Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 11.931
Filtrar
1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33138073

RESUMO

Intimate partner violence is a recognized public health and development issue that is consistently and comparatively measured through women's experience of physical and/or sexual acts by their partner. While physical intimate partner violence is covered by a wide range of behaviors, sexual intimate partner violence (SIPV) is often only measured through attempted or completed forced sex, ignoring less obvious forms of sexual intimate partner violence. We explored women's conceptualizations of SIPV by conducting in-depth interviews with 18 Tanzanian women. Using a thematic approach, we identified key features of women's sexual intimate relationships and their perceptions of them. The women clearly defined acts of positive sexual relationships that occurred with mutual consent and seduction and SIPV that included acts of forced sex and sex under the threat of violence. They also identified several acts that were crossing the line, whereby a discrepancy of views existed whether they constituted SIPV, such as having sex when out of the mood, sex being the duty of the wife, sex during the menses, requests for anal sex, having sex to not lose the husband, husband refusing sex and husband having other partners. Women in this study felt violated by a far wider range of sexual acts in their relationships. Future studies need to improve the measurement of sexual intimate partner violence to allow the collection of encompassing, yet comparable, data on this harmful phenomenon.


Assuntos
Violência por Parceiro Íntimo , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia , Adulto , Formação de Conceito , Feminino , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Comportamento Sexual , Saúde Sexual , Tanzânia
2.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0242189, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33216764

RESUMO

In this article, we present the development and validation of an implicit association test for measuring secondary school students' associations between genetics concepts and teleology concepts on the one hand, and between genetics concepts and essentialism concepts on the other hand. In total, 169 students from 16 school classes took part in the study, from January 2018 to May 2018. We investigated the strength of the aforementioned associations and the influence of various covariates such as gender, age, school class, or previous learning of biology on the association of teleology or essentialism concepts with genetics concepts through an analysis of covariance and a multi-level analysis. We found moderate associations between genetics and teleology concepts, as well as between genetics and essentialism concepts. These results might reflect a tendency of students of different ages and with various backgrounds to think about genes in terms of goals (teleology) and stability (essentialism), which should be investigated further in future research.


Assuntos
Formação de Conceito , Genética/educação , Filosofia , Estudantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores Sexuais
3.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 16935, 2020 10 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33037309

RESUMO

Mastering relational concepts and applying them to different contexts presupposes abstraction capacities and implies a high level of cognitive sophistication. One way to investigate extrapolative abilities is to assess cross-dimensional application of an abstract relational magnitude rule to new domains. Here we show that angelfish initially trained to choose either the shorter of two lines in a spatial task (line-length discrimination task) or the array with "fewer" items (numerical discrimination task) spontaneously transferred the learnt rule to novel stimuli belonging to the previously unseen dimension demonstrating knowledge of the abstract concept of "smaller". Our finding challenges the idea that the ability to master abstract magnitude concepts across domains is unique to humans and suggests that the circuits involved in rule learning and magnitude processing might be evolutionary conserved.


Assuntos
Cognição/fisiologia , Formação de Conceito/fisiologia , Aprendizagem por Discriminação/fisiologia , Peixes/fisiologia , Animais
4.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0239858, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33052934

RESUMO

Policies aimed at sustainable landscape management recognise the importance of multiple cultural viewpoints, but the notion of landscape itself is implicitly assumed to be homogeneous across speech communities. We tested this assumption by collecting data about the concept of "landscape" from speakers of seven languages of European origin. Speakers were asked to freely list exemplars to "landscape" (a concrete concept for which the underlying conceptual structure is unclear), "animals" (a concrete and discrete concept) and "body parts" (a concrete concept characterised by segmentation). We found, across languages, participants considered listing landscape terms the hardest task, listed fewest exemplars, had the least number of shared exemplars, and had fewer common co-occurrence pairs (i.e., pairs of exemplars listed adjacently). We also found important differences between languages in the types of exemplars that were cognitively salient and, most importantly, in how the exemplars are connected to each other in semantic networks. Overall, this shows that "landscape" is more weakly structured than other domains, with high variability both within and between languages. This diversity suggests that for sustainable landscape policies to be effective, they need to be better tailored to local conceptualisations.


