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1.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 48(4): 1969-1984, 2020 02 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31863585

RESUMO

One of the key roles of the 12-subunit eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3 (eIF3) is to promote the formation of the 43S and 48S pre-initiation complexes (PICs). However, particular contributions of its individual subunits to these two critical initiation reactions remained obscure. Here, we adapted formaldehyde gradient cross-linking protocol to translation studies and investigated the efficiency of the 43S and 48S PIC assembly in knockdowns of individual subunits of human eIF3 known to produce various partial subcomplexes. We revealed that eIF3d constitutes an important intermolecular bridge between eIF3 and the 40S subunit as its elimination from the eIF3 holocomplex severely compromised the 43S PIC assembly. Similarly, subunits eIF3a, c and e were found to represent an important binding force driving eIF3 binding to the 40S subunit. In addition, we demonstrated that eIF3c, and eIF3k and l subunits alter the efficiency of mRNA recruitment to 43S PICs in an opposite manner. Whereas the eIF3c knockdown reduces it, downregulation of eIF3k or eIF3l increases mRNA recruitment, suggesting that the latter subunits possess a regulatory potential. Altogether this study provides new insights into the role of human eIF3 in the initial assembly steps of the translational machinery.


Assuntos
Fator de Iniciação 3 em Eucariotos/genética , Proteínas Associadas aos Microtúbulos/genética , Ribossomos/genética , Reagentes para Ligações Cruzadas/farmacologia , Formaldeído/farmacologia , Humanos , Ligação Proteica , Biossíntese de Proteínas/genética , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Subunidades Ribossômicas Menores de Eucariotos/genética
2.
Biosci Biotechnol Biochem ; 84(1): 159-170, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31483212

RESUMO

We tested whether Sake Lees (SL) had inhibitory effects on hyperalgesia in the hindpaw under psychophysical stress conditions. Male rats were subjected to repeated forced swim stress treatments (FST) from Day -3 to Day -1. Intraperiotoneal administration of SL which contained low concentration of ethanol (SLX) was conducted after each FST. On Day 0, formalin-evoked licking behaviors and Fos responses in the lumbar spinal cord (DH) and several areas within the rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM) were quantified as nociceptive responses. FST-induced hyperalgesia in the hindpaw was prevented by repeated SL and SLX treatments. Fos expression was significantly increased in DH and some areas within the RVM under FST, which was prevented by repeated SL or SLX. These findings indicated that daily administration of SL had the potential to alleviate stress-induced hyperalgesia.


Assuntos
Fermentação , Membro Posterior/metabolismo , Hiperalgesia/tratamento farmacológico , Oryza/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-fos/metabolismo , Corno Dorsal da Medula Espinal/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico/fisiologia , Animais , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Etanol/química , Formaldeído/administração & dosagem , Formaldeído/farmacologia , Hiperalgesia/etiologia , Imuno-Histoquímica , Masculino , Manejo da Dor , Medição da Dor , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-fos/imunologia , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Neurônios Serotoninérgicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurônios Serotoninérgicos/metabolismo , Serotonina/imunologia , Serotonina/metabolismo , Natação/fisiologia , Distribuição Tecidual
3.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 55(75): 11263-11266, 2019 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31475257

RESUMO

A reversible fluorescent probe (NP) for sensing SO2 and FA was rationally constructed. With the outstanding attributes of NP, the fluctuation of endogenous SO2 and FA was successfully traced, not only at the cellular level, but also in living mice for the first time. Significantly, it was first found that the interaction of SO2 and FA can attenuate the cytotoxicity.


Assuntos
Corantes Fluorescentes/química , Formaldeído/análise , Dióxido de Enxofre/análise , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Corantes Fluorescentes/administração & dosagem , Corantes Fluorescentes/síntese química , Formaldeído/farmacologia , Células HeLa , Humanos , Injeções Intraperitoneais , Camundongos , Estrutura Molecular , Imagem Óptica , Espectrometria de Fluorescência , Dióxido de Enxofre/farmacologia
4.
Lett Appl Microbiol ; 69(4): 237-245, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31376169

RESUMO

An evaluation of the efficacy of 35% hydrogen peroxide vapour (HPV) against two strains of FMDV was conducted over a period of 6 months. FMDV biological indicators were produced on-site using strains obtained from a commercial FMDV vaccine manufacturing process. FMDV biological indicators were distributed within a BSL4 laboratory and exposed to short duration hydrogen peroxide cycles. Variations in titre, support matrix (soiling), temperature and humidity were evaluated in a series of 16 exposures using over 200 individual FMDV indicators. Additional verification testing was performed in an operational material transfer lock to replicate real-world use. HPV was found to be efficacious in inactivating FMDV strains; the inoculum titre influenced the level of reduction achieved with the specified cycle. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: The classification of formaldehyde as a presumed human carcinogen has presented regulatory challenges for its continued use as a biocidal product. Institutions are actively seeking fumigants to replace formaldehyde and undertaking studies to validate biocidal efficacy, particularly in high-level biosafety facilities where the consequences of pathogen release can be extremely severe. This study builds on the already substantial scientific efficacy base of 35% hydrogen peroxide vapour and provides a comprehensive evaluation of the applicability of hydrogen peroxide vapour as a replacement for formaldehyde within a Foot & Mouth Disease (FMDV) vaccine manufacturing facility.


Assuntos
Vírus da Febre Aftosa/efeitos dos fármacos , Febre Aftosa/prevenção & controle , Formaldeído/farmacologia , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/farmacologia , Vacinas Virais/síntese química , Animais , Febre Aftosa/virologia , Gases/farmacologia , Umidade , Instalações Industriais e de Manufatura
5.
Indian J Pathol Microbiol ; 62(3): 423-429, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31361231

RESUMO

Aim: Utility of modified Hammersmith protocol in the deacalcification and/or softening of tissues and samples in a histopathology laboratory were studied. The object of the study was to prepare a novel method for softening/decalcifying tissue for histopathology. Materials and Methods: All the hard tissues received in the histopathology section were received in 10% neutral buffered formalin and then placed in freshly prepared combination of 10 mL of concentrated formaldehyde and 5 mL of 10% formic acid in 85 mL distilled water was used for decalcification. The tissue was checked for evidence of adequate decalcification/softening every 6 hours. Those which were decalcified/softened were sent for routine tissue processing and staining, while those which were not, were again placed in formalin. The process was repeated until the tissue was ready for further processing. The routine sections of these slides were reviewed for morphology and stain quality along with special stains and immunohistochemistry performed. The time taken for decalcification, the variables most likely to affect decalcification, the morphology and staining characteristics were documented. Statistical analysis was done to determine the effect of softening/decalcification process on each variable. Results: A total of 201 blocks in 119 specimens from humans including 61 males and 58 females were studied. Time taken was found to have a significant correlation only with the nature of the tissue (bone vs nonbone) and not with any other parameter viz. age, gender, specimen size, type of bone, and nature of pathology. Conclusion: This novel and modified method has circumvented the common problems of overdecalcification, preserved morphology, and produced consistent results without interfering with special stains and immunohistochemistry.


Assuntos
Osso e Ossos/efeitos dos fármacos , Técnica de Descalcificação , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Fixadores/farmacologia , Formaldeído/farmacologia , Formiatos/farmacologia , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Coloração e Rotulagem , Adulto Jovem
6.
Artif Cells Nanomed Biotechnol ; 47(1): 2293-2297, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31172816

RESUMO

Objective: To study the effect of formaldehyde on the proliferation of human bronchial epithelial cells 16HBE and to explore its mechanism. Methods: MTT assay was used to detect the inhibition rate of formaldehyde-treated 16HBE cells; FCOH + miR-375 group (transfected miR-375 mimics), FCOH + miR-con group (transfected miR-con), FCOH + si-KLF4 group (transfected si-KLF4) and FCOH + si-con group (transfected si-con), were transfected into 16HBE cells by liposome method, then treated with formaldehyde 200 µmol/L for 24 h; qRT-PCR was used to detect the expression of miR-375 in each group; the protein expression of KLF4 in each group was detected by Western blot. The fluorescence activity of each group was detected by dual-fluorescein gene detection assay. Results: Compared with 16HBE cells in Control group, the expression of miR-375 was significantly decreased in FCOH group, cell proliferation was significantly decreased, and KLF4 expression was significantly increased (p < .05). Overexpression of miR-375 and KLF4 knockdown could reverse the inhibition effect of formaldehyde on proliferation of 16HBE cells; KLF4 is a target of miR-375. KLF4 could reverse the promotion of miR-375 on the proliferation of formaldehyde-treated 16HBE cells. Conclusion: Formaldehyde can inhibit the proliferation of human bronchial epithelial cells. The mechanism may be related to the down-regulation of miR-375 targeting KLF4, which will provide support for the treatment of chronic respiratory diseases.


Assuntos
Brônquios/citologia , Regulação para Baixo/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Epiteliais/citologia , Células Epiteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Formaldeído/farmacologia , MicroRNAs/genética , Linhagem Celular , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Humanos , Fatores de Transcrição Kruppel-Like/deficiência , Fatores de Transcrição Kruppel-Like/genética
7.
Biomed Res Int ; 2019: 4676354, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31211137

RESUMO

The incorporation of nanoparticles into endodontic sealers aims at increasing antimicrobial activity of the original material. Aim. The aim of this study is to incorporate the nanostructured silver vanadate decorated with silver nanoparticles (AgVO3, at 2.5%, 5%, and 10%) into three endodontic sealers and evaluate the antibacterial activity of freshly sealers, surface topography and chemical composition, and setting time. Material and Methods. The AgVO3 was incorporated into AH Plus, Sealer 26, and Endomethasone N at concentrations 0%, 2.5%, 5%, and 10% (in mass). The antibacterial activity of freshly sealers was assessed by direct contact with Enterococcus faecalis and CFU/mL count (n=10), surface topography, and chemical composition were measured by SEM/EDS, and the setting time was measured by Gillmore needle (n=10). The Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn statistical tests were applied (α=0.05). Results. All groups of sealers evaluated inhibited E. faecalis (p>0.05). The incorporation of AgVO3 altered the atomic proportions between components of the endodontic sealers, and the percentage of silver (Ag) and vanadium (V) increased proportionally to the concentrations of AgVO3. Topography analysis showed differences in components distribution on the surface of the specimens. The sealers incorporated with AgVO3 of AH Plus presented a lower setting time than the control group (p<0.05). For Sealer 26 and Endomethasone N, the incorporation of AgVO3 increased the setting time in relation to control group (p<0.05). Conclusions. The modification of endodontic sealers by AgVO3 increased the atomic percentage of Ag and V proportionally to the concentration of the nanomaterial and changed the atomic percentage of the sealer components and setting times. It cannot be affirmed that the AgVO3 promote differences in the antimicrobial activity of freshly sealers, and further investigations of the antimicrobial activity of the set sealers should be carried out.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Bismuto , Hidróxido de Cálcio , Enterococcus faecalis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Nanoestruturas/química , Materiais Restauradores do Canal Radicular , Compostos de Prata , Vanadatos , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bismuto/química , Bismuto/farmacologia , Hidróxido de Cálcio/química , Hidróxido de Cálcio/farmacologia , Dexametasona/química , Dexametasona/farmacologia , Combinação de Medicamentos , Formaldeído/química , Formaldeído/farmacologia , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/química , Hidrocortisona/farmacologia , Materiais Restauradores do Canal Radicular/química , Materiais Restauradores do Canal Radicular/farmacologia , Compostos de Prata/química , Compostos de Prata/farmacologia , Timol/análogos & derivados , Timol/química , Timol/farmacologia , Vanadatos/química , Vanadatos/farmacologia
8.
Mol Med Rep ; 20(1): 341-349, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31115571

RESUMO

The International Agency for Research on Cancer has classified formaldehyde (FA) as a leukemogen to humans in 2012; however, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) is a tumor­suppressor gene and can negatively regulate the phosphoinositide 3­kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (Akt) signal transduction pathway, which is associated with cell proliferation, apoptosis and carcinogenesis. To determine the association between FA and the PTEN/PI3K/Akt signal transduction pathway, flow cytometry, reverse transcription­quantitative polymerase chain reaction, western blotting and immunohistochemical analysis were conducted. Bone marrow cells were obtained from BALB/c mice, divided into the control (untreated cells) and FA groups, which were treated with various doses of FA (50, 100 and 200 µmol/l). Following treatment with FA for 24 h, cell viability, the cell cycle, apoptosis, and the expression of PTEN, PI3K and Akt, as well as the protein expression of B­cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl­2), Bcl­2­associated X (Bax), and Caspases­3 and ­9 were examined. Furthermore, 10 µmol/PI3K inhibitor (LY294002) was applied to inhibit the PTEN/PI3K/Akt signal transduction pathway and 100 µmol/l FA was selected for treatment; alteration in the cell cycle were analyzed. The results demonstrated that FA could suppress cell viability, and downregulate PTEN and Bcl­2; the expression of PI3K, Akt, Bax, and Caspases­3 and ­9 were upregulated. Additionally, FA was reported to induce cell cycle arrest at the G0/G1 phase and apoptosis. Following the application of LY294002 to inhibit the PTEN/PI3K/Akt signal transduction pathway, the numbers of cells arrested in the G0/G1 phase were significantly increased in the PI3K inhibitor group compared with the control (P<0.01); however, no significant change in the number of G0/G1 cells compared with FA group was observed (P>0.05). The results of the present study suggested that the PTEN/PI3K/Akt signal transduction pathway served an important role in the process of FA­induced apoptosis, which may be associated with regulating the cell cycle; thus, cell proliferation may be affected.


Assuntos
Células da Medula Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Formaldeído/toxicidade , Proteínas de Neoplasias/genética , Neoplasias/genética , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Células da Medula Óssea/patologia , Pontos de Checagem do Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Cromonas/farmacologia , Formaldeído/farmacologia , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Camundongos , Morfolinas/farmacologia , Neoplasias/induzido quimicamente , Neoplasias/patologia , PTEN Fosfo-Hidrolase/genética , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/genética , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
9.
Pharmacol Rep ; 71(3): 457-464, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31003157

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of vitamin E co-administration with celecoxib in thermal and inflammatory pain in two model of pain assessment including thermal tail flick test of acute pain and formalin induced inflammatory model in adult male rats. METHODS: Seventy two male Wistar rats were divided into a vehicle received intraperitoneally olive oil, indomethacin (20 mg/kg), vitamin E (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg), celecoxib (3, 10, 30 and 60 mg/kg) groups, and combination groups received the combination of vitamin E (100 and 200 mg/kg) and celecoxib (3, 10 and 30 mg/kg). All drugs were dissolved in olive oil. Antinociceptive effect in tail-flick was measured using Area Under Curve (AUC) of responses and Maximum Possible Effect (%MPE) and pain score was used for antinociceptive response in formalin test. RESULTS: Vitamin E and celecoxib changed time course of pain scores in a dose related manner in formalin test but not in tail-flick test. Vitamin E (200 mg/kg) had no effect and merely 60 mg/kg of celecoxib increased %MPE and AUC in tail-flick. The combination of vitamin E (100 or 200 mg/kg) with celecoxib (3 or 10 mg/kg) decreased pain scores compared to vehicle in both phases of formalin test, while in chronic phase (II) the pain scores of combination groups were also decreased compared to vitamin E and celecoxib. However, in tail-flick test the combination of ineffective doses of vitamin E (200 mg/kg) and celecoxib (10 and 30 mg/kg) increased %MPE and AUC compared to vehicle but not compared to celecoxib or vitamin E. CONCLUSIONS: Vitamin E and celecoxib showed a dose related antinociceptive effect in inflammatory but not in thermal model of acute pain. However the co-administration of vitamin E with celecoxib caused a significant increase in the antinociceptive effect which was similar to indomethacin, as a standard anti-inflammatory drug. So we suggest the concomitant use of vitamin E with celecoxib and other NSAIDs for potentiation of both anti- inflammatory and analgesic response, as well as the reduction of cardiovascular side effects of celecoxib.


Assuntos
Analgésicos/farmacologia , Celecoxib/farmacologia , Formaldeído/farmacologia , Dor/tratamento farmacológico , Vitamina E/farmacologia , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/farmacologia , Indometacina/farmacologia , Masculino , Medição da Dor/métodos , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
10.
Eur J Med Chem ; 172: 62-70, 2019 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30947122

RESUMO

In the present study a library of thiophenol-formaldehyde-triazole (TFT) derivatives was synthesized and screened against CAOV3, CAOV4 and ES-2 ovary cancer cell lines. Initial screening revealed that five-compounds 5a, 5b, 5j, 5h and 5i inhibited the viability of tested cell lines. Analysis of apoptosis revealed that increase in compound 5a (most active) concentration from 0.25 to 2.0 µM enhanced apoptotic cell proportion. Transwell assay showed reduction in invasive potential of CAOV3 cells on treatment with compound 5a. In wound healing assay increasing the concentration of compound 5a from 0.5 to 2.0 µM caused a significant (P < 0.05) decrease in the migration potential. Western blotting showed that compound 5a treatment markedly decreased the level of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and -9 in CAOV3 cells. Treatment of CAOV3 cells with compound 5a caused a marked decrease in Focal Adhesion Kinase (FAK) activation. Tumor growth was inhibited in the compound 5a treated mice markedly than those of untreated group. The tumor metastasis to liver, intestine, spleen and peritoneal cavity was markedly decreased in mice treated with 10 mg/kg dose of compound 5a. Examination of Von Willebrand factor (vWF) expression in liver, intestinal and pulmonary lesions showed a marked decrease in the compound 5a-treated mice. The infiltration of macrophages in the metastatic lesions showed a significant decrease in compound 5a-treated mice. In conclusion, the compound 5a inhibited ovary cancer cell viability and induced apoptosis through decrease in expression of vWF and metalloproteinase, suppression of FAK activation and decrease in infiltration of macrophages. The compound 5a therefore can be investigated further for the treatment of ovary cancer.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Formaldeído/farmacologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Fenóis/farmacologia , Compostos de Sulfidrila/farmacologia , Triazóis/farmacologia , Animais , Antineoplásicos/síntese química , Antineoplásicos/química , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Feminino , Formaldeído/química , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Nus , Estrutura Molecular , Neoplasias Experimentais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Experimentais/patologia , Fenóis/química , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Compostos de Sulfidrila/química , Triazóis/síntese química , Triazóis/química , Células Tumorais Cultivadas
11.
Analyst ; 144(9): 3136-3143, 2019 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30941383

RESUMO

Nosema bombycis (Nb) is the pathogen that causes pebrine in silkworms. Aldehydes are effective disinfectants commonly used in sericulture. However, the precise mechanism of their action on Nb spores remains unclear. Here, we used laser tweezers Raman spectroscopy to investigate the effects of glutaraldehyde and formaldehyde on individual Nb spores, as well as phase contrast microscopy imaging to monitor the germination dynamics of individual treated spores, to acquire a deeper understanding of the mechanism of action of aldehydes and to provide a theoretical reference for establishing an effective strategy for disease control in sericulture. The positions of the Raman peaks remained constant during treatment. The Raman intensity was enhanced and the germination rate of the spores significantly decreased with treatment time. Tlag, the time when individual spores begin to germinate, and Tgerm, the time for complete germination, increased with enhanced treatment. The germination time (ΔTgerm) showed no significant difference from that for untreated spores. Heterogeneity was shown, which is relevant to the resistance of Nb spores to aldehydes. The results indicate that glutaraldehyde and formaldehyde do not destroy the spore wall and plasma membrane, do not cause the leakage of intracellular components, and might not damage the extrusion apparatus. The effects of aldehydes on Nb spores are mainly on the spore coat. They may block the external factors that stimulate spore germination. Single-cell analysis based on novel optical techniques reveals the action of chemical sporicides on microsporidia spores in real time and explains the heterogeneity of cell stress resistance. These applications of new techniques offer new insight into traditional disinfectants.


Assuntos
Desinfetantes/farmacologia , Formaldeído/farmacologia , Glutaral/farmacologia , Nosema/efeitos dos fármacos , Esporos Fúngicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Microscopia de Contraste de Fase/métodos , Pinças Ópticas , Análise de Célula Única/métodos , Análise Espectral Raman/métodos
12.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 89: 393-402, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30980915

RESUMO

In order to investigate the dynamic distribution of antigen in different tissues post vaccination, an absolute real-time quantitative PCR was employed to detect the amount of antigen in flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) post intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection with three concentrations (107, 108, 109 CFU ml-1) of formalin-inactivated Edwardsiella tarda bacterin. The results showed that the amount of uptaken antigen quickly increased and then decreased in different tissues. The peak occurred first in the spleen and head kidney at 6-9 h after injection, and in the liver and blood at 9-15 h, then in the gill, intestine and skin at 15-24 h, finally in the muscle at 24-36 h. The amount of antigen was highest in the spleen and head kidney, followed by the blood, liver and gill, and lowest in the intestine, skin and muscle. Among the three concentration groups, the amount of antigen increased with the increasing concentration of the vaccine in the blood, liver, gill, intestine, skin and muscle, except for the spleen and head kidney, in which more antigens were found in the 108 CFU ml-1 group than that in 109 CFU ml-1 group. Moreover, IIFA and western blotting was performed to examine the tissue distribution of antigen at 9 h after vaccination with 108 CFU ml-1 formalin-inactivated E. tarda. The bacteria were mainly observed in the spleen and head kidney, then the liver, gill and blood, and least in the intestine, skin and muscle, which was roughly in accordance with the results of absolute qPCR. Furthermore, the expressions of CD4-1, MHC IIα, CD8α and MHC Iα in different tissues were detected by RT-qPCR, and the expression levels of these genes were highest in the spleen and head kidney, then in the blood, gill, liver, and lowest in the intestine, skin and muscle. All these results provided useful information for dynamic transportation of antigen uptake post vaccination, and also deepened the understanding of immune response to the injection vaccination.


Assuntos
Vacinas Bacterianas/administração & dosagem , Edwardsiella tarda/fisiologia , Infecções por Enterobacteriaceae/veterinária , Doenças dos Peixes/prevenção & controle , Linguados , Vacinação/veterinária , Animais , Edwardsiella tarda/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Enterobacteriaceae/imunologia , Infecções por Enterobacteriaceae/prevenção & controle , Doenças dos Peixes/imunologia , Formaldeído/farmacologia , Vacinas de Produtos Inativados/administração & dosagem
13.
Toxicol Lett ; 312: 55-64, 2019 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30974163

RESUMO

Formaldehyde (FA), a well-known toxic gas molecule similar to nitric oxide (NO), carbon monoxide (CO), and hydrogen sulfide (H2S), is widely produced endogenously via numerous biochemical pathways, and has a number of physiological roles in the biosystem. We attempted to investigate the vasorelaxant effects of FA and their underlying mechanisms. We found that FA induced vasorelaxant effects on rat aortic rings in a concentration-dependent manner. The NO/cyclic guanosine 5' monophosphate (cGMP) pathway was up-regulated when the rat aortas were treated with FA. The expression of large-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ (BKCa) channel subunits α and ß of the rat aortas was increased by FA. Similarly, the levels of ATP-sensitive K+ (KATP) channel subunits Kir6.1 and Kir6.2 were also up-regulated when the rat aortas were incubated with FA. In contrast, levels of the L-type Ca2+ channel (LTCC) subunits, Cav1.2 and Cav1.3, decreased dramatically with increasing concentrations of FA. We demonstrated that the regulation of FA on vascular contractility may be via the up-regulation of the NO/cGMP pathway and the modulation of ion channels, including the upregulated expression of the KATP and BKCa channels and the inhibited expression of LTCCs. Further study is needed to explore the in-depth mechanisms of FA induced vasorelaxation.


Assuntos
GMP Cíclico/metabolismo , Formaldeído/farmacologia , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Vasodilatação/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Aorta Torácica , Canais de Cálcio Tipo L/genética , Canais de Cálcio Tipo L/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Canais KATP/genética , Canais KATP/metabolismo , Subunidades alfa do Canal de Potássio Ativado por Cálcio de Condutância Alta/genética , Subunidades alfa do Canal de Potássio Ativado por Cálcio de Condutância Alta/metabolismo , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
14.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 88: 449-457, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30877061

RESUMO

Formaldehyde can effectively control ectoparasites in silver pomfret (Pampus argenteus). However, there is limited information on the effects of formaldehyde treatment at a molecular level in fishes. In the present study, transcriptome profiling was conducted to investigate the effects of formaldehyde treatment (80 mg/L, bath for 1 h every day for three consecutive days) on the liver and kidney tissues of silver pomfret. A total of 617959982 clean reads were obtained and assembled into 265760 unigenes with an N50 length of 1507 bp, and the assembled unigenes were all annotated by alignment with public databases. A total of 2204 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were detected in the liver and kidney tissues, and they included 7 detoxification- related genes and 9 immune-related genes, such as CYP450, GST, MHC I & II, and CCR. In addition, 1440 DEGs were mapped to terms in the GO database, and 1064 DEGs were mapped to the KEGG database. The expression of 4 detoxification-related genes and 6 immune-related genes in three days formaldehyde treatment were analyzed using RT-qPCR, and the antioxidant enzyme levels were also determined. The results indicate differential expression of detoxification- and immune-related genes during the three days formaldehyde treatment. Our data could provide a reference for the treatment of parasites to avoid high mortality and help in understanding the molecular activity in fishes after formaldehyde exposure.


Assuntos
Formaldeído/farmacologia , Inativação Metabólica , Perciformes/imunologia , Transcriptoma , Animais , Aquicultura , Ectoparasitoses/tratamento farmacológico , Ectoparasitoses/veterinária , Proteínas de Peixes/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Perciformes/parasitologia , Alimentos Marinhos/parasitologia , Análise de Sequência de DNA
15.
Exp Parasitol ; 199: 59-66, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30825498

RESUMO

Fasciolosis is a zoonotic world widely distributed disease caused by the liver fluke Fasciola hepatica, which affects animals and occasionally humans. On the other hand, natural iron oxide particles like magnetite are commonly found in soils where they participate in a wide range of environmental processes like organic matter decomposition, the adsorption of ions and molecules, and chemical reactions that involve the participation of soil living microorganisms. Since Fasciola eggs become soil components after being released with the infected animal faeces, this study focused on the characterization of the natural interaction between natural sub-micrometric magnetite particles and F. hepatica eggs. Our results indicate that particle binding to the F. hepatica egg depends on the particle size and it is also related to the exposed surface area since any condition that favors particle agglomeration leads to the reduction of the particle-eggshell binding intensity. Interestingly, this binding was avoided when proteins or phosphate were incorporated to the incubation solution, but not after formaldehyde fixation of eggs. Finally, when eggs were exposed to an external magnet after being incubated with magnetite particles, they were attracted to it without particles being detached, indicating a strong type of bonding between them. Therefore, the results presented here give new insights in order to improve the possibility of harvesting F. hepatica eggs by using magnetic materials.


Assuntos
Fasciola hepatica/metabolismo , Óxido Ferroso-Férrico/metabolismo , Animais , Ensaio de Desvio de Mobilidade Eletroforética , Fasciolíase/parasitologia , Fasciolíase/veterinária , Fezes/parasitologia , Fixadores/farmacologia , Formaldeído/farmacologia , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Nanopartículas de Magnetita/ultraestrutura , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Distribuição Normal , Óvulo/metabolismo , Tamanho da Partícula , Peroxidase/análise , Fosfatos/farmacologia , Proteínas/farmacologia , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia , Solo/química , Solo/parasitologia , Espectrometria por Raios X
16.
Ann Anat ; 224: 17-22, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30914345

RESUMO

The human large intestine in the living adult has a total length of about 1300 mm, ranging from 1100 to 2108 mm. The development of the gut continues after birth, up to the age 4-5. The large intestine ascends at the beginning in the right abdominal quadrant, then it traverses the abdominal cavity, and finally it descends to the anus. The left and right colic flexures are the basic flexions between the transverse, ascending and descending colon, respectively. Additionally, there are secondary bendings between intestinal segments. The angles between the neighbouring parts can vary between examined subjects. Most of the angulations can be found in the transverse (range 2-9) and sigmoid colon (range 1-9), making them the most troublesome parts to pass with a colonoscope. Colonoscopy (usually performed in the left lateral or supine position) is one of the most important examination of the large intestine mucus membrane. During this procedure the endoscope is passed through the colon into the cecum or terminal ilium. The individual anatomical features (tortuosity, supernumerary loops and elongation) may slow down or interfere with the progress of the scope. We summarize current knowledge on the human large intestine from the fetal period to adulthood and carve out some aspects that are currently less known to colonoscopists.


Assuntos
Colonoscopia , Intestino Grosso/anatomia & histologia , Envelhecimento/patologia , Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Cadáver , Morte , Fixadores/farmacologia , Formaldeído/farmacologia , Humanos , Intestino Grosso/embriologia , Intestino Grosso/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Intestino Grosso/patologia , Fixação de Tecidos
17.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 25(5): 919-926, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30681072

RESUMO

For safety, designated Select Agents in tissues must be inactivated and viability tested before the tissue undergoes further processing and analysis. In response to the shipping of samples of "inactivated" Bacillus anthracis that inadvertently contained live spores to nonregulated entities and partners worldwide, the Federal Register now mandates in-house validation of inactivation procedures and standardization of viability testing to detect live organisms in samples containing Select Agents that have undergone an inactivation process. We tested and validated formaldehyde and glutaraldehyde inactivation procedures for animal tissues infected with virulent B. anthracis, Burkholderia pseudomallei, Francisella tularensis, and Yersinia pestis. We confirmed that our fixation procedures for tissues containing these Tier 1 Select Agents resulted in complete inactivation and that our validated viability testing methods do not interfere with detection of live organisms. Institutions may use this work as a guide to develop and conduct their own testing to comply with the policy.


Assuntos
Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Desinfetantes/farmacologia , Formaldeído/farmacologia , Glutaral/farmacologia , Viabilidade Microbiana/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Cobaias , Especificidade de Órgãos , Esporos Bacterianos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fatores de Tempo
18.
J Appl Microbiol ; 126(3): 764-770, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30597684

RESUMO

AIMS: Infectious health risks are associated with handling human cadavers and to decrease such risks, cadavers are embalmed using different chemicals. The aim of this study is to quantify the amount of micro-organisms present in different regions of human cadavers before embalming, after embalming and over a period of 8 months. METHODS AND RESULTS: Human cadavers were embalmed using Thiel, formalin, Genelyn and the Imperial College London soft-preservation (ICL-SP) solution with two cadavers per technique. Sterile swabs were used to collect samples from different regions. Samples were collected every 2 months. All cadavers had a high number of microbial colonies before embalming. While no colonies were detected on formalin and Genelyn embalmed cadavers post-embalming, the number of colonies decreased significantly in Thiel-embalmed cadavers and stayed relatively the same in ICL-SP-embalmed cadavers. CONCLUSIONS: Formalin-embalmed cadavers showed the strongest disinfecting abilities followed by Thiel-embalmed cadavers, then Genelyn-embalmed cadavers and finally by ICL-SP cadavers. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: This study highlights how under researched this area is and the evident variation in the antimicrobial abilities of different embalming solutions on the cadaver as a whole and within different regions of the same cadaver.


Assuntos
Desinfetantes/farmacologia , Desinfecção/métodos , Embalsamamento/normas , Formaldeído/farmacologia , Cadáver , Desinfecção/instrumentação , Humanos , Exposição Ocupacional
19.
Clin Anat ; 32(2): 224-230, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30281854

RESUMO

The adverse effects formaldehyde fixation has on tissues both gross anatomically and histologically are well documented. Consequently, researchers are seeking alternative embalming techniques that better preserve in vivo characteristics of tissues. Phenol-based embalming is one method that has shown promise in its ability to adequately preserve the in vivo qualities of tissues through preliminary explorations at the gross anatomical level. The literature on phenol-based embalming is currently scarce, especially with regard to its effects on tissues at the microscopic level. For the current study we aimed to document the histologic effects of a formaldehyde-free phenol-based embalming solution on neural tissue, with the hope of providing novel insight into the effects of soft-embalming on tissues at the microscopic level. Cerebral and cerebellar tissue obtained from porcine brains was fixed in phenol- and formaldehyde-based fixatives; the latter served as a control. Fixed samples were processed for histological analysis. The phenol-based embalming solution provided excellent preservation of the cerebral and cerebellar tissue morphology. Of note was the decrease in separation artifact seen in both tissue types relative to the control tissue, as well as anomalous circular artifacts in the white matter. The results of this study indicate that the phenol-based embalming solution preserves neural tissue at the histological level, perhaps superiorly in many aspects when compared to the formaldehyde-fixed samples. Further investigations of both gross anatomy and histology are recommended on the basis of these promising new findings to determine its potential utilities within research and education. Clin. Anat. 32:224-230, 2019. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Assuntos
Fixadores/farmacologia , Formaldeído/farmacologia , Tecido Nervoso/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenol/farmacologia , Preservação Biológica/métodos , Animais , Cerebelo/efeitos dos fármacos , Córtex Cerebral/efeitos dos fármacos , Fixadores/efeitos adversos , Formaldeído/efeitos adversos , Suínos
20.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 122: 1128-1135, 2019 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30218731

RESUMO

A ß-D-glucan was obtained from the edible mushroom Pholiota nameko by hot aqueous extraction and purification. NMR and methylation analyses of the purified fraction (GHW-PN, 1.46% yield) indicated the presence of a (1 → 3)-linked ß-D-glucan, highly substituted (~27%) at O-6 by single units of ß-D-Glcp or by (1 → 6)-ß-D-Glcp fragments. The ß-glucan (at 0.5, 1, and 2%) showed shear thinning behavior and when the concentration of the solution increased, there was an increase in apparent viscosity. The ß-D-glucan presented gel-like behavior and thermal stability under a simulated pasteurization process, suggesting its potential as a thickening and gelling agent in products submitted to temperature variations. The ß-D-glucan at 0.3, 1.0 and 3.0 mg kg-1 significantly inhibited the inflammatory pain in 24.8, 56.9 and 82.3%, respectively, in the formalin-induced nociception in mice. The results pointed out that the ß-D-glucan (GHW-PN) isolated from P. nameko presents potential application for the food industry or for medical purposes.


Assuntos
Analgésicos/química , Analgésicos/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Glucanos/química , Glucanos/farmacologia , Pholiota/química , Animais , Formaldeído/farmacologia , Géis , Masculino , Camundongos , Nociceptividade/efeitos dos fármacos , Reologia
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