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1.
Behav Brain Sci ; 42: e303, 2020 01 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31896364

RESUMO

In the integrative memory model proposed by Bastin et al., familiarity is thought to arise from attribution of fluency signals. We suggest that, from a computational and anatomical perspective, this conceptualization converges with a global-matching account of familiarity assessment. We also argue that consideration of global matching and evidence accumulation in decision making could help further our understanding of the proposed attribution system.


Assuntos
Memória , Formação de Conceito , Humanos , Transtornos da Memória , Rememoração Mental
2.
F1000Res ; 82019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31824658

RESUMO

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a clinically defined disorder, and inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity are its main symptom domains. The presentation, lifelong continuation and treatment response of ADHD symptoms, however, is highly heterogeneous. To better define, diagnose, treat and prevent ADHD, it is essential that we understand the biological processes underlying all of these elements. In this review, given the high heritability of ADHD, we discuss how and why genetics can foster such progress. We examine what genetics have taught us so far with regard to ADHD definition, classification, clinical presentation, diagnosis and treatment. Finally, we offer a prospect of what genetic studies on ADHD may bring in the future.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade , Cognição , Formação de Conceito , Humanos , Comportamento Impulsivo
3.
Cuad. bioét ; 30(100): 289-302, sept.-dic. 2019.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-185242

RESUMO

El artículo busca anticipar los desafíos que se vislumbran hacia el futuro una vez que se perfeccione la técnica de la edición genética. En primer lugar, se encuadra la edición genética en el marco de la especificidad de la tecnología moderna. En segundo lugar, se plantea cómo el contraste de lo natural con lo artificial ilumina el problema que significa pretender sustituir lo natural, en el sentido de lo dado, con lo proyectado por la tecnología. Posteriormente, después de constatar el carácter incipiente de la reflexión teológica sobre la técnica, se plantea la convergencia de la idea de creación con un respeto por los equilibrios naturales, propios de la sensibilidad ecológica contemporánea. Se muestra así, que la propuesta cristiana no es la tecnofobia, sino la integración de la técnica -como elemento central de la cultura que desarrolla el ser humano- con la naturaleza y la asunción del carácter limitado de las realidades naturales, incluyendo al mismo ser humano. De este modo, la vulnerabilidad, como realización de esta finitud, es la característica que nos iguala y nos exige el reconocimiento de nuestra dignidad, mucho más que la realización de un ideal de perfección tecnológicamente mediado, aunque fuera accesible para todos


This paper tries to look forward to the incoming ethical challenges related with genetic editing. It begins with contextualizing genetic edition within the specific nature of modern technology. Afterwards it presents the contrast between natural beings and artifacts that sheds light for answering the question about the real possibility of replacing natural beings, as they are, with technologically projected living beings. In the third place, after acknowledging the scarce attention given by contemporary theology to technology, it shows the convergence of the Christian concept of creation with the respect for balance in nature, as most part of the contemporaty ecological sensibility upholds. Building on this common ground it shows that the Christian attitude towards technology is not technofobical but the integration of technology -a central element of contemporary culture- with nature, accepting the limitation of any natural being including mankind. In this way, vulnerability, as a visible consequence of this finitude, is the very attribute of human beings that makes ourselves equal and requieres recongnition of our common dignity, way over the idea of acquiring an ideal perfection through technology, even if it was accesible to all


Assuntos
Humanos , Proteína 9 Associada à CRISPR , Teologia , Engenharia Genética/ética , Engenharia Genética/instrumentação , Formação de Conceito/ética
4.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 19(1): 761, 2019 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31660976

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Accessing HIV-related care is challenging for formerly incarcerated people with HIV. Interventions informed by the perspectives of these individuals could facilitate engagement with care and address competing priorities that may act as barriers to this process. METHODS: We used concept mapping to identify and prioritize the main obstacles to engaging with HIV-related care following prison release. In brainstorming sessions, formerly incarcerated people with HIV generated responses to a focused prompt regarding the main barriers to reengaging with care. These were consolidated in 35 statements. Next, participants sorted the consolidated list of responses into groups and rated each from lowest to highest in terms of its importance and feasibility of being addressed. We used cluster analysis to generate concept maps that were interpreted with participants. RESULTS: Overall, 39 participants participated in brainstorming sessions, among whom 18 returned for rating and sorting. Following analysis, a seven-cluster map was generated, with participants rating the 'Practical Considerations' (e.g. lack of transportation from prison) and 'Survival Needs' (e.g. securing housing and food) clusters as most important. Although ratings were generally similar between women and men, women assigned greater importance to barriers related to reconnecting with children. CONCLUSIONS: Using concept mapping, we worked with formerly incarcerated people with HIV to identify and prioritize key challenges related to accessing health and social services following prison release. Transitional intervention programs should include programs and processes that address meeting basic subsistence needs and overcoming logistical barriers related to community re-entry.


Assuntos
Formação de Conceito , Infecções por HIV/terapia , Prisioneiros/estatística & dados numéricos , Cuidado Transicional/organização & administração , Adulto , Análise por Conglomerados , Feminino , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ontário
5.
Aten. prim. (Barc., Ed. impr.) ; 51(8): 506-511, oct. 2019. ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-185754

RESUMO

En las últimas décadas el mundo de la medicina se ha familiarizado con la valoración de los conflictos de interés (CDI). En las revistas científicas se ha generalizado el requisito de que los autores declaren sus CDI en relación con los artículos que proponen publicar; otros aspectos sensibles que merecen atención son los CDI en la toma de decisiones sobre prescripción y los CDI de quienes ocupan puestos de responsabilidad en instituciones científicas, asistenciales o de representación profesional. Estos debates son coherentes con la preocupación de las sociedades democráticas por la justicia y la ética social que exigen juego limpio en la toma de decisiones que afectan a terceros, particularmente a los pacientes. En el presente trabajo se analiza el concepto de los CDI, los tipos de conflictos que pueden abarcar y se reflexiona sobre propuestas para la gestión de los mismos en la profesión médica


In the last decades the world of medicine has become familiar with the disclosure of conflicts of interest (CDI). The requirement for authors to declare their CDIs concerning their publications is a common issue. Another topic for CDI is related to the medical decision making on prescription. Finally, professionals being in positions of responsibility in professional societies or associations and healthcare institutions are asked to show their disclosure of CDI. These debates show up the interest of democratic societies for justice and social ethics that demand fair play in making decisions that may affect third parties, particularly patients. In the present work, the concept and types of CDIs are analyzed, and authors make proposals for the management of CDI in the medical profession


Assuntos
Humanos , Conflito de Interesses , Formação de Conceito/ética , Profissionalismo , Educação Médica/ética , Indústria Farmacêutica , Educação Médica/normas
6.
Dis Mon ; 65(9): 303-356, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31405516

RESUMO

The term transgender youth commonly refers to those whose gender identity, or personal core sense of self as a particular gender, differs from their assigned sex at birth; this is often designated by what external genitalia are present. These youths are presenting to multidisciplinary clinics worldwide at exponentially higher rates than in decades past, and clinics themselves have grown in number to meet the specialized demands of these youth. Additionally, the scientific and medical community has moved towards understanding the construct of gender dimensionally (i.e., across a spectrum from male to female) as opposed to dichotomous or binary "male or female" categories. This is reflected in the American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fifth edition (DSM 5); in this publication, the diagnostic classification of gender dysphoria, GD, (which has two subtypes: childhood and adolescence/adulthood) provides a set of criteria that many transgender people meet. GD describes the affective distress that arises as a result of the incongruence between gender identity and sex anatomy. The DSM uses language to indicate that a person may identify as another gender instead of the other gender, which further captures the complexity of the human experience of gender. Also, research regarding how current adolescents are describing their identity development and experience along this spectrum within today's society is only now being addressed in the literature. Therefore, the clinical needs of the transgender population have outpaced medical training and scientific advancement, which has opened up gaps on how to define best practices. This article provides current concepts of evaluation and management for transgender persons with emphasis on hormonal therapy (i.e., puberty blockers and gender affirming hormone therapy). Other management issues are briefly considered including gender confirming surgery and changes in the face as well as voice.


Assuntos
Assistência à Saúde , Disforia de Gênero , Identidade de Gênero , Serviços de Saúde para Pessoas Transgênero , Pessoas Transgênero , Adolescente , Adulto , Atitude , Criança , Comunicação , Formação de Conceito , Feminino , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Adulto Jovem
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31426408

RESUMO

Many parents experience "fever phobia", based on misconceptions regarding the repercussions of fever in their children. The aim of this paper was to explore the conceptualizations of parents who are health professionals and parents without health qualifications on childhood fever. This qualitative study was based on grounded theory using a triangulated sample (theoretical sampling and snowball sampling) of parents of children aged 0 to 12 years old who received care for fever in the Emergency Primary Care Services two in Spanish municipalities. Data collection was based on focus groups segmented by gender, place of residence and education. Data analysis followed the constant comparative method and involved a coding process. Results show that independently of the parents' place of residence or education, their perceptions of fever were somewhat ambivalent, beneficial at times, but also harmful. Parents acknowledged feelings of concern, fear, being overwhelmed, freezing up and relief once the fever was controlled. Health professional parents considered they had an extra responsibility for caring. Finally, parents without health education demanded more information from professionals. These results provide key information for the design of interventions directed at the management of fever in children.


Assuntos
Febre/psicologia , Pais/psicologia , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Formação de Conceito , Emoções , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Teoria Fundamentada , Educação em Saúde , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pais/educação , Pesquisa Qualitativa
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31366078

RESUMO

Background: Although the addition of patients in the process of shared decision-making can improve their recovery, there is a lack of knowledge about patients' and caregivers' perceptions on the management of pressure ulcers at home. Objectives: To explore the conceptualisations of patients with pressure ulcers and their caregivers on the barriers and facilitators for their involvement in home care and in the process of shared decision-making regarding the care provided. Methods: A qualitative study based on grounded theory in a theoretical sample of 10 patients with pressure ulcers and 15 main caregivers from the health district of Puertollano (Spain). The data were based on semi-structured interviews, analysed using a coding process and the constant comparative method. Results: According to the participants, personal motivation and the involvement of primary care professionals facilitated their participation in the process of shared decision-making and generated feelings of positivity. In contrast, older age, having disabling pathologies, a low educational level or health paternalism were perceived as barriers for their involvement. Conclusions: A non-paternalistic care model and personal motivation facilitate the process of shared decision-making in the care of people with pressure ulcers. Further studies are required to deepen the understanding of this phenomenon and examine the barriers and facilitators for the involvement of patients and caregivers in the management of these injuries in other contexts.


Assuntos
Cuidadores , Tomada de Decisões , Serviços de Assistência Domiciliar , Lesão por Pressão/patologia , Lesão por Pressão/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Idoso , Envelhecimento , Resina de Colestiramina , Formação de Conceito , Coleta de Dados , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Espanha
9.
Rev. psicol. trab. organ. (1999) ; 35(2): 123-133, ago. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-184737

RESUMO

We develop and test a cross-level model of team focus on positive and negative discretionary team member behaviors. Using data collected from 405 team members across 76 teams and 15 organizations, we find that team focus is positively associated with interpersonal and organizational citizenship behaviors, and negatively associated with interpersonal deviance. We also find that team focus is positively associated with team members" level of action identification. Exploratory analyses suggest that team members" level of action identification might mediate the relationships between team focus, organizational citizenship, interpersonal deviance, and organizational deviance, respectively. We also find that real teams do not distinguish between outcome and process focus like lab and student teams do. Theoretical and managerial implications are discussed


Desarrollamos y probamos un modelo transversal de enfoque del grupo sobre las conductas discrecionales positivas y negativas de los miembros del grupo. Usando datos de 405 miembros de equipo en 76 equipos y 15 organizaciones encontramos que el enfoque del equipo está asociado positivamente con los comportamientos cívicos interpersonales y organizacionales y negativamente con la desviación interpersonal. También encontramos que el enfoque del equipo se asocia positivamente con el nivel de identificación de las acciones por parte de los miembros del equipo. Los análisis exploratorios sugieren que el nivel de identificación de la acción podría mediar las relaciones entre el enfoque del equipo, el civismo organizacional, la desviación interpersonal y la desviación organizacional, respectivamente. También encontramos que los equipos reales no distinguen entre el enfoque de proceso y resultado como ocurre con los equipos de laboratorio y de estudiantes. Se discuten las implicaciones teóricas y para los managers


Assuntos
Humanos , Comportamento Social , Identificação Social , Grupo Social , Processos Grupais , Formação de Conceito , Sociedade Civil , Grupos Focais
11.
BMC Med Educ ; 19(1): 239, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31262283

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Professionalism instruction and assessment is a core component of medical education, and essential for professional identity formation (PIF). Thus, understanding the socialization of medical students to the values of the profession (i.e., medical professionalism), and how these may evolve, warrants continued understanding. METHODS: The purpose of this study was to examine and compare pre-clerkship (first and second year) medical students' perceptions of professionalism. First and second year medical students participate in this study. This was a two-phase mixed-methods cohort study conducted across two academic years (2014-2015 and 2015-2016). In Phase I, first and second year medical students participated in a nominal group technique (NGT) session. NGT data was analyzed qualitatively to generate a card-sorting exercise of professionalism attributes for Phase II. In Phase II, data from the sorting task was analyzed using Principle Component Analysis (PCA). RESULTS: The PCA for first year students derived a 7-factor solution. Factors (i.e., professionalism domains) identified were: Self-management and patient-centeredness, ethics and professional reputation, dependability, self-awareness and self-improvement, image, proficiency and lifelong learning and integrity. The PCA for second year students derived a 5-factor solution; factors identified were: "Good Doctor" attributes, responsibility, ethics, innovation and self-improvement and unbiased. CONCLUSIONS: Identification and organization of attributes into an overarching professionalism mental model provide a window into the active reconstruction of students' professional identity during the nascent stages of medical education. M1 professionalism domains were more consistent with the conventional professional image of the physician (e.g. Ethics and Professional reputation, Dependability, Integrity), whereas, M2 domains reflected a more global view (e.g., "Good Doctor" attributes, Responsibility, Ethics). This study provides a lens into the dynamic nature of students' PIF and encourages educators to evaluate PIF pedagogy at their own institutions.


Assuntos
Atitude , Educação de Graduação em Medicina , Profissionalismo/educação , Estudantes de Medicina/psicologia , Formação de Conceito , Florida , Humanos , Faculdades de Medicina
12.
Int J Equity Health ; 18(1): 80, 2019 05 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31151452

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Implementation research is increasingly used to identify common implementation problems and key barriers and facilitators influencing efficient access to health interventions. OBJECTIVE: To develop and propose an equity-based framework for Implementation Research (EquIR) of health programs, policies and systems. METHODS: A systematic search of models and conceptual frameworks involving equity in the implementation of health programs, policies and systems was conducted in Medline (PubMed), Embase, LILACS, Scopus and grey literature. Key characteristics of models and conceptual frameworks were summarized. We identified key aspects of equity in the context of seven Latin American countries-focused health programs We gathered information related to the awareness of inequalities in health policy, systems and programs, the potential negative impact of increasing inequalities in disadvantaged populations, and the strategies used to reduce them. RESULTS: A conceptual framework of EquIR was developed. It includes elements of equity-focused implementation research, but it also links the population health status before and after the implementation, including relevant aspects of health equity before, during and after the implementation. Additionally, health sectors were included, linked with social determinants of health through the "health in all policies" proposal affecting universal health and the potential impact of the public health and public policies. CONCLUSION: EquIR is a conceptual framework that is proposed for use by decision makers and researchers during the implementation of programs, policies or health interventions, with a focus on equity, which aims to reduce or prevent the increase of existing inequalities during implementation.


Assuntos
Equidade em Saúde , Política de Saúde , Promoção da Saúde , Serviços de Saúde , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde , Pesquisa , Formação de Conceito , Assistência à Saúde , Humanos , América Latina , Pobreza , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Cobertura Universal do Seguro de Saúde , Populações Vulneráveis
13.
Anim Cogn ; 22(5): 733-742, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31147849

RESUMO

Match (MTS) and non-match-to-sample (NMTS) procedures are used to assess concepts of identity and oddity across species and are measured by transfer performance to novel stimuli. The number of exemplars used in training (set size) has been shown to affect learning with evidence of larger set sizes promoting concept learning in several species. The present study explored the effects of set size and procedure on concept learning in rats using olfactory stimuli. Concept learning was assessed for 20 rats via transfer tests consisting of novel stimuli after rats were initially trained to either MTS or NMTS with two or ten stimuli as exemplars. No difference was found in acquisition or transfer between MTS and NMTS, but rats trained with ten stimuli performed better on novel transfer tests than rats trained with two. When set size was expanded for rats originally trained with two stimuli and rats were re-tested with ten novel stimuli, performance showed full transfer demonstrating that training with multiple exemplars facilitates concept learning.


Assuntos
Formação de Conceito , Aprendizagem por Discriminação , Animais , Aprendizagem , Ratos
17.
Int. j. psychol. psychol. ther. (Ed. impr.) ; 19(2): 141-161, jun. 2019. graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-183853

RESUMO

No disponible


This paper proposes a functional interpretation of psychopathic behavior as an alternative to formal attempts to explain this rare, complex and, dangerous pattern of behaviors. First of all, the contextual-functional approach is briefly summarized. In second place, four well-known historical cases of psychopathy are briefly described and analyzed. According to a functional approach, the key issues are the contingencies occurring in the personal histories of such individuals as well as the derived transformation of functions that established such rare and dangerous pattern of behavior regulation. A brief analysis is made of the cognitive and emotional characteristics traditionally predicated as exclusive of psychopathy (as lack of empathy, emotional responsiveness, impulsivity, the need of power, etcetera) that sets the stage for an interpretative analysis about the conditions that might be involved in the emergence and expansion of the behaviors typically categorized with the psychopathic label. This analysis focuses on the personal history and describes the confluence of conditions that form thoughts/beliefs about oneself and the others, that establishes as dominant reinforcers obtaining immediate pleasure and escaping aversive funtions as well as feeling unlimited power upon others. This analysis might indicate that the exceptionality of psychopathy migth lie on the occurrence of very extreme specific and unusual conditions and the non-occurrence of those conditions that might prevent the building of repertoires as those described in psychopathy. Therefore, the functional-contextual interpretation characterizes psychopaths persons not as having specific differences in their brains or having difficulties for the formation of adaptive cognitive functioning and behavior regulation, to give account for their psychopatic behavior


Assuntos
Humanos , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/psicologia , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Criminosos/psicologia , Homicídio/psicologia , Comportamento Criminoso , Crime/psicologia , Violência/psicologia , Formação de Conceito
18.
Comput Intell Neurosci ; 2019: 8361369, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31065256

RESUMO

This paper proposes an artificial spiking neural network (SNN) sustaining the cognitive abstract process of spatial concept learning, embedded in virtual and real robots. Based on an operant conditioning procedure, the robots learn the relationship of horizontal/vertical and left/right visual stimuli, regardless of their specific pattern composition or their location on the images. Tests with novel patterns and locations were successfully completed after the acquisition learning phase. Results show that the SNN can adapt its behavior in real time when the rewarding rule changes.


Assuntos
Inteligência Artificial , Formação de Conceito/fisiologia , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Plasticidade Neuronal/fisiologia , Algoritmos , Humanos , Modelos Neurológicos , Neurônios/fisiologia
19.
Nurs Outlook ; 67(5): 523-539, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31072646

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients' values are everywhere and nowhere in nursing: frequently invoked and associated with effective nursing care but seldom explicitly defined or subject to dedicated analysis. Clarification of the concept of patients' values is pivotal because respecting and supporting patients' values are widely recognized as crucial for ethical nursing care. Despite this and the pervasive employment of the term patients' values in theories, approaches, and clinical guidelines, the concept remains ambiguous. PURPOSE: We sought to understand the key elements of the concept by investigating its use in theoretical and empirical literature. METHOD: This study used Rodgers' evolutionary concept analysis approach. FINDINGS: We found that values are core individual beliefs that function in hierarchical systems; however, in the context of disease, the priority assigned to values by the individual may change. This is important, given that values play a foundational role in health-related decisions, such as in the context of chronic diseases. DISCUSSION: Values are influenced by both individual intrinsic needs and the social context, but importantly, are involved in guiding decision-making. The attributes of the values may vary according to the context of the disease, the type of disease, and the decision at hand.


Assuntos
Cuidados de Enfermagem/ética , Direitos do Paciente/ética , Valores Sociais , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Formação de Conceito , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
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