Assuntos
Formação de Conceito , Comparação Transcultural , Meio Ambiente , Idioma , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32977520

RESUMO

There is a need for valid and reliable instruments to focus on medication aspects of health literacy and help healthcare professionals address patients' barriers to medication use. This cross-sectional study describes the conceptualization, development, and psychometric properties of the first Chinese Medication Literacy Measurement (ChMLM) to assess the level of health literacy on medication use. The 17-item ChMLM (ChMLM-17) and its short form, 13-item ChMLM (ChMLM-13), consist of four sections (vocabulary, over-the-counter labels, prescription labels, and advertisements) to cover six domains of medication-related health literacy. Multistage stratified quota sampling was attempted to recruit a representative sample in Taiwan. Receiver operating characteristic curves were used to identify the cut-off point for differentiating high and low medication literacy. Psychometric analyses were performed (n = 1410) to assess the reliability and validity separately on all samples and sociodemographic subgroups. The 17- and 13-item versions both had high construct validity among all patients and patients with low medication literacy. The developed ChMLM-17 and ChMLM-13 is expected to help healthcare providers and researchers to accurately measure medication-related health literacy and improve medication use in the real-world practice.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Letramento em Saúde , Psicometria/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Formação de Conceito , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto , Conhecimento do Paciente sobre a Medicação , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Taiwan
6.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0240010, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32997720

RESUMO

Doctors and nurses in these weeks and months are busy in the trenches, fighting against a new invisible enemy: Covid-19. Cities are locked down and civilians are besieged in their own homes, to prevent the spreading of the virus. War-related terminology is commonly used to frame the discourse around epidemics and diseases. The discourse around the current epidemic makes use of war-related metaphors too, not only in public discourse and in the media, but also in the tweets written by non-experts of mass communication. We hereby present an analysis of the discourse around #Covid-19, based on a large corpus tweets posted on Twitter during March and April 2020. Using topic modelling we first analyze the topics around which the discourse can be classified. Then, we show that the WAR framing is used to talk about specific topics, such as the virus treatment, but not others, such as the effects of social distancing on the population. We then measure and compare the popularity of the WAR frame to three alternative figurative frames (MONSTER, STORM and TSUNAMI) and a literal frame used as control (FAMILY). The results show that while the FAMILY frame covers a wider portion of the corpus, among the figurative frames WAR, a highly conventional one, is the frame used most frequently. Yet, this frame does not seem to be apt to elaborate the discourse around some aspects involved in the current situation. Therefore, we conclude, in line with previous suggestions, a plethora of framing options-or a metaphor menu-may facilitate the communication of various aspects involved in the Covid-19-related discourse on the social media, and thus support civilians in the expression of their feelings, opinions and beliefs during the current pandemic.


Assuntos
Formação de Conceito , Infecções por Coronavirus , Metáfora , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Mídias Sociais , Betacoronavirus , Comunicação , Humanos , Idioma
7.
J Neurosci ; 40(38): 7318-7325, 2020 09 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32826311

RESUMO

The hippocampal formation encodes maps of space and a key question in neuroscience is whether its spatial coding principles also provide a universal metric for the organization of nonspatial, conceptual information. Previous work demonstrated directional coding during navigation through a continuous stimulus feature space as well as mapping of distances in a feature space that was relevant for concept learning. Here we provide the first unambiguous evidence for a hippocampal representation of the actual concept space, by showing that the hippocampal distance signal selectively reflects the mapping of specifically conceptually relevant rather than of all feature dimensions. During fMRI scanning of 32 human participants (21 females), we presented everyday objects, which had beforehand been associated with specific values on three continuous feature dimensions. Crucially, only two dimensions were relevant to prior concept learning. We find that hippocampal responses to the objects reflect their relative distances in a space defined along conceptually relevant dimensions compared with distances in a space defined along all feature dimensions. These findings suggest that the hippocampus supports knowledge acquisition by dynamically encoding information in a space spanned along dimensions that are relevant in relation to define concepts.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT How are neural representations of conceptual knowledge organized, such that humans are able to infer never experienced relations or categorize new exemplars? Map-like representations as supported by the hippocampal formation to encode physical space during navigation have been suggested as a suitable format. Here we provide the first evidence for a hippocampal representation of a conceptual space compared with a general feature-based space.


Assuntos
Formação de Conceito , Hipocampo/fisiologia , Comportamento Espacial , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Memória Espacial
8.
Lima; Perú. Ministerio de Salud; 20200800. 29 p. tab.
Monografia em Espanhol | LILACS, MINSAPERÚ | ID: biblio-1122936

RESUMO

Contiene: la normatividad para la regulación a nivel nacional en la formulación de documentos normativos en salud, definiciones y conceptos utilizados con más frecuencia en la formulación de proyectos de documentos legales y normativos del Ministerio de Salud.


Assuntos
Padrões de Referência , Controle Social Formal , Formulação de Projetos , Registros , Saúde , Formação de Conceito , Terminologia , Atenção à Saúde , Direção e Governança do Setor de Saúde
10.
Curationis ; 43(1): e1-e10, 2020 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32787429

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is a marked inequality between children in public schools and their counterparts in private schools in terms of school healthcare in rural Nigeria. This is because of the ineffective dissemination and implementation of a policy on school health in public schools. Effective dissemination and implementation of such policy can reduce the prevalence of risky health behaviours amongst young people and have a positive effect on academic performance. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to develop a conceptual framework for the effective dissemination and implementation of a policy on school health in rural Nigeria. METHODS: This study consisted of four phases as follows: an empirical phase, concept classification, framework development and critical reflection on the conceptual framework. An exploratory, descriptive and contextual research design was used to develop the framework. The work of Dickoff et al. was used to classify concepts from the empirical phase. Chinn and Kramer's nursing theory on generative method was used for the development of the conceptual framework and for critical review. RESULTS: The framework consisted of six components, namely, departments of health and education (context); health or educational professionals in the ministries (agents); health or educational practitioners, pupils, parents and communities (recipients); ratification of a policy on school health, stakeholder engagement, training as well as monitoring and evaluation (process); communication, collaborative partnership, commitment and support (dynamics); and effective dissemination and implementation of a policy on school health. CONCLUSION: The framework would be a firm foundation and contribution to improve the health of children in public schools, and well-being and academic performance that would be a good feat towards the future endeavour. The findings of the study are pertinent to school health nursing practice, education and research.


Assuntos
Formação de Conceito , Política de Saúde/tendências , Disseminação de Informação/métodos , Humanos , Nigéria , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviços de Saúde Escolar/organização & administração , Serviços de Saúde Escolar/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviços de Enfermagem Escolar/métodos , Serviços de Enfermagem Escolar/estatística & dados numéricos
11.
J Dent Educ ; 84(12): 1426-1437, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32805773

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Whether the understanding of dental caries influences how future dentists manage the disease themselves has not been previously studied. Thus, this study evaluated whether the conceptualization (understanding) of dental caries by dental students is related to their own preventive oral care routine. METHODS: Dental students at a U.S. dental school (n = 517) were invited to voluntarily respond to an anonymous electronic survey in spring 2018. Demographic characteristics, caries conceptualization (CC), dental care habits, and self-caries risk determination were asked. Discursive responses to CC were analyzed by content analysis technique, and categories [c] were created. Chi-square and Fisher's exact tests were used for analysis. RESULTS: Overall response rate was 54.5% (n = 282, 48.2% female). Three researchers independently analyzed discursive answers and classified them into 1 of 6 caries concept categories [c]: [c1] only signs of the disease (10.3%), [c2] bacterial disease-not specifying bacterial metabolism (38.3%), [c3] bacterial byproducts-not specifying substrate (13.8%), [c4] biological or multifactorial concept (24.8%), [c5] comprehensive multifactorial disease (8.2%), or [c6] other (4.6%). Only 33% completely defined dental caries according to the modern understanding of the disease (c4-c5). Statistical differences were found between: CC and diet modification, CC and rinsing after brushing, year of school (YS) and self-determined caries-risk, YS and brushing at school, and YS and rinsing after brushing (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that the students' understanding of the disease can influence how they will manage the disease in terms of diet modification and behavior after brushing. Moreover, self-caries risk determination influenced students' brushing behavior.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária , Estudantes de Odontologia , Formação de Conceito , Cárie Dentária/epidemiologia , Cárie Dentária/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Higiene Bucal , Escovação Dentária
12.
J Neurosci ; 40(35): 6779-6789, 2020 08 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32703903

RESUMO

The ability to rapidly and accurately recognize complex objects is a crucial function of the human visual system. To recognize an object, we need to bind incoming visual features, such as color and form, together into cohesive neural representations and integrate these with our preexisting knowledge about the world. For some objects, typical color is a central feature for recognition; for example, a banana is typically yellow. Here, we applied multivariate pattern analysis on time-resolved neuroimaging (MEG) data to examine how object-color knowledge affects emerging object representations over time. Our results from 20 participants (11 female) show that the typicality of object-color combinations influences object representations, although not at the initial stages of object and color processing. We find evidence that color decoding peaks later for atypical object-color combinations compared with typical object-color combinations, illustrating the interplay between processing incoming object features and stored object knowledge. Together, these results provide new insights into the integration of incoming visual information with existing conceptual object knowledge.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT To recognize objects, we have to be able to bind object features, such as color and shape, into one coherent representation and compare it with stored object knowledge. The MEG data presented here provide novel insights about the integration of incoming visual information with our knowledge about the world. Using color as a model to understand the interaction between seeing and knowing, we show that there is a unique pattern of brain activity for congruently colored objects (e.g., a yellow banana) relative to incongruently colored objects (e.g., a red banana). This effect of object-color knowledge only occurs after single object features are processed, demonstrating that conceptual knowledge is accessed relatively late in the visual processing hierarchy.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiologia , Percepção de Cores , Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos , Adulto , Formação de Conceito , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
13.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1166, 2020 Jul 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32711485

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The job morale of healthcare staff is widely seen as an important factor for the quality of care. Yet, there are different understandings of what constitutes job morale, which hinders systematic research and comparisons. We therefore conducted a scoping review of how the concept of job morale has developed over time and how it is used in healthcare research. METHODS: A scoping review was conducted to identify relevant literature. Data were gathered on study design and context, objectives, definitions of morale, outcome measures and key findings. Data was synthesised using a descriptive analytical framework. RESULTS: Ninety-three unique studies met eligibility criteria for the present review. The literature outlines four main periods of the evolution of the concept of job morale: The First World War and the interwar years; Second World War; Aftermath of the Second World War; and Contemporary period. The concept of job morale originated in a military context and was later applied to and specified in the healthcare literature. The concept has been applied to individuals and groups. The understandings used in healthcare vary, but overlap. Methods for assessing job morale in healthcare include quantitative scales, indirect measurements of consequences and predictors of morale, and qualitative approaches. Existing studies have mainly focused on the job morale of general practitioners, nurses and mental health professionals in high-income countries. CONCLUSIONS: Although the understandings of job morale in healthcare are heterogeneous and inconsistent, the concept appears to have been useful over longer periods of time and in different contexts. Which precise understanding of job morale is useful, depends on the given research purpose, and studies should make explicit which exact understanding they apply. Systematic research on job morale is required to facilitate measures to improve and maintain high levels of morale across different professional groups, including professionals in low- and middle-income countries.


Assuntos
Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Satisfação no Emprego , Formação de Conceito , Assistência à Saúde , Feminino , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Moral
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32640690

RESUMO

(1) Background: The role of thwarted belongingness (TB) in predicting suicidal ideation, as originally assumed by the Interpersonal Theory of Suicide, is repeatedly challenged by empirical findings. This could be due to an inadequate conceptualization of the construct of TB that is assumed to be influenced by intrapersonal and interpersonal factors. (2) Methods: We examined the associations of TB with intrapersonal variables related to depression, and with interpersonal variables related to an individual's actual social environment. We analyzed data from an ecological momentary assessment study in psychiatric inpatients with depressive disorders. N = 73 participants rated momentary TB, depressive affect and status of company up to 10 times per day, over a period of six days, on smartphones. (3) Results: TB was lower when assessed while participants were in company compared to when they were alone, and the more desired the company was, the less TB was experienced. Individuals who had a partnership experienced less momentary TB. Furthermore, higher levels of momentary depressive affect, as well as more stable levels of depression, were related to higher levels of TB, and the relation between the presence of company and TB was weaker for more depressed persons. (4) Conclusions: Our findings can be seen as evidence that both intrapersonal and interpersonal factors relate to TB, and thus support the conceptualization of TB as proposed by the Interpersonal Theory of Suicide.


Assuntos
Suicídio , Formação de Conceito , Avaliação Momentânea Ecológica , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Teoria Psicológica , Fatores de Risco
15.
Behav Brain Sci ; 43: e123, 2020 06 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32624045

RESUMO

Thinking about what the senses cannot grasp is one of the hallmarks of human cognition. We argue that "intangible abstracta" are represented differently from other products of abstraction, that goal-derived categorization supports their learning, and that they are grounded also in internalized linguistic and social interaction. We conclude by suggesting different ways in which abstractness contributes to cement group cohesion.


Assuntos
Formação de Conceito , Tato , Encéfalo , Cognição , Humanos , Aprendizagem
17.
BMC Psychiatry ; 20(1): 318, 2020 06 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32560677

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The problematic use of online gaming, social networking sites (SNS) and online pornography (OP) is an evolving problem. Contrary to the problematic use of SNS and OP, Internet gaming disorder (IGD) was included in the new edition of the Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (DSM-5) as a condition for further study. The present study adapted the criteria for IGD to the problematic use of SNS and OP by modifying a validated questionnaire for IGD (Internet Gaming Disorder Questionnaire: IGDQ) and investigating the psychometric properties of the modified versions, SNSDQ and OPDQ. METHODS: Two online samples (SNS: n = 700, 25.6 ± 8.4 years, 76.4% female; OP: n = 700, 32.9 ± 12.6 years, 76.7% male) completed the SNSDQ/OPDQ, the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI) and the short Internet Addiction Test (sIAT) and provided information on their SNS/OP use. Standard item and reliability analyses, exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses and correlations with the sIAT were calculated. Problematic and non-problematic users were compared. RESULTS: The internal consistencies were ωordinal = 0.89 (SNS) and ωordinal = 0.88 (OP). The exploratory factor analyses extracted one factor for both questionnaires. Confirmatory factor analyses confirmed the results. The SNSDQ/OPDQ scores correlated highly with the sIAT scores and moderately with SNS/OP usage time. Of the users, 3.4% (SNS) and 7.1% (OP) lay above the cutoff for problematic use. Problematic users had higher sIAT scores, used the applications for longer and experienced more psychological distress. CONCLUSION: Overall, the results of the study indicate that the adaption of the IGD criteria is a promising approach for measuring problematic SNS/OP use.


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo , Jogos de Vídeo , Comportamento Aditivo/diagnóstico , Formação de Conceito , Literatura Erótica , Feminino , Humanos , Internet , Masculino , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Rede Social
18.
Educ. med. (Ed. impr.) ; 21(3): 193-197, mayo-jun. 2020. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-195107

RESUMO

INTRODUCCIÓN: La cantidad de información que resulta en el aula invertida, como resultado de sus componentes «fuera del aula» (virtual) y «en el aula», es elevada. Esta cantidad de información puede representar mayor carga cognitiva para el estudiante, generando confusión y dificultad para la asimilación del contenido. El objetivo de este estudio es evaluar el efecto del uso de mapas conceptuales para la síntesis de información y manejo de la carga cognitiva en el aula invertida. Materiales: Durante 2017, se utilizaron mapas conceptuales para la síntesis de información en un aula invertida convencional en cirugía. Los mapas se elaboraron bajo una metodología estandarizada a través del software CMap Tools. El efecto pre- y postintervención, relacionado con la utilidad y satisfacción percibida por los estudiantes, fue evaluado mediante el Concept Mapping Questionnaire. RESULTADOS: Un total de 158 estudiantes (pretest) y de 155 estudiantes (postest) fueron incluidos en el análisis. Se encontraron efectos positivos de la intervención sobre la interacción (comunicación, cooperación, participación), aprendizaje independiente y conexión de conceptos, de acuerdo con las percepciones estudiantiles. La confiabilidad del instrumento fue adecuada. CONCLUSIÓN: Los mapas conceptuales son una estrategia útil para la síntesis de información en el aula invertida según las percepciones estudiantiles. Se requieren nuevos estudios que evalúen, funcional y experimentalmente, la efectividad neurocognitiva de los mapas conceptuales, así como sus efectos sobre el aprendizaje a largo plazo


INTRODUCTION: The amount of information during the inverted classroom, as a result of its virtual and face-to-face components, is high. Ultimately, it is expected a greater cognitive load leading to confusion and lack of understanding of the main concepts to the students. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of conceptual maps, aimed to synthesize the information and deal with the cognitive load in the inverted classroom. Materials: We developed conceptual maps for the synthesis of information in a conventional inverted classroom in surgery during 2017. We constructed the maps using standardized methodologies. We used the CMap Tools software. We evaluated the pre- and post-intervention effects, related with the utility and satisfaction perceived by the students, by the Concept Mapping Questionnaire. RESULTS: A total of 158 students (pre-test) and 155 students (post-test) were included in the analysis. We found positive effects on interaction (communication, cooperation, and participation), independent learning and connection of concepts, according to student perceptions. The reliability of the instrument was adequate. CONCLUSION: Concept maps are a useful strategy for the synthesis of information in the inverted classroom according to student perceptions. Further studies are required that evaluate, functionally and experimentally, the neuro-cognitive effectiveness of conceptual maps, as well as their effects on long-term learning


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Ensino , Aprendizagem , Estudantes de Medicina/estatística & dados numéricos , Educação Médica/métodos , Formação de Conceito , Mapas como Assunto , Treinamento por Simulação/métodos , Treinamento por Simulação/normas , Estudos Transversais , Inquéritos e Questionários
19.
Rech Soins Infirm ; 140(1): 17-28, 2020 03.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32524799

RESUMO

Many health programs provide "counseling" services that aim to support clients in their self-care. Although the concept of adapted education for the elderly is important for nursing practice, there is currently no consensus of its definition. An analysis of "adapted education for the elderly" following the six steps of Rodgers' evolutionary approach was conducted in order to identify the essential characteristics of the concept and to define its use in nursing. A literature review drawing upon several databases (Abstract in Social Gerontology, AgeLine, CINAHL, ERIC, and PsycINFO) identified twenty-six papers on this subject published between 1988 and 2016. After analysis, four key characteristics were identified to describe the concept: the uniqueness of the older learner, the presence of a competent and aware educator, the four-step process of the session, and the use of adapted teaching strategies for the older learner. Finally, the use of this concept in nursing remains erratic. To facilitate its operationalization, more studies and theories must be developed on the subject.


Assuntos
Enfermagem Geriátrica , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto/métodos , Idoso , Formação de Conceito , Humanos
20.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234142, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32555692

RESUMO

To what extent do children believe in real, unreal, natural and supernatural figures relative to each other, and to what extent are features of culture responsible for belief? Are some figures, like Santa Claus or an alien, perceived as more real than figures like Princess Elsa or a unicorn? We categorized 13 figures into five a priori categories based on 1) whether children receive direct evidence of the figure's existence, 2) whether children receive indirect evidence of the figure's existence, 3) whether the figure was associated with culture-specific rituals or norms, and 4) whether the figure was explicitly presented as fictional. We anticipated that the categories would be endorsed in the following order: 'Real People' (a person known to the child, The Wiggles), 'Cultural Figures' (Santa Claus, The Easter Bunny, The Tooth Fairy), 'Ambiguous Figures' (Dinosaurs, Aliens), 'Mythical Figures' (unicorns, ghosts, dragons), and 'Fictional Figures' (Spongebob Squarepants, Princess Elsa, Peter Pan). In total, we analysed responses from 176 children (aged 2-11 years) and 56 adults for 'how real' they believed 13 individual figures were (95 children were examined online by their parents, and 81 children were examined by trained research assistants). A cluster analysis, based exclusively on children's 'realness' scores, revealed a structure supporting our hypotheses, and multilevel regressions revealed a sensible hierarchy of endorsement with differing developmental trajectories for each category of figures. We advance the argument that cultural rituals are a special form of testimony that influences children's reality/fantasy distinctions, and that rituals and norms for 'Cultural Figures' are a powerful and under-researched factor in generating and sustaining a child's endorsement for a figure's reality status. All our data and materials are publically available at https://osf.io/wurxy/.


Assuntos
Formação de Conceito , Julgamento , Adulto , Criança , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Pré-Escolar , Análise por Conglomerados , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Revelação da Verdade
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA