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1.
Plast Reconstr Surg ; 146(6): 744e-748e, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33234954

RESUMO

Breast volume assessment is crucial in a breast surgeon's clinical practice. The aim of this study was to present and validate a new Web application, BreastIdea Volume Estimator, a module for breast estimation of the already validated BreastIdea application. Forty breasts in 20 women were scanned using a three-dimensional scanner. They were then photographed in nonstandardized conditions, and volume estimations were calculated using BreastIdea Volume Estimator. Accuracy in addition to relative and absolute reliability of BreastIdea Volume Estimator measurements were investigated. In addition, breast volume differences were analyzed. Breast volume estimation using BreastIdea Volume Estimator yielded satisfactory accuracy and presented precision of the level of clinical measures. The mean absolute difference for both observers was 4.33 ± 3.79 cc and 6.78 ± 4.66 cc, which correspond to 1.87 ± 1.89 percent and 2.75 ± 2.05 percent errors of measurement. Similar relations were found for measurements of breast volume differences. BreastIdea Volume Estimator is a clinically oriented, reliable tool for breast volume evaluation. It provides results of appropriate accuracy regardless of chest abnormality and photograph standardization.


Assuntos
Mama/diagnóstico por imagem , Imageamento Tridimensional/métodos , Fotografação/métodos , Software , Adolescente , Adulto , Mama/anatomia & histologia , Feminino , Humanos , Tamanho do Órgão , Imagens de Fantasmas , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Adulto Jovem
2.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5602, 2020 11 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33154366

RESUMO

Multidimensional photography can capture optical fields beyond the capability of conventional image sensors that measure only two-dimensional (2D) spatial distribution of light. By mapping a high-dimensional datacube of incident light onto a 2D image sensor, multidimensional photography resolves the scene along with other information dimensions, such as wavelength and time. However, the application of current multidimensional imagers is fundamentally restricted by their static optical architectures and measurement schemes-the mapping relation between the light datacube voxels and image sensor pixels is fixed. To overcome this limitation, we propose tunable multidimensional photography through active optical mapping. A high-resolution spatial light modulator, referred to as an active optical mapper, permutes and maps the light datacube voxels onto sensor pixels in an arbitrary and programmed manner. The resultant system can readily adapt the acquisition scheme to the scene, thereby maximising the measurement flexibility. Through active optical mapping, we demonstrate our approach in two niche implementations: hyperspectral imaging and ultrafast imaging.


Assuntos
Fotografação/instrumentação , Fotografação/métodos , Desenho de Equipamento , Imageamento Tridimensional , Análise Espectral
3.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 103(6): 2488-2491, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33021196

RESUMO

Conjunctival examination for trachomatous inflammation-follicular (TF) guides public health decisions for trachoma. Smartphone cameras may allow remote conjunctival grading, but previous studies have found low sensitivity. A random sample of 412 children aged 1-9 years received an in-person conjunctival examination and then had conjunctival photographs taken with 1) a single-lens reflex (SLR) camera and 2) a smartphone coupled to a 3D-printed magnifying attachment. Three masked graders assessed the conjunctival photographs for TF. Latent class analysis was used to determine the sensitivity and specificity of each grading method for TF. Single-lens reflex photo-grading was 95.0% sensitive and 93.6% specific, and smartphone photo-grading was 84.1% sensitive and 97.6% specific. The sensitivity of the smartphone-CellScope device was considerably higher than that of a previous study using the native smartphone camera, without attachment. Magnification of smartphone images with a simple attachment improved the grading sensitivity while maintaining high specificity in a region with hyperendemic trachoma.


Assuntos
Fotografação/instrumentação , Fotografação/métodos , Smartphone , Tracoma/diagnóstico , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
4.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0239913, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33002080

RESUMO

Optic-disc photography (ODP) has proven to be very useful for optic nerve evaluation in glaucoma. In real clinical practice, however, limited patient cooperation, small pupils, or media opacities can limit the performance of ODP. The purpose of this study was to propose a deep-learning approach for increased resolution and improved legibility of ODP by contrast, color, and brightness compensation. Each high-resolution original ODP was transformed into two counterparts: (1) down-scaled 'low-resolution ODPs', and (2) 'compensated high-resolution ODPs' produced via enhancement of the visibility of the optic disc margin and surrounding retinal vessels using a customized image post-processing algorithm. Then, the differences between these two counterparts were directly learned through a super-resolution generative adversarial network (SR-GAN). Finally, by inputting the high-resolution ODPs into SR-GAN, 4-times-up-scaled and overall-color-and-brightness-transformed 'enhanced ODPs' could be obtained. General ophthalmologists were instructed (1) to assess each ODP's image quality, and (2) to note any abnormal findings, at 1-month intervals. The image quality score for the enhanced ODPs was significantly higher than that for the original ODP, and the overall optic disc hemorrhage (DH)-detection accuracy was significantly higher with the enhanced ODPs. We expect that this novel deep-learning approach will be applied to various types of ophthalmic images.


Assuntos
Aprendizado Profundo , Glaucoma/diagnóstico por imagem , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Disco Óptico/diagnóstico por imagem , Fotografação/métodos , Humanos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/normas , Limite de Detecção , Fotografação/normas
5.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5252, 2020 10 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33067438

RESUMO

Simultaneous and efficient ultrafast recording of multiple photon tags contributes to high-dimensional optical imaging and characterization in numerous fields. Existing high-dimensional optical imaging techniques that record space and polarization cannot detect the photon's time of arrival owing to the limited speeds of the state-of-the-art electronic sensors. Here, we overcome this long-standing limitation by implementing stereo-polarimetric compressed ultrafast photography (SP-CUP) to record light-speed high-dimensional events in a single exposure. Synergizing compressed sensing and streak imaging with stereoscopy and polarimetry, SP-CUP enables video-recording of five photon tags (x, y, z: space; t: time of arrival; and ψ: angle of linear polarization) at 100 billion frames per second with a picosecond temporal resolution. We applied SP-CUP to the spatiotemporal characterization of linear polarization dynamics in early-stage plasma emission from laser-induced breakdown. This system also allowed three-dimensional ultrafast imaging of the linear polarization properties of a single ultrashort laser pulse propagating in a scattering medium.


Assuntos
Imagem Óptica/instrumentação , Fotografação/instrumentação , Gravação em Vídeo/instrumentação , Lasers , Imagem Óptica/métodos , Fotografação/métodos , Fótons , Gravação em Vídeo/métodos
6.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0237570, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33044975

RESUMO

Photo-identification (photo-id) is a method used in field studies by biologists to monitor animals according to their density, movement patterns and behavior, with the aim of predicting and preventing ecological risks. However, these methods can introduce subjectivity when manually classifying an individual animal, creating uncertainty or inaccuracy in the data as a result of the human criteria involved. One of the main objectives in photo-id is to implement an automated mechanism that is free of biases, portable, and easy to use. The main aim of this work is to develop an autonomous and portable photo-id system through the optimization of image classification algorithms that have high statistical dependence, with the goal of classifying dorsal fin images of the blue whale through offline information processing on a mobile platform. The new proposed methodology is based on the Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT) that, in conjunction with statistical discriminators such as the variance and the standard deviation, fits the extracted data and selects the closest pixels that comprise the edges of the dorsal fin of the blue whale. In this way, we ensure the elimination of the most common external factors that could affect the quality of the image, thus avoiding the elimination of relevant sections of the dorsal fin. The photo-id method presented in this work has been developed using blue whale images collected off the coast of Baja California Sur. The results shown have qualitatively and quantitatively validated the method in terms of its sensitivity, specificity and accuracy on the Jetson Tegra TK1 mobile platform. The solution optimizes classic SIFT, balancing the results obtained with the computational cost, provides a more economical form of processing and obtains a portable system that could be beneficial for field studies through mobile platforms, making it available to scientists, government and the general public.


