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1.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(37): 23131-23139, 2020 09 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32868427

RESUMO

Lipid droplets (LDs) are intracellular organelles found in a wide range of organisms and play important roles in stress tolerance. During nitrogen (N) starvation, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii stores large amounts of triacylglycerols (TAGs) inside LDs. When N is resupplied, the LDs disappear and the TAGs are degraded, presumably providing carbon and energy for regrowth. The mechanism by which cells degrade LDs is poorly understood. Here, we isolated a mutant (dth1-1, Delayed in TAG Hydrolysis 1) in which TAG degradation during recovery from N starvation was compromised. Consequently, the dth1-1 mutant grew poorly compared to its parental line during N recovery. Two additional independent loss-of-function mutants (dth1-2 and dth1-3) also exhibited delayed TAG remobilization. DTH1 transcript levels increased sevenfold upon N resupply, and DTH1 protein was localized to LDs. DTH1 contains a putative lipid-binding domain (DTH1LBD) with alpha helices predicted to be structurally similar to those in apolipoproteins E and A-I. Recombinant DTH1LBD bound specifically to phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), a major phospholipid coating the LD surface. Overexpression of DTH1LBD in Chlamydomonas phenocopied the dth1 mutant's defective TAG degradation, suggesting that the function of DTH1 depends on its ability to bind PE. Together, our results demonstrate that the lipid-binding DTH1 plays an essential role in LD degradation and provide insight into the molecular mechanism of protein anchorage to LDs at the LD surface in photosynthetic cells.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Algas/metabolismo , Chlamydomonas reinhardtii/metabolismo , Gotículas Lipídicas/metabolismo , Proteína de Ligação a Fosfatidiletanolamina/metabolismo , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/fisiologia , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Fosfolipídeos/metabolismo , Fotossíntese/fisiologia , Triglicerídeos/metabolismo
2.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0235384, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32925915

RESUMO

Interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC) is a debilitating condition of chronic pelvic pain with unknown etiology. Recently, we used a genetic approach in a murine model of IC to identify the lipase acyloxyacyl hydrolase (AOAH) as a modulator of pelvic pain. We found that AOAH-deficient mice have elevated pelvic pain responses, and AOAH immunoreactivity was detected along the bladder-brain axis. Lipidomic analyses identified arachidonic acid (AA) and its metabolite PGE2 as significantly elevated in the sacral spinal cord of AOAH-deficient mice, suggesting AA is a substrate for AOAH. Here, we quantified the effects of AOAH on phospholipids containing AA. Spinal cord lipidomics revealed increased AA-containing phosphatidylcholine in AOAH-deficient mice and concomitantly decreased AA-phosphatidylethanolamine, consistent with decreased CoA-independent transferase activity (CoIT). Overexpression of AOAH in cell cultures similarly altered distribution of AA in phospholipid pools, promoted AA incorporation, and resulted in decreased membrane fluidity. Finally, administration of a PGE2 receptor antagonist reduced pelvic pain in AOAH-deficient mice. Together, these findings suggest that AOAH represents a potential CoA-independent AA transferase that modulates CNS pain pathways at the level of phospholipid metabolism.


Assuntos
Ácido Araquidônico/metabolismo , Hidrolases de Éster Carboxílico/metabolismo , Cistite Intersticial/metabolismo , Dor Pélvica/metabolismo , Fosfolipídeos/metabolismo , Animais , Cistite Intersticial/complicações , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Dor Pélvica/complicações , Bexiga Urinária/metabolismo
3.
Nature ; 585(7826): 603-608, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32939090

RESUMO

Ferroptosis-an iron-dependent, non-apoptotic cell death process-is involved in various degenerative diseases and represents a targetable susceptibility in certain cancers1. The ferroptosis-susceptible cell state can either pre-exist in cells that arise from certain lineages or be acquired during cell-state transitions2-5. However, precisely how susceptibility to ferroptosis is dynamically regulated remains poorly understood. Here we use genome-wide CRISPR-Cas9 suppressor screens to identify the oxidative organelles peroxisomes as critical contributors to ferroptosis sensitivity in human renal and ovarian carcinoma cells. Using lipidomic profiling we show that peroxisomes contribute to ferroptosis by synthesizing polyunsaturated ether phospholipids (PUFA-ePLs), which act as substrates for lipid peroxidation that, in turn, results in the induction of ferroptosis. Carcinoma cells that are initially sensitive to ferroptosis can switch to a ferroptosis-resistant state in vivo in mice, which is associated with extensive downregulation of PUFA-ePLs. We further find that the pro-ferroptotic role of PUFA-ePLs can be extended beyond neoplastic cells to other cell types, including neurons and cardiomyocytes. Together, our work reveals roles for the peroxisome-ether-phospholipid axis in driving susceptibility to and evasion from ferroptosis, highlights PUFA-ePL as a distinct functional lipid class that is dynamically regulated during cell-state transitions, and suggests multiple regulatory nodes for therapeutic interventions in diseases that involve ferroptosis.


Assuntos
Éteres/metabolismo , Ferroptose , Peroxissomos/metabolismo , Fosfolipídeos/química , Fosfolipídeos/metabolismo , Animais , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas/genética , Diferenciação Celular , Linhagem Celular , Éteres/química , Feminino , Edição de Genes , Humanos , Neoplasias Renais/metabolismo , Neoplasias Renais/patologia , Peroxidação de Lipídeos , Masculino , Camundongos , Miócitos Cardíacos/citologia , Miócitos Cardíacos/metabolismo , Neurônios/citologia , Neurônios/metabolismo , Neoplasias Ovarianas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Peroxissomos/genética
4.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237789, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32810188

RESUMO

Aquaporins are water-permeable membrane-channel proteins found in biological cell membranes that selectively exclude ions and large molecules and have high water permeability, which makes them promising candidates for water desalination systems. To effectively apply the properties of aquaporins in the desalination process, many studies have been conducted on aquaporin-lipid membrane systems using phospholipids, which are the main component of cell membranes. Many parametric studies have evaluated the permeability of such systems with various aquaporin types and lipid compositions. In this study, we performed molecular dynamics simulations for four cases with different protein-lipid molar ratios (1:50, 1:75, 1:100, and 1:150) between aquaporin Z and the phospholipids, and we propose a possibility of the existence of optimal protein-lipid molar ratio to maximize water permeability. Elucidating these simulation results from a structural viewpoint suggests that there is a relationship between the permeability and changes in the hydrophobic thickness of the lipid membrane adjacent to the aquaporin as a structural parameter. The results of this study can help optimize the design of an aquaporin-lipid membrane by considering its molar ratio at an early stage of development.


Assuntos
Aquaporinas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Bicamadas Lipídicas/metabolismo , Fosfolipídeos/metabolismo , Purificação da Água/métodos , Água/metabolismo , Aquaporinas/química , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/química , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Bicamadas Lipídicas/química , Modelos Químicos , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Pressão Osmótica , Fosfolipídeos/química , Salinidade , Água/química
5.
PLoS Genet ; 16(8): e1008975, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32750056

RESUMO

The C. elegans proteins PAQR-2 (a homolog of the human seven-transmembrane domain AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 proteins) and IGLR-2 (a homolog of the mammalian LRIG proteins characterized by a single transmembrane domain and the presence of immunoglobulin domains and leucine-rich repeats in their extracellular portion) form a complex that protects against plasma membrane rigidification by promoting the expression of fatty acid desaturases and the incorporation of polyunsaturated fatty acids into phospholipids, hence increasing membrane fluidity. In the present study, we leveraged a novel gain-of-function allele of PAQR-1, a PAQR-2 paralog, to carry out structure-function studies. We found that the transmembrane domains of PAQR-2 are responsible for its functional requirement for IGLR-2, that PAQR-1 does not require IGLR-2 but acts via the same pathway as PAQR-2, and that the divergent N-terminal cytoplasmic domains of the PAQR-1 and PAQR-2 proteins serve a regulatory function and may regulate access to the catalytic site of these proteins. We also show that overexpression of human AdipoR1 or AdipoR2 alone is sufficient to confer increased palmitic acid resistance in HEK293 cells, and thus act in a manner analogous to the PAQR-1 gain-of-function allele.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans/genética , Caenorhabditis elegans/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Receptores de Adiponectina/genética , Alelos , Animais , Caenorhabditis elegans/metabolismo , Membrana Celular/genética , Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Mutação com Ganho de Função/genética , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Fluidez de Membrana/genética , Fenótipo , Fosfolipídeos/genética , Fosfolipídeos/metabolismo
6.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4317, 2020 08 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32859896

RESUMO

Lipid membranes, nucleic acids, proteins, and metabolism are essential for modern cellular life. Synthetic systems emulating the fundamental properties of living cells must therefore be built upon these functional elements. In this work, phospholipid-producing enzymes encoded in a synthetic minigenome are cell-free expressed within liposome compartments. The de novo synthesized metabolic pathway converts precursors into a variety of lipids, including the constituents of the parental liposome. Balanced production of phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylglycerol is realized, owing to transcriptional regulation of the activity of specific genes combined with a metabolic feedback mechanism. Fluorescence-based methods are developed to image the synthesis and membrane incorporation of phosphatidylserine at the single liposome level. Our results provide experimental evidence for DNA-programmed membrane synthesis in a minimal cell model. Strategies are discussed to alleviate current limitations toward effective liposome growth and self-reproduction.


Assuntos
Lipossomos/metabolismo , Lipídeos de Membrana/biossíntese , Lipídeos de Membrana/genética , Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Expressão Gênica , Fosfatidiletanolaminas/genética , Fosfatidiletanolaminas/metabolismo , Fosfatidilgliceróis/genética , Fosfatidilgliceróis/metabolismo , Fosfolipídeos/genética , Fosfolipídeos/metabolismo , Proteômica
7.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237141, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32764789

RESUMO

Severe dengue can be lethal caused by manifestations such as severe bleeding, fluid accumulation and organ impairment. This study aimed to investigate the role of dengue non-structural 1 (NS1) protein and host factors contributing to severe dengue. Electrical cell-substrate impedance sensing system was used to investigate the changes in barrier function of microvascular endothelial cells treated NS1 protein and serum samples from patients with different disease severity. Cytokines and metabolites profiles were assessed using a multiplex cytokine assay and liquid chromatography mass spectrometry respectively. The findings showed that NS1 was able to induce the loss of barrier function in microvascular endothelium in a dose dependent manner, however, the level of NS1 in serum samples did not correlate with the extent of vascular leakage induced. Further assessment of host factors revealed that cytokines such as CCL2, CCL5, CCL20 and CXCL1, as well as adhesion molecule ICAM-1, that are involved in leukocytes infiltration were expressed higher in dengue patients in comparison to healthy individuals. In addition, metabolomics study revealed the presence of deregulated metabolites involved in the phospholipid metabolism pathway in patients with severe manifestations. In conclusion, disease severity in dengue virus infection did not correlate directly with NS1 level, but instead with host factors that are involved in the regulation of junctional integrity and phospholipid metabolism. However, as the studied population was relatively small in this study, these exploratory findings should be confirmed by expanding the sample size using an independent cohort to further establish the significance of this study.


Assuntos
Citocinas/sangue , Vírus da Dengue/imunologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/imunologia , Dengue Grave/sangue , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/sangue , Linhagem Celular , Citocinas/imunologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Vírus da Dengue/metabolismo , Células Endoteliais/imunologia , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Endotélio Vascular/citologia , Endotélio Vascular/imunologia , Endotélio Vascular/patologia , Humanos , Fosfolipídeos/metabolismo , Cultura Primária de Células , Dengue Grave/imunologia , Dengue Grave/metabolismo , Dengue Grave/patologia , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/imunologia
8.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 202: 110896, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32622306

RESUMO

Exposure to fine particulate matter (PM) comprising toxic compounds arising from air pollution is a major human health concern. It is linked to increased mortality and incidence of various lung diseases. However, the mechanisms underlying the toxic effects of PM on lung fibroblasts have not been fully explored. We used targeted quantitative metabolomics and lipidomics analysis along with cytotoxicity studies to comprehensively characterize the alterations in the metabolite profiles of human lung fibroblasts (HEL 299) upon exposure to PM2.5 and PM10. This exposure at 50 µg/mL for 72 h induced an abnormally high apoptotic response via triggering intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and mitochondrial dysfunction through an imbalance between pro- and anti-apoptotic signaling pathways. The cytotoxic effects of PM2.5 were more severe than those of PM10. Metabolomics and lipidomics analyses revealed that PM exposure triggered substantial changes in the cellular metabolite profile, which involved reduced mitochondria-related metabolites such as tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle intermediates, amino acids, and free fatty acids as well as increased lysoglycerophospholipids (LPLs) containing polyunsaturated fatty acids. The decrease in mitochondria-related metabolites suggested that PM exposure led to reduced TCA cycle capacity and energy production. Apoptotic and inflammatory responses as well as mitochondrial dysfunction were likely to be accelerated because of excessive accumulation of LPLs, contributing to the disruption of membrane rafts and Ca2+ homeostasis and causing increased mitochondrial ROS formation. These results provide valuable insights regarding the toxic effects of PM exposure. Our study also provides a new direction for research on PM exposure-related health disorders using different cell lines.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Fibroblastos/fisiologia , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Fosfolipídeos/metabolismo , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Apoptose , Linhagem Celular , Fibroblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Homeostase , Humanos , Lipidômica , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Pneumopatias , Metabolômica , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
9.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(29): 17381-17388, 2020 07 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32632018

RESUMO

Adiponectin (Acrp30) is an adipokine associated with protection from cardiovascular disease, insulin resistance, and inflammation. Although its effects are conventionally attributed to binding Adipor1/2 and T-cadherin, its abundance in circulation, role in ceramide metabolism, and homology to C1q suggest an overlooked role as a lipid-binding protein, possibly generalizable to other C1q/TNF-related proteins (CTRPs) and C1q family members. To investigate this, adiponectin, representative family members, and variants were expressed in Expi293 cells and tested for binding to lipids in liposomes using density centrifugation. Binding to physiological lipids were also analyzed using gradient ultracentrifugation, liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, and shotgun lipidomics. Interestingly, adiponectin selectively bound several anionic phospholipids and sphingolipids, including phosphatidylserine, ceramide-1-phosphate, glucosylceramide, and sulfatide, via the C1q domain in an oligomerization-dependent fashion. Binding to lipids was observed in liposomes, low-density lipoproteins, cell membranes, and plasma. Other CTRPs and C1q family members (Cbln1, CTRP1, CTRP5, and CTRP13) also bound similar lipids. These findings suggest that adiponectin and CTRPs function not only as hormones, but also as lipid opsonins, as may other C1q family proteins.


Assuntos
Adiponectina/metabolismo , Complemento C1q/metabolismo , Fosfolipídeos/metabolismo , Esfingolipídeos/metabolismo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo , Adipocinas/metabolismo , Adiponectina/genética , Animais , Ânions , Membrana Celular , LDL-Colesterol , Humanos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Lipidômica , Lipoproteínas/metabolismo , Lipossomos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Proteínas Opsonizantes/metabolismo , Plasma
10.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236520, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32730286

RESUMO

In eukaryotic cells, phospholipid flippases translocate phospholipids from the exoplasmic to the cytoplasmic leaflet of the lipid bilayer. Budding yeast contains five flippases, of which Cdc50p-Drs2p and Neo1p are primarily involved in membrane trafficking in endosomes and Golgi membranes. The ANY1/CFS1 gene was identified as a suppressor of growth defects in the neo1Δ and cdc50Δ mutants. Cfs1p is a membrane protein of the PQ-loop family and is localized to endosomal/Golgi membranes, but its relationship to phospholipid asymmetry remains unknown. The neo1Δ cfs1Δ mutant appears to function normally in membrane trafficking but may function abnormally in the regulation of phospholipid asymmetry. To identify a gene that is functionally relevant to NEO1 and CFS1, we isolated a mutation that is synthetically lethal with neo1Δ cfs1Δ and identified ERD1. Erd1p is a Golgi membrane protein that is involved in the transport of phosphate (Pi) from the Golgi lumen to the cytoplasm. The Neo1p-depleted cfs1Δ erd1Δ mutant accumulated plasma membrane proteins in the Golgi, perhaps due to a lack of phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate. The Neo1p-depleted cfs1Δ erd1Δ mutant also exhibited abnormal structure of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and induced an unfolded protein response, likely due to defects in the retrieval pathway from the cis-Golgi region to the ER. Genetic analyses suggest that accumulation of Pi in the Golgi lumen is responsible for defects in Golgi functions in the Neo1p-depleted cfs1Δ erd1Δ mutant. Thus, the luminal ionic environment is functionally relevant to phospholipid asymmetry. Our results suggest that flippase-mediated phospholipid redistribution and luminal Pi concentration coordinately regulate Golgi membrane functions.


Assuntos
Complexo de Golgi/metabolismo , Fosfatos/metabolismo , Fosfolipídeos/metabolismo , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Adenosina Trifosfatases/genética , Retículo Endoplasmático/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/genética , Mutação , Proteínas de Transferência de Fosfolipídeos/genética , Receptores Citoplasmáticos e Nucleares/genética , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/enzimologia , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Resposta a Proteínas não Dobradas
11.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 183(3): 297-306, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32570209

RESUMO

Objective: Glucocorticoids (GC) are associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity despite increased HDL-C concentration. HDL-mediated cholesterol efflux, a major anti-atherogenic property of HDL particles, is negatively associated with CVD risk. We aimed to determine whether HDL-mediated cholesterol efflux was influenced by GC. Design: Prospective, observational study. Methods: Lipid parameters, HDL composition, HDL-mediated cholesterol efflux, cholesteryl ester transfer protein, phospholipid transfer protein and lecithin cholesterol acyl-transferase (LCAT) activities were determined in ten patients with giant cell arteritis before and 3 months after GC introduction and in seven control subjects. HDL concentration and composition, HDL-mediated cholesterol efflux and LCAT activity were determined in GC-treated mice. Results: In patients, HDL-C concentration was higher after than before treatment GC-treatment (P = 0.002), while HDL-mediated cholesterol efflux was decreased (P = 0.008) and negatively associated with the proportion of cholesteryl ester in HDL (P = 0.04), independently of CRP. As well, in mice, HDL-C level was increased after GC exposure (P = 0.04) and HDL-mediated cholesterol efflux decreased (P = 0.04). GC-treated patients had higher cholesteryl ester content in HDL, higher HDL2-to-HDL3 ratio and higher LCAT activity than before treatment (P = 0.008, P = 0.02 and P = 0.004, respectively). Conclusions: We report, for the first time, that in patients with giant cell arteritis and mice treated with GC, HDL-mediated cholesterol efflux was impaired by GC besides an increased HDL-C level. This impaired HDL functionality, possibly related to HDL enrichment in cholesteryl ester, could contribute to the increased CVD risk observed in GC-treated patients. Further studies are needed in larger populations, to further decipher the effect of GC on HDL.


Assuntos
HDL-Colesterol/sangue , Colesterol/metabolismo , Glucocorticoides/farmacologia , Animais , Transporte Biológico/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas de Transferência de Ésteres de Colesterol/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Fosfatidilcolina-Esterol O-Aciltransferase/metabolismo , Proteínas de Transferência de Fosfolipídeos/metabolismo , Fosfolipídeos/metabolismo , Estudos Prospectivos , Esfingolipídeos/metabolismo
12.
Nature ; 584(7820): 310-314, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32580208

RESUMO

Stimulation of the metabotropic GABAB receptor by γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) results in prolonged inhibition of neurotransmission, which is central to brain physiology1. GABAB belongs to family C of the G-protein-coupled receptors, which operate as dimers to transform synaptic neurotransmitter signals into a cellular response through the binding and activation of heterotrimeric G proteins2,3. However, GABAB is unique in its function as an obligate heterodimer in which agonist binding and G-protein activation take place on distinct subunits4,5. Here we present cryo-electron microscopy structures of heterodimeric and homodimeric full-length GABAB receptors. Complemented by cellular signalling assays and atomistic simulations, these structures reveal that extracellular loop 2 (ECL2) of GABAB has an essential role in relaying structural transitions by ordering the linker that connects the extracellular ligand-binding domain to the transmembrane region. Furthermore, the ECL2 of each of the subunits of GABAB caps and interacts with the hydrophilic head of a phospholipid that occupies the extracellular half of the transmembrane domain, thereby providing a potentially crucial link between ligand binding and the receptor core that engages G proteins. These results provide a starting framework through which to decipher the mechanistic modes of signal transduction mediated by GABAB dimers, and have important implications for rational drug design that targets these receptors.


Assuntos
Microscopia Crioeletrônica , Receptores de GABA-B/química , Receptores de GABA-B/ultraestrutura , Sítios de Ligação , Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Antagonistas de Receptores de GABA-B/química , Antagonistas de Receptores de GABA-B/metabolismo , Humanos , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Ligantes , Modelos Moleculares , Fosfolipídeos/química , Fosfolipídeos/metabolismo , Domínios Proteicos , Multimerização Proteica , Subunidades Proteicas/química , Subunidades Proteicas/metabolismo , Receptores de GABA-B/metabolismo , Receptores de Glutamato/química , Receptores de Glutamato/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
13.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0233322, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32469895

RESUMO

The importance of dietary lipids in male reproduction are not as well understood as in females, in which dietary lipids, such as phospholipids (PL) and associated fatty acids (FA), are important structural components of the eggs and provide energy for their offspring. In mammals, lipids are suggested to be important for spermatogenesis and to structural components of the spermatozoa that could improve fertilization rates. New knowledge of how lipids affect sexual maturation in male Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), an important global aquaculture species, could provide tools to delay maturation and/or improve reproductive success. Therefore, changes in testicular composition of lipids and gene transcripts associated with spermatogenesis and lipid metabolism were studied in sexually maturing male salmon compared to immature males and females. An increase in total testis content of FA and PL, and a shift to higher PL composition was observed in maturing males, concomitant with increases in mRNA levels for genes involved in spermatogenesis, FA uptake and synthesis, and production of long chain-polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) and PL. A particularly interesting finding was elevated testis expression of acyl-CoA synthetase 4 (acsl4), and acyl-CoA thioesterase 2 (acot2), critical enzymes that regulate intra-mitochondrial levels of 20:4n-6 FA (arachidonic acid), which have been associated with improved cholesterol transport during steroidogenesis. This suggested that FA may have direct effects on sex steroid production in salmon. Furthermore, we observed increased testis expression of genes for endogenous synthesis of 16:0 and elongation/desaturation to 22:6n-3 (docosahexaenoic acid) in sexually maturing males relative to immature fish. Both of these FA are important structural components of the PL, phosphatidylcholine (PC), and were elevated concomitant with increases in the content of phosphatidic acid, an important precursor for PC, in maturing males compared to immature fish. Overall, this study suggests that, similar to mammals, lipids are important to spermatogenesis and serve as structural components during testicular growth and maturation in Atlantic salmon.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/metabolismo , Proteínas de Peixes/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Fosfolipídeos/metabolismo , Salmo salar/metabolismo , Maturidade Sexual , Testículo/metabolismo , Animais , Ácidos Graxos Dessaturases/genética , Feminino , Proteínas de Peixes/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Masculino , Salmo salar/genética , Testículo/citologia
14.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0233854, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32470006

RESUMO

Alpha-toxin (Hla) is a major virulence factor of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and plays an important role in S. aureus-induced pneumonia. It binds as a monomer to the cell surface of eukaryotic host cells and forms heptameric transmembrane pores. Sensitivities toward the toxin of various types of potential host cells have been shown to vary substantially, and the reasons for these differences are unclear. We used three human model airway epithelial cell lines (16HBE14o-, S9, A549) to correlate cell sensitivity (measured as rate of paracellular gap formation in the cell layers) with Hla monomer binding, presence of the potential Hla receptors ADAM10 or α5ß1 integrin, presence of the toxin-stabilizing factor caveolin-1 as well as plasma membrane lipid composition (phosphatidylserine/choline, sphingomyelin). The abundance of ADAM10 correlated best with gap formation or cell sensitivities, respectively, when the three cell types were compared. Caveolin-1 or α5ß1 integrin did not correlate with toxin sensitivity. The relative abundance of sphingomyelin in plasma membranes may also be used as a proxi for cellular sensitivity against alpha-toxin as sphingomyelin abundances correlated well with the intensities of alpha-toxin mediated gap formation in the cell layers.


Assuntos
Toxinas Bacterianas/metabolismo , Toxinas Bacterianas/toxicidade , Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Proteínas Hemolisinas/metabolismo , Proteínas Hemolisinas/toxicidade , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Sistema Respiratório/patologia , Células A549 , Caveolina 1/metabolismo , Membrana Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Tamanho Celular , Células Epiteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Modelos Biológicos , Fosfolipídeos/metabolismo , Ligação Proteica , Receptores de Superfície Celular/metabolismo
15.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2508, 2020 05 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32427840

RESUMO

Despite the clinical success of Androgen Receptor (AR)-targeted therapies, reactivation of AR signalling remains the main driver of castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) progression. In this study, we perform a comprehensive unbiased characterisation of LNCaP cells chronically exposed to multiple AR inhibitors (ARI). Combined proteomics and metabolomics analyses implicate an acquired metabolic phenotype common in ARI-resistant cells and associated with perturbed glucose and lipid metabolism. To exploit this phenotype, we delineate a subset of proteins consistently associated with ARI resistance and highlight mitochondrial 2,4-dienoyl-CoA reductase (DECR1), an auxiliary enzyme of beta-oxidation, as a clinically relevant biomarker for CRPC. Mechanistically, DECR1 participates in redox homeostasis by controlling the balance between saturated and unsaturated phospholipids. DECR1 knockout induces ER stress and sensitises CRPC cells to ferroptosis. In vivo, DECR1 deletion impairs lipid metabolism and reduces CRPC tumour growth, emphasizing the importance of DECR1 in the development of treatment resistance.


Assuntos
Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Oxirredutases atuantes sobre Doadores de Grupo CH-CH/metabolismo , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/enzimologia , Antagonistas de Receptores de Andrógenos/administração & dosagem , Progressão da Doença , Homeostase , Humanos , Masculino , Mitocôndrias/enzimologia , Mitocôndrias/genética , Oxirredutases atuantes sobre Doadores de Grupo CH-CH/genética , Fosfolipídeos/metabolismo , Próstata/enzimologia , Próstata/metabolismo , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/genética , Receptores Androgênicos/genética , Receptores Androgênicos/metabolismo
16.
Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol ; 318(5): H1185-H1197, 2020 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32243770

RESUMO

The primary function of the arterial microvasculature is to ensure that regional perfusion of blood flow is matched to the needs of the tissue bed. This critical physiological mechanism is tightly controlled and regulated by a variety of vasoactive compounds that are generated and released from the vascular endothelium. Although these substances are required for modulating vascular tone, they also influence the surrounding tissue and have an overall effect on vascular, as well as parenchymal, homeostasis. Bioactive lipids, fatty acid derivatives that exert their effects through signaling pathways, are included in the list of vasoactive compounds that modulate the microvasculature. Although lipids were identified as important vascular messengers over three decades ago, their specific role within the microvascular system is not well defined. Thorough understanding of these pathways and their regulation is not only essential to gain insight into their role in cardiovascular disease but is also important for preventing vascular dysfunction following cancer treatment, a rapidly growing problem in medical oncology. The purpose of this review is to discuss how biologically active lipids, specifically prostanoids, epoxyeicosatrienoic acids, sphingolipids, and lysophospholipids, contribute to vascular function and signaling within the endothelium. Methods for quantifying lipids will be briefly discussed, followed by an overview of the various lipid families. The cross talk in signaling between classes of lipids will be discussed in the context of vascular disease. Finally, the potential clinical implications of these lipid families will be highlighted.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Microvasos/metabolismo , Fosfolipídeos/metabolismo , Esfingolipídeos/metabolismo , Animais , Ensaios Enzimáticos/métodos , Fluorometria/métodos , Humanos , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Transdução de Sinais
17.
Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol ; 63(3): 327-337, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32348683

RESUMO

No in vivo data are available regarding the effect of meconium on human surfactant in the early stages of severe meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS). In the present study, we sought to characterize the changes in surfactant composition, function, and structure during the early phase of meconium injury. We designed a translational prospective cohort study of nonbronchoscopic BAL of neonates with severe MAS (n = 14) or no lung disease (n = 18). Surfactant lipids were analyzed by liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry. Secretory phospholipase A2 subtypes IB, V, and X and SP-A (surfactant protein A) were assayed by ELISA. SP-B and SP-C were analyzed by Western blotting under both nonreducing and reducing conditions. Surfactant function was assessed by adsorption test and captive bubble surfactometry, and lung aeration was evaluated by semiquantitative lung ultrasound. Surfactant nanostructure was studied using cryo-EM and atomic force microscopy. Several changes in phospholipid subclasses were detected during MAS. Lysophosphatidylcholine species released by phospholipase A2 hydrolysis were increased. SP-B and SP-C were significantly increased together with some shorter immature forms of SP-B. Surfactant function was impaired and correlated with poor lung aeration. Surfactant nanostructure was significantly damaged in terms of vesicle size, tridimensional complexity, and compactness. Various alterations of surfactant phospholipids and proteins were detected in the early phase of severe meconium aspiration and were due to hydrolysis and inflammation and a defensive response. This impairs both surfactant structure and function, finally resulting in reduced lung aeration. These findings support the development of new surfactant protection and antiinflammatory strategies for severe MAS.


Assuntos
Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Síndrome de Aspiração de Mecônio/tratamento farmacológico , Surfactantes Pulmonares/farmacologia , Tensoativos/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Pulmão/metabolismo , Síndrome de Aspiração de Mecônio/metabolismo , Síndrome de Aspiração de Mecônio/fisiopatologia , Fosfolipases A2/efeitos dos fármacos , Fosfolipases A2/metabolismo , Fosfolipídeos/metabolismo , Surfactantes Pulmonares/metabolismo
18.
J Vis Exp ; (157)2020 03 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32281977

RESUMO

Cholesterol enrichment of mammalian tissues and cells, including Xenopus oocytes used for studying cell function, can be accomplished using a variety of methods. Here, we describe two important approaches used for this purpose. First, we describe how to enrich tissues and cells with cholesterol using cyclodextrin saturated with cholesterol using cerebral arteries (tissues) and hippocampal neurons (cells) as examples. This approach can be used for any type of tissue, cells, or cell lines. An alternative approach for cholesterol enrichment involves the use of low-density lipoprotein (LDL). The advantage of this approach is that it uses part of the natural cholesterol homeostasis machinery of the cell. However, whereas the cyclodextrin approach can be applied to enrich any cell type of interest with cholesterol, the LDL approach is limited to cells that express LDL receptors (e.g., liver cells, bone marrow-derived cells such as blood leukocytes and tissue macrophages), and the level of enrichment depends on the concentration and the mobility of the LDL receptor. Furthermore, LDL particles include other lipids, so cholesterol delivery is nonspecific. Second, we describe how to enrich Xenopus oocytes with cholesterol using a phospholipid-based dispersion (i.e., liposomes) that includes cholesterol. Xenopus oocytes constitute a popular heterologous expression system used for studying cell and protein function. For both the cyclodextrin-based cholesterol enrichment approach of mammalian tissue (cerebral arteries) and for the phospholipid-based cholesterol enrichment approach of Xenopus oocytes, we demonstrate that cholesterol levels reach a maximum following 5 min of incubation. This level of cholesterol remains constant during extended periods of incubation (e.g., 60 min). Together, these data provide the basis for optimized temporal conditions for cholesterol enrichment of tissues, cells, and Xenopus oocytes for functional studies aimed at interrogating the impact of cholesterol enrichment.


Assuntos
Colesterol/metabolismo , Mamíferos/metabolismo , Oócitos/metabolismo , Xenopus laevis/metabolismo , Animais , Artérias Cerebrais/metabolismo , Humanos , Lipossomos , Fosfolipídeos/metabolismo , Canais de Potássio/metabolismo , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , beta-Ciclodextrinas/metabolismo
19.
Food Chem ; 320: 126684, 2020 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32229394

RESUMO

Refrigeration is used to retard senescence and extend the storage life of 'Nanguo' pears, but fruits subjected to long-term refrigeration are prone to pericarp browning during subsequent shelf life. To uncover the potential effects of membrane lipid changes during fruit pericarp browning, changes in fruit appearance and cell ultrastructure were observed after different storage durations. Membrane lipid content as well as the activity and gene expression of enzymes involved in membrane lipid metabolism and membrane stability were analyzed. Results showed that long-term refrigeration increased the activity and expression of PLD, LOX, lipase, and membrane stability-related genes that promoted membrane lipid degradation and peroxidation, reduced membrane lipid unsaturation, and led to severe browning. Overall, membrane instability induced by disordered membrane lipid metabolism under low temperature stress may account for pericarp browning of cold stored 'Nanguo' pears.


Assuntos
Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Frutas/química , Frutas/metabolismo , Pyrus/química , Pyrus/metabolismo , Armazenamento de Alimentos , Lipídeos de Membrana/química , Lipídeos de Membrana/metabolismo , Fosfolipídeos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Refrigeração
20.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 16(4): e1007818, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32298258

RESUMO

The activation process of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) has been extensively studied, both experimentally and computationally. In particular, Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations have proven useful in exploring GPCR conformational space. The typical behaviour of class A GPCRs, when subjected to unbiased MD simulations from their crystallized inactive state, is to fluctuate between inactive and intermediate(s) conformations, even with bound agonist. Fully active conformation(s) are rarely stabilized unless a G protein is also bound. Despite several crystal structures of the adenosine A2a receptor (A2aR) having been resolved in complex with co-crystallized agonists and Gs protein, its agonist-mediated activation process is still not completely understood. In order to thoroughly examine the conformational landscape of A2aR activation, we performed unbiased microsecond-length MD simulations in quadruplicate, starting from the inactive conformation either in apo or with bound agonists: endogenous adenosine or synthetic NECA, embedded in two homogeneous phospholipid membranes: 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphoglycerol (DOPG) or 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphocholine (DOPC). In DOPC with bound adenosine or NECA, we observe transition to an intermediate receptor conformation consistent with the known adenosine-bound crystal state. In apo state in DOPG, two different intermediate conformations are obtained. One is similar to that observed with bound adenosine in DOPC, while the other is closer to the active state but not yet fully active. Exclusively, in DOPG with bound adenosine or NECA, we reproducibly identify receptor conformations with fully active features, which are able to dock Gs protein. These different receptor conformations can be attributed to the action/absence of agonist and phospholipid-mediated allosteric effects on the intracellular side of the receptor.


Assuntos
Agonistas do Receptor A2 de Adenosina , Fosfolipídeos , Receptor A2A de Adenosina , Adenosina/química , Adenosina/metabolismo , Agonistas do Receptor A2 de Adenosina/química , Agonistas do Receptor A2 de Adenosina/metabolismo , Sítios de Ligação , Humanos , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Fosfatidilcolinas , Fosfatidilgliceróis , Fosfolipídeos/química , Fosfolipídeos/metabolismo , Conformação Proteica , Receptor A2A de Adenosina/química , Receptor A2A de Adenosina/metabolismo
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