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1.
J Sports Sci ; 38(1): 70-78, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31631780

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate deprivation and sex differences in selected health-relatedfitness measures in 9-12-year-old children. Data were captured on 3,407 children (49.3% boys; aged 10.5 ± 0.6 years). Cardiorespiratory fitness(20 m multistage shuttle run test; 20 m MSRT), muscular strength (handgrip strength) and body mass index (BMI) were measured. Welsh Index of Multiple Deprivation (WIMD) scores were used to make quintile groups. A two-way Analysis of Variance examined differences in BMI z-score by sex and WIMD quintiles. Two-wayAnalysis of Covariances investigated the effect of sex and WIMD quintiles on grip strength and shuttles achieved in 20 m MSRT, adjusting for BMI z-score and maturation, repectively. Independent of sex, children in the middle quintile had a significantly higher mean BMI z-score (p = 0.029) than their least deprived counterparts. There was a significant increase in grip strength (p = 0.005) and20 m MSRT (boys p < 0.001; girls p = 0.028) between most and least deprived quintiles. Significant differences in 20 m MSRT score were more apparent with decreases in deprivation in boys.Overall, inequalities exist in health-related fitness by sex and deprivation. These results can be used to inform focused services to improve current and future health.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Aptidão Cardiorrespiratória/fisiologia , Força da Mão/fisiologia , Classe Social , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Teste de Esforço , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores Sexuais , Reino Unido
2.
Diving Hyperb Med ; 49(4): 266-275, 2019 Dec 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31828745

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The purpose of the study was to evaluate the thermal protection provided by a 2-3 mm surfing wet suit during at least two hours of fin diving in shallow water with a temperature of 16-20°C. We examined the effect of wearing the suit while diving in cold water on cognitive performance, muscle strength, and hand motor function. METHODS: Subjects were six male well-trained rebreather divers, 19-23 years old, acclimatised to cold. They attended the laboratory on three separate occasions, when we conducted the experiment at one of three temperatures, 16, 18, and 20°C. Core temperature (gastrointestinal system), skin temperature, oxygen consumption, and cold perception were evaluated during the test. Before and immediately after the dives, subjects performed a series of cognitive, manual dexterity, and muscle strength tests. RESULTS: Core temperature decreased by 0.35-0.81°C over the two hours at all three water temperatures. No subject reached a core temperature below 35°C. The decrease in upper body skin temperature during the two hour dive ranged between 5.97 and 8.41°C (P < 0.05). Two hours diving in 16-20°C water resulted in a significant increase in the time taken to perform the task of unlinking and reassembling four shackles (∼30% longer, P < 0.05). No effect was found on the cognitive or muscle strength tests. CONCLUSIONS: A 2-3 mm wet suit provides adequate thermal protection in trained and cold-acclimatised young males engaged in active diving in shallow water with a temperature of 16°C and above.


Assuntos
Cognição/fisiologia , Temperatura Baixa , Mergulho , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Roupa de Proteção , Regulação da Temperatura Corporal , Mergulho/fisiologia , Mãos/fisiologia , Força da Mão/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Destreza Motora/fisiologia , Consumo de Oxigênio , Temperatura Ambiente , Água
3.
Clin Interv Aging ; 14: 2163-2171, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31853176

RESUMO

Purpose: Handgrip strength is a key diagnostic criterion for sarcopenia, and sodium is an essential mineral for muscle contraction. We investigated the association between grip strength and sodium intake using sodium density. Patients and methods: A total of 2982 older adults (aged ≥65 years) from the 2014-2016 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were included. Dietary intake was assessed by a 24 hr dietary recall, and grip strength was measured using a digital grip strength dynamometer. Based on the recommendation of the Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia, low grip strength (dynapenia) was defined as <26 kg for men and <18 kg for women. Multivariable logistic regression was performed to estimate the adjusted odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) and to investigate the association between the quartiles of sodium per calorie (mg/1000 kcal; sodium density) and dynapenia. Results: A total of 577 subjects (19.3%) had dynapenia. Subjects in the second quartile of sodium density had the lowest prevalence of dynapenia and were defined as the reference group. Among women, those in the highest quartile of sodium density showed a significantly higher risk for dynapenia (OR 1.51, 95% CI 1.10-2.07). ORs in the first and third quartiles of sodium density were 1.01 (95% CI 0.74-1.38) and 1.18 (95% CI 0.89-1.58), respectively. However, there was no association between sodium density and dynapenia in men. Conclusion: High sodium density was associated with dynapenia in older women. A balanced diet of minerals is important to preserve muscle strength among older adults.


Assuntos
Força da Mão , Força Muscular , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Sódio , Atividades Cotidianas , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Força da Mão/fisiologia , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Minerais , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Prevalência , República da Coreia , Sarcopenia/epidemiologia
4.
Mayo Clin Proc ; 94(11): 2230-2240, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31685151

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the associations of objectively measured cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and grip strength (GS) with incident heart failure (HF), a clinical syndrome that results in substantial social and economic burden, using UK Biobank data. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Of the 502,628 participants recruited into the UK Biobank between April 1, 2007, and December 31, 2010, a total of 374,493 were included in our GS analysis and 57,053 were included in CRF analysis. Associations between CRF and GS and incident HF were investigated using Cox proportional hazard models, with adjustment for known measured confounders. RESULTS: During a mean of 4.1 (range, 2.4-7.1) years, 631 HF events occurred in those with GS data, and 66 HF events occurred in those with CRF data. Higher CRF was associated with 18% lower risk for HF (hazard ratio [HR], 0.82; 95% CI, 0.76-0.88) per 1-metabolic equivalent increment increase and GS was associated with 19% lower incidence of HF risk (HR, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.77-0.86) per 5-kg increment increase. When CRF and GS were standardized, the HR for CRF was 0.50 per 1-SD increment (95% CI, 0.38-0.65), and for GS was 0.65 per 1-SD increment (95% CI, 0.58-0.72). CONCLUSION: Our data indicate that objective measurements of physical function (GS and CRF) are strongly and independently associated with lower HF incidence. Future studies targeting improving CRF and muscle strength should include HF as an outcome to assess whether these results are causal.


Assuntos
Aptidão Cardiorrespiratória/fisiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/fisiopatologia , Força da Mão/fisiologia , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiopatologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Aptidão Física/fisiologia , Fatores de Risco , Reino Unido
5.
Niger J Clin Pract ; 22(10): 1356-1364, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31607724

RESUMO

Aims: The study aimed to assess the percentage difference of hand dimensions and their correlation with grip and pinch strength among school children in Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: Anthropometric measurements, hand dimensions, grip, and pinch strength measurements were obtained from 200 healthy schoolchildren in both genders aged 6-16 years. A Jamar electronic handgrip dynamometer was used to measure handgrip strength in kg. Pinch dynamometer was used to measure the two-point pinch strength, three-point pinch strength and lateral pinch strength in kg. Hand circumference was measured following hand arch at the maximum palm level. Hand span from the tip of the thumb to the tip of the little finger with the hand opened as broad as possible. Hand length from the tip of the middle finger to the midline of the distal wrist crease. Palm length from the distal wrist crease to the base of the middle finger. Results: The percentage of difference of hand dimensions between both the genders was statistically significant. Both handgrip and pinch strength were significantly correlated with anthropometric measurements and hand dimensions. Body mass index had mild correlation with both handgrip strength and pinch strength (P < 0.05). Age, hand circumference, hand span, hand length and palm length had moderate to strong correlation with both grip and pinch strength (P < 0.01). Conclusion: The current study provides a source of perspective reference values in clinical settings for hand dimensions. The present study showed significant correlations with handgrip and pinch grip strengths among schoolchildren in Saudi Arabia.


Assuntos
Força da Mão/fisiologia , Mãos/anatomia & histologia , Força de Pinça/fisiologia , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Antropometria , Estatura , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Feminino , Dedos/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Valores de Referência , Arábia Saudita
6.
Bone Joint J ; 101-B(10): 1263-1271, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31564142

RESUMO

AIMS: The aim of this study was to investigate whether clinical and radiological outcomes after intramedullary nailing of displaced fractures of the fifth metacarpal neck using a single thick Kirschner wire (K-wire) are noninferior to those of technically more demanding fixation with two thinner dual wires. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This was a multicentre, parallel group, randomized controlled noninferiority trial conducted at 12 tertiary trauma centres in Germany. A total of 290 patients with acute displaced fractures of the fifth metacarpal neck were randomized to either intramedullary single-wire (n = 146) or dual-wire fixation (n = 144). The primary outcome was the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) questionnaire six months after surgery, with a third of the minimal clinically important difference (MCID) used as the noninferiority threshold. Secondary outcomes were pain, health-related quality of life (EuroQol five-dimensional questionnaire (EQ-5D)), radiological measures, functional deficits, and complications. RESULTS: Overall, 151/290 of patients (52%) completed the six months of follow-up, leaving 83 patients in the single-wire group and 68 patients in the dual-wire group. In the modified intention-to-treat analysis set, mean DASH scores six months after surgery were 3.8 (sd 7.0) and 4.4 (sd 9.4), respectively. With multiple imputation (n = 288), mean DASH scores were estimated at 6.3 (sd 8.7) and 7.0 (sd 10.0). Upper (1 - 2α)) confidence limits consistently remained below the noninferiority margin of 3.0 points in the DASH instrument. While there was a statistically nonsignificant trend towards a higher rate of shortening and rotational malalignment in the single wire group, no statistically significant differences were observed across groups in any secondary outcome measure. CONCLUSION: A single thick K-wire is sufficient for intramedullary fixation of acute displaced subcapital fractures of the fifth metacarpal neck. The less technically demanding single-wire technique produces noninferior clinical and radiological outcomes compared with the dual-wire approach. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2019;101-B:1263-1271.


Assuntos
Fios Ortopédicos , Fratura-Luxação/cirurgia , Fixação Interna de Fraturas/instrumentação , Fixação Intramedular de Fraturas/instrumentação , Fraturas Ósseas/cirurgia , Ossos Metacarpais/lesões , Adulto , Feminino , Traumatismos dos Dedos/diagnóstico por imagem , Traumatismos dos Dedos/cirurgia , Fixação Interna de Fraturas/métodos , Fixação Intramedular de Fraturas/métodos , Consolidação da Fratura/fisiologia , Alemanha , Força da Mão/fisiologia , Humanos , Escala de Gravidade do Ferimento , Masculino , Ossos Metacarpais/cirurgia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Prognóstico , Amplitude de Movimento Articular/fisiologia , Medição de Risco
7.
Clin Interv Aging ; 14: 1681-1691, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31631989

RESUMO

Grip strength has been proposed as a biomarker. Supporting this proposition, evidence is provided herein that shows grip strength is largely consistent as an explanator of concurrent overall strength, upper limb function, bone mineral density, fractures, falls, malnutrition, cognitive impairment, depression, sleep problems, diabetes, multimorbidity, and quality of life. Evidence is also provided for a predictive link between grip strength and all-cause and disease-specific mortality, future function, bone mineral density, fractures, cognition and depression, and problems associated with hospitalization. Consequently, the routine use of grip strength can be recommended as a stand-alone measurement or as a component of a small battery of measurements for identifying older adults at risk of poor health status.


Assuntos
Depressão/psicologia , Força da Mão/fisiologia , Nível de Saúde , Resistência Física/fisiologia , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Atividades Cotidianas , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Depressão/epidemiologia , Feminino , Avaliação Geriátrica , Hospitalização , Humanos , Masculino , Multimorbidade
8.
Exp Psychol ; 66(4): 310-317, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31530249

RESUMO

This work aimed to assess the role of manual laterality in action coding strategies and, subsequently, in environmental features relevant for each hand's action. Relying on Eder and Hommel's (2013) proposal, we distinguished stimulus-related and end state-related consequences in a Simon paradigm where right-handed participants were divided into two groups, one responding with gloves and one without. Two objects were presented pictorially: one for which sensory consequences of grasping were negatively valenced (a chestnut burr), and one for which they were positively valenced (an apricot). By these means, stimulus and end-state effects could be assessed separately, along with the relevance of each feature of the experimental settings. Results showed that the use of one's dominant or non dominant hand gives rise to different repercussions of stimulus-related and end state-related effects on response: Responses made with the right (dominant) hand were based on an elaborated coding (representing features of stimulus-related and end state-related consequences of action). In contrast, responses made with the left (non dominant) hand seemed to be based on a less elaborated coding (not taking into account end-state consequences of an action).


Assuntos
Lateralidade Funcional/fisiologia , Força da Mão/fisiologia , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
9.
Braz J Med Biol Res ; 52(9): e8204, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31482974

RESUMO

Sarcopenia remains poorly managed in clinical practice due to the lack of simple and accurate screening tools. This study aimed to identify the cutoff values of the SARC-F questionnaire and Ishii's score using the variables age, grip strength, and calf circumference in older inpatients in China to compare the accuracy of the two methods and to explore their predictive ability for adverse outcomes (rehospitalization, falls, fracture, and death). Hospitalized patients (n=138) aged ≥60 years were included. The accuracy of the two tools was evaluated using the reference diagnosis recommended by the Asian Working Group on Sarcopenia (assessing patients with measurements of muscle mass, handgrip strength, and usual gait speed). Follow-up data were obtained by telephone and clinical visits combined with the inpatient medical record system after discharge for at least one year. The results showed that the SARC-F score reached the highest Youden's index when a score of 3 was set as the cutoff value. Ishii's score presented a higher accuracy than SARC-F (area under the receiver operating curve: 0.78 vs 0.64, P=0.01). The Kaplan-Meier survival analysis demonstrated a higher cumulative incidence of rehospitalization in sarcopenic individuals compared to non-sarcopenic individuals according to SARC-F (log-rank test, P<0.001). Cox analysis revealed that SARC-F was an independent risk factor for rehospitalization (adjusted hazard ratio: 4.23, 95%CI: 2.12-9.79, P<0.001). The SARC-F and Ishii's scores might facilitate the early detection of sarcopenia and help identify older adults at risk for adverse outcomes in clinical practice.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Avaliação Geriátrica/métodos , Força da Mão/fisiologia , Sarcopenia/diagnóstico , Inquéritos e Questionários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Pacientes Internados , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sarcopenia/fisiopatologia
10.
Sensors (Basel) ; 19(16)2019 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31412642

RESUMO

Although arch motions of the palm substantially contribute to frequent hand grasping, they are usually neglected in the development of prosthetic hands which focuses on digit movements. We designed the arch function for its implementation on an adaptive multi-finger prosthetic hand. The digits from the developed hand can perform adaptive grasping, and two carpometacarpal joints enable the palm of the prosthetic hand to form an arch with the thumb. Moreover, the arch posture can be passively released, mimicking the human hand switching between sphere and medium wrap grasps according to the situation. Other requirements such as weight, cost, and size limitations for hand prostheses were also considered. As a result, we only used three actuators fully embedded in the palm through a novel tendon-driven transmission. Although the prosthetic hand is almost the same size of an adult hand, it weighs only 146 g and can perform 70% of the 10 most frequent grasps.


Assuntos
Mãos/fisiologia , Desenho de Prótese , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Eletromiografia , Dedos/fisiologia , Força da Mão/fisiologia , Humanos
11.
Acta Psychol (Amst) ; 199: 102902, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31404744

RESUMO

Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) demonstrate inefficient motor planning ability with a tendency to opt for non-optimal planning strategies. Motor imagery can provide an insight to this planning inefficiency, as it may be a strategy for improving motor planning and thereby motor performance for those with DCD. In this study, we investigated the prevalence of end-state-comfort (ESC) and the minimal rotation strategy using a grip selection task in children with DCD with and without motor imagery instructions. Boys with (n = 14) and without DCD (n = 18) aged 7-12 years completed one, two and three colour sequences of a grip selection (octagon) task. Two conditions were examined; a Motor Planning (MP) condition requiring only the performance of the task and a Motor Imagery and Planning (MIP) condition, which included an instruction to imagine performing the movement before execution. For the MP condition, children with DCD ended fewer trials in ESC for the one (p = 0.001) and two colour (p = 0.002) sequences and used a minimal rotation strategy more often than those without DCD. For the MIP condition, the DCD group significantly increased their use of the ESC strategy for the one colour sequences (p = 0.014) while those without DCD improved for the two colour (p = 0.008) sequences. ESC level of the DCD group on the MIP condition was similar to those without DCD at baseline for all colour sequences. Motor imagery shows potential as a strategy for improving motor planning in children with DCD. Implications and limitations are discussed.


Assuntos
Força da Mão/fisiologia , Imaginação/fisiologia , Transtornos das Habilidades Motoras/psicologia , Destreza Motora/fisiologia , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos das Habilidades Motoras/fisiopatologia , Movimento/fisiologia , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Rotação
12.
Postgrad Med ; 131(7): 453-460, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31469966

RESUMO

Objectives: Recent evidence suggests an association between functional capacity and cognitive function, at least in older adults. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to examine the association between cognitive function, functional capacity, isokinetic leg strength, health-related quality of life (HRQOL), sleep quality, body fat, handgrip strength, and fatigue among a sample of MS patients. Methods: Fifty-one relapsing-remitting MS patients (age: 38.4 ± 7.1 yrs; 30 females) were recruited and agreed to participate in this study. Cognitive function was assessed by the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test (PASAT). Functional capacity was examined using various functional tests commonly used in MS patients. Maximal voluntary unilateral leg strength was assessed using isokinetic dynamometer. Isometric handgrip strength was assessed by a dynamometer. Total body and visceral fat levels were assessed via bioelectrical impedance analyzers. Finally, the patients' HRQOL, sleep quality, and fatigue levels were evaluated using specific questionnaires. Results: A significant association was found between the PASAT score and the performance score in various functional capacity tests (p < 0.050). On the other hand, a weak but statistically significant association was found between the PASAT score and isokinetic strength of knee extensors (r = 0.319, p = 0.022) and knee flexors (r = 0.354 p = 0.011). Poor sleep quality was associated with lower performance in all the functional capacity tests examined (p < 0.05) whilst was negatively associated with the PASAT score (r = -0.334, p = 0.017). The multivariate regression analysis revealed that the performance on the TUG test was a significant predictor of cognitive function. Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, functional capacity was found to be associated with both impaired cognitive performance and low HRQOL in MS patients. In addition, an association between sleep quality and cognitive performance was revealed, confirming existing literature. Functional capacity as assessed by the TUG test emerged as the best predictor of cognitive function.


Assuntos
Cognição , Fadiga/fisiopatologia , Força da Mão/fisiologia , Esclerose Múltipla Recidivante-Remitente/fisiopatologia , Qualidade de Vida , Tecido Adiposo , Adulto , Composição Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Impedância Elétrica , Fadiga/psicologia , Feminino , Músculos Isquiotibiais , Humanos , Gordura Intra-Abdominal , Perna (Membro) , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Esclerose Múltipla Recidivante-Remitente/psicologia , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Músculo Quadríceps , Sono , Inquéritos e Questionários , Teste de Caminhada
13.
IEEE Int Conf Rehabil Robot ; 2019: 198-203, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31374630

RESUMO

Progression of technology has expanded applications of smart walkers in clinical fields. However, it is essential to investigate the effects of different types of gait guidance in order to introduce smart walkers more widely throughout these fields. The purpose of this study was to identify the effects of assistive and resistive guidance on the gait of elderly people using a smart walker. Gait parameters, surface electromyography of lower limb muscles, and trunk acceleration were measured. The assistive guidance force significantly increased gait speed, step length, and cadence while increasing trunk acceleration variability. The same amount of resistive guidance force did not change gait parameters; instead, however, it restrained the speed-dependent increase of trunk acceleration variability in the mediolateral direction. An analysis of muscle activity suggested that the lower limb muscle activity could be increased by varying gait parameters including speed, step length, and cadence.


Assuntos
Marcha/fisiologia , Caminhada/fisiologia , Aceleração , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Eletromiografia , Feminino , Força da Mão/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino
14.
IEEE Int Conf Rehabil Robot ; 2019: 994-999, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31374759

RESUMO

Early detection of neurodevelopmental disorders in infants is critical for early intervention to improve their long-term function. Integrating natural play with quantitative measurements of developmental milestones may help to quickly and efficiently identify infants at-risk for developmental delays. Ailu is a sensorized toy designed to elicit and measure natural infant play interactions. Ailu is part of the Play and Neuro Development Assessment (PANDA) gym, whose purpose is to serve as a universal and quantitative screening tool for detection of delays. This case study describes design considerations made developing Ailu and evaluates Ailu's potential in upper limb, lower limb, and parent-guided testing with a 3-month old infant. Ailu can encourage reaching, kicking, and grasping, and will be tested for distinguishing typical and atypical development with further infant trials.


Assuntos
Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/diagnóstico , Jogos e Brinquedos , Feminino , Força da Mão/fisiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Extremidade Inferior/fisiologia , Extremidade Superior/fisiologia
15.
IEEE Int Conf Rehabil Robot ; 2019: 1013-1018, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31374762

RESUMO

Controlling two objects simultaneously during a bimanual task is a cognitively demanding process; both hands need to be temporally and spatially coordinated to achieve the shared task goal. Children with unilateral spastic cerebral palsy (USCP) exhibit severe sensory and motor impairments to one side of their body that make the process of coordinating bimanual movements particularly exhausting. Prior studies have shown that performing visually-coupled task could reduce cognitive interference associated with performing 'two tasks at once' in an uncoupled bimanual task. For children with USCP, who also present with cognitive delay, performing this type of task may allow them to process and plan their movement faster. We tested this hypothesis by examining the grip force control of 7 children with USCP during unimanual and visually-coupled bimanual tasks. Results demonstrated that despite the visual coupling, the bimanual coordination of these children remained impaired. However, there may be a potential benefit of visually-coupled task in encouraging both hands to initiate in concert. The implication of the study for children with USCP is discussed.


Assuntos
Paralisia Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Mãos/fisiologia , Força da Mão/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Destreza Motora/fisiologia , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas
16.
IEEE Int Conf Rehabil Robot ; 2019: 1127-1132, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31374781

RESUMO

The use of robotic devices to provide active motor support and sensory feedback of ongoing motor intention, by means of a Brain Computer Interface (BCI), has received growing support by recent literature, with particular focus on neurorehabilitation therapies. At the same time, performance in the use of the BCI has become a more critical factor, since it directly influences congruency and consistency of the provided sensory feedback. As motor imagery is the mental simulation of a given movement without depending on residual function, training of patients in the use of motor imagery BCI can be extended beyond each rehabilitation session, and practiced by using simpler devices than rehabilitation robots available in the hospital. In this work, we investigated the use of haptic stimulation provided by vibrating electromagnetic motors to enhance BCI system training. The BCI is based on motor imagery of hand grasping and designed to operate a hand exoskeleton. We investigated whether haptic stimulation at fingerpads proves to be more effective than stimulation at wrist, already experimented in literature, due to the higher density of mechano-receptors. Our results did not show significant differences between the two body locations in BCI performance, yet a wider and more stable event-relateddesynchronization appeared for the finger-located stimulation. Future investigations will put in relation training with haptic feedback at fingerpads with BCI performance using the handexoskeleton, in grasping tasks that naturally involve haptic feedback at fingerpads.


Assuntos
Exoesqueleto Energizado , Mãos/fisiologia , Interfaces Cérebro-Computador , Retroalimentação Sensorial/fisiologia , Força da Mão/fisiologia , Humanos , Punho/fisiologia
17.
IEEE Int Conf Rehabil Robot ; 2019: 1203-1208, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31374793

RESUMO

This paper provides a proof of concept for an actuating system comprised of a linear actuator and a spring steel strip that enables bidirectional articulation of a finger by transmitting the force directly to the finger tip. This proposed design can be distinguished from other orthosis designs, which use rigid linkages or cables with DC motors or fluidic systems for force generation and transmission. We designed an experimental setup with a 3D-printed model finger to mimic a passive human finger on which the actuation system was mounted and tested. The finger was positioned such that it would curl upward to lift various masses when articulated by the actuating system to demonstrate the system's force generation capability. We tested two linear actuators and two steel strips, using a wide range of masses to determine which would be the most suitable components for our design. We analyzed motion profiles, joint angles, force generation, and actuator stroke velocities during various experimental trials. Our results demonstrate that our actuating system is capable of generating sufficient forces and motions with an adequate response time to be used in the design of a hand orthosis for grasping/releasing assistance. From our tests, a prototype was designed with three linear actuators positioned on the dorsal side of the hand and actuated the thumb, index, and middle fingers. Future work will include sensor integration and performance evaluation of the orthosis.


Assuntos
Articulações dos Dedos/fisiologia , Dedos/fisiologia , Mãos/fisiologia , Força da Mão/fisiologia , Humanos , Movimento (Física)
18.
IEEE Int Conf Rehabil Robot ; 2019: 1272-1277, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31374804

RESUMO

Nowadays, electric-powered hand prostheses do not provide adequate sensory instrumentation and artificial feedback to allow users voluntarily and finely modulate the grasp strength applied to the objects. In this work, the design of a control architecture for a myocontrol-based regulation of the grasp strength for a robotic hand equipped with contact force sensors is presented. The goal of the study was to provide the user with the capability of modulating the grasping force according to target required levels by exploiting a vibrotactile feedback. In particular, the whole human-robot control system is concerned (i.e. myocontrol, robotic hand controller, vibrotactile feedback.) In order to evaluate the intuitiveness and force tracking performance provided by the proposed control architecture, an experiment was carried out involving four naïve able-bodied subjects in a grasping strength regulation task with a myocontrolled robotic hand (the University of Bologna Hand), requiring for grasping different objects with specific target force levels. The reported results show that the control architecture successfully allowed all subjects to achieve all grasping strength levels exploiting the vibrotactile feedback information. This preliminary demonstrates that, potentially, the proposed control interface can be profitably exploited in upper-limb prosthetic applications, as well as for non-rehabilitation uses, e.g. in ultra-light teleoperation for grasping devices.


Assuntos
Força da Mão/fisiologia , Mãos/fisiologia , Robótica , Amputados , Membros Artificiais , Eletromiografia , Retroalimentação Sensorial/fisiologia , Humanos , Desenho de Prótese
19.
Hum Mov Sci ; 67: 102497, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31326743

RESUMO

We over-estimate or under-estimate the size of an object depending its background structure (e.g., the Ebbinghaus illusion). Since deciding and preparing to execute a movement is based on perception, motor performance deteriorates due to the faulty perception of information. Therefore, such cognitive process can be a source of a failure in motor performance, although we feel in control of our performance through conscious cognitive activities. If a movement execution process can avoid distraction by the illusion-deceived conscious process, the effect of the visual illusion on visuomotor performance can be eliminated or attenuated. This study investigated this hypothesis by examining two task performances developed for a target figure inducing the Ebbinghaus size illusion: showing visually perceived size of an object by index finger-thumb aperture (size-matching), and reaching out for the object and pretending to grasp it (pantomimed grasping). In these task performances, the size of the index finger-thumb aperture becomes larger or smaller than the actual size, in accordance with the illusion effect. This study examined whether the size illusion effect can be weakened or eliminated by the dual-task condition where actors' attention to judge the object's size and to produce the aperture size is interrupted. 16 participants performed the size-matching and pantomimed grasping tasks while simultaneously executing a choice reaction task (dual task) or without doing so (single task). Using an optical motion capture system, the size-illusion effect was analyzed in terms of the aperture size, which indicates the visually perceived object size. The illusion effect was attenuated in the dual task condition, compared to it in the single task condition. This suggests that the dual task condition modulated attention focus on the aperture movement and therefore the aperture movement was achieved with less distraction caused by illusory information.


Assuntos
Ilusões/fisiologia , Percepção de Tamanho/fisiologia , Feminino , Dedos/fisiologia , Força da Mão/fisiologia , Humanos , Julgamento , Masculino , Movimento/fisiologia , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Polegar/fisiologia , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
20.
Yonsei Med J ; 60(8): 742-750, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31347329

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Muscle mass, strength, and composition determine muscle quantity and quality. However, data on muscle properties in relation to bone mass or insulin resistance are limited in Asian populations. This study aimed to investigate the relative importance of muscle measurements in regards to their relationship with lower bone mass and insulin resistance. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this study, 192 postmenopausal women (age, 72.39±6.07 years) were enrolled. We measured muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) and attenuation at the gluteus maximus and quadriceps muscles through quantitative computed tomography. Muscle strength and physical performance were evaluated with the hand grip test and Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB). Pearson correlation analysis and linear regression were performed to evaluate the relationship between muscle properties and homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) or bone mineral density (BMD). RESULTS: Muscle CSA, hand grip strength, and SPPB score held positive correlations with spine and hip BMDs, but not with insulin resistance. In contrast, muscle attenuation of the gluteus maximus or quadriceps was inversely related to HOMA-IR (r=-0.194, p=0.018 and r=-0.292, p<0.001, respectively), but not BMD. Compared with the control group, muscle CSA was significantly decreased in patients with osteoporosis; however, decreased muscle attenuation, indicating high fat infiltration, was found only in patients with diabetes. CONCLUSION: Muscle mass, strength, and physical performance were associated with low bone mass, and accumulation of intramuscular fat, a histological hallmark of persistently damaged muscles, may play a major role in the development of insulin resistance in Korean postmenopausal women.


Assuntos
Osso e Ossos/anatomia & histologia , Resistência à Insulina , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/anatomia & histologia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Pós-Menopausa/fisiologia , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Densidade Óssea/fisiologia , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Mellitus/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Força da Mão/fisiologia , Humanos , Tamanho do Órgão , Osteoporose/fisiopatologia , República da Coreia
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