Assuntos
Nadadeiras de Animais/anatomia & histologia , Balaenoptera/anatomia & histologia , Aplicativos Móveis , Fotografação/métodos , Algoritmos , Animais , Bases de Dados Factuais , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/estatística & dados numéricos , Reconhecimento Automatizado de Padrão/métodos , Reconhecimento Automatizado de Padrão/estatística & dados numéricos , Fotografação/estatística & dados numéricos
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32948087

RESUMO

Background: Fear of Harm (FoH) predicts return to sports in Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction (ACLR) and can be assessed using the Photographic Sports Activities for ACLR (PHOSA-ACLR). This study was conducted to determine whether FoH assessed using the PHOSA-ACLR is a latent trait, and to analyze differences in PHOSA-ACLR in athletes with or without an ACL rupture. Methods: Three convenience samples completed the PHOSA-ACLR: (1) ACLR patients (n = 58; mean age 25.9 years; range 17-56; SD = 8.2; 43% male); (2) first year Physical Therapy (PT) students (n = 169; mean age = 19.2; SD = 2.0; 48% male), and (3) junior football players (n = 30; mean age = 18.3; range 17-20; SD = 3.2; 94% males). ACLR patients additionally reported functioning and Fear of Movement. PHOSA-ACLR items were analyzed with Item Response Theory using the Graded Response Model (GRM). Differences between three groups of participants were analyzed using Univariate Analysis of Variance. Results: Data fitted the two-parameter GRM, and therefore the items of the PHOSA-ACLR constitute a latent trait. There was a significant difference between the three groups in PHOSA-ACLR after controlling for age and gender (F (2, 255) = 17.1, p < 0.001). PT students reported higher levels of FoH compared to either ACLR patients or healthy soccer players. Conclusions: PHOSA-ACLR items constitute a latent trait of FoH for ACLR-specific movements. Contrary to expectations, PHOSA-ACLR is higher in first year physiotherapy students compared to patients rehabilitating from ACLR, and healthy junior soccer players.


Assuntos
Lesões do Ligamento Cruzado Anterior/psicologia , Reconstrução do Ligamento Cruzado Anterior/psicologia , Ansiedade/psicologia , Traumatismos em Atletas/psicologia , Medo , Futebol , Adolescente , Adulto , Lesões do Ligamento Cruzado Anterior/epidemiologia , Lesões do Ligamento Cruzado Anterior/cirurgia , Ansiedade/diagnóstico , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Traumatismos em Atletas/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fotografação/métodos , Fisioterapeutas , Adulto Jovem
8.
J Vis Exp ; (163)2020 09 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32955504

RESUMO

An experimental and image analysis technique is presented for imaging cavitation bubbles and calculating their area. The high-speed imaging experimental technique and image analysis protocol presented here can also be applied for imaging microscopic bubbles in other fields of research; therefore, it has a wide range of applications. We apply this to image cavitation around dental ultrasonic scalers. It is important to image cavitation to characterize it and to understand how it can be exploited for various applications. Cavitation occurring around dental ultrasonic scalers can be used as a novel method of dental plaque removal, which would be more effective and cause less damage than current periodontal therapy techniques. We present a method for imaging the cavitation bubble clouds occurring around dental ultrasonic scaler tips using a high-speed camera and a zoom lens. We also calculate the area of cavitation using machine learning image analysis. Open source software is used for image analysis. The image analysis presented is easy to replicate, does not require programming experience, and can be modified easily to suit the application of the user.


Assuntos
Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Microbolhas , Fotografação , Raspagem Dentária/instrumentação , Movimento (Física) , Fotografação/métodos , Sonicação/instrumentação
9.
Anim Sci J ; 91(1): e13447, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32902039

RESUMO

Nest building is an instinctive behavior toward protection from predators, body temperature regulation, and courtship. Previously, we discovered that acute and chronic social defeat stress suppresses the onset of nest-building behavior in male mice (C57BL/6J). Here, we analyzed nest building and other behavioral deficits induced by acute social defeat stress (ASDS). We utilized a customized cage and specifically developed observational programs for nest building, social avoidance, and other behaviors using an infrared depth camera to acquire three-dimensional (3D) data of animal behavior (Negura system). We determined the volume of nesting materials from these 3D depth images. Mice exposed to ASDS showed increased spontaneous activities, decreased rearing, and delayed nest building; however, nest-building activity was gradually recovered during the dark period of the 24 hr observation interval. At the endpoint following 24 hr, the ASDS and control groups showed no differences in nest volumes. Furthermore, we observed the time courses of both nest building and social avoidance behaviors and their relationship using the Negura system. Our data demonstrated a weak positive correlation between nest-building delay and social avoidance in ASDS mice. The Negura system can observe various behaviors that reflect the effects of social defeat stress.


Assuntos
Aprendizagem da Esquiva , Técnicas de Observação do Comportamento/instrumentação , Imageamento Tridimensional/instrumentação , Relações Interpessoais , Comportamento de Nidação/fisiologia , Fotografação/instrumentação , Comportamento Social , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Animais , Técnicas de Observação do Comportamento/métodos , Doença Crônica , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Imageamento Tridimensional/métodos , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Fotografação/métodos
10.
Diabetes Res Clin Pract ; 168: 108380, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32828834

RESUMO

AIMS: To evaluate the feasibility of smartphone based retinal photography for diabetic retinopathy (DR) screening among Brazilian Xavante Indians and the yield of retinal images. METHODS: A non-probabilistic cluster sample of 170 individuals with and without diabetes was enrolled for ocular examination with a portable retinal camera during DR screening at two Xavante Reservations. Due to operational conditions and to optimize the field work, only the larger Xavante villages were included. Images were obtained after pupil dilation; image analysis included assessment of quality, presence of media opacities and diabetic retinopathy grading whenever possible for individuals with diabetes. RESULTS: A total of 157 individuals underwent the complete ocular imaging protocol, 95 with diabetes (60.5%). Among those with diabetes, 23 (24.2%) could not have DR graded because of media opacities. For those with gradable images, the frequency of DR was 22.2%; sight-threatening DR was present in 9.7%. The main causes for ungradable images were cataracts and asteroid hyalosis. CONCLUSIONS: The presence of DR was higher than in previous studies, calling attention for its prevention in this vulnerable population. The screening model with a smartphone-based portable retinal camera is feasible and could increase screening coverage if associated with telemedicine.


Assuntos
Retinopatia Diabética/diagnóstico , Fotografação/métodos , Retina/fisiopatologia , Smartphone/normas , Brasil , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Telemedicina
11.
Acta Diabetol ; 57(12): 1493-1499, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32748176

RESUMO

AIMS: To evaluate diabetic retinopathy (DR) screening with a portable handheld smartphone-based retinal camera and telemedicine in an urban primary healthcare setting and to evaluate the learning curve for image acquisition, performed by healthcare personnel without previous experience in retinal imaging. METHODS: This was a prospective study that enrolled patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) followed at a primary healthcare unit in São Paulo, Brazil. After a brief training in image acquisition, there was further continuous feedback given by a retina specialist during the remote image reading process. Each patient underwent two fundus and one anterior ocular segment images per eye, after mydriasis. Patients were classified according to the need of referral. RESULTS: A total of 627 adult individuals with T2DM underwent retinal evaluation. The population was composed by 63.2% female individuals, age median of 66 years, diabetes duration 10.7 ± 8.2 years and HbA1c 7.7 ± 1.9% (61 + 20.8 mmol/mol). The most prevalent associated comorbidities were arterial hypertension (80.3%) and dyslipidemia (50.2%). Referral decision was possible in 81.2% patients. Most patients had absent or non-referable DR; the main ocular media opacity detected was cataract. After the 7th day of image acquisition, the daily rate of patients whose images allowed clinical decision was maintained above 80%. A higher HbA1c was associated with referable DR. CONCLUSIONS: A low-cost DR screening strategy with a handheld device and telemedicine is feasible and has the potential to increase coverage of DR screening in underserved areas; the possibility of mobile units is relevant for DR screening in the context of COVID-19 pandemic. Daily rate of patients whose examinations allowed clinical decision. X-axis: day of examination; Y-axis: rate (%) of patients whose examinations allowed a clinical decision.


Assuntos
Retinopatia Diabética/diagnóstico , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Fotografação/métodos , Retina/diagnóstico por imagem , Telemedicina/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Brasil , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Retinopatia Diabética/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento/instrumentação , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Atenção Primária à Saúde/métodos , Estudos Prospectivos , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Smartphone , Telemedicina/instrumentação
12.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0238072, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32822418

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Early detection and treatment are important management strategies for neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD). The purpose of this study was to determine the sensitivity and specificity in detecting neovascular AMD using two wide-field imaging systems: ClarusTM (CLARUS 500™, Carl Zeiss Meditec AG, Jena, Germany) and Optos®(Optos California®, Optos PLC, Dunfermline, United Kingdom), compared to conventional digital fundus photographs. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 109 eyes of 73 consecutive patients with neovascular AMD, who underwent standard examination and multimodal imaging, including fundus photography, and optical coherence tomography (OCT). Unmasked graders utilized slit-lamp biomicroscopy and OCT to diagnose neovascular AMD. Masked graders evaluated ClarusTM, Optos®, and digital fundus photograph methods to determine the presence of choroidal neovascularization associated with AMD. Sensitivity and specificity analyses were performed using combined fundoscopy and OCT as the reference standard. RESULTS: Ninety eyes were diagnosed with neovascular AMD and the remaining 19 eyes were normal based on the reference standard. Of these, neovascular AMD was detected using ClarusTM in 94.4% (85/90). The sensitivities of Optos® and digital fundus photographs were 81.1% (73/90) and 87.8% (79/90), respectively. The specificities using ClarusTM, Optos®, and digital fundus photographs were 89.5% (17/19), 94.7% (18/19), and 89.5% (17/19), respectively. CONCLUSION: ClarusTM, with its ability to image high-resolution wide field fundus, was considered superior for diagnosing neovascular AMD with high sensitivity and specificity. It may be a useful screening tool for early detection of neovascular AMD, facilitating prompt referral and treatment.


Assuntos
Degeneração Macular/diagnóstico , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Fundo de Olho , Humanos , Degeneração Macular/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fotografação/métodos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica/métodos
13.
Asia Pac J Ophthalmol (Phila) ; 9(4): 308-314, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32694345

RESUMO

With the advent of smartphone-based fundus imaging (SBFI), a low-cost alternative to conventional digital fundus photography has become available. SBFI allows for a mobile fundus examination, is applicable both with and without pupil dilation, comes with built-in connectivity and post-processing capabilities, and is relatively easy to master. Furthermore, it is delegable to paramedical staff/technicians and, hence, suitable for telemedicine. Against this background a variety of SBFI applications have become available including screening for diabetic retinopathy, glaucoma, and retinopathy of prematurity and its applications in emergency medicine and pediatrics. In addition, SBFI is convenient for teaching purposes and might serve as a surrogate for direct ophthalmoscopy. First wide-field montage techniques are available and the combination of SBFI with machine learning algorithms for image analyses is promising. In conclusion, SBFI has the potential to make fundus examinations and screenings for patients particularly in low- and middle-income settings more accessible and, therefore, aid tackling the burden of diabetic retinopathy, glaucoma, and retinopathy of prematurity screening. However, image quality for SBFI varies substantially and a reference standard for grading appears prudent. In addition, there is a strong need for comparison of different SBFI approaches in terms of applicability to disease screening and cost-effectiveness.


Assuntos
Diagnóstico por Imagem/instrumentação , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Oftalmológico/instrumentação , Oftalmopatias/diagnóstico por imagem , Fundo de Olho , Smartphone/instrumentação , Humanos , Oftalmoscopia/métodos , Fotografação/métodos , Telemedicina/instrumentação
15.
Plast Reconstr Surg ; 146(3): 314e-323e, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32459727

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Current methods to analyze three-dimensional photography do not quantify intracranial volume, an important metric of development. This study presents the first noninvasive, radiation-free, accurate, and reproducible method to quantify intracranial volume from three-dimensional photography. METHODS: In this retrospective study, cranial bones and head skin were automatically segmented from computed tomographic images of 575 subjects without cranial abnormality (average age, 5 ± 5 years; range, 0 to 16 years). The intracranial volume and the head volume were measured at the cranial vault region, and their relation was modeled by polynomial regression, also accounting for age and sex. Then, the regression model was used to estimate the intracranial volume of 30 independent pediatric patients from their head volume measured using three-dimensional photography. Evaluation was performed by comparing the estimated intracranial volume with the true intracranial volume of these patients computed from paired computed tomographic images; two growth models were used to compensate for the time gap between computed tomographic and three-dimensional photography. RESULTS: The regression model estimated the intracranial volume of the normative population from the head volume calculated from computed tomographic images with an average error of 3.81 ± 3.15 percent (p = 0.93) and a correlation (R) of 0.96. The authors obtained an average error of 4.07 ± 3.01 percent (p = 0.57) in estimating the intracranial volume of the patients from three-dimensional photography using the regression model. CONCLUSION: Three-dimensional photography with image analysis provides measurement of intracranial volume with clinically acceptable accuracy, thus offering a noninvasive, precise, and reproducible method to evaluate normal and abnormal brain development in young children. CLINICAL QUESTION/LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Diagnostic, V.


Assuntos
Imageamento Tridimensional , Fotografação/métodos , Crânio/anatomia & histologia , Crânio/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Tamanho do Órgão , Estudos Retrospectivos
16.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 628, 2020 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32375727

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Globally, there has been an exponential rise in smartphone use and selfie taking among youth. To make selfies exciting, dangerous selfies are often taken that may lead to catastrophic consequences, including death. This study aims to estimate the prevalence of dangerous selfies and to determine the factors associated with dangerous selfies among medical and nursing students in India. METHODS: The study was conducted at the All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS), Bhubaneswar, India, in April-August 2018. The inclusion criteria were students enrolled in the Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery (MBBS) and nursing courses of AIIMS, Bhubaneswar. Students who did not use smartphones were excluded from the study. The interview schedule and Selfitis Behaviour Scale (SBS) were used to collect information on sociodemographic variables, smartphone use and variables related to selfies and dangerous selfies. Forward stepwise logistic regression was undertaken with the probability of entry and removal as 0.05 and 0.10, respectively. RESULTS: Of 633 eligible participants, 595 were included in the study. The mean (SD) age of the participants was 21.2 (1.6) years. More than half (56.8%) of the participants were female, 384 (64.5%) were medical students and 211 (35.5%) were nursing students. Nearly two-thirds of the participants (70.6%) preferred to take selfie. One hundred thirty three (40.3%) of the participants posted selfies on social media daily. The prevalence of dangerous selfies was 8.74% (95% CI: 6.73-11.28). Eight injury episodes while taking selfies were reported by seven (1.2%) participants. Being male (AOR 4.96, 95% CI 2.53-9.74), posting selfies on social media daily (AOR 3.33, 95% CI 1.71-6.47) and an SBS score > 75 (AOR 4.97, 95% CI 1.43-17.28) were independent predictors of dangerous selfies. CONCLUSION: Nearly one in ten medical and nursing students reported having taken a dangerous selfie, and one in one hundred reported having been injured while attempting to take a selfie. Being male, posting selfies on social media daily and an SBS score > 75 were independent predictors of dangerous selfies. Further research is required to identify the community burden of dangerous selfies and to develop strategies to prevent selfie-related fatalities among youths.


Assuntos
Comportamento Perigoso , Fotografação/estatística & dados numéricos , Mídias Sociais/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes de Medicina/psicologia , Estudantes de Enfermagem/psicologia , Adolescente , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Fotografação/métodos , Prevalência , Smartphone , Adulto Jovem
17.
J Glaucoma ; 29(8): 698-703, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32398586

RESUMO

PRECIS: This study demonstrated the high topographic correlation between the red-free fundus photographs and en face structural images in eyes with glaucomatous progression. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to compare the progression of localized retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) defects in red-free fundus photographs, en face structural images, and optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) images. METHODS: We performed a retrospective, comparative study on 45 glaucomatous eyes showing RNFL defect widening in red-free photography. The localized RNFL defect in the red-free photographs was termed as red-free defect. The wedge-shaped hyporeflective area radiating from the optic nerve head in the optical coherence tomography (OCT) en face structural images and OCTA images was defined as en face defect and OCTA defect, respectively. The baseline and follow-up angular parameters of each red-free defect were compared with those of en face defect and OCTA defect. RESULTS: When the baseline angular parameters were compared, there were no significant differences between red-free defect and en face defect, and between red-free defect and OCTA defect (all, P>0.017). In addition, the follow-up angular parameters showed no difference between red-free defect and en face defect. However, the OCTA defect showed significantly greater values compared with red-free defect and en face defect with respect to the distal angular location and angular width at follow-up visit (36.78±15.10 vs. 34.10±15.09 vs. 33.40±15.05 degrees, both, P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Localized RNFL defects detected in red-free photographs showed high topographic correlation with defects detected in OCT en face structural images, and this correlation was also noted in eyes with progressive glaucoma. The OCT en face structural images may be an alternative to red-free photography for identifying progressive RNFL defects in eyes with glaucoma.


Assuntos
Glaucoma de Ângulo Aberto/diagnóstico por imagem , Fibras Nervosas/patologia , Disco Óptico/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças do Nervo Óptico/diagnóstico por imagem , Fotografação/métodos , Células Ganglionares da Retina/patologia , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica , Idoso , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Angiofluoresceinografia , Gonioscopia , Humanos , Pressão Intraocular/fisiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Microscopia com Lâmpada de Fenda , Tonometria Ocular
20.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0232583, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32392215

RESUMO

A modern color filter array (CFA) output is rendered into the final output image using a demosaicing algorithm. During this process, the rendered image is affected by optical and carrier cross talk of the CFA pattern and demosaicing algorithm. Although many CFA patterns have been proposed thus far, an image-quality (IQ) evaluation system capable of comprehensively evaluating the IQ of each CFA pattern has yet to be developed, although IQ evaluation items using local characteristics or specific domain have been created. Hence, we present an IQ metric system to evaluate the IQ performance of CFA patterns. The proposed CFA evaluation system includes proposed metrics such as the moiré robustness using the experimentally determined moiré starting point (MSP) and achromatic reproduction (AR) error, as well as existing metrics such as color accuracy using CIELAB, a color reproduction error using spatial CIELAB, structural information using the structure similarity, the image contrast based on MTF50, structural and color distortion using the mean deviation similarity index (MDSI), and perceptual similarity using Haar wavelet-based perceptual similarity index (HaarPSI). Through our experiment, we confirmed that the proposed CFA evaluation system can assess the IQ for an existing CFA. Moreover, the proposed system can be used to design or evaluate new CFAs by automatically checking the individual performance for the metrics used.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Aumento da Imagem , Cor , Aumento da Imagem/instrumentação , Aumento da Imagem/métodos , Sistema Métrico , Fotografação/instrumentação , Fotografação/métodos
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