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1.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(4): 245, 2020 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32198540

RESUMO

Several strategies were undertaken to increase the fertility of landfill soil as rapid urbanization remarkably decreases the agricultural land, posing challenges to the fast-growing human population. Towards this direction, soil microcosms were prepared wherein the addition of nutrient or biofertilizer or the combination of both increased the soil nitrogen and phosphate content considerably. The maximum amount of nitrogen fixation and phosphate solubilization occurred in microcosm treated with biofertilizer and nutrient. To investigate the underlying cause, we observed that separate application of nutrient or biofertilizer or combined application of both increased the abundance of nitrogen-fixing and phosphate-solubilizing bacteria in the microcosms. However, the highest abundance of nitrogen-fixing and phosphate-solubilizing bacteria was spotted in a microcosm challenged with nutrient and biofertilizer together. It was detected that with increasing population of nitrogen-fixing and phosphate-solubilizing bacteria, the soil nitrogen and phosphate level also got enhanced, respectively, thus establishing a strong positive correlation between them. The microcosm treated with biofertilizer and nutrient manifested the highest degree of heterotrophic microbial growth and microbial activity than the microcosms either treated with nutrient or biofertilizer. The microcosm treated with nutrient and biofertilizer was found to exhibit the highest functional diversity compared to others. A surface plot was constructed to demonstrate the association among microbial activity, functional diversity, and the availability of soil nitrogen and phosphate content of soil. The result indicates that the combined application of nutrient and biofertilizer increases the microbial activity leading to the formation of a heterogeneous ecosystem that enhances the nitrogen and phosphate content of landfill soil considerably.


Assuntos
Nitrogênio , Fosfatos , Solo , Resíduos Sólidos , Nitrogênio/análise , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Fosfatos/análise , Fosfatos/metabolismo , Solo/química , Microbiologia do Solo , Instalações de Eliminação de Resíduos
2.
Microbes Environ ; 35(1)2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32074549

RESUMO

Microcystis aeruginosa was quantitatively surveyed in 88 freshwater environments across Japan within 3| |weeks in 2011. In order to clarify the distribution pattern of M. aeruginosa at the intra-species level, three major genotypes, which were defined by 16S-23S rRNA inter-transcribed-spacer (ITS) regions, were selectively detected using quantitative real-time PCR assays. Of the 68 sites at which the Microcystis intergenic-spacer region of the phycocyanin (IGS-PC) gene was detected, the M. aeruginosa morphotype-related genotype (MG1) dominated in 41 sites, followed by the non-toxic M. wesenbergii-related genotype (MG3). A correlation analysis showed that total nitrogen and phosphate positively correlated with the abundance of IGS-PC, which positively correlated with microcystin synthetase gene abundance. A redundancy analysis of genotype compositions showed that pH positively correlated with the dominance of MG3 and negatively correlated with MG1, i.e., both toxic and non-toxic genotypes. Our survey of Microcystis populations over a wide area revealed that MG1 is a dominant genotype in Japan.


Assuntos
Microbiologia Ambiental , Água Doce/microbiologia , Proliferação Nociva de Algas , Microcystis/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , DNA Espaçador Ribossômico/genética , Água Doce/química , Genótipo , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Japão , Microcystis/classificação , Nitrogênio/análise , Peptídeo Sintases/genética , Fosfatos/análise , Ficocianina/genética
3.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 56(16): 2431-2434, 2020 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31995041

RESUMO

A composite nanosensor based on Zr(iv)-MOFs and PNPP was developed, and was successfully applied for the in situ fluorescence imaging of phosphate and ALP levels in mice with parathyroid dysfunction. The current work provides new ideas for further development of the diagnosis of parathyroid diseases.


Assuntos
Fosfatase Alcalina/análise , Corantes Fluorescentes/química , Estruturas Metalorgânicas/química , Nanopartículas/química , Doenças das Paratireoides/diagnóstico por imagem , Fosfatos/análise , Zircônio/química , Fosfatase Alcalina/metabolismo , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Corantes Fluorescentes/síntese química , Estruturas Metalorgânicas/síntese química , Camundongos , Doenças das Paratireoides/metabolismo
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31990641

RESUMO

Condensed phosphates are deliberately added to the fishery and processed marine food products on purpose to increase the weight of products. However, excessive intake overwhelming bodily homoeostasis can result in phosphate toxicity such as mineral and bone disorders, associated with chronic kidney diseases, and cardiovascular events. Rapid analysis for condensed phosphates is required to detect the illegal adulteration of processed marine products. We optimised an analytical method using ion chromatography for the rapid and selective detection of condensed phosphates in various kinds of fishery and processed marine products. We compared the performance of three columns (IonPac AS11, AS11-HC, and AS16) for the detection of condensed phosphates with respect to time of analysis and sensitivity. The IonPac AS11 column exhibited the shortest retention time for the major condensed phosphates (pyro-, tri-, and trimetaphosphate), the highest sensitivity for trimetaphosphate, and good repeatability and precision. Microwave and boiling processing were examined as methods to prevent hydrolysis of condensed phosphates into orthophosphate, which is critical in distinguishing intentionally added condensed phosphates from naturally occurring orthophosphate. Microwave treatment was determined to be the more effective method to suppress hydrolysis of condensed phosphates to orthophosphate. Furthermore, microwave processing could be used for thawing the frozen samples, saving extra effort and time. We confirmed that the method exhibits good recovery (80% or more) and precision (%RSD < 10%) for samples with various matrices. With the method, 14 kinds of fishery and processed marine food products were successfully analysed for condensed phosphates. Especially, we identified that phosphate levels in the processed shrimp and dried shredded squid samples exceeded the maximum allowable levels specified in the CODEX standard. We believe that our method would be useful for the rapid analysis of condensed phosphates in various types of fishery and processed marine food products.


Assuntos
Fosfatos/análise , Animais , Cromatografia por Troca Iônica , Pesqueiros , Hidrolases/metabolismo , Limite de Detecção , Micro-Ondas , Alimentos Marinhos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Extração em Fase Sólida
5.
Chemosphere ; 239: 124622, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31726532

RESUMO

Phosphorus (P), despite being an essential nutrient element for plants growth in agricultural ecosystem, the low utilization rate of soil P and the environmental problems caused by soil P losses are serious. Therefore, scoping knowledge of the possible sources and utilization extent of soil P by microorganisms is very helpful for better understanding of promoting P utilization for sustainable agriculture. Oxygen isotope of phosphate technology is an effective tool to trace the sources of P. In this study, P contents and oxygen isotope composition of inorganic phosphate (δ18OP) of different pools (H2O-P, NaHCO3-P, NaOH-P, and HCl-P) in typical agricultural soil from Northeast China and Central China were analyzed and quantified. The results showed that fertilizer and land use were important factors influencing the contents of H2O-Pt and NaHCO3-Pt and the soil TP contents from different types of soils were greatly affected by soil weathering degree. The δ18OP of different P pools indicated that the difference in utilization extent of different P fractions by microorganisms and the δ18OP values of different P fractions could be due to accumulation of multiple factors. The results will provide effective information for further study on sources and effective utilization of different P fractions in soil.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Fertilizantes/análise , Isótopos de Oxigênio/análise , Fosfatos/análise , Fósforo/análise , Solo/química , Agricultura/métodos , China , Ecossistema
6.
Chemosphere ; 240: 124889, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31563102

RESUMO

This study explores the use of an engineered char produced from the pyrolysis of anaerobically digested fiber (ADF) to adsorb phosphate from aqueous solutions. Two series of engineered chars were produced. The first series was a CO2 activated (CA) char produced via slow pyrolysis between 350 and 750 °C. The second series was a nitrogen doped (ND) char activated in the presence of ammonia at comparable temperatures. Proximate analysis, elemental composition, gas physisorption, Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) techniques were used to characterize properties of resulting products. The surface area of the carbon product increased after nitrogen doping through ammonization (166.6-463.1 m2/g) compared to CO2 activated chars (156.5-413.1 m2/g). Phosphate adsorption isotherms for both CO2 activated and nitrogen doped chars can be described by the Langmuir- Freundlich and Redlich Peterson adsorption models. Nitrogen doped carbon phosphate sorption capacity in aqueous solutions was twice compared to CO2 activated carbons. As carbonization/activation temperature increased the sorption capacity increased from 3.4 to 33.3 mg g-1 for CA char and 6.3-63.1 mg g-1 for nitrogen doped char.


Assuntos
Carvão Vegetal/química , Nitrogênio/química , Fosfatos/análise , Fosfatos/isolamento & purificação , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/isolamento & purificação
7.
Chemosphere ; 238: 124684, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31524621

RESUMO

A novel biochar composite was fabricated via the pyrolysis of distillers grains treated phosphogypsum for phosphate removal from water. Batch adsorption experiments were performed on the adsorption characteristics of phosphate. Effects of pyrolysis temperature, solution pH, the dosage of adsorbent, ambient temperature on phosphate adsorption were also investigated. The results demonstrated that the optimum initial solution pH for phosphate adsorption was 6.0, and high pyrolysis temperature was favorable for phosphate adsorption. The optimal dosage of biochar was 1.25 g L-1. A pseudo-second-order kinetic model can well explain the adsorption kinetics, indicative of the energetically heterogeneous solid surface of the composite. The maximum phosphate adsorption capacity of the phosphogypsum modified biochar obtained from Langmuir isotherm reached 102.4 mg g-1 which was almost five times that of distillers grains biochar alone (21.5 mg g-1). The mechanism is mainly attributed to electrostatic adsorption, surface precipitation and ligand exchange. The ideal adsorption performance indicated that biochar supported phosphogypsum can be used as high-quality adsorbent for phosphate removal in wastewater treatment.


Assuntos
Sulfato de Cálcio/metabolismo , Carvão Vegetal/metabolismo , Grão Comestível/metabolismo , Fosfatos/análise , Fósforo/metabolismo , Águas Residuárias/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Adsorção , Destilação , Temperatura Alta , Pirólise
8.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 143: 144-151, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31789150

RESUMO

The quality of seawater needs to be continuously monitored due to its effect on human life and natural ecosystems. However, the balance of the extent, spatial pattern and maintenance costs of marine environmental monitoring remains a challenging issue which is crucial for decision-makers. The main contribution of this work suggests taking advantage of two minimization criteria (TMC: integrating minimization of Kriging variance and minimization of relative error at a given confidence level) to improve the design and optimization of a marine environmental monitoring network. To achieve this purpose, the spatial simulated annealing (SSA) method is applied to identify the best locations for monitoring network optimization. For the case study, phosphate (PO4) is used as an indicator to characterize the seawater quality in northern coastal waters of Zhejiang Province, China. The 122 existing sites have redundancies (about 78 sites) that can be effectively identified and removed to reduce costs with the given relative error (less than 10%) and confidence level (95%). Some new sites can be added and adjusted to improve the quality of costal environmental monitoring based on quantitative analysis. In addition, the relationship between the number of the monitoring sites and monitoring precision is analyzed. The results suggest that the present method using TMC can provide a scientific basis for marine environmental monitoring and management.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Monitoramento Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Água do Mar , China , Ecossistema , Fosfatos/análise , Distribuição Aleatória , Tamanho da Amostra , Água do Mar/análise , Análise Espacial , Qualidade da Água
9.
BMC Plant Biol ; 19(1): 466, 2019 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31684880

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sesame (Sesame indicum L.) is well-known as a versatile industrial crop having various usages and contains 50-55% oil, 20% protein, 14-20% carbohydrate and 2-3% fiber. Several environmental factors are known to adversely affect yield and productivity of sesame. Our overall aim was to improve the growth, yield and quality of sesame cv. TS-3 using plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) and saving the nitrogen and phosphate fertilizers (NP) by 50%. Field experiment (randomized complete block design) was conducted during the months of July to October of two consecutive years 2012-2013. Azospirillum (AL) and Azotobacter (AV) were applied as seed inoculation alone as well as along with half of the recommended dose of nitrogen (N) and phosphate (P) fertilizers (urea and diammonium phosphate) at the rate of 25 kg/ha and 30 kg/ha respectively. RESULTS: Here we report that A. lipoferum along with half dose of NP fertilizers (ALCF) were highly effective in increasing the agronomic and yield traits of sesame as compared to the control. A. vinelandii plus NP fertilizers (AVCF) exhibited higher seed oil content. Minimum acid value, optimum specific gravity and modified fatty acid composition were observed in ALCF treatment. Increase in oleic acid by ALCF is directly linked with improved oil quality for health benefits as oleic acid is the fatty acid which creates a balance between saturation and unsaturation of oil and for the hypotensive (blood pressure reducing) effects. CONCLUSION: It is inferred that ALCF treatment improved plant growth, seed yield and oil quality of sesame pertaining to good quality edible oil production.


Assuntos
Azospirillum lipoferum/química , Azotobacter vinelandii/química , Valor Nutritivo , Óleo de Gergelim/análise , Sesamum/química , Sesamum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fertilizantes/análise , Fosfatos/análise , Distribuição Aleatória , Ureia/análise
10.
Water Sci Technol ; 80(3): 575-586, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31596268

RESUMO

Preparation and characterization of activated carbons (ACs) from oily sludge by physical and chemical activation using steam, ZnCl2 and FeCl3 were investigated. The characteristics of produced adsorbents were determined by iodine number, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) equation, Fourier transform infrared spectrometry and scanning electron microscopy analyses. Batch adsorption experiments for phenol and phosphate were performed to evaluate the efficiency of adsorbents. The optimum porous structure of adsorbents with a BET surface area of 1,259 m2 g-1, total pore volume of 1.22 cm3 g-1 and iodine number of 994 mg g-1 was achieved by ZnCl2 activation at 500 °C and impregnation ratio of 1:1. The adsorption data were well fitted to the pseudo-second-order kinetic model (R2>0.99) and Freundlich isotherm (R2>0.99). The maximum adsorption capacity of phenol (238 mg g-1) and phosphate (102 mg g-1) based on the Langmuir model was achieved at pH of 6.0 and adsorbent dose of 1 g L-1. Thermodynamic parameters were negative and showed that adsorption of phenol and phosphate onto the AC was feasible, spontaneous and exothermic. The results suggested that prepared AC was an effective adsorbent for removal of phenol and phosphate ions from the polluted water.


Assuntos
Carvão Vegetal , Fenol/análise , Fosfatos/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Purificação da Água/métodos , Adsorção , Cinética , Esgotos , Soluções
11.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 149: 110582, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31550573

RESUMO

Phosphorus (P) pollution can trigger severe marine eutrophication, which further leads to harmful algal blooms, and a deterioration of sea water quality. The P burial and regeneration in offshore sediments can directly affect the eutrophication levels of estuarine and coastal ecosystems. Although many researches on redox-dependent P burial and regeneration were studied, such process in the presence of silicate is still poorly understood, and the effects of pyrite formation on organic P (OP) burial and regeneration also remain unclear. In this study, a sulfidic sediment core was collected in the offshore of an estuary in the north Yellow Sea, China. Results indicated that indigenous biological input was found to be the primary source of organic matter in upper sediments. The regenerated P under reducing conditions was dominated by labile FeP and OP. The PO43- released from FeP and OP that could be captured by Al/Fe/Mn (oxyhydr) oxides in surface sediments and Ca minerals in deep sediments. CaP, AlP, unreactive Al/Fe-Si-P and some stable metal chelated OP were the main burial P fractions. Sulfate reduction and formation of insoluble metal sulfides including the pyrite promoted OP decomposition by anaerobic decomposition, removing metal ions from the "metal-OP" chelates and restoring the phosphatase activity.


Assuntos
Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Fósforo/metabolismo , China , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Estuários , Eutrofização , Sedimentos Geológicos/análise , Ferro/análise , Ferro/química , Minerais/química , Oxirredução , Óxidos/análise , Óxidos/química , Oceano Pacífico , Fosfatos/análise , Fosfatos/química , Fósforo/análise , Sulfatos/análise , Sulfatos/química , Sulfetos/análise , Sulfetos/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo
12.
Chemosphere ; 235: 1015-1021, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31561290

RESUMO

Phosphate is one of the main contaminations in water, so an effective method of decreasing or removing phosphate is needed. The main purpose of this paper is to synthesize CaFe-LDHs and MgFe-LDHs from the mixture of calcined dolomite and ferric chloride to remove orthophosphate and pyrophosphate. The study showed that removal of orthophosphate was attributed to the precipitation by Ca2+ and adsorption by MgFe-LDHs, where the former played a main role. As for pyrophosphate, it was mainly removed by precipitation at the initial pyrophosphate concentration ranging from 3.228 to 17.04 mmol/L. When the initial concentrations became relatively higher, the removal efficiency of pyrophosphate decreased because the complexation effects by Fe3+, Ca2+ and Mg2+ took place.


Assuntos
Carbonato de Cálcio/química , Cloretos/química , Difosfatos/análise , Compostos Férricos/química , Hidróxidos/química , Magnésio/química , Fosfatos/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Difosfatos/isolamento & purificação , Fosfatos/isolamento & purificação , Poluentes Químicos da Água/isolamento & purificação , Purificação da Água/métodos
13.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(32): 33269-33280, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31520383

RESUMO

In this paper, a new magnetic polymer-supported phosphate adsorbent MPVC-EDA-Ce was prepared by loading cerium (hydr)oxides onto ethylenediamine-functionalized polyvinyl chloride for the first time. MPVC-EDA-Ce showed excellent adsorption performances towards phosphate and easy recovery. The adsorption isotherm and kinetics of MPVC-EDA-Ce followed Langmuir monolayer model and the pseudo-second-order model, respectively. The pH results demonstrated that the MPVC-EDA-Ce could effectively remove phosphate in a wide range of pH with insignificant cerium leaching. Furthermore, analyses on adsorption mechanism and effect of competing anions demonstrated the formation of strong inner-sphere complexation between cerium (hydr)oxides and phosphate, which was a selective adsorption process, while positively charged quaternary ammonium groups adsorbed phosphate via relatively weak electrostatic attraction which was a non-selective adsorption process. The study provided a good reference to design novel phosphate adsorbents with two even more functional adsorption sites and a deep insight to investigate the adsorption mechanism towards phosphate.


Assuntos
Fosfatos/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química , Adsorção , Ânions , Cério , Cinética , Fenômenos Magnéticos , Óxidos , Fosfatos/química , Polímeros , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
14.
Chemosphere ; 237: 124507, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31394457

RESUMO

Adi Ganga, an open canal in Kolkata, constitutes a dump to a large part of the urban wastes produced. The constant and uncontrolled disposal of the wastes contributes to the degradation of water quality of Adi Ganga, which in turn might have adverse effect on groundwater in the adjoining areas. Surface water (SW) and groundwater (GW) collected from six locations along Adi Ganga were analyzed to understand the extent of degradation caused due to SW pollution. Among the important water quality parameters and heavy metal analysis - dissolved oxygen, turbidity, total hardness, alkalinity, biological oxygen demand, oil and grease and zinc of both SW and GW were found to be much greater than their respective permissible limits (WHO, 2004). Both the SW and GW samples depicted phosphate and bicarbonate beyond their recommended values whereas; cations were well within the limit. Hydrochemical analysis through Piper, Stiff, Stabler, Schoeller-Berkaloff and Wilcox diagrams indicate that the water is dominated by calcic and magnesian facies with chlorinated and bicarbonate water types with higher alkalinity. Average water quality index of 33.7 and 52.4 for SW and GW indicate that these are severely and marginally threatened, respectively. Cluster analysis and Pearson's correlation studies show similar trend for both SW and GW indicating role of SW pollution in quality degradation of GW. The SW quality parameters found beyond permissible limits are mainly contributed anthropogenically therefore, immediate stoppage of further pollution of SW is imperative to stop degradation of GW quality, a regular and reliable source of drinking water.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Água Subterrânea/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Metais Pesados/análise , Fosfatos/análise , Rios/química , Água/análise , Poluição da Água/análise , Qualidade da Água
15.
J Chromatogr A ; 1606: 460379, 2019 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31395357

RESUMO

Three different components that impact carryover in a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method were evaluated to establish baseline conditions for analyzing in vivo samples for twelve monophosphate prodrug compounds and their corresponding parent compounds. The three components were: wash solvent modifier, column shell material (metal vs. metal free), and tubing composition. These components were tested for their impact on system carryover by using rat plasma extracted samples. It was determined that a wash solution containing hexylamine yielded the lowest average carryover of the solutions tested. In addition, metal free columns and PEEK (poly ether ether ketone) tubing yielded the lowest carryover when compared to metal columns, stainless steel tubing and nickel tubing. These conditions were also tested against the parent molecules for each prodrug in the test set, to ensure that changing the conditions for the prodrugs did not impact the ability to analyze the parent, since there is typically a desire to measure both compounds in study samples. Under all conditions, the carryover of the corresponding parent molecule was not adversely impacted in these studies.


Assuntos
Métodos Analíticos de Preparação de Amostras , Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Fosfatos/análise , Pró-Fármacos/análise , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Animais , Metais/química , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Solventes
16.
Sci Total Environ ; 694: 133633, 2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31386953

RESUMO

Modelling is a useful tool for comprehensively describing the processes occurring in floating treatment wetlands (FTWs). However, temperature effects and phosphorus dynamics are not considered in the current FTW models. Therefore, a process-based model comprised of a plant growth submodel, a nitrogen dynamic submodel and a phosphorus dynamic submodel was developed to understand the complicated processes occurring in FTWs. The model was fully calibrated using a mesocosm FTW system operated for 168 days. Global sensitivity analysis revealed that nitrogen removal performance was predominantly sensitive to parameters representing plant characteristics and microbial activity. Because of the high concentration of organic matter, mineralization and sedimentation played important roles in nitrogen and phosphorus removal. In addition, the coprecipitation rate of phosphate also had a significant influence on phosphorus removal performance. When further investigation was applied to understand the behavior of the model, the ratio of nitrogen to phosphorus in plant tissue was found to be an indicator of the nutrient limitation in the water column. Furthermore, the model illustrated that both FTW operating conditions and plant characteristic parameters exerted an important influence on nitrogen removal and plant uptake contribution. Therefore, the selection of appropriate operating conditions and plant species can achieve high nutrients removal and make effective use of plants in FTWs. The model provides a useful tool for assessing the nutrients removal performance of FTWs and for evaluating strategies for them in design and operation.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Áreas Alagadas , Biodegradação Ambiental , Nitrogênio/análise , Fosfatos/análise , Fósforo/análise , Plantas
17.
J Basic Microbiol ; 59(10): 992-1003, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31410872

RESUMO

Revegetation accelerates the recovery of degraded lands. Different microbial trophic groups underpin this acceleration from the aspects of soil structure stabilization, nutrient accumulation, and ecosystem functions. However, little is known about how revegetation influences the community and biodiversity of different soil microbial trophic groups. Here, six revegetation treatments with different plantings of plant species were established at an excavation pit in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. Communities of plant, bacteria, and several key soil fungal groups were investigated after 12 years of revegetation. Plant and all microbial trophic group compositions were markedly influenced by revegetation treatments. Total fungal and pathogenic fungal compositions were not significantly predicted by any factor of plant and soil, but arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal composition could be mainly predicted by plant composition and plant P content. Bacterial composition was mainly determined by soil total N, organic carbon concentration, and moisture content; and saprotrophic fungal composition was mainly determined by soil organic carbon. Soil pH was the strongest factor to predict bacterial metabolic functions. Our findings highlight that even the differences of microbial compositions were because of different revegetation treatments, but each trophic microbial composition had different relations with plant and/or soil; especially, the bacterial community and metabolic functions and saprotrophic fungal community were more correlated with soil properties rather than plant community or characteristics per se.


Assuntos
Recuperação e Remediação Ambiental , Pradaria , Plantas/classificação , Microbiologia do Solo , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Bactérias/metabolismo , Carbono/análise , Carbono/metabolismo , Fungos/classificação , Fungos/isolamento & purificação , Fungos/metabolismo , Micorrizas/classificação , Micorrizas/isolamento & purificação , Micorrizas/metabolismo , Nitrogênio/análise , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Fosfatos/análise , Fosfatos/metabolismo , Plantas/química , Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas/microbiologia , Solo/química , Tibet
18.
J Trace Elem Med Biol ; 56: 13-20, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31442949

RESUMO

In Togo, the phosphate ore mill discharges waste containing xenobiotics like cadmium, lead and fluoride. If the role of heavy metals in the appearance of pathologies is known, the role of fluoride remains to be studied alongside xenobiotics. This study tested the hypothesis that the toxicity of fluoride contributes, along with heavy metals, to physiological dysfunction. In this process, we have studied the variation in the parameters of cardiovascular functioning, depending on the level of human contamination by fluoride and xenobiotics. The concentration of Cd and Pb in blood samples were determined by AAS and fluoride by titanium-chloride method. Lipid peroxidation, the total antioxidant potential of collected blood samples and the parameters of cardiovascular dysfunction were also measured. Cd, Pb and F contents and lipid peroxidation were found to be significantly elevated in polluted areas than control zone as well as total cholesterol, LDL and triglyceride. HDL and antioxidant potential of blood decreased in the polluted areas. Correlation tests showed that fluoride levels are related to variations in the bio-indicators of high blood pressure and oxidative stress (R varied from 0.354 to 0.907). Togo phosphate treatment leads to human contamination with fluoride, along with Cd and Pb, increasing the risk of cardiovascular dysfunction and oxidative stress.


Assuntos
Cádmio/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/fisiopatologia , Poluição Ambiental , Fluoretos/sangue , Chumbo/sangue , Estresse Oxidativo , Fosfatos/análise , Xenobióticos/sangue , Adulto , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Pressão Sanguínea , Diástole , Feminino , Geografia , Humanos , Hipertensão/sangue , Masculino , Malondialdeído/sangue , Sístole , Togo
19.
Microsc Res Tech ; 82(11): 1928-1940, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31423711

RESUMO

Tannic acid (TA) is a phenolic compound that might act directly on osteoblast metabolism. The study was performed to investigate the effects of TA on the proliferation, mineralization, and morphology of human fetal osteoblast cells (hFOB 1.19). The cells were divided into TA-treated, untreated, and pamidronate-treated (control drug) groups. Half maximal effective concentration (EC50 ) values for TA and pamidronate were measured using MTT assay. The EC50 of hFOB 1.19 cells treated with TA was 2.94 M. This concentration was more effective compared to the pamidronate (15.27 M). Cell proliferation assay was performed to compare cell viability from Day 1 until Day 14. The morphology of hFOB 1.19 was observed via inverted microscope and scanning electron microscope. Calcium (Ca) and phosphate (P) were assessed using energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis. Furthermore, the mineralization of hFOB 1.19 was determined by von Kossa staining (P depositions) and Alizarin Red S staining (Ca depositions). The number of cells treated with TA was significantly higher than the two control groups at Day 10 and Day 14. The morphology of cells treated with TA was uniformly fusiform-shaped with filopodia extensions. Besides, globular-like structures of deposited minerals were observed in the TA-treated group. In line with other findings, EDX spectrum analysis confirmed the presence of Ca and P. The cells treated with TA had significantly higher percentage of both minerals at Day 3 and Day 10 compared to the two control groups. In conclusion, TA enhances cell proliferation and causes cell morphology changes, as well as improved mineralization.


Assuntos
Calcificação Fisiológica/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Feto/citologia , Osteoblastos/metabolismo , Taninos/farmacologia , Cálcio/análise , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Osteoblastos/citologia , Pamidronato/farmacologia , Fosfatos/análise , Espectrometria por Raios X
20.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 149: 110540, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31470210

RESUMO

Nutrient concentrations in porewater and their benthic fluxes were investigated in Daya Bay, South China, to study the accumulation and transfer of nutrients at sediment-water interface, as well as the impact of human activities on nutrients. The contributions of sediment to nutrients in water column and the potential influences on eutrophication were also discussed. Nutrients in porewater and overlying water changed in different seasons and areas, which was mainly attributed to human activities, hydrodynamic force and biogeochemical conditions. Mean concentrations of DIN (dissolved inorganic nitrogen), PO4 and SiO3 were 70 ±â€¯61, 3.1 ±â€¯4.3, 103 ±â€¯105 µmol/L, and 234 ±â€¯166, 15.6 ±â€¯4.0, 353 ±â€¯48 µmol/L in overlying water and porewater, respectively. Annual mean DIN, PO4 and SiO3 fluxes were 330 ±â€¯249, -1.3 ±â€¯16 and 549 ±â€¯301 µmol/(m2d), respectively, indicating that sediment was generally the source of DIN and SiO3, but was the sink of PO4. The mean exchange capacities were (7.8 ±â€¯5.5) × 107, (-1.2 ±â€¯34.0) × 105 and (1.2 ±â€¯0.6) × 108 mol/a for DIN, PO4 and SiO3, respectively, in Daya Bay.


Assuntos
Nitrogênio/análise , Fosfatos/análise , Silicatos/análise , Baías , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Eutrofização , Sedimentos Geológicos/análise , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Estações do Ano , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
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