none of the controls had CAN. Majority (69%) of the PWE with CAN had purely parasympathetic dysfunction, whereas 3% had purely sympathetic dysfunction and 10% had combined autonomic dysfunction. The PWE in this study had significantly lower tilt ratios and diastolic BP change with Isometric Hand grip as well as significantly higher systolic BP change on standing than the controls. Patients who had more than four seizures per month had higher odds of CAN than those with less frequent seizures (odds ratio 0.275, P value 0.023). Also, patients who had received treatment for less than 10 years were found to have greater odds of CAN than those who had received treatment for a longer period (odds ratio 11.676, P value 0.046). Conclusion: CAN is common in adult PWE in South-Western Nigeria and the major predictors are short duration of treatment and frequent seizure episodes. Routine screening of these patients may help with early detection of autonomic dysfunction and provide an opportunity for intervention.


Assuntos
Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Autônomo/epidemiologia , Sistema Nervoso Autônomo/fisiopatologia , Epilepsia/fisiopatologia , Coração/fisiopatologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Anticonvulsivantes/uso terapêutico , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Autônomo/etiologia , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos Transversais , Epilepsia/tratamento farmacológico , Epilepsia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Força da Mão/fisiologia , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Postura/fisiologia , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco , Convulsões , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Adulto Jovem
5.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(37): e21845, 2020 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32925721

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) is an autosomal-dominant disorder associated with a short life expectancy and various symptoms, including grip myotonia. Even though grip myotonia decreases quality of life, activities of daily living (ADLs), and work performance, very few interventions provide symptomatic relief. PATIENT CONCERNS: In this case report, we present a patient with DM1 and gradually worsening grip myotonia. A 35-year-old woman developed grip myotonia at age 27. She had no underlying diseases or family history of relevant conditions, including DM1. She was unresponsive to medication for several years. DIAGNOSIS: Her symptoms gradually worsened, and she was finally diagnosed with DM1 via genetic, neurologic, and laboratory testing in a tertiary hospital at age 32. She tried several medication therapies; however, she stopped medication at age 34 due a perceived poor response and several adverse events. INTERVENTION: At the age of 35, she underwent 29 sessions (10 minutes per session) of electroacupuncture therapy on TE9 acupuncture point with 120 Hz electrical stimulation over 3 months. OUTCOMES: After 3 months, relaxation time after maximal voluntary isometric contraction decreased from 59 to 2 seconds with treatment. Her Michigan Hand Outcomes Questionnaire score improved (total score, 66.6-75.9; ADL sub-score, 59.7-73.6; function sub-score, 70-90; satisfaction sub-score, 75-91.7). Her Measure Yourself Medical Outcome Profile 2 score also improved from 4.33 to 2. There were no serious adverse events. LESSONS: Electroacupuncture is a potential treatment modality and produced an immediate antimyotonic effect, and cumulative long-term treatment effect, in a patient with DM1 and grip myotonia. Other notable treatment outcomes included improving relaxation time, hand function, ADLs, and overall satisfaction. Electroacupuncture is a potential treatment modality for patients with DM1 and grip myotonia. Further prospective clinical studies are warranted to confirm this hypothesis.


Assuntos
Eletroacupuntura/métodos , Distrofia Miotônica/terapia , Adulto , Feminino , Força da Mão/fisiologia , Humanos , Distrofia Miotônica/fisiopatologia , Resultado do Tratamento
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32933119

RESUMO

This study examined the effects of a person-centered nursing intervention program for frailty (PNIF) targeting community-dwelling prefrail older people in South Korea. The study participants were 40 community-dwelling older adults (≥65 years) who were classified as prefrail on the Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS) frailty index. The intervention group (n = 20) received group intervention sessions two days/week for twelve weeks and the control group (n = 20) attended lectures about frailty prevention one day/week for four weeks. The evaluation instruments included the CHS Frailty Index, a JAMAR® hydraulic hand dynamometer, the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB), the Korean version of the Community Healthy Activities Model Program for Seniors Questionnaire (K-CHAMPS), the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA), the Geriatric Depression Scale Short Form-Korea Version (GDSSF-K), the ENRICHD Social Support Instrument (ESSI), and the Goal Attainment Scale (GAS). Significant differences were found in the CHS Frailty Index (p < 0.001), left-hand grip strength (p = 0.022), right-hand grip strength (p = 0.009), SPPB (p = 0.007), K-CHAMPS (p = 0.009), MNA (p = 0.018), and GDSSF-K (p = 0.001) between the two groups after 12 weeks. No significant between-group differences in ESSI scores were observed. The PNIF effectively improved grip strength, physical function, physical activity, and nutritional status, reduced depression, and prevented frailty among community-dwelling older adults.


Assuntos
Fragilidade/prevenção & controle , Avaliação Geriátrica/métodos , Força da Mão/fisiologia , Assistência Centrada no Paciente/métodos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Idoso Fragilizado , Humanos , Vida Independente , Masculino , Dinamômetro de Força Muscular , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , República da Coreia
7.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239530, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32986769

RESUMO

This study assessed the interactions among IGF-1, AKT2, FOXO1, and FOXO3 variations and the interactions of gene and physical activity on handgrip strength, arm muscle mass-adjusted handgrip (armGrip), gait speed (GS), timed up and go (TUG), and leg press strength (LPS). Nine single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) containing three IGF-1 SNPs (rs6214, rs5742692, and rs35767), two AKT2 SNPs (rs892119 and rs35817154), two FOXO1 SNPs (rs17446593 and rs10507486), and two FOXO3 SNPs (rs9480865 and rs2153960) were genotyped in 472 unrelated elders with a mean age of 73.8 years. We observed significant interactions of IGF-1 SNP rs6214 and rs35767 with regular physical activity on TUG and GS; and AKT2 SNP rs892119 and FOXO3 SNP rs9480865 with regular physical activity on armGrip. Genotype GG of IGF-1 rs6214 and rs35767 in individuals without regular physical activity had poor performance in TUG and GS, as well as GG of AKT2 rs892119 decreased armGrip in individuals without regular physical activity. After FDR adjustment, no significant gene-gene interactions were found. A sedentary lifestyle may increase the risk of impairing physical performance and regular physical activity is a remedy for sarcopenia, even a little regular physical activity can overcome carrying some risk alleles in this pathway.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Proteína Forkhead Box O1/genética , Proteína Forkhead Box O3/genética , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/genética , Idoso , Alelos , Feminino , Frequência do Gene/genética , Genótipo , Força da Mão/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Desempenho Físico Funcional , Sarcopenia/genética , Comportamento Sedentário
8.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239471, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32946493

RESUMO

Humans can innately track a moving target by anticipating its future position from a brief history of observations. While ballistic trajectories can be readily extrapolated, many natural and artificial systems are governed by more general nonlinear dynamics and, therefore, can produce highly irregular motion. Yet, relatively little is known regarding the behavioral and physiological underpinnings of prediction and tracking in the presence of chaos. Here, we investigated in lab settings whether participants could manually follow the orbit of a paradigmatic chaotic system, the Rössler equations, on the (x,y) plane under different settings of a control parameter, which determined the prominence of transients in the target position. Tracking accuracy was negatively related to the level of unpredictability and folding. Nevertheless, while participants initially reacted to the transients, they gradually learned to anticipate it. This was accompanied by a decrease in muscular co-contraction, alongside enhanced activity in the theta and beta EEG bands for the highest levels of chaoticity. Furthermore, greater phase synchronization of breathing was observed. Taken together, these findings point to the possible ability of the nervous system to implicitly learn topological regularities even in the context of highly irregular motion, reflecting in multiple observables at the physiological level.


Assuntos
Dinâmica não Linear , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Adulto , Sistema Nervoso Autônomo/fisiologia , Fenômenos Biomecânicos/fisiologia , Eletroencefalografia , Eletromiografia , Força da Mão/fisiologia , Humanos , Cinética , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Movimento (Física) , Contração Muscular/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
9.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238367, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32941453

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to examine how different threshold ranges of online-bandwidth visual feedback influence unilateral force control capabilities in healthy young women. METHODS: Twenty-five right-handed young women (mean±standard deviation age = 23.6±1.5 years) participated in this study. Participants unilaterally executed hand-grip force control tasks with their dominant and non-dominant hands, respectively. Each participant completed four experimental blocks in a different order of block presentation for each hand condition: (a) 10% of maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) with ±5% bandwidth threshold range (BTR), (b) 10% of MVC with ±10% BTR, (c) 40% of MVC with ±5% BTR, and (d) 40% of MVC with ±10% BTR. Outcome measures on force control capabilities included: (a) force accuracy, (b) force variability, (c) force regularity, and (d) the number of times and duration out of BTR. RESULTS: The non-dominant hand showed significant improvements in force control capabilities, as indicated by higher force accuracy, less force variability, and decreased force regularity from ±10% BTR to ±5% BTR during higher targeted force level task. For both hands, the number of times and duration out of BTR increased from ±10% BTR to ±5% BTR. CONCLUSIONS: The current findings suggested that the narrow threshold range of online-bandwidth visual feedback effectively revealed transient improvements in unilateral isometric force control capabilities during higher targeted force level tasks.


Assuntos
Retroalimentação Sensorial/fisiologia , Lateralidade Funcional , Força da Mão/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Contração Isométrica , Adulto Jovem
10.
Am J Phys Med Rehabil ; 99(10): 902-908, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32941253

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to explore an individualized sonographic muscle thickness ratio and its cutoff values in the diagnosis of sarcopenia. DESIGN: A total of 326 community-dwelling adults were included in this cross-sectional study. Total skeletal muscle mass was evaluated by bioelectrical impedance analysis, and nine-site muscle thickness measurements using ultrasound. Isometric handgrip and knee extension strengths were assessed. Physical performance was evaluated by usual Gait Speed, Chair Stand Test, and Timed Up and Go Test. RESULTS: Because the anterior thigh muscle thickness was the most significantly decreasing measurement with aging and the most significantly related value with body mass and height; sonographic thigh adjustment ratio was calculated by dividing it with body mass index. Using the two standard deviation values of our healthy young adults, sonographic thigh adjustment ratio cutoff values were found as 1.4 and 1.0 for male and female subjects, respectively. Sonographic thigh adjustment ratio values were negatively correlated with Chair Stand Test and Timed Up and Go Test in both sexes (all P < 0.05) and positively correlated with gait speed in female subjects and knee extension strength in male subjects (both P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Our results imply that regional (rather than total) muscle mass measurements should be taken into consideration for the diagnosis of sarcopenia.


Assuntos
Sarcopenia/diagnóstico por imagem , Coxa da Perna/diagnóstico por imagem , Ultrassonografia/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Impedância Elétrica , Feminino , Força da Mão/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Força Muscular/fisiologia
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32781526

RESUMO

The aim was to systematically review the relationship between muscular strength (MS) and depression symptoms (DS) among adults, and conduct a meta-analysis to determine the pooled odds ratio (OR) for the relationship between MS and DS. The strategies employed in this systematic review followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) guidelines. Studies published up to December 2019 were systematically identified by searching in the PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science electronic databases. Inclusion criteria were: (1) cross-sectional, longitudinal and intervention studies; (2) outcomes included depression or DS; (3) participants were adults and older adults; and (4) the articles were published in English, French, Portuguese, or Spanish. A total of 21 studies were included in the review, totalling 87,508 adults aged ≥18 years, from 26 countries. The systematic review findings suggest that MS has a positive effect on reducing DS. Meta-analysis findings indicate that MS is inversely and significantly related to DS 0.85 (95% CI: 0.80, 0.89). Interventions aiming to improve MS have the potential to promote mental health and prevent depression. Thus, public health professionals could use MS assessment and improvement as a strategy to promote mental health and prevent depression.


Assuntos
Depressão , Força da Mão/fisiologia , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Qualidade de Vida , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32859094

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This paper describes the development of a physical activity questionnaire (PAQ) designed for Chinese adolescents and their mothers in urban and rural settings, and reports on results of the PAQ, pedometry, and hand grip dynamometry from the Chinese Children and Families Cohort Study pilot investigation (CFCS). METHODS: As part of a pilot investigation to evaluate the feasibility to follow-up and obtain detailed nutrition, dietary, physical activity, and ultraviolet radiation (UVR) data from CFCS participants, data were collected in 2013 for 93 adolescent/mother pairs from a rural (n = 41) and an urban site (n = 52) in two provinces. Respondents were asked to wear a pedometer for seven days (Omron HJ-151), use a Takei Digital Grip Strength Dynamometer on (each hand; three trials; two separate days), and complete a 39 item, eight domain PAQ covering the past year. Self-reported physical activity (PA) was linked to metabolic equivalent of task (MET) scores in kcal/kg/hr and used to calculate METs for different domains of PA and intensity categories. RESULTS: Compliance was high (95%) in this measurement protocol administered by health staff during a series of data collection efforts at home and local clinics or health centers. Step counts were highly variable, averaging between 5000 and 10000 per day with somewhat higher step counts in rural adolescent boys. Maximum grip strength (Kgs) was greater in children (Mean = 36.5, SE = 0.8) than mothers (Mean = 28.8, SE = 0.8) and similar in the urban (Mean = 29.6, SE = 0.6) compared to the rural (Mean = 29.6, SE = 0.5) communities overall. Grip strength, step counts, and measures of time spent in different activities or activity intensities were uncorrelated. CONCLUSION: Device and question-based measurement of PA and strength were readily accepted in these Chinese urban and rural populations. The PAQ on physical activity in the past year produced some plausible population averages, but individual responses suggested recall challenges. If data about specific activities are required, future studies should explore use of standardized survey questions concerning such fewer specific activities or instruments examining shorter time periods such as one, three, or seven day recalls.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico , Força da Mão/fisiologia , Adolescente , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Criança , China , Estudos de Coortes , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Mães , Projetos Piloto , População Rural , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Raios Ultravioleta , População Urbana
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32859109

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to determine the effects of a muscular strength programme on the levels of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and cognitive status in elder women with mild cognitive impairment who lived in areas of high air pollution. A total of 157 women participated in the study, distributed in four groups: Active/Clean (AC n = 38) and Active/Pollution (AP n = 37), who carried out a progressive resistance training programme for 24 months, and Sedentary/Clean (SC n = 40) and Sedentary/Pollution (SP n = 42). Maximum strength in the upper and lower limbs (1RM), cognition (Mini-Mental Scale Examination (MMSE)) and blood IGF-1 were evaluated. At the beginning of the intervention, there were no differences between the groups in the assessed variables. The active groups which carried out the resistance training programme (AC and AP), registered better results in IGF-1 than the sedentary groups. These differences were statistically significant in AC vs. SC (p < 0.01) and AP vs. SC (p < 0.05). Regarding MMSE, group AC registered the highest score increases (+8.2%) (significantly better than the other groups), while group SP worsened (-7%) significantly compared to the other three groups. In conclusion, resistance training had a positive effect on IGF-1, while sedentary behaviour and air pollution had a negative effect on cognitive status.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar , Cognição/fisiologia , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/metabolismo , Treinamento de Resistência , Idoso , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Biomarcadores/sangue , Feminino , Força da Mão/fisiologia , Humanos , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/análise , Força Muscular , Treinamento de Resistência/métodos
14.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 16(8): e1008081, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32750070

RESUMO

We rarely experience difficulty picking up objects, yet of all potential contact points on the surface, only a small proportion yield effective grasps. Here, we present extensive behavioral data alongside a normative model that correctly predicts human precision grasping of unfamiliar 3D objects. We tracked participants' forefinger and thumb as they picked up objects of 10 wood and brass cubes configured to tease apart effects of shape, weight, orientation, and mass distribution. Grasps were highly systematic and consistent across repetitions and participants. We employed these data to construct a model which combines five cost functions related to force closure, torque, natural grasp axis, grasp aperture, and visibility. Even without free parameters, the model predicts individual grasps almost as well as different individuals predict one another's, but fitting weights reveals the relative importance of the different constraints. The model also accurately predicts human grasps on novel 3D-printed objects with more naturalistic geometries and is robust to perturbations in its key parameters. Together, the findings provide a unified account of how we successfully grasp objects of different 3D shape, orientation, mass, and mass distribution.


Assuntos
Força da Mão/fisiologia , Modelos Biológicos , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Adulto , Biologia Computacional , Feminino , Mãos/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Torque , Adulto Jovem
15.
Life Sci ; 258: 118243, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32791154

RESUMO

AIMS: Although autophagy impairment is a well-established cause of muscle atrophy and P300 has recently been identified as an important regulator of autophagy, the effects of P300 on autophagy and muscle atrophy in type 2 diabetes (T2D) remain unexplored. We aimed at characterizing the role of P300 in diabetic muscle and its underlying mechanism. MAIN METHODS: Protein levels of phosphorylated P300, total P300, acetylated histone H3, LC3, p62 and myosin heavy chain, and mRNA levels of Atrogin-1 and MuRF1 were analyzed in palmitic acid (PA)-treated myotubes and db/db mice. Autophagic flux was assessed using transmission electron microscopy, immunofluorescence and mRFP-GFP-LC3 lentivirus transfection in cells. Muscle weight, blood glucose and grip strength were measured in mice. Hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining was performed to determine changes in muscle fiber size. To investigate the effects of P300 on autophagy and myofiber remodeling, a P300 specific inhibitor, c646, was utilized. 3-Methyladenine (3-MA) was utilized to inhibit autophagosomes formation, and chloroquine (CQ) was used to block autophagic flux. KEY FINDINGS: Phosphorylation of P300 in response to PA enhanced its activity and subsequently suppressed autophagic flux, leading to atrophy-related morphological and molecular changes in myotubes. Inhibition of P300 reestablished autophagic flux and ameliorated PA-induced myotubes atrophy. However, this effect was largely abolished by co-treatment with the autophagy inhibitor CQ. In vivo results demonstrated that inhibition of P300 partially rescued muscle wasting in db/db mice, accompanied with autophagy reactivation. SIGNIFICANCE: The findings revealed that T2D-induced overactivation of P300 contributes to muscle atrophy by blocking autophagic flux.


Assuntos
Autofagia/fisiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Proteína p300 Associada a E1A/metabolismo , Atrofia Muscular/metabolismo , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/patologia , Proteína p300 Associada a E1A/genética , Força da Mão/fisiologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Atrofia Muscular/genética , Atrofia Muscular/patologia , Mioblastos/metabolismo , Mioblastos/patologia
16.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236555, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32756598

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The active workforce is increasingly aging. However workload, as well as working time and intensity, sometimes remains unchanged. This can be an even more critical situation in older people, since occupational exposure associated with aging, will further reduce the muscle's ability to generate energy, which in turn facilitates the development of these age-related syndromes. This study aims to identify the normative values of handgrip strength for Portuguese workers in the automotive industry. METHODS: About 1225 employees were invited to participate in the study. The final sample consisted of 656 employees in the assembly area. The handgrip strength was measured in kilograms (kg) using the Jamar digital dynamometer. Sex-specific profiles of handgrip strength were designed by the Ordinary Least Square regression (OLS) analysis, where height, age, age squared, and height squared are entered into the models as determining factors of the maximum grip strength in both female and male groups. RESULTS: The peak mean values of handgrip strength in the group of women was 34 kg in the age group of 35-39 years, and in the group of men the peak mean was 52 kg in the age group of 25-34 years. The most pronounced decline in the female group appears in the age of 30-34 years of about 4 kg and the male group the decline occurs at 2kg below the peak force, in the age group of 40-57 year-olds. This study used a cut-off at 2 SD below by the sex-specific peak mean. CONCLUSION: Normative values can help delineate the career path of workers because they portray risk values according to age, height, and gender. The normative values assist health and engineering professionals and ergonomists in adjusting task demands to the morphological and strength characteristics of the workers.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Força da Mão/fisiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Portugal/epidemiologia , Valores de Referência , Fatores Sexuais
17.
Sports Health ; 12(5): 470-477, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32776866

RESUMO

CONTEXT: High blood pressure is one of the leading preventable causes of cardiovascular death worldwide. In this regard, several studies have shown interest in the benefits of isometric exercise on blood pressure regulation. OBJECTIVE: To assess whether low-intensity isometric handgrip exercise (LI-IHE) is an effective strategy to lower blood pressure levels in prehypertensive and hypertensive patients. DATA SOURCE: This study was conducted according to the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) statement and registered with PROSPERO. Potentially eligible studies were identified after a systematic search conducted on 4 international databases: PubMed, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), PEDro, and SPORTDiscus. STUDY SELECTION: We included randomized controlled trials that comprised patients who received LI-IHE. STUDY DESIGN: Systematic review with meta-analysis. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level 3. DATA EXTRACTION: Data related to patient characteristics, exercise programs, risk-of-bias assessment, and outcomes of interest were systematically reviewed independently by 2 authors. RESULTS: The following reductions (mean differences) were observed after LI-IHE: systolic blood pressure (SBP), (MD) = -5.43 mm Hg; (95% CI, -8.47 to -2.39; P = 0.0005); diastolic blood pressure (DBP), -2.41 mm Hg (95% CI, -4.33 to -0.48; P = 0.01); mean arterial pressure (MAP), -1.28 mm Hg (95% CI, -2.99 to 0.44; P = 0.14). CONCLUSION: LI-IHE seems to lower SBP, DBP, and MAP values in prehypertensive and hypertensive adults. It appears that LI-IHE reduces, in greater magnitude, blood pressure levels in hypertensive patients, specifically in patients aged <45 years, those who are overweight, and those on medications. Nevertheless, substantial heterogeneity in the main results and in the analyses by subgroups generated uncertainty about the real reduction magnitude that LI-IHE can produce on blood pressure.


Assuntos
Terapia por Exercício/métodos , Hipertensão/terapia , Pré-Hipertensão/terapia , Fatores Etários , Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Força da Mão/fisiologia , Humanos , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Pré-Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico
18.
Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol ; 319(3): R323-R328, 2020 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32783690

RESUMO

Black men have attenuated increases in forearm vascular conductance (FVC) and forearm blood flow (FBF) during moderate- and high-intensity rhythmic handgrip exercise compared with White men, but the underlying mechanisms are unclear. Here, we tested for the first time the hypothesis that functional sympatholysis (i.e., attenuation of sympathetic vasoconstriction in the exercising muscles) is impaired in Black men compared with White men. Thirteen White and 14 Black healthy young men were studied. FBF (duplex Doppler ultrasound) and mean arterial pressure (MAP; Finometer) were measured at rest and during rhythmic handgrip exercise at 30% maximal voluntary contraction. FVC was calculated as FBF/MAP. Sympathetic activation was induced via lower body negative pressure (LBNP) at -20 Torr for 2 min at rest and from the 3rd to the 5th min of handgrip. Sympathetic vasoconstriction was assessed as percent reductions in FVC during LBNP. The groups presented similar resting FVC, FBF, and MAP. During LBNP at rest, reductions in FVC were not different between White (-35 ± 10%) and Black men (-32 ± 14%, P = 0.616), indicating similar reflex-induced sympathetic vasoconstriction. During handgrip exercise, there were minimal reductions in FVC with LBNP in either group (White: -1 ± 7%; Black: +1 ± 8%; P = 0.523), indicating functional sympatholysis in both groups. Thus, contrary to our hypothesis, our findings indicate a preserved functional sympatholysis in healthy young Black men compared with White men, suggesting that this mechanism does not appear to contribute to reduced exercise hyperemia during moderate-intensity rhythmic handgrip in this population.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Força da Mão/fisiologia , Consumo de Oxigênio/fisiologia , Vasoconstrição/fisiologia , Adulto , Humanos , Masculino , Contração Muscular/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Fluxo Sanguíneo Regional/fisiologia , Sistema Nervoso Simpático/fisiopatologia
19.
Int J Rehabil Res ; 43(3): 280-284, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32769585

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of serious games on hand muscle strength and functionality in a series of cases with ulnar nerve damage. Two patients were included in this 16-week intervention study using biofeedback. Electromyography electrodes and dynamometers were used in treatment. Functionality was assessed by Rosen and Lundborg score, Disabilities of the arm, shoulder and hand (DASH) questionnaire and International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). Grip and pinch strength were assessed by dynamometers. Results revealed an increase in sensory domain of Rosen and Lundborg score of the two patients. Patients increased values from the DASH questionnaire; however, they got better results with ICF. Grip strength of the two patients increased; pinch strength varied between patients; key pinch had the best results. Serious games can be effective to enhance hand strength and improve functionality in patients with ulnar nerve damage.


Assuntos
Nervo Ulnar , Adulto , Feminino , Força da Mão/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Extremidade Superior , Jogos de Vídeo
20.
Biodemography Soc Biol ; 65(3): 245-256, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32727277

RESUMO

Hand grip strength (GS) is a valid and reliable predictor of future morbidity and mortality and is considered a useful indicator of aging. In this paper, we use results from the genetic analysis in animal studies to evaluate associations for GS, frailty, and subsequent mortality among humans. Specifically, we use data from the Health and Retirement Survey (HRS) to investigate the association between three polymorphisms in a candidate frailty gene (Tiam1) and GS. Results suggest that the A allele in rs724561 significantly reduces GS among older adults in the US (b = -0.340; p < .006) and is significantly associated with self-reported weakness (b = 0.221; p = .036). This same polymorphism was weakly associated (one-tailed) with an increased risk of mortality (b = 1.091; p < .093) and adjustments for GS rendered this association statistically non-significant (b = 1.048; p < .361). Overall, our results provide tentative evidence that the Tiam1 gene may be associated with frailty development, but we encourage further studies.


Assuntos
Força da Mão/fisiologia , Mutação/genética , Mutação/fisiologia , Estresse Psicológico/genética , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade , Dinamômetro de Força Muscular , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estresse Psicológico/fisiopatologia
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