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1.
BMC Genomics ; 23(1): 61, 2022 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35039013

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lysine succinylation (Ksu) exists in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes, and influences a variety of metabolism processes. However, little attention has been paid to Ksu in insects, especially the notorious invasive pest Solenopsis invicta. RESULTS: In this study, the first analyses of Ksu proteome and overlap between Ksu and lysine acetylation (Kac) in S. invicta were presented. 3753 succinylated sites in 893 succinylated proteins were tested. The dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase, V-type proton ATPase subunit G, and tubulin alpha chain all had evolutionary conservatism among diverse ant or bee species. Immunoblotting validation showed that there were many Ksu protein bands with a wide range of molecular mass. In addition, 1230 sites in 439 proteins were highly overlapped between Ksu and Kac. 54.05% of Ksu proteins in cytoplasm were acetylated. The results demonstrated that Ksu may play a vital part in the allergization, redox metabolism, sugar, fat, and protein metabolism, energy production, immune response, and biosynthesis of various secondary metabolites. CONCLUSIONS: Ksu and Kac were two ubiquitous protein post-translational modifications participated in a variety of biological processes. Our results may supply rich resources and a starting point for the molecular basic research of regulation on metabolic pathways and other biological processes by succinylation and acetylation.


Assuntos
Formigas , Lisina , Acetilação , Animais , Lisina/metabolismo , Processamento de Proteína Pós-Traducional , Proteoma/metabolismo
2.
BMC Genomics ; 23(1): 57, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35033027

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Circadian clocks allow organisms to anticipate daily fluctuations in their environment by driving rhythms in physiology and behavior. Inter-organismal differences in daily rhythms, called chronotypes, exist and can shift with age. In ants, age, caste-related behavior and chronotype appear to be linked. Brood-tending nurse ants are usually younger individuals and show "around-the-clock" activity. With age or in the absence of brood, nurses transition into foraging ants that show daily rhythms in activity. Ants can adaptively shift between these behavioral castes and caste-associated chronotypes depending on social context. We investigated how changes in daily gene expression could be contributing to such behavioral plasticity in Camponotus floridanus carpenter ants by combining time-course behavioral assays and RNA-Sequencing of forager and nurse brains. RESULTS: We found that nurse brains have three times fewer 24 h oscillating genes than foragers. However, several hundred genes that oscillated every 24 h in forager brains showed robust 8 h oscillations in nurses, including the core clock genes Period and Shaggy. These differentially rhythmic genes consisted of several components of the circadian entrainment and output pathway, including genes said to be involved in regulating insect locomotory behavior. We also found that Vitellogenin, known to regulate division of labor in social insects, showed robust 24 h oscillations in nurse brains but not in foragers. Finally, we found significant overlap between genes differentially expressed between the two ant castes and genes that show ultradian rhythms in daily expression. CONCLUSION: This study provides a first look at the chronobiological differences in gene expression between forager and nurse ant brains. This endeavor allowed us to identify a putative molecular mechanism underlying plastic timekeeping: several components of the ant circadian clock and its output can seemingly oscillate at different harmonics of the circadian rhythm. We propose that such chronobiological plasticity has evolved to allow for distinct regulatory networks that underlie behavioral castes, while supporting swift caste transitions in response to colony demands. Behavioral division of labor is common among social insects. The links between chronobiological and behavioral plasticity that we found in C. floridanus, thus, likely represent a more general phenomenon that warrants further investigation.


Assuntos
Formigas , Relógios Circadianos , Animais , Formigas/genética , Comportamento Animal , Encéfalo , Relógios Circadianos/genética , Ritmo Circadiano/genética , Humanos
3.
Braz J Biol ; 84: e253218, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35019097

RESUMO

Indices are used to help on decision-making. This study aims to develop and test an index, which can determine the loss (e.g., herbivorous insects) and solution (e.g., natural enemies) sources. They will be classified according to their importance regarding the ability to damage or to reduce the source of damage to the system when the final production is unknown. Acacia auriculiformis (Fabales: Fabaceae), a non-native pioneer species in Brazil with fast growth and rusticity, is used in restoration programs, and it is adequate to evaluate a new index. The formula was: Percentage of the Importance Indice-Production Unknown (% I.I.-PU) = [(ks1 x c1 x ds1)/Σ (ks1 x c1 x ds1) + (ks2 x c2 x ds2) + (ksn x cn x dsn)] x 100. The loss sources Aethalion reticulatum L., 1767 (Hemiptera: Aethalionidae), Aleyrodidae (Hemiptera), Stereoma anchoralis Lacordaire, 1848 (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), and Tettigoniidae, and solution sources Uspachus sp. (Araneae: Salticidae), Salticidae (Araneae), and Pseudomyrmex termitarius (Smith, 1877) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) showed the highest % I.I.-PU on leaves of A. auriculiformis saplings. The number of Diabrotica speciosa Germar, 1824 (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) was reduced per number of Salticidae; that of A. reticulatum that of Uspachus sp.; and that of Cephalocoema sp. (Orthoptera: Proscopiidae) that of P. termitarius on A. auriculiformis saplings. However, the number of Aleyrodidae was increased per number of Cephalotes sp. (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) and that of A. reticulatum that of Brachymyrmex sp. (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) on A. auriculiformis saplings. The A. reticulatum damage was reduced per number of Uspachus sp., but the Aleyrodidae damage was increased per number of Cephalotes sp., totaling 23.81% of increase by insect damages on A. auriculiformis saplings. Here I show and test the % I.I.-PU. It is an new index that can detect the loss or solution sources on a system when production is unknown. It can be applied in some knowledge areas.


Assuntos
Acacia , Formigas , Besouros , Hemípteros , Animais , Insetos
4.
Arch Insect Biochem Physiol ; 109(2): e21861, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34904747

RESUMO

The red imported fire ant (RIFA), Solenopsis invicta Buren is native to South America and known as a global problematic invasive species. At low temperatures, several investigations have demonstrated an increase in glycerol as a primary rapid cold hardening (RCH) component and an increase in the supercooling point. Two genes, glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH) and glycerol kinase (GK), have been identified as being involved in the glycerol production process. In this study, one GPDH and two GK sequences were extracted from RIFA transcriptome analysis (Si-GPDH, Si-GK1, and Si-GK2). All three genes were expressed in different body parts and different tissues of S. invicta that Si-GK2 showed a higher expression level than the others. According to gene expression levels by qRT-PCR analysis, the highest expression levels of three genes were observed in fat body tissues. After 1 h of exposure to low temperatures (5°C or lower), the mRNA levels of these genes significantly increased, according to expression analyses. RNA interference (RNAi) of Si-GPDH or Si-GK1 and Si-GK2 exhibited a significant downregulation at the mRNA level. The mortality rate of treated RIFA by double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) specific to GPDH and GK2 significantly increased at low temperatures. This study indicates that GPDH and GK2 as glycerol biosynthesis genes in RIFA have a high expression level to synthesize a high level of glycerol as an RCH factor and they play crucial roles in survival during the cold period.


Assuntos
Formigas , Animais , Formigas/genética , Temperatura Baixa , Glicerol , Espécies Introduzidas , RNA de Cadeia Dupla
5.
Pest Manag Sci ; 78(1): 116-125, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34453401

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Economic injury level (EIL) and economic threshold (ET) are customary tools for integrated pest management. Cacopsylla pyri L. is a major pest in pear orchards. The aim of this work was to establish EIL and ET for the optimization of the use of insecticides to control this psyllid, considering biocontrol and two spraying strategies (low-toxicity versus broad spectrum chemicals). This research was conducted over 4 years in five commercial pear, cv. Ercolini, orchards in south-eastern Spain. RESULTS: Psyllids and ant populations were followed using periodic sampling, and the russet on fruits was quantified. The effect of spray intensity and ant exclusion on psyllid abundance and yield were also tested: both had a significant effect on the cumulative number of C. pyri (CNP), yield and fruit weight. Yield was found to be negatively correlated with CNP. The russet index (RI) increased in a sigmoidal fashion as a function of CNP, being significantly higher with than without ant exclusion. The commercial categorization of fruits was explained satisfactorily as a function of CNP and the cumulative number of ants (CNA). The quantitative EIL was established at a CNP of 427.2 for spraying with paraffinic oil and 425.7 for abamectin. As for the cosmetic EIL, when CNA was zero, this EIL was 24.2, at a CNP of 16.6 for spraying with paraffinic oil or abamectin. CONCLUSIONS: The use of products of low toxicity, for the conservation of ants, is expected to increase ET and, thus, reduce the intensity of spraying. © 2021 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Formigas , Hemípteros , Inseticidas , Pyrus , Animais , Espanha
6.
Ecol Lett ; 25(1): 89-100, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34725912

RESUMO

Infections early in life can have enduring effects on an organism's development and immunity. In this study, we show that this equally applies to developing 'superorganisms'--incipient social insect colonies. When we exposed newly mated Lasius niger ant queens to a low pathogen dose, their colonies grew more slowly than controls before winter, but reached similar sizes afterwards. Independent of exposure, queen hibernation survival improved when the ratio of pupae to workers was small. Queens that reared fewer pupae before worker emergence exhibited lower pathogen levels, indicating that high brood rearing efforts interfere with the ability of the queen's immune system to suppress pathogen proliferation. Early-life queen pathogen exposure also improved the immunocompetence of her worker offspring, as demonstrated by challenging the workers to the same pathogen a year later. Transgenerational transfer of the queen's pathogen experience to her workforce can hence durably reduce the disease susceptibility of the whole superorganism.


Assuntos
Formigas , Animais , Feminino , Humanos , Reprodução , Estações do Ano , Comportamento Social
7.
Commun Biol ; 4(1): 1400, 2021 12 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34912037

RESUMO

Social insect queens have evolved mechanisms to prevent competition from their sexual daughters. For Solenopsis invicta, the fire ant, queens have evolved a primer pheromone that retards reproductive development in their winged reproductive daughters. If these daughters are removed from the influence of the queen, it takes about a week to start reproductive development; however, it starts almost immediately after mating. This dichotomy has been unsuccessfully investigated for several decades. Here we show that male fire ants produce tyramides, derivatives of the biogenic amine tyramine, in their reproductive system. Males transfer tyramides to winged females during mating, where the now newly mated queens enzymatically convert tyramides to tyramine. Tyramine floods the hemolymph, rapidly activating physiological processes associated with reproductive development. Tyramides have been found only in the large Myrmicinae ant sub-family (6,800 species), We suggest that the complex inhibition/disinhibition of reproductive development described here will be applicable to other members of this ant sub-family.


Assuntos
Formigas/fisiologia , Neurotransmissores/metabolismo , Comportamento Sexual Animal , Tiramina/análogos & derivados , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Reprodução , Tiramina/metabolismo
8.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(21): 5674-5682, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34951221

RESUMO

Two terpenes, 3-keto-tirucalla-8,24-dien-21-oic acid(KTDA) and 2-methoxy-5-acetoxy-furanogermacr-1(10)-en-6-one(FSA), are isolated from Olibanum and Myrrha respectively, which are characterized by high yield and easy crystallization during the preparation. The present study explored the regulatory targets and anti-inflammatory mechanism of KTDA and FSA based on network pharmacology and cell viability assay. First, the drug-likeness of KTDA and FSA was predicted by Swiss ADME. The target prediction of active components was carried out by Swiss Target Prediction and Pharmmapper. TTD, Drug Bank, and Gene Cards were searched for inflammation-related target genes of KTDA and FSA. Protein-protein interaction(PPI) analysis was performed on the inflammatory targets of KTDA and FSA by STRING, and Cytoscape was used to conduct topological analysis of the interaction results and construct the PPI network. GO function and KEGG pathway enrichment analyses of inflammatory targets of KTDA and FSA were carried out by DAVID, and a " component-target-pathway" network was constructed. Finally, lipopolysaccharide(LPS)-induced RAW264. 7 cells were treated with KTDA and FSA at different concentrations, and nitric oxide(NO) concentration and protein and m RNA expression levels were detected. The results showed that both KTDA and FSA showed good drug-likeness. A total of 157 and 142 inflammation-related targets of KTDA and FSA were screened out. PPI network analysis showed that MAPK1, AKT1, MAPK8, PIK3 CA,PIK3 R1, EGFR, etc. might be the key proteins for the anti-inflammatory effect. PI3 K/AKT and MAPK signaling pathways were obtained by KEGG and GO-BP enrichment. Cell experiment results showed that KTDA and FSA could exert anti-inflammatory effects by inhibiting NO production, reducing the phosphorylation levels of JNK, p38, and AKT proteins, and down-regulating the m RNA expression of interleukin(IL)-1ß and IL-6. Meanwhile, FSA could also inhibit ERK phosphorylation. The results indicated that KTDA and FSA had significant anti-inflammatory activity, which provided a scientific basis and important support for the further research,development, and utilization of Olibanum and Myrrha.


Assuntos
Formigas , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Franquincenso , Animais , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Lipopolissacarídeos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular
9.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 24031, 2021 12 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34911991

RESUMO

Exploitation of organisms by multiple parasite species is common in nature, but interactions among parasites have rarely been studied. Myrmica ants are rich in parasites. Among others, the ectoparasitic Rickia wasmannii fungus and the parasitic caterpillars of myrmecophilous Phengaris butterflies often infect the same Myrmica colonies. In this study, we examined the effects of R. wasmannii on the adoption, long-term development, and survival of P. alcon. In laboratory conditions, caterpillars introduced into nests of Myrmica scabrinodis uninfected with R. wasmannii survived significantly longer compared to caterpillars introduced into infected nests. In the field, joint infection was less common than expected if both parasites exploited M. scabrinodis colonies independently. Pre-pupal caterpillars of P. alcon were somewhat larger in nests infected with R. wasmannii than those found in uninfected nests. Based on these results it seems that R. wasmannii infection of M. scabrinodis affects the survival and development of P. alcon caterpillars, suggesting competition between these two ant parasites.


Assuntos
Formigas/microbiologia , Formigas/parasitologia , Borboletas , Fungos , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Animais , Meio Ambiente
10.
Cell Mol Life Sci ; 79(1): 29, 2021 Dec 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34971425

RESUMO

The social organization of many primate, bird and rodent species and the role of individuals within that organization are associated with specific individual physiological traits. However, this association is perhaps most pronounced in eusocial insects (e.g., termites, ants). In such species, genetically close individuals show significant differences in behavior, physiology, and life expectancy. Studies addressing the metabolic changes according to the social role are still lacking. We aimed at understanding how sociality could influence essential molecular processes in a eusocial insect, the black garden ant (Lasius niger) where queens can live up to ten times longer than workers. Using mass spectrometry-based analysis, we explored the whole metabolome of queens, nest-workers and foraging workers. A former proteomics study done in the same species allowed us to compare the findings of both approaches. Confirming the former results at the proteome level, we showed that queens had fewer metabolites related to immunity. Contrary to our predictions, we did not find any metabolite linked to reproduction in queens. Among the workers, foragers had a metabolic signature reflecting a more stressful environment and a more highly stimulated immune system. We also found that nest-workers had more digestion-related metabolites. Hence, we showed that specific metabolic signatures match specific social roles. Besides, we identified metabolites differently expressed among behavioral castes and involved in nutrient sensing and longevity pathways (e.g., sirtuins, FOXO). The links between such molecular pathways and aging being found in an increasing number of taxa, our results confirm and strengthen their potential universality.


Assuntos
Formigas/imunologia , Formigas/metabolismo , Hierarquia Social , Sistema Imunitário/metabolismo , Comportamento Social , Animais , Comportamento Animal , Metaboloma , Metabolômica , Análise de Componente Principal
11.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 93(suppl 4): e20201821, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34730620

RESUMO

The objective of the study was to compare the richness and diversity of ant assemblages in an agroecological system under peach orchard, conventional system under peach orchard cultivation and native vegetation in rural properties located in a Pampa Biome. The study was conducted in four samplings in 2017: 1st and 09th March (summer); 24th and 31st July (winter); and four samplings in 2018: 23rd and 30th January (summer); 31st July and 07th August (winter). Pitfall traps were used. The assemblages were characterized and compared using richness, number of occurrences of ants, Shannon diversity (H'), equitability, rarefaction analysis and Chao 1. The association of the species with the samples was evaluated by a Principal Component Analysis (PCA). The agroecological system had the highest number of occurrences, while the conventional orchard the lowest number. Richness and abundance were greatest during the summer. The conventional peach orchard obtained the lowest H' for both seasons when compared to the agroecological orchard and native vegetation. The PCA explained 77.40% of the occurrence of ants in the environments and in the seasons. The results found demonstrated that conservationist systems tend to harbor greater wealth and diversity of ant assemblages, as well as occurring in native áreas.


Assuntos
Formigas , Animais , Biodiversidade , Produtos Agrícolas , Ecossistema , Estações do Ano
12.
Zootaxa ; 5033(1): 1-230, 2021 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34811105

RESUMO

This paper provides a taxonomic revision and reviews natural history for 35 South American species of the seed-harvesting ant genus Pogonomyrmex. Species treated herein mostly comprise the P. rastratus-group; four species are revived from synonomy, three taxa are elevated from subspecies to species, five taxa are synonymized, and 20 new species are described. The following taxa are revived from synonomy: P. intermedia Menozzi, P. semistriata Emery, P. spinolae Emery, and P. weiseri Santschi. The following taxa are raised from subspecies to species: P. leonis Kusnezov, P. pulchellus Santschi, and P. sanmartini Kusnezov. The following new synonymies are proposed, with the senior synonym listed first, and the junior synonym(s) in parentheses: P. carbonarius Mayr (= P. kusnezovi Cuezzo Claver, = P. weiseri var. neuquensis Santschi, = P. variabilis Santschi); P. vermiculatus Emery (= P. vermiculatus var. chubutensis Forel, = P. vermiculatus var. jorgenseni Forel). The following new species are described: P. apterogenos, P. araucania, P. atacama, P. bolivianus, P. colca, P. cusquena, P. excelsior, P. forelii, P. granulatus, P. lagunabravensis, P. loaensis, P. mapuche, P. maulensis, P. pichachen, P. propinqua, P. santschii, P. strioligaster, P. tafi, P. varicolor, and P. wilsoni. One species treated herein has brachypterous queens (P. atacama), one species has dimorphic queens (winged and brachypterous in P. longibarbis), and two species have ergatoid (permanently wingless) queens and ergatoid males (P. apterogenos, P. laguanbravensis); the latter two are the only known ant species in which both sexual castes are only ergatoid. I also provide keys for workers and queens (in English and Spanish), diagnoses for males, photographs of known castes, distribution maps, and a summary of known biology.


Assuntos
Formigas , Gorgulhos , Animais , Humanos , Masculino , Classe Social
13.
Zootaxa ; 5055(1): 1-137, 2021 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34811227

RESUMO

This paper provides a taxonomic revision of the Neotropical ant genus Hylomyrma Forel (1912) (Myrmicinae: Pogonomyrmecini). Morphological traits combined with geographical data and natural history information led to the recognition of 30 species, fourteen of them described here as new: Hylomyrma adelae sp. n., Hylomyrma dandarae sp. n., Hylomyrma jeronimae sp. n., Hylomyrma lispectorae sp. n., Hylomyrma lopesi sp. n., Hylomyrma macielae sp. n., Hylomyrma margaridae sp. n., Hylomyrma mariae sp. n., Hylomyrma marielleae sp. n., Hylomyrma mitiae sp. n., Hylomyrma peetersi sp. n., Hylomyrma primavesi sp. n., Hylomyrma virginiae sp. n. and Hylomyrma wachiperi sp. n. Lectotypes for H. speciosa (junior synonym of H. balzani) and H. reitteri are here designated from syntypes to improve nomenclatural stability. Except for the three species most recently described (H. montana, H. plumosa, and H. villemantae), the external morphology of workers is described or redescribed, as well as for the known males and queens, most described here for the first time. Of the 30 recognized species herein, 11 present intercastes; at least three of them present female specimens with queen-like traits that may be understood as ergatoids. An updated identification key for Hylomyrma workers is provided, as well as high resolution photographs of all known sexes and castes, species distribution maps, and a summary of what is known from the biology of all species.


Assuntos
Formigas , Ortópteros , Animais , Feminino , Geografia , Masculino , Fenótipo , Classe Social
14.
Zootaxa ; 5005(2): 145-160, 2021 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34811273

RESUMO

A characteristically bicolored ant belonging to the Temnothorax sordidulus species-complex is described from mountainous habitats in Iberia and named T. estel sp. nov. Three additional and closely-related taxa are newly recognized as members of the complex, including the Iberian endemics T. ibericus (Menozzi, 1922) and T. platycephalus (Espadaler, 1997) and the Pyrenean T. conatensis Galkowski Lebas, 2016. The taxonomy of all four species is reviewed and discussed within the Palearctic context. Images and an identification key are provided.


Assuntos
Formigas , Himenópteros , Animais
15.
Zootaxa ; 5001(1): 1-83, 2021 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34811340

RESUMO

The state of Par in northern Brazil is located entirely within the Amazon Basin and harbors a great diversity of landscape and vegetation types that support high levels of biodiversity. Here, we provide a comprehensive inventory of ant species and their distribution in Par. This regional list is based on an extensive review of species records from published and unpublished sources covering a period of 134 years (18862020) and includes the five most representative ant collections in Brazil. In total, we documented 12 subfamilies, 90 genera and 753 ant species, including 97 species recorded for the first time in Par and 12 species newly reported in Brazil. Sampling effort across the state is highly uneven, and most records may be associated with research areas near the state capital, mining areas, hydroelectric dams, and research field stations run by the state or universities. In addition, our results suggest a strong bias in ant collection in Par in terms of proximity of sampled sites to access routes, such as roads and rivers. We also found that species records were highly unevenly distributed based on areas of endemism within the Amazon, vegetation type, and protected areas within the state. Ant surveys are still lacking from most protected areas of Par, and further sampling is urgently needed in view of the current trend of expansion of major infrastructure projects and natural resource harvesting within protected areas of Par. Our database represents an extremely valuable and rich source of information for further studies on ant biodiversity and conservation in the Amazon Basin.


Assuntos
Formigas , Animais , Biodiversidade , Brasil , Rios
16.
Planta ; 254(6): 125, 2021 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34807329

RESUMO

MAIN CONCLUSION: The extrafloral nectaries of S. occidentalis were studied structurally and anatomically (at secretory and post-secretory developmental stages). Role of extrafloral nectaries as a common plant-adoptive characteristic in context to diversity and phylogenetic pattern was also speculated while exploring other collaborative evolutionary implications of this plant. Extrafloral nectaries (EFNs) are widespread and evolutionarily labile traits that have repeatedly and remarkably evolved in vascular plants. Morphological descriptions of the EFNs of certain plant species are common in the literature, but they rarely relate morphology with histology, gland distribution and secretory characteristics. Studies relating EFNs features, i.e., morphology and distribution with their differential visitation by insects, viz. ants and the cost of maintenance to the plants are important to understand the evolution of these glands. Therefore, in this study a morphological, anatomical (structure and ultrastructure) and secretory characterization of EFNs occurring on Senna occidentalis L. is made with the implications of gland attributes discussed from a functional perspective. S. occidentalis L. (Caesalpiniaceae) is an economically important species from industrial, medicinal and agricultural perspective. Observations from the result showed that shape of the EFNs (size 1-2 mm) ranged to globular, ovoid-conical, dome-shaped, fusiform or cylindrical with conical tip. The EFNs were sessile, positioned interpetiolar or seated at the base of petiole. Light and transmission electron microscopic studies showed the specific internal structures of the extrafloral nectary. Two developmental stages of the EFNs (secretory and post-secretory) were recognized. Our current understanding of the phylogenetic patterns of EFNs makes them powerful candidates for future work exploring the drivers of their evolutionary origins, shifts, and losses.


Assuntos
Formigas , Senna (Planta) , Animais , Filogenia , Néctar de Plantas , Plantas
17.
Zootaxa ; 5019(1): 1-90, 2021 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34810423

RESUMO

The types specimens of many taxa described by Chandy Kurian were considered lost for many years, which prevented the recognition of the species delimited by him. Fifty holotypes have been rediscovered in the National Forest Insect Collection of Forest Research Institute, Dehradun, Uttarakhand, India. Forty-five types belong to Bethylidae (Cephalonomia tritici, Chlorepyris biharina, C. mackenziei, C. pusana, C. sanctipauli, Epyris agraensis, E. agrensis, E. bombayensis, E. delhiensis, E. duni, E. duttai, E. indicae, E. manii, E. patnae, E. pusae, E. shishami, Goniozus ahmeadi, G. chatterjii, G. chowdhari, G. hybleae, G. lygropiae, G. madrassippattanami, G. marasmi, G. mori, G. morindae, G. nephoterycis, G. nilamburensis, G. pulveriae, G. salvadorae, G. sanctijohannis, G. thalasodi, Laelius agraensis, Odontepyris argyriae, O. batrae, O. cirphi, O. hypsipylae, O. indicus, Pristepyris agraensis, Pristocera govindrami, Sclerodermus delhiensis, Sc. hardwickiae, Sc. mori, Sc. raonis, Sulcomesitius bahaduri and Su. duni), one to Chrysididae (Lustrina assamensis), three to Dryinidae (Lestodryinus guptai, Neodryinus karnalensis and N. pusae) and one to Formicidae (Neoclystopsenella luffae). Six new combinations are proposed: Epyris mackenziei comb. nov. from Chlorepyris; Formosiepyris agraensis comb. nov. from Epyris; Holepyris raonis comb. nov. from Sclerodermus; Holepyris patnae comb. nov. from Epyris; Pristocera agraensis comb. nov. from Pristepyris; and Trachepyris sanctipauli comb. nov. from Chlorepyris. We also provide updated diagnoses, as well as detailed remarks and photographs for all types rediscovered. In addition, we provide researchers worldwide with valuable taxonomic information for the Bethylidae, Chrysididae, Dryinidae and Formicidae described by Kurian. A review of Bethylidae from India and a tribute to Chandy Kurian has also been provided.


Assuntos
Formigas , Academias e Institutos , Animais , Florestas , Índia , Masculino
18.
Zootaxa ; 5061(2): 201-248, 2021 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34810629

RESUMO

Strumigenys is a globally distributed genus of mostly cryptic leaf-litter ants. In North America they are common throughout eastern deciduous forests but become increasingly rare to the west. Here I review the Strumigenys fauna of western North America north of the Mexico border including all states west of the eastern border of Texas. Six new native species with ranges entirely within this region are described: S. collinsae sp. nov., S. macgowni sp. nov., S. mendezi sp. nov., S. moreauviae sp. nov., S. lucky sp. nov., and S. subtilis sp. nov. Strumigenys ananeotes Longino Booher 2019 is given a more thorough description, and S. alberti Forel 1893, a Neotropical species, is reported from the region for the first time. All new species bear clear morphological relationships with a native North American clade of smithistrumiform species. I include species accounts and provide an illustrated key for all species of this region.


Assuntos
Formigas , Asteraceae , Himenópteros , Animais , México
19.
Zootaxa ; 5048(1): 141-144, 2021 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34810810

RESUMO

Epopostruma is an uncommon genus of myrmicine ants endemic to relatively mesic regions of southern and eastern Australia. Here we describe a new species recently recorded from the 'Top End of Australias Northern Territory, E. topendi sp. n. from Melville Island and Nitmiluk National Park. The new species is known from one specimen from each of two sites in the Australian monsoonal tropics, the only records of the genus from this region. This addition brings the number of described species of Epopostruma to twenty.


Assuntos
Formigas , Animais
20.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0258836, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34714845

RESUMO

Cultivated cotton, such as Gossypium hirsutum L., produces extrafloral (EF) nectar on leaves (foliar) and reproductive structures (bracteal) as an indirect anti-herbivore defense. In exchange for this carbohydrate-rich substance, predatory insects such as ants protect the plant against herbivorous insects. Some EF nectar-bearing plants respond to herbivory by increasing EF nectar production. For instance, herbivore-free G. hirsutum produces more bracteal than foliar EF nectar, but increases its foliar EF nectar production in response to herbivory. This study is the first to test for systemically induced changes to the carbohydrate composition of bracteal EF nectar in response to foliar herbivory on G. hirsutum. We found that foliar herbivory significantly increased the sucrose content of bracteal EF nectar while glucose and fructose remained unchanged. Sucrose content is known to influence ant foraging behavior and previous studies of an herbivore-induced increase to EF nectar caloric content found that it led to increased ant activity on the plant. As a follow-up to our finding, ant recruitment to mock EF nectar solutions that varied in sucrose content was tested in the field. The ants did not exhibit any preference for either solution, potentially because sucrose is a minor carbohydrate component in G. hirsutum EF nectar: total sugar content was not significantly affected by the increase in sucrose. Nonetheless, our findings raise new questions about cotton's inducible EF nectar responses to herbivory. Further research is needed to determine whether an herbivore-induced increase in sucrose content is typical of Gossypium spp., and whether it constitutes a corollary of systemic sucrose induction, or a potentially adaptive mechanism which enhances ant attraction to the plant.


Assuntos
Formigas/fisiologia , Gossypium/química , Sacarose/química , Animais , Gossypium/parasitologia , Herbivoria , Folhas de Planta/química , Folhas de Planta/parasitologia , Néctar de Plantas/química
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