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1.
Afr J Prim Health Care Fam Med ; 12(1): e1-e4, 2020 Jun 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32634002

RESUMO

Ten family physicians and family medicine registrars in a South African semi-rural training complex reflected on the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) crisis during their quarterly training complex meeting. The crisis has become the disruptor that is placing pressure on the traditional roles of the family physician. The importance of preventative and promotive care in a community-oriented approach, being a capacity builder and leading the health team as a consultant have assumed new meanings.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Medicina de Família e Comunidade/organização & administração , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Padrões de Prática Médica/organização & administração , Atenção Primária à Saúde/organização & administração , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Fortalecimento Institucional/organização & administração , Competência Clínica , Medicina de Família e Comunidade/educação , Humanos , Pandemias , Médicos de Família/organização & administração , África do Sul
2.
Health Hum Rights ; 22(1): 199-207, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32669801

RESUMO

We propose that a Right to Health Capacity Fund (R2HCF) be created as a central institution of a reimagined global health architecture developed in the aftermath of the COVID-19 pandemic. Such a fund would help ensure the strong health systems required to prevent disease outbreaks from becoming devastating global pandemics, while ensuring genuinely universal health coverage that would encompass even the most marginalized populations. The R2HCF's mission would be to promote inclusive participation, equality, and accountability for advancing the right to health. The fund would focus its resources on civil society organizations, supporting their advocacy and strengthening mechanisms for accountability and participation. We propose an initial annual target of US$500 million for the fund, adjusted based on needs assessments. Such a financing level would be both achievable and transformative, given the limited right to health funding presently and the demonstrated potential of right to health initiatives to strengthen health systems and meet the health needs of marginalized populations-and enable these populations to be treated with dignity. We call for a civil society-led multi-stakeholder process to further conceptualize, and then launch, an R2HCF, helping create a world where, whether during a health emergency or in ordinary times, no one is left behind.


Assuntos
Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/organização & administração , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Organização do Financiamento/organização & administração , Saúde Global , Cooperação Internacional , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus , Fortalecimento Institucional/organização & administração , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/economia , Prioridades em Saúde/organização & administração , Humanos , Pandemias
3.
Indian J Med Microbiol ; 38(1): 9-17, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32719203

RESUMO

High-throughput, accurate, cost-effective and rapid testing for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS CoV-2) is the need of the hour in face of the global coronavirus disease pandemic. This target is achievable, within a relatively short time through capacity building of reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) tests by utilising the strengths of intra and inter institutional networks. These networks act as force multiplier for vital resources which are required for capacity building, namely, leadership, expertise, equipment, space, infection control inputs and human resources. In this article, we report the experience of capacity building for delivery of RT-PCR tests for SARS CoV-2 from a cancer hospital in Eastern India. The relevance, mode of operation and value addition of this essential public health service are discussed in the context of inter departmental collaboration and interaction with other institutes through the existing diagnostic, surveillance and infection control networks. This networking model for service development and delivery could be used by other centres.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Fortalecimento Institucional/organização & administração , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/métodos , Redes Comunitárias/organização & administração , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Serviços de Diagnóstico/organização & administração , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa/métodos , Betacoronavirus/genética , Humanos , Índia , Pandemias
6.
Int J Health Serv ; 50(3): 264-270, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32517569

RESUMO

The early 2020 response to COVID-19 revealed major gaps in public health systems around the world as many were overwhelmed by a quickly-spreading new coronavirus. While the critical task at hand is turning the tide on COVID-19, this pandemic serves as a clarion call to governments and citizens alike to ensure public health systems are better prepared to meet the emergencies of the future, many of which will be climate-related. Learning from the successes as well as the failures of the pandemic response provides some guidance. We apply several recommendations of a recent World Health Organization Policy Brief on COVID-19 response to 5 key areas of public health systems - governance, information, services, determinants, and capacity - to suggest early lessons from the coronavirus pandemic for climate change preparedness. COVID-19 has demonstrated how essential public health is to well-functioning human societies and how high the economic cost of an unprepared health system can be. This pandemic provides valuable early warnings, with lessons for building public health resilience.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Assistência à Saúde/organização & administração , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Fortalecimento Institucional/organização & administração , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/organização & administração , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Sistemas de Informação/organização & administração , Saúde Mental , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Administração em Saúde Pública
7.
J Aging Soc Policy ; 32(4-5): 432-438, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32515297

RESUMO

Millions of older Americans depend on services provided by Area Agencies on Aging to support their nutritional, social, and health needs. Social distancing requirements and the closure of congregate activities due to COVID-19 resulted in a rapid and dramatic shift in service delivery modes. Area Agencies on Aging were able to quickly pivot due to their long-standing expertise in community needs assessment and cross-sectoral partnerships. The federal Coronavirus relief measures also infused one billion dollars into the Aging Network. As the pandemic response evolves, Area Agencies on Aging are poised to be key partners in a transformed health system.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Serviço Social/organização & administração , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Envelhecimento , Betacoronavirus , Fortalecimento Institucional/organização & administração , Serviços de Saúde Comunitária/organização & administração , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Humanos , Relações Interinstitucionais , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Encaminhamento e Consulta/organização & administração , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
8.
Health Res Policy Syst ; 18(1): 72, 2020 Jun 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32571364

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Health research is important for the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals. However, there are many challenges facing health research, including securing sufficient funds, building capacity, producing research findings and using both local and global evidence, and avoiding waste. A WHO initiative addressed these challenges by developing a conceptual framework with four functions to guide the development of national health research systems. Despite some progress, more is needed before health research systems can meet their full potential of improving health systems. The WHO Regional Office for Europe commissioned an evidence synthesis of the systems-level literature. This Opinion piece considers its findings before reflecting on the vast additional literature available on the range of specific health research system functions related to the various challenges. Finally, it considers who should lead research system strengthening. MAIN TEXT: The evidence synthesis identifies two main approaches for strengthening national health research systems, namely implementing comprehensive and coherent strategies and participation in partnerships. The literature describing these approaches at the systems level also provides data on ways to strengthen each of the four functions of governance, securing financing, capacity-building, and production and use of research. Countries effectively implementing strategies include England, Ireland and Rwanda, whereas West Africa experienced effective partnerships. Recommended policy approaches for system strengthening are context specific. The vast literature on each function and the ever-growing evidence-base are illustrated by considering papers in just one key journal, Health Research Policy and Systems, and analysing the contribution of two national studies. A review of the functions of the Iranian system identifies over 200 relevant and mostly national records; an analysis of the creation of the English National Institute for Health Research describes the key leadership role played by the health department. Furthermore, WHO is playing leadership roles in helping coordinate partnerships within and across health research systems that have been attempting to tackle the COVID-19 crisis. CONCLUSIONS: The evidence synthesis provides a firm basis for decision-making by policy-makers and research leaders looking to strengthen national health research systems within their own national context. It identifies five crucial policy approaches - conducting situation analysis, sustaining a comprehensive strategy, engaging stakeholders, evaluating impacts on health systems, and partnership participation. The vast and ever-growing additional literature could provide further perspectives, including on crucial leadership roles for health ministries.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica/organização & administração , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde/organização & administração , Liderança , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Organização Mundial da Saúde/organização & administração , Betacoronavirus , Fortalecimento Institucional/organização & administração , Prática Clínica Baseada em Evidências/organização & administração , Prioridades em Saúde/organização & administração , Humanos , Pandemias , Formulação de Políticas , Pesquisa Médica Translacional/organização & administração
9.
Can J Nurs Res ; 52(3): 216-225, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32522116

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Building research capacity in nursing academic units continues to be a challenge. There are a number of external contextual factors and internal factors that influence individual faculty as well as the collective to engage successfully in research. PURPOSE: The overall aim of this opinion article is to provide an overview of the current external and internal, processes and structures, relevant to capacity of nursing faculty to engage in research. METHODS: To inform the external context, we reviewed national research funding trends for nursing. To inform the internal context, we provided an exemplar of the internal processes and structures designed to support research capacity building within our academic unit. RESULTS: Canadian Institutes of Health Research funding trends for research grants led by nurse principal applicants increased between 2010 and 2013, followed by a steady decline. In 2017 to 2018, there were only 24 research grants led by nurse principal applicants. These external challenges coupled with the traditional internal barriers, such as the imbalance between teaching and research time, threaten research capacity for nursing academics. CONCLUSION: Organizational strategies to promote research capacity within academic nursing units are a necessary requirement to move forward.


Assuntos
Fortalecimento Institucional/organização & administração , Docentes de Enfermagem , Pesquisa em Enfermagem/organização & administração , Canadá , Humanos
10.
AIDS Educ Prev ; 32(2): 137-S5, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32539479

RESUMO

In 2015, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) funded Project PrIDE, a national initiative to implement and evaluate demonstration projects to increase PrEP uptake among HIV-negative individuals and to re-engage HIV-positive individuals in HIV care. Our team served as the Evaluation Center for Project PrIDE organizations in Chicago and used an empowerment evaluation (EE) approach to enhance evaluation capacity at these organizations. To evaluate our approach, we assessed organizations' evaluation capacity and engagement in technical assistance and capacity building activities in 2016 and 2018. Respondents who self-reported higher engagement with the Evaluation Center and who spent a greater number of hours engaged with our evaluators experienced greater increases in evaluation capacity tied to implementation of evaluation activities and technical assistance utilization. These findings demonstrate that multisite EE can be successfully applied to increase the evaluation capacity of organizations providing both HIV prevention and care services.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/administração & dosagem , Fortalecimento Institucional/organização & administração , Empoderamento , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Promoção da Saúde/organização & administração , Poder Psicológico , Profilaxia Pré-Exposição/estatística & dados numéricos , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde/métodos , Adulto , Chicago , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Humanos , Masculino , Encaminhamento e Consulta/estatística & dados numéricos , Autorrelato , Inquéritos e Questionários , Pessoas Transgênero , Estados Unidos
18.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 507, 2020 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32299399

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Health systems in Canada and elsewhere are at a crossroads of reform in response to rising economic and societal pressures. The Quadruple Aim advocates for: improving patient experience, reducing cost, advancing population health and improving the provider experience. It is at the forefront of Canadian reform debates aimed to improve a complex and often-fragmented health care system. Concurrently, collaboration between primary care and public health has been the focus of current research, looking for integrated community-based primary health care models that best suit the health needs of communities and address health equity. This study aimed to explore the nature of Canadian primary care - public health collaborations, their aims, motivations, activities, collaboration barriers and enablers, and perceived outcomes. METHODS: Ten case studies were conducted in three provinces (Nova Scotia, Ontario, and British Columbia) to elucidate experiences of primary care and public health collaboration in different settings, contexts, populations and forms. Data sources included a survey using the Partnership Self-Assessment Tool, focus groups, and document analysis. This provided an opportunity to explore how primary care and public health collaboration could serve in transforming community-based primary health care with the potential to address the Quadruple Aims. RESULTS: Aims of collaborations included: provider capacity building, regional vaccine/immunization management, community-based health promotion programming, and, outreach to increase access to care. Common precipitators were having a shared vision and/or community concern. Barriers and enablers differed among cases. Perceived barriers included ineffective communication processes, inadequate time for collaboration, geographic challenges, lack of resources, and varying organizational goals and mandates. Enablers included clear goals, trusting and inclusive relationships, role clarity, strong leadership, strong coordination and communication, and optimal use of resources. Cases achieved outcomes addressing the Q-Aims such as improving access to services, addressing population health through outreach to at-risk populations, reducing costs through efficiencies, and improving provider experience through capacity building. CONCLUSIONS: Primary care and public health collaborations can strengthen community-based primary health care while addressing the Quadruple Aims with an emphasis on reducing health inequities but requires attention to collaboration barriers and enablers.


Assuntos
Fortalecimento Institucional/organização & administração , Reforma dos Serviços de Saúde/organização & administração , Atenção Primária à Saúde/organização & administração , Saúde Pública/métodos , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Canadá , Comportamento Cooperativo , Assistência à Saúde/organização & administração , Humanos , Estudos de Casos Organizacionais
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32341220

RESUMO

The World Health Organization (WHO) has an essential role to play in supporting Member States to prepare for, respond to and recover from emergencies with public health consequences. Operational readiness for known and unknown hazards and emergencies requires a risk-informed and structured approach to building capacities within organizations such as WHO offices and national ministries of health. Under the flagship priority programme on emergency risk management of the WHO Regional Office for South-East Asia, a readiness training programme consisting of four modules was implemented during 2017-2018, involving staff from WHO country offices as well as from the regional office. The experience of and lessons learnt from designing, developing and delivering this phased training programme have fed into improvements in the curriculum and training methodology. The training programme has also facilitated the development of business continuity plans and contingency plans in some of the 11 Member States of the region and has increased the readiness of WHO staff for swift deployment in recent emergencies. It is recommended that the strengthening of operational readiness for responding to emergencies in the region be sustained and accelerated through the development of a regional training consortium that can scale the training programme up at national level, taking into account country contexts, national health systems and the needs of populations. The resilience of the populations and health systems in the region will be increased if disaster risk reduction and emergency preparedness and response activities are supported by operational readiness.


Assuntos
Fortalecimento Institucional/organização & administração , Planejamento em Desastres/organização & administração , Emergências , Saúde Pública , Ásia Sudeste , Humanos , Organização Mundial da Saúde
20.
J Forensic Leg Med ; 69: 101886, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32056803

RESUMO

In countries emerging from authoritarian rule, a major challenge is ending often widespread and systematic torture and ill-treatment practices. Between 2011 and 2019, Physicians for Human Rights (PHR), in collaboration with the Open Society Foundation (OSF), the Open Society Justice Initiative (OSJI) and regional and local partners, worked to establish effective torture investigation and documentation practices in the Central Asian countries of Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Kazakhstan. Our approach consisted of activities in three sequential phases - (1) assessment, (2) capacity building, and (3) policy reform. In this paper, we briefly describe activities during each phase and identify key lessons learned from these experiences and resulting policy and program reforms as a model for future efforts in other settings.


Assuntos
Medicina Legal/normas , Violações dos Direitos Humanos , Tortura , Ásia , Fortalecimento Institucional/organização & administração , Documentação/normas , Humanos , Política Pública , Participação dos Interessados , Nações Unidas
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