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1.
Eur J Ophthalmol ; 30(1): 112-118, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30360660

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The aim of this study is to assess the agreement between manual and automated gonioscopy for iridocorneal angle opening. METHODS: The research is a cross-sectional observational study. Manual and automated gonioscopy were performed to consecutive patients in a glaucoma clinic. Iridocorneal angle opening grading was performed according to Shaffer's classification. Automated gonioscopy was performed with NGS-1 automated gonioscope (NIDEK Co., Gamagori, Japan). The automated gonio-photos were graded by two independent observers. Agreement between automated and manual gonioscopy and also among raters was ascertained by Fleiss' kappa statistic and comparison of area under curve. RESULTS: In total, 88 eyes of 47 subjects were analysed. Mean age was 63 ± 10 years. Twenty eyes (22.7%) were excluded from grading due to poor quality images. Angle closure was detected in 23.4% with dynamic gonioscopy in comparison with 4.3% using automated image grading. The agreement for angle closure diagnosis between dynamic and automated gonioscopy was low (κ = 0.09 ± 0.10; p = 0.18). The area under curve for detecting eyes with angle closure showed poor accuracy between automated and manual methods (area under curve: 0.53 ± 0.05, 95% confidence interval: 0.44-0.62). There was modest inter-rater agreement for angle opening assessment of automated images with Fleiss' kappa of 0.17 (95% confidence interval: 0.035-0.238). CONCLUSION: Manual and automated gonioscopy showed only slight agreement for the assessment of iridocorneal angle opening status. Further improvements of the NGS-1 automated gonioscopy and technique are desired for widespread use in a real-life setting.


Assuntos
Câmara Anterior/diagnóstico por imagem , Glaucoma/diagnóstico , Gonioscopia/métodos , Fotografação/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Curva ROC , Adulto Jovem
2.
Forensic Sci Int ; 305: 109998, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31707237

RESUMO

Bruising is an injury commonly observed within suspect cases of assault or abuse, yet how a blunt impact initiates bruising and influences its severity is not fully understood. Furthermore, the standard method of documenting a bruise with colour photography is known to have limitations which influence the already subjective analysis of a bruise. This research investigated bruising using a standardised blunt impact, delivered to 18 volunteers. The resulting bruise was imaged using colour, cross polarised (CP) and infrared photography. Timelines of the L*a*b* colour space were determined from both colour and CP images for up to 3 weeks. Overall, no single photographic technique out-performed the others, however CP did provide greater contrast than colour photography. L*a*b* colour space timelines were not attributable any physiological characteristics. Whilst impact force negatively correlated with BMI (R2 = 0.321), neither were associated with any measure of bruise appearance. Due to the inter-subject variability in the bruise response to a controlled infliction, none of the methods in the current study could be used to reliably predict the age of a bruise or the severity of force used in creating a bruise. A more comprehensive approach combining impact characteristics, tissue mechanics, enhanced localised physiological measures and improvements in quantifying bruise appearance is likely to be essential in removing subjectivity from their interpretation.


Assuntos
Contusões/patologia , Pele/patologia , Adulto , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Índice de Massa Corporal , Feminino , Medicina Legal/métodos , Humanos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Masculino , Fotografação/métodos , Pele/lesões , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
3.
J Insect Sci ; 19(5)2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31587065

RESUMO

The Asian cockroach, Blattella asahinai Mizukubo, has expanded its range throughout the southeastern United States since its introduction into Florida. Unlike its closest relative, the German cockroach, Blattella germanica (L.), B. asahinai lives outdoors and can fly. There is little information on the biology and development of B. asahinai, including the number of instars during nymphal development. To estimate the number of instars of B. asahinai, nymphs were photographed, sexed, and the lengths and widths of their pronota were measured digitally. The number of instars of B. asahinai was estimated using Gaussian mixture models with the pronotal data. The most probable model and its clusters were selected to assign individuals to an instar. Instars were also determined by counting the number of cercal annuli of nymphs. Both clustering and cercal annuli indicated that B. asahinai most frequently had six instars when reared at 30°C. Growth did not strictly follow the Brooks-Dyar Rule, because nymphs had different numbers of instars and different growth patterns. Although Gaussian mixture models are not efficient for field sampling experiments, digital measurements may provide a way to estimate instars with live specimens in development studies without handling the animals in a way that may alter growth.


Assuntos
Blattellidae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Blattellidae/anatomia & histologia , Feminino , Masculino , Ninfa/anatomia & histologia , Ninfa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fotografação/métodos
4.
Acta Neurol Scand ; 140(6): 449-451, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31518442

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The optic disc examination is critical for the diagnostics of several acute neurological disorders. However, dilation of the pupil is not recommended for neurological patients, which complicates ophthalmoscopy. AIMS OF THE STUDY: Present pilot study compared a portable fundus camera to an ophthalmoscope in fundus examinations of neurological emergency patients. To our knowledge, this is the first comparative study of the subject. The fundus photographs were later reviewed with an ophthalmologist. METHODS: The study included 60 adults, volunteer neurological emergency patients with either headache, cerebrovascular disorder, or acute confusional state (delirium). Patients' non-mydriatic fundus examination was conducted with an ophthalmoscope and a Smartscope Pro fundus camera. RESULTS: Fundus photography succeeded in 56 (93%), partially succeeded in 2 (3%), and failed in 2 (3%) cases compared with ophthalmoscopy that succeeded in 35 (58%), partially succeeded in 14 (23%), and failed in 11 (18%) cases (P < .0005). The researcher and the ophthalmologist agreed in the findings in 54 out of 58 cases (93%). In six cases (7%), the researcher had failed to detect a non-critical ophthalmic finding. CONCLUSIONS: The neurological fundus examination by fundus camera seems to be superior to regular ophthalmoscopy in defining the critical optic disc findings in emergency patients.


Assuntos
Fundo de Olho , Exame Neurológico/instrumentação , Oftalmoscópios , Disco Óptico/patologia , Adulto , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Exame Neurológico/métodos , Neurologia/instrumentação , Neurologia/métodos , Fotografação/métodos , Projetos Piloto
5.
J Forensic Leg Med ; 67: 49-60, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31431262

RESUMO

For forensic clinicians and pathologists, photography of bodily regions, injuries and skin lesions present a number of technical challenges including proper framing, avoidance of distortion, choice of background and inclusion of a properly orientated scale. Photography of internal organs at autopsy presents further difficulties with regard to correct exposure, light reflections and limited depth of field. Situations commonly arise in clinical forensic and autopsy practice which require photographic documentation but which may not warrant calling upon the clinical photographer or police Scenes of Crime Officer. This article provides a brief explanation of various technical considerations which will allow forensic practitioners and technicians to take their own high quality external and internal photographs. Technical aspects discussed include aperture, shutter speed, ISO, depth of field, camera shake, and use of flash, scales, focal planes and backgrounds. The possible pitfalls encountered in several common photographic situations are illustrated and discussed, together with suggested workarounds and camera settings. Whilst the photographic examples presented here mostly relate to autopsy practice, the general principles and technical discussion also apply to wider clinical forensic photography practice.


Assuntos
Fotografação/métodos , Autopsia , Medicina Legal , Humanos , Iluminação , Fotografação/instrumentação
6.
Forensic Sci Int ; 302: 109874, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31421438

RESUMO

Bloodstain evidence is an element of crime scene investigation often found at scenes involving violence. Setting fire to the scene is a method sometimes used by offenders of crime in an attempt to conceal evidence. Fire often produces thick soot as a by-product of the combustion and has the potential to cover bloodstain patterns rendering them latent. There is limited published material offering a method of detecting bloodstains hidden beneath dense soot deposits caused by fire. This project employed a modified digital single-lens reflex (SLR) camera to investigate the application of reflected infrared photography to detect latent bloodstain evidence beneath varying deposited overlaying soot densities. The potential of this technique was examined by photographing blood samples beneath soot from a scaled fire simulation. A qualitative evaluation was completed by comparing images taken of a series of samples using both reflected infrared and standard visible light photography and corroborated with quantitative image analysis to support the findings. Results indicate that infrared photography can reveal latent bloodstains beneath a dense layer of soot in excess of ρ2.3 (550nm) density with substantial clarity. The success of this technique is dependent on specific optical and specimen parameters. These parameters include (i) the reflective properties of the background surface, (ii) the spectral absorption properties of blood and (iii) the ability of infrared wavelengths to transmit through the soot layer. Reflected infrared photography may provide crime scene examiners with a specialised field recording method that is easily executed and non-destructive to assist in visualising and locating latent bloodstain patterns beneath dense layers of soot.


Assuntos
Manchas de Sangue , Raios Infravermelhos , Fotografação/métodos , Fogo , Ciências Forenses/métodos , Humanos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Modelos Estruturais , Software , Fuligem
7.
Ophthalmic Res ; 62(4): 190-195, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31454808

RESUMO

This article aims to provide a narrative history of the evolution, modification, and legacy of the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study classification system.


Assuntos
Retinopatia Diabética/classificação , Acuidade Visual , Humanos , Fotografação/métodos
8.
Sensors (Basel) ; 19(13)2019 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31284442

RESUMO

Macular edema (ME) is a retinal condition in which central vision of a patient is affected. ME leads to accumulation of fluid in the surrounding macular region resulting in a swollen macula. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) and the fundus photography are the two widely used retinal examination techniques that can effectively detect ME. Many researchers have utilized retinal fundus and OCT imaging for detecting ME. However, to the best of our knowledge, no work is found in the literature that fuses the findings from both retinal imaging modalities for the effective and more reliable diagnosis of ME. In this paper, we proposed an automated framework for the classification of ME and healthy eyes using retinal fundus and OCT scans. The proposed framework is based on deep ensemble learning where the input fundus and OCT scans are recognized through the deep convolutional neural network (CNN) and are processed accordingly. The processed scans are further passed to the second layer of the deep CNN model, which extracts the required feature descriptors from both images. The extracted descriptors are then concatenated together and are passed to the supervised hybrid classifier made through the ensemble of the artificial neural networks, support vector machines and naïve Bayes. The proposed framework has been trained on 73,791 retinal scans and is validated on 5100 scans of publicly available Zhang dataset and Rabbani dataset. The proposed framework achieved the accuracy of 94.33% for diagnosing ME and healthy subjects and achieved the mean dice coefficient of 0.9019 ± 0.04 for accurately extracting the retinal fluids, 0.7069 ± 0.11 for accurately extracting hard exudates and 0.8203 ± 0.03 for accurately extracting retinal blood vessels against the clinical markings.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Diagnóstico Oftalmológico , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Edema Macular/diagnóstico por imagem , Retina/diagnóstico por imagem , Teorema de Bayes , Bases de Dados Factuais , Aprendizado Profundo , Fundo de Olho , Humanos , Fotografação/métodos , Retina/patologia , Máquina de Vetores de Suporte , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica/métodos
9.
Clin Dermatol ; 37(3): 284-288, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31178111

RESUMO

A leading physician in New York during the last quarter of the 19th century, Henry G. Piffard, MD, was a pioneer dermatologist in New York. He had a propensity to invent, and he used that ability to advance the nascent field of instantaneous photography. The recent discovery of a few survivors of Piffard's patented "photogenic (flash) cartridges" prompted an examination of his connection to a leading photographic supply house of his time. The study provided insights into his system and revealed that Piffard had combined the use of his patent with his passion for skin diseases. As a result, Piffard's publications were among the first to document diseases of the skin photographically.


Assuntos
Dermatologia/história , Armas de Fogo/história , Fotografação/história , Fotografação/instrumentação , Dermatopatias/patologia , História do Século XIX , Humanos , Patentes como Assunto , Fotografação/métodos , Estados Unidos
10.
J Sci Food Agric ; 99(14): 6234-6240, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31250461

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The application of exogenous plant growth regulator, for example forchlorfenuron (CPPU), on kiwifruits has become an important factor that influences kiwifruit economic efficiency and the health development of the kiwifruit industry. Owing to the slight difference in calyx shape between the kiwifruits treated with CPPU (CPPU-treated kiwifruits) and the kiwifruits without CPPU treatment (CPPU-untreated kiwifruits), this study aims to provide a cheap, quick, convenient, and non-destructive method for identifying CPPU-treated kiwifruits based on the images of kiwifruits captured at visible lights. RESULTS: The identification method includes three steps. Firstly, the kiwifruit was extracted from the background by using Otsu algorithm, hole filling operation and 'bwareaopen' function. Secondly, the calyx was extracted by using corrosion, image enhancement, hole filling and closing operations. Finally, the length/width ratio of the minimum enclosing rectangle of calyx region was calculated. The kiwifruit was regarded as a CPPU-treated kiwifruit if the length/width ratio of the rectangle was higher than 1.6. Otherwise, the kiwifruit was regarded as a CPPU-untreated one. The method had the total identification accuracy rate of 90.0% when the kiwifruit images were captured either by utilizing a smartphone at normal lighting condition or by using an image acquisition system. CONCLUSION: The programs run on computer and smartphone were developed, and they could realize kiwifruit identification in 0.6 s and 2 s, respectively. The study makes identifying CPPU-treated kiwifruits in online processing be realizable, and offers a convenient method for kiwifruit consumers. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Actinidia/efeitos dos fármacos , Resíduos de Drogas/análise , Frutas/química , Fotografação/métodos , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta/análise , Polietilenoglicóis/análise , Poliuretanos/análise , Actinidia/química , Resíduos de Drogas/farmacologia , Frutas/efeitos dos fármacos , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta/farmacologia , Polietilenoglicóis/farmacologia , Poliuretanos/farmacologia , Smartphone
11.
J Grad Med Educ ; 11(3): 328-331, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31210866

RESUMO

Background: Improvements in personal technology have made video recording for teaching and assessment of surgical skills possible. Objective: This study compared 5 personal video-recording devices based on their utility (image quality, hardware, mounting options, and accessibility) in recording open surgical procedures. Methods: Open procedures in a simulated setting were recorded using smartphones and tablets (MOB), laptops (LAP), sports cameras such as GoPro (SC), single-lens reflex cameras (DSLR), and spy camera glasses (SPY). Utility was rated by consensus between 2 investigators trained in observation of technology using a 5-point Likert scale (1, poor, to 5, excellent). Results: A total of 150 hours of muted video were reviewed with a minimum 1 hour for each device. Image quality was good (3.8) across all devices, although this was influenced by the device-mounting requirements (4.2) and its proximity to the area of interest. Device hardware (battery life and storage capacity) was problematic for long procedures (3.8). Availability of devices was high (4.2). Conclusions: Personal video-recording technology can be used for assessment and teaching of open surgical skills. DSLR and SC provide the best images. DSLR provides the best zoom capability from an offset position, while SC can be placed closer to the operative field without impairing sterility. Laptops provide best overall utility for long procedures due to video file size. All devices require stable recording platforms (eg, bench space, dedicated mounting accessories). Head harnesses (SC, SPY) provide opportunities for "point-of-view" recordings. MOB and LAP can be used for multiple concurrent recordings.


Assuntos
Cirurgia Geral/instrumentação , Cirurgia Geral/métodos , Gravação em Vídeo/instrumentação , Competência Clínica/normas , Computadores de Mão , Educação Médica/métodos , Humanos , Fotografação/instrumentação , Fotografação/métodos , Smartphone , Estudantes de Medicina , Gravação em Vídeo/métodos
12.
PLoS One ; 14(5): e0215130, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31071120

RESUMO

Tear film breakup time (TFBUT) is an essential parameter used to diagnose dry eye disease (DED). However, a robust method for examining TFBUT in murine models has yet to be established. We invented an innovative device, namely, the "Smart Eye Camera", which addresses several problems associated with existing methods and is capable of evaluating TFBUT in a murine DED model. We compared images taken by existing devices and the Smart Eye Camera in a graft-versus-host disease-related DED murine model. We observed that the quality of the images obtained by the Smart Eye Camera were sufficient for practical use. Moreover, this new technique could be used to obtain measurements for several consecutive ocular phenotypes in a variety of environments. Here, we demonstrate the effectiveness of our new invention in the examination of ocular phenotypes, including TFBUT in a murine model. We highlight the potential for future translational studies adopting the Smart Eye Camera in clinical settings.


Assuntos
Síndromes do Olho Seco/diagnóstico , Fotografação/métodos , Lágrimas/química , Animais , Transplante de Medula Óssea/efeitos adversos , Córnea/patologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Síndromes do Olho Seco/etiologia , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/complicações , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Fenótipo , Impressão Tridimensional , Lágrimas/metabolismo
13.
PLoS One ; 14(5): e0216531, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31071143

RESUMO

Over the last two decades, camera traps have revolutionised the ability of biologists to undertake faunal surveys and estimate population densities, although identifying individuals of species with subtle markings remains challenging. We conducted a two-year camera-trapping study as part of a long-term study of urban foxes: our objectives were to determine whether red foxes could be identified individually from camera-trap photos, and highlight camera-trapping protocols and techniques to facilitate photo identification of species with few or subtle natural markings. We collected circa 800,000 camera-trap photos over 4945 camera days in suburban gardens in the city of Bristol, UK: 152,134 (19%) included foxes, of which 13,888 (9%) contained more than one fox. These provided 174,063 timestamped capture records of individual foxes; 170,923 were of foxes ≥ 3 months old. Younger foxes were excluded because they have few distinguishing features. We identified the individual (192 different foxes: 110 males, 49 females, 33 of unknown sex) in 168,417 (99%) of these capture records; the remainder could not be identified due to poor image quality or because key identifying feature(s) were not visible. We show that carefully designed survey techniques facilitate individual identification of subtly-marked species. Accuracy is enhanced by camera-trapping techniques that yield large numbers of high resolution, colour images from multiple angles taken under varying environmental conditions. While identifying foxes manually was labour-intensive, currently available automated identification systems are unlikely to achieve the same levels of accuracy, especially since different features were used to identify each fox, the features were often inconspicuous, and their appearance varied with environmental conditions. We discuss how studies based on low numbers of photos, or which fail to identify the individual in a significant proportion of photos, risk losing important biological information, and may come to erroneous conclusions.


Assuntos
Reconhecimento Facial , Raposas/fisiologia , Fotografação/métodos , Gravação em Vídeo , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Densidade Demográfica , Estações do Ano
14.
Ophthalmic Res ; 62(2): 61-67, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31067550

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Single-field non-mydriatic fundus photography (NMFP) has been used to detect diabetic retinopathy (DR) in many studies; however, its value in a general clinical setting has not been established. Here we performed a meta-analysis to evaluate its diagnostic effectiveness. METHOD: We systematically searched PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases for candidate studies published through May 19, 2018. A random-effect model was used to calculate the diagnostic indicators including the sensitivity, specificity, positive likelihood ratio (PLR), negative likelihood ratio (NLR), diagnostic odds ratio (DOR), area under the curve (AUC), and 95% confidence intervals. RESULTS: Ten prospective studies were ultimately included. The pooled sensitivity, specificity, PLR, NLR, and DOR were 0.68, 0.94, 11.2, 0.34 and 33, respectively. The AUC was 0.88. Subgroup analysis showed that single-field NMFP had a respective sensitivity and specificity of 0.73 and 0.91 when compared to standard 7-field mydriatic stereoscopic photography (7SF), and 0.54 and 0.98 when compared to slit-lamp biomicroscopy as reference standard. CONCLUSIONS: Single-field NMFP is inadequate to detect DR. Additionally, it showed higher sensitivity and lower specificity when 7SF was used as reference standard, as compared to slit-lamp biomicroscopy, suggesting that different reference standards used in DR screening might have affected the diagnostic results.


Assuntos
Retinopatia Diabética/diagnóstico por imagem , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Oftalmológico , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Fotografação/métodos , Área Sob a Curva , Humanos , Razão de Chances , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
15.
Ophthalmol Retina ; 3(5): 400-409, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31044730

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV) is a variant of neovascular age-related macular degeneration with distinct phenotypes, treatment, and visual prognosis. Multicolor imaging is a novel noninvasive imaging method that enables visualization of structures located at different layers of the retina and may be useful in detecting features of diseases. The features of PCV seen on multicolor imaging have not been studied. We aimed to describe the features of PCV detected using multicolor imaging and to compare these with standard color fundus photography (CFP). DESIGN: Hospital-based, cross-sectional study. PARTICIPANTS: Fifty consecutive treatment-naive patients diagnosed with PCV seen in a tertiary referral center. METHODS: Multimodal imaging was performed using standardized protocols, and included CFP, multicolor imaging, fluorescein angiography, and indocyanine green angiography (ICGA). The CFP and ICGA images were independently graded by reading center-certified retinal specialists to confirm the diagnosis of PCV and identify lesion components. The features of the lesion components seen on multicolor images were compared with those detected using CFP and ICGA. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Frequency and features of lesions associated with PCV, specifically, polyps, branching vascular network (BVN), pigment epithelial detachments (PEDs), hemorrhages, and drusen. RESULTS: The mean age of the 50 participants was 67.9 years, and 60% were male. Polyps were most clearly seen on the infrared reflectance image and detected in 49 of 50 eyes (98%), appearing as dark gray oval lesions with distinct margins. On the multicolor composite images, polyps appeared as dark green oval lesions. The BVN appeared as mottled gray regions on infrared reflectance imaging and were seen less frequently compared with polyps (30/50 eyes, 60%). The margins of the BVN were less distinct compared with polyps. Other clinical features detected using multicolor imaging included PEDs (26%), subretinal hemorrhages (40%), and drusen (66%). CONCLUSIONS: Multicolor imaging is able to detect polypoidal lesions in most patients with PCV. The appearance of PCV lesions on multicolor imaging differs from standard CFP, although the location and shape of lesions correlate well with features seen on CFP and ICGA. Multicolor imaging is a useful, noninvasive adjunct to detect features suggestive of PCV, which may prompt definitive investigations such as ICGA.


Assuntos
Neovascularização de Coroide/patologia , Oftalmoscopia/métodos , Idoso , Neovascularização de Coroide/diagnóstico por imagem , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Angiofluoresceinografia/métodos , Fundo de Olho , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Imagem Multimodal , Fotografação/métodos , Estudos Prospectivos
16.
Acta Psychol (Amst) ; 197: 23-31, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31077995

RESUMO

Aerial photographs depict objects from an overhead position, which gives them several unusual visual characteristics that are challenging for viewers to perceive and memorize. However, even for untrained viewers, aerial photographs are still meaningful and rich with contextual information. Such visual stimulus properties are considered appropriate and important when testing for expertise effects in visual recognition memory. The current experiment investigated memory recognition in expert image analysts and untrained viewers using two types of aerial photographs. The experts were better than untrained viewers at recognizing both vertical aerial photographs, which is the domain of their expertise, and oblique aerial photographs. Thus, one notable finding is that the superior memory performance of experts is not limited to a domain of expertise but extends to a broader category of large-scale landscape scenes. Furthermore, the experts' recognition accuracy remained relatively stable throughout the experimental conditions, illustrating the ability to use semantic information over strictly visual information in memory processes.


Assuntos
Memória/fisiologia , Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos/fