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1.
J Med Life ; 13(2): 225-228, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32742518

RESUMO

The high prevalence of periodontal diseases in workers with professional contact with unfavorable factors of the production environment is an unresolved problem of dentistry. This study aimed to investigate the harmful effects of formaldehyde on periodontal tissues in woodworkers who have long-term contact with formaldehyde in their professional activities. Sixty-nine men with occupational exposure to formaldehyde were examined to study the effect of formaldehyde on the human periodontal tissues, looking particularly at signs of the periodontal tissues' inflammatory process using a series of periodontal indices. The study results showed that the condition of periodontal tissues was statistically significantly worse in woodworkers who have long-term contact with formaldehyde in their professional activities. However, the hygiene status was not significantly different in the main group and the comparison group. Thus, we concluded that working under conditions of constant exposure to formaldehyde has a negative effect on the condition of periodontal tissues.


Assuntos
Formaldeído/efeitos adversos , Indústrias , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Periodonto/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Saúde Bucal , Prevalência , Adulto Jovem
2.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236104, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32776939

RESUMO

There is an increasing emphasis on effects-based monitoring to document responses associated with exposure to complex mixtures of chemicals, climate change, pathogens, parasites and other environmental stressors in fish populations. For decades aquatic monitoring programs have included the collection of tissues preserved for microscopic pathology. Consequently, formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue can be an important reservoir of nucleic acids as technologies emerge that utilize molecular endpoints. Despite the cross-linking effects of formalin, its impact on nucleic acid quality and concentration, amplification, and sequencing are not well described. While fresh-frozen tissue is optimal for working with nucleic acids, FFPE samples have been shown to be conducive for molecular studies. Laser capture microdissection (LCM) is one technology which allows for collection of specific regions or cell populations from fresh or preserved specimens with pathological alterations, pathogens, or parasites. In this study, smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu) liver was preserved in three different fixatives, including 10% neutral buffered formalin (NBF), Z-Fix® (ZF), and PAXgene® (PG) for four time periods (24 hr, 48 hr, seven days, and 14 days). Controls consisted of pieces of liver preserved in RNALater® or 95% ethanol. Smallmouth bass were chosen as they are an economically important sportfish and have been utilized as indicators of exposure to endocrine disruptors and other environmental stressors. Small liver sections were cut out with laser microdissection and DNA and RNA were purified and analyzed for nucleic acid concentration and quality. Sanger sequencing and the NanoString nCounter® technology were used to assess the suitability of these samples in downstream molecular techniques. The results revealed that of the formalin fixatives, NBF samples fixed for 24 and 48 hr were superior to ZF samples for both Sanger sequencing and the Nanostring nCounter®. The non-formalin PAXgene® samples were equally successful and they showed greater stability in nucleic acid quality and concentration over longer fixation times. This study demonstrated that small quantities of preserved tissue from smallmouth bass can be utilized in downstream molecular techniques; however, future studies will need to optimize the methods presented here for different tissue types, fish species, and pathological conditions.


Assuntos
Bass/genética , DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Fixadores/efeitos adversos , RNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Clivagem do DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Disruptores Endócrinos/toxicidade , Formaldeído/efeitos adversos , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/patologia , Microdissecção , Desnaturação de Ácido Nucleico/efeitos dos fármacos , RNA/isolamento & purificação , Estabilidade de RNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Fatores de Tempo , Fixação de Tecidos/métodos , West Virginia
4.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(14): 17250-17257, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32152860

RESUMO

An air sampling study was conducted to evaluate personal formaldehyde exposures in a group of office workers spread across five geographical locations in the USA. Passive badge samples for formaldehyde were collected on three participants in each location, as well as in the office and home indoor microenvironments of each participant over 3 individual days. Median personal 24-h formaldehyde concentrations ranged from 9.9 to 18 µg/m3. Personal 24-h formaldehyde concentrations in one location were significantly higher than concentrations measured in the other four locations; no significant differences existed between any of the other locations. The participants in this study spent an average of 53% of their daily time in their homes, 36% at their office, and 11% in other indoor and outdoor locations. A comparison of measured 24-h personal formaldehyde concentrations and a model of average exposure based upon measured concentrations in the indoor microenvironments suggested that both the home and office formaldehyde concentrations were a strong predictor (R2 = 0.88) of overall personal exposure. The data from this study are representative of office workers in urban environments and can be used as background formaldehyde exposure levels (in the absence of specific sources) for both occupational and nonoccupational exposure assessments.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Formaldeído/efeitos adversos , Formaldeído/análise , Humanos , Hipersensibilidade Respiratória , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos
5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(3)2020 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32046034

RESUMO

Large numbers of well-characterized clinical samples are fundamental to establish relevant associations between the microbiota and disease. Formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues are routinely used and are widely available clinical materials. Since current approaches to study the microbiota are based on next-generation sequencing (NGS) targeting the bacterial 16S rRNA gene, our aim was to evaluate the feasibility of FFPE gastric tissues for NGS-based microbiota characterization. Analysis of sequencing data revealed the presence of bacteria in the paraffin control. After the subtraction of the operational taxonomic units (OTUs) present in the paraffin control to the FFPE tissue sample dataset, we evaluated the microbiota profiles between paired FFPE and frozen gastric tissues, and between different times of archiving. Compared with frozen gastric tissues, we detected a lower number of OTUs in the microbiota of paired FFPE tissues, regardless of the time of archiving. No major differences in microbial diversity were identified, but taxonomic variation in the relative abundance of phyla and orders was observed between the two preservation methods. This variation was also evident in each case and throughout the times of FFPE archiving. The use of FFPE tissues for NGS-based microbiota characterization should be considered carefully, as biases can be introduced by the embedding process and the time of tissue archiving.


Assuntos
Código de Barras de DNA Taxonômico/métodos , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Microbiota , Inclusão em Parafina/métodos , Estômago/microbiologia , Fixação de Tecidos/métodos , Fixadores/efeitos adversos , Formaldeído/efeitos adversos , Genoma Bacteriano , Humanos , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Estômago/citologia
6.
J Acupunct Meridian Stud ; 13(1): 19-24, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31743772

RESUMO

Melissa officinalis (MO) is one of the oldest herbal medicines commonly used in traditional medicine, which some studies have investigated for its analgesic effect. This study is an attempt to investigate the effects of intrathecal administration of Melissa officinalis on the pain induced by heat and formalin. In this experimental study, 70 male Wistar rats with an average weight of 270-320 g were randomly divided into five groups: control; sham that received 25 µl of saline through the spinal catheter; and three experimental groups that received 5, 10 or 20 mg/kg M. officinalis via the spinal catheter respectively. Five days after catheterization of the spinal cord from the lumbar region under anesthesia, the effects of Intrathecal administration of M. officinalis on heat- and formalin-induced pain were evaluated. Data were analyzed by using one-way ANOVA. Intrathecal injection of M. officinalis blocked heat-induced pain compared to sham group (p = 0.001). Maximum analgesia was observed 30 min after the injection. Furthermore, intrathecal administration of MO alleviated both acute (p = 0.007) and chronic (p = 0.001) phases of formalin-induced pain. Motor block was not observed in any of the above mentioned groups. The results showed that intrathecal administration of MO could significantly improve hot-water and formalin-induced pain in male Wistar rats.


Assuntos
Analgésicos/administração & dosagem , Melissa/química , Manejo da Dor , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Animais , Formaldeído/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Injeções Espinhais , Masculino , Dor/induzido quimicamente , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31622171

RESUMO

Carbonyl compounds and furan derivatives may form adducts with DNA and cause oxidative stress to human cells, which establishes the carcinogenic potential of these compounds. The occurrence of these compounds may vary according to the processing characteristics of the beer. The objective of this study was, for the first time, to investigate the free forms of target carbonyl compounds [acetaldehyde, acrolein, ethyl carbamate (EC) and formaldehyde] and furan derivatives [furfural and furfuryl alcohol (FA)] during the brewing stages of ale and lager craft beers. Samples were evaluated using headspace-solid phase microextraction and gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection in selected ion monitoring mode (HS-SPME-GC/MS-SIM). Acetaldehyde, acrolein, formaldehyde and furfuryl alcohol were found in all brewing stages of both beer types, while EC and furfural concentrations were below the LOD and LOQ of the method (0.1 and 0.01 µg L-1, respectively). Boiling and fermentation of ale brewing seem to be important steps for the formation of acrolein and acetaldehyde, respectively, while boiling resulted in an increase of FA in both types of beer. Conversely, pasteurisation and maturation reduced the levels of these compounds in both types of beer. An increase in concentration of acrolein has not been verified in lager brew probably due to the difference in boiling time between these two types of beer (60 and 90 min for ale and lager, respectively).


Assuntos
Cerveja/análise , Análise de Alimentos , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Acetaldeído/efeitos adversos , Acetaldeído/análise , Acroleína/efeitos adversos , Acroleína/análise , Cerveja/efeitos adversos , Fermentação , Formaldeído/efeitos adversos , Formaldeído/análise , Furanos/efeitos adversos , Furanos/análise , Humanos , Uretana/efeitos adversos , Uretana/análise
8.
PLoS One ; 14(12): e0225928, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31805115

RESUMO

We bilaterally injected 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) into the medial forebrain bundle of rats and developed bilateral Parkinson's disease (PD) model rats in order to experimentally investigate the neural mechanisms underlying the alteration of nociception in the orofacial region of patients with PD. We explored the effects of dopamine depletion on nociception by investigating behavioral responses (face rubbing) triggered by subcutaneous administration of formalin into the vibrissa pad. We also assessed the number of c-Fos-immunoreactive (c-Fos-IR) cells in the superficial layers of the trigeminal spinal subnucleus caudalis (Vc). Subcutaneous formalin administration evoked a two-phase increase in face rubbing. We observed the first increase 0-5 min after formalin administration (first phase) and the second increase 10-60 min after administration (second phase). The number of face rubbing behaviors of 6OHDA-injected rats did not significantly change compared with saline-injected rats in both phases. Significant increase of c-Fos-IR cells in the Vc was found in 6-OHDA-injected rats after formalin administration compared with those in saline-injected rats after formalin administration. We also assessed expression of c-Fos-IR cells in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN), and significant decrease of c-Fos-IR cells in the PVN of 6-OHDA-injected rats was found. Taken together, these findings suggest that bilateral dopaminergic denervation evoked by 6-OHDA administration causes hyperalgesia in the trigeminal region and the PVN may be involved in the hyperalgesia.


Assuntos
Modelos Animais de Doenças , Hiperalgesia/fisiopatologia , Doença de Parkinson/etiologia , Doença de Parkinson/fisiopatologia , Animais , Corpo Estriado/metabolismo , Corpo Estriado/fisiopatologia , Formaldeído/administração & dosagem , Formaldeído/efeitos adversos , Hiperalgesia/etiologia , Imuno-Histoquímica , Masculino , Doença de Parkinson/complicações , Doença de Parkinson/metabolismo , Ratos , Substância Negra/metabolismo , Substância Negra/fisiopatologia
9.
Dermatitis ; 30(6): 342-346, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31730552

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The International Contact Dermatitis Research Group increased the patch test concentration of formaldehyde from 1.0% aqueous (aq) to 2.0% aq (in 2011). OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to investigate the outcome of the decision. METHODS: Consecutive dermatitis patients in 8 different clinics were patch tested with formaldehyde 1.0% aq and 2.0% aq. The test solutions were applied with a micropipette to the filter paper discs in the respective chamber. RESULTS: A total of 2778 patients were tested with 1.0% aq and 2766 to 2.0% aq. Sixty-five patients (2.3%, calculated from 2766 tested, to 2.0% aq) had positive patch test reactions interpreted as contact allergy to formaldehyde. This is a rather low frequency. Of these 65, 46 were women (46/1703 [2.7%]) and 19 were men (19/1063 [1.8%]). Thirty-six reacted only to 2.0% aq, 21 patients reacted to both concentrations, and 8 patients reacted only to 1.0% aq. Significantly, more patients reacted to 2.0% aq compared with 1.0% aq (P < 0.001). There was no significant sex difference. A total of 0.8% irritant reactions were recorded to formaldehyde 2.0% aq and 0.1% to 1.0% aq. CONCLUSIONS: The increased formaldehyde patch test concentration to 2.0% aq revealed more formaldehyde contact allergy.


Assuntos
Dermatite Alérgica de Contato/diagnóstico , Desinfetantes/efeitos adversos , Formaldeído/efeitos adversos , Testes do Emplastro/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Dermatite Alérgica de Contato/epidemiologia , Dermatite Alérgica de Contato/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
10.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 55(10)2019 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31557975

RESUMO

Background and objective: The aim of the present study was to evaluate associations between cumulative and peak formaldehyde exposure and occurrence of acute myeloid leukemia. Material and Methods: A comprehensive search was performed using the PubMed and Embase databases. We included studies presenting information about the role of formaldehyde in leukemic occurrence and mortality risk. Then, full texts of the selected references were assessed, and references of included studies were checked to identify additional articles. Result: The information was then summarized and organized in the present review. A total of 81 articles were obtained from the search. Conclusion: Findings from the review of the literature do not support the hypothesis that formaldehyde is a cause of acute myeloid leukemia.


Assuntos
Formaldeído/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Hematológicas/induzido quimicamente , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/induzido quimicamente , Doenças Profissionais/induzido quimicamente , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Formaldeído/toxicidade , Neoplasias Hematológicas/mortalidade , Humanos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/mortalidade , Doenças Profissionais/mortalidade
11.
BMC Pharmacol Toxicol ; 20(1): 57, 2019 09 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31511086

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Poncirin is flavanone derivative (isolated from Poncirus trifoliata) with known pharmacological activities such as anti-tumor, anti-osteoporotic, anti-inflammatory and anti-colitic. The present study aimed to explore the anti-allodynic and anti-hyperalgesic potentials of poncirin in murine models of inflammatory pain. METHODS: The analgesic potential of poncirin was evaluated in formalin-, acetic acid-, carrageenan- and Complete Freund's Adjuvant (CFA)-induced inflammatory pain models in mice. Anti-allodynic and anti-hyperalgesic activities were measured using Von Frey filaments, Randall Selitto, hotplate and cold acetone tests. The serum nitrite levels were determined using Griess reagent. The Quantitative Real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) was performed to assess the effect of poncirin on mRNA expression levels of inflammatory cytokines and anti-oxidant enzymes. RESULTS: Intraperitoneal administration of poncirin (30 mg/kg) markedly reduced the pain behavior in both acetic acid-induced visceral pain and formalin-induced tonic pain models used as preliminary screening tools. The poncirin (30 mg/kg) treatment considerably inhibited the mechanical hyperalgesia and allodynia as well as thermal hyperalgesia and cold allodynia. The qRT-PCR analysis showed noticeable inhibition of pro-inflammatory cytokines (mRNA expression levels of TNF-α, IL-1ß and IL-6) (p < 0.05) in poncirin treated group. Similarly, poncirin treatment also enhanced the mRNA expressions levels of anti-oxidant enzymes such as transcription factor such as nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2) (p < 0.05), heme oxygenase (HO-1) (p < 0.05) and superoxide dismutase (SOD2) (p < 0.05). Chronic treatment of poncirin for 6 days did not confer any significant hepatic and renal toxicity. Furthermore, poncirin treatment did not altered the motor coordination and muscle strength in CFA-induced chronic inflammatory pain model. CONCLUSION: The present study demonstrated that poncirin treatment significantly reduced pain behaviors in all experimental models of inflammatory pain, suggesting the promising analgesic potential of poncirin in inflammatory pain conditions.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/uso terapêutico , Dor Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Flavonoides/uso terapêutico , Hiperalgesia/tratamento farmacológico , Ácido Acético/antagonistas & inibidores , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/toxicidade , Carragenina/antagonistas & inibidores , Dor Crônica/induzido quimicamente , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Flavonoides/toxicidade , Formaldeído/efeitos adversos , Hiperalgesia/induzido quimicamente , Inflamação/induzido quimicamente , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Hipersensibilidade Respiratória/tratamento farmacológico
13.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 11564, 2019 08 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31399615

RESUMO

There have been no large, nationwide, birth cohort studies in Japan examining the effects of house renovation during pregnancy on congenital abnormality. This study examined the impact of (1) prenatal exposure to house renovation and (2) maternal occupational exposure to organic solvents and/or formaldehyde on the incidence of congenital abnormality. The fixed data of 67,503 singleton births from a large national birth cohort study that commenced in 2011 were used to evaluate the presence of congenital abnormalities and potential confounding factors. We employed multiple logistic regression analysis to search for correlations between maternal exposure to house renovation or organic solvents and/or formaldehyde during pregnancy and such congenital abnormalities as congenital heart disease, cleft lip and/or palate, male genital abnormality, limb defect, and gastrointestinal obstruction. After controlling for potential confounding factors, we observed that house renovation was significantly associated with male genital abnormality (OR 1.81, 95% CI 1.03-3.17, P = 0.04) when stratified by congenital abnormality, with no other remarkable relations to house renovation or occupational use of organic solvents and/or formaldehyde during pregnancy. There were also significant correlations for maternal BMI before pregnancy, history of ovulation induction through medication, maternal diabetes mellitus/gestational diabetes mellitus, and hypertensive disorder of pregnancy with an increased risk of congenital abnormality. In conclusion, this large nationwide survey provides important information on a possible association of house renovation during pregnancy with congenital male genital abnormality which needs confirmation in future studies.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Congênitas/epidemiologia , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Feminino , Formaldeído/efeitos adversos , Habitação , Humanos , Incidência , Recém-Nascido , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco , Solventes/efeitos adversos
14.
Cancer Cytopathol ; 127(10): 643-649, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31398281

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Ki-67 proliferation marker has multiple diagnostic and prognostic applications. Although several clones to the Ki-67 antigen are commercially available, the MIB1 clone is widely recommended in the surgical pathology literature for neuroendocrine tumors. In our cytopathology practice, we have encountered unexpectedly low MIB1 immunoreactivity in CytoLyt-fixed cell blocks (CBs). The current study evaluated the impact of fixatives, CB processing, and immunocytochemical (ICC) procedures on Ki-67 immunoreactivity. METHODS: Test CBs were prepared from freshly resected tumors, and multiple variables in the MIB1 ICC procedure were tested, including CytoLyt versus formalin collection media, MIB1 versus other Ki-67 clones including 30-9, and other variables. MIB1 versus Ki-67 30-9 clones were tested in parallel on CytoLyt-fixed CBs from clinical samples of small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC). RESULTS: In the test CBs (n = 10), the mean MIB1 labeling index was 10% in CytoLyt versus 47% in formalin (P = .0116), with a mean loss of reactivity in matched CBs of 37% (up to 70%). None of the procedure modifications tested in 223 individual ICC reactions recovered MIB1 reactivity in CytoLyt except for switching to the Ki-67 30-9 antibody. In CytoLyt-fixed SCLC samples (n = 14), the Ki-67 30-9 antibody demonstrated expected ranges of reactivity (mean, 83%; range, 60%-100%), whereas MIB1 demonstrated markedly inhibited labeling (mean, 60%; range, 10%-95%) (P = .0058). CONCLUSIONS: CytoLyt fixation substantially inhibits MIB1 immunoreactivity, whereas the Ki-67 30-9 clone is not susceptible to inhibition. Markedly discrepant MIB1 reactivity may present a pitfall in the diagnosis of SCLC and may lead to the incorrect prognostic stratification of other tumor types. For laboratories using CytoLyt, we recommend using the Ki-67 30-9 antibody rather than the MIB1 antibody.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antinucleares/imunologia , Anticorpos Monoclonais/imunologia , Formaldeído/efeitos adversos , Antígeno Ki-67/química , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Carcinoma de Pequenas Células do Pulmão/patologia , Fixação de Tecidos/métodos , Anticorpos Antinucleares/química , Anticorpos Monoclonais/química , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Antígeno Ki-67/imunologia , Antígeno Ki-67/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pulmonares/imunologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Pequenas Células do Pulmão/imunologia , Carcinoma de Pequenas Células do Pulmão/metabolismo
15.
Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther ; 17(9): 681-687, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31393185

RESUMO

Introduction: Antibiotic-resistant strains of bacteria are an increasing problem in hospitals and in the community. This has resulted in bacterial infections such as impetigo becoming difficult to treat. Alternative treatment options are needed. Areas covered: In this paper, a past study that assessed the health burden of scabies in North Queensland is described and from it, the potential for formaldehyde as an alternative antimicrobial treatment is discussed. In doing so, antibiotic resistance, impetigo, permethrin, and formaldehyde are introduced and the current understanding and limitations of the effects of formaldehyde on humans are outlined. The limited cases of formaldehyde resistance in bacteria are also discussed. Expert opinion: Formaldehyde is currently used as a preservative in cosmetics and medicinal creams due to its antibacterial activity. It, therefore, has the potential to be used as an alternative antibacterial treatment for infections with antibiotic-resistant bacteria. The harmful side effects of airborne formaldehyde and exposure in allergic individuals have been extensively studied. Significantly less research has been conducted on formaldehyde skin contact in healthy individuals. If formaldehyde is safe for topical use in humans, it has the potential to assist with combating antibiotic resistance.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Formaldeído/administração & dosagem , Impetigo/tratamento farmacológico , Dermatopatias Infecciosas/tratamento farmacológico , Administração Tópica , Animais , Antibacterianos/efeitos adversos , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Formaldeído/efeitos adversos , Formaldeído/farmacologia , Humanos , Impetigo/microbiologia , Dermatopatias Infecciosas/microbiologia
16.
Environ Pollut ; 254(Pt A): 112943, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31394350

RESUMO

This study aimed to assess the carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risks of in-vehicle exposure in Tehran, Iran to formaldehyde and acetaldehyde for different models of taxis, and to explore the effects of city zone, taxi vehicle type, the taxi's age (<1, 1-5, 5-10), fuel type (gasoline, CNG, and LPG), and refueling activities on the estimated health risks based on previously measured concentrations. The overall and age-specific carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risks of these compounds for taxi drivers and passengers were estimated separately using Monte Carlo simulations. Three scenarios of exposure frequency were defined for taxis commuting in different zones of city: Restricted Traffic Zone (RTZ) and Odd-Even Zone (OEZ) as two plans to reduce air pollution, and no-restriction zone (NRZ). The carcinogenic risks for drivers and passengers, the average risks of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde for most cases were above the 1 × 10-4. The health risks were greater in Restricted Traffic Zone (RTZ) and Odd-Even Zone (OEZ) in comparison to no-restriction zone (NRZ). The carcinogenic risk from formaldehyde exposures were higher than those for acetaldehyde in all cases. Taxis fueled with LPG showed lower cancer risks for both acetaldehyde and formaldehyde. Refueling increased the carcinogenic risk from both compounds. For non-carcinogenic risks from acetaldehyde, the average hazard ratios for both drivers and passengers were >1, indicating a non-negligible risk. Cancer and non-cancer risks for the taxi drivers were greater than the passengers given the higher time of occupancy. The present study showed that transportation in taxis can impose significant long-term health risks to both passengers and drivers. Development and investment in cleaner choices for public transportations are required.


Assuntos
Acetaldeído/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Carcinógenos/análise , Formaldeído/análise , Automóveis , Formaldeído/efeitos adversos , Gasolina/toxicidade , Indicadores Básicos de Saúde , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico) , Hipersensibilidade Respiratória , Medição de Risco
17.
J Anat ; 235(5): 863-872, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31297814

RESUMO

Human cadavers constitute very useful educational tools to teach anatomy in medical scholarship and related disciplines such as physiology, for example. However, as biological material, human body is subjected to decay. Thanatopraxy cares such as embalming have been developed to slow down and inhibit this decay, but the formula used for the preservation fluids are mainly formaldehyde (FA)-based. Very recently, other formulas were developed in order to replace FA, and to avoid its toxicity leading to important environmental and professional exposure concerns. However, these alternative FA-free fluids are still not validated or commercialized, and their efficiency is still under discussion. In this context, the use of FA-releasing substances, already used in the cosmetics industry, may offer interesting alternatives in order to reduce professional exposures to FA. Simultaneously, the preservation of the body is still guaranteed by FA generated over time from FA-releasers. The aim of this review is to revaluate the use of FA in thanatopraxy cares, to present its benefits and disadvantages, and finally to propose an alternative to reduce FA professional exposure during thanatopraxy cares thanks to FA-releasers use.


Assuntos
Embalsamamento/métodos , Formaldeído/efeitos adversos , Hipersensibilidade Respiratória/prevenção & controle , Cadáver , Humanos
19.
Eur J Pharmacol ; 859: 172557, 2019 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31326375

RESUMO

Neuropeptide S (NPS) is the endogenous ligand of a G-protein coupled receptor named NPS receptor. The NPS system controls several biological functions, including anxiety, wakefulness, locomotor activity, food intake, and pain transmission. A growing body of evidence supports facilitatory effects for NPS over dopaminergic neurotransmission. The present study was aimed to investigate the role of dopamine receptors signaling in the antinociceptive effects of NPS in the mouse formalin test. The following dopamine receptor antagonists were employed: SCH 23390 (selective dopamine D1 antagonist, 0.05 mg/kg, ip), haloperidol (non-selective dopamine D2-like receptor antagonist; 0.03 mg/kg, ip), and sulpiride (selective dopamine D2-like receptor antagonist; 25 mg/kg, ip). Mice were pretreated with dopamine antagonists before the supraspinal administration of NPS (0.1 nmol, icv). Morphine (5 mg/kg, sc) and indomethacin (10 mg/kg, ip) were used as positive controls to set up the experimental conditions. Morphine-induced antinociceptive effects were observed during phases 1 and 2 of the test, while indomethacin was only active at phase 2. Central NPS significantly reduced formalin-induced nociception during both phases. The systemic administration of SCH 23390 slightly blocked the effects of NPS only during phase 2. Haloperidol prevented NPS-induced antinociceptive effects. Similar to haloperidol, sulpiride also counteracted the antinociceptive effects of NPS in both phases of the formalin test. In conclusion, the present findings suggest that the analgesic effects of NPS are linked with dopaminergic neurotransmission mainly through dopamine D2-like receptor signaling.


Assuntos
Analgésicos/farmacologia , Formaldeído/efeitos adversos , Neuropeptídeos/farmacologia , Receptores de Dopamina D1/metabolismo , Receptores de Dopamina D2/metabolismo , Animais , Dopamina/metabolismo , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
20.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2019: 225-236, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31359400

RESUMO

Retinoids and rexinoids directly and selectively activate their nuclear receptors, resulting in changes in the transcript levels of their target genes. Consequently, quantitating mRNA levels transcribed from cognate target genes is the most accurate measure of retinoid action. These changes can serve as relevant endpoints in biomarker trials, as well as in vivo preclinical studies. In gene expression analyses of archival material such as formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues, assessing the quality of the extracted RNA is essential for the validation of the studies. With next generation sequencing (NGS) becoming the method of choice for gene expression profiling, RNA quality has become a critical aspect of study feasibility. In this chapter, we describe a method to extract RNA and to assess the intactness of RNA samples extracted from paraffin-embedded tissues.


Assuntos
Formaldeído/efeitos adversos , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/métodos , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Inclusão em Parafina , RNA Mensageiro/análise , RNA Mensageiro/efeitos dos fármacos , RNA Mensageiro/isolamento & purificação , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Fixação de Tecidos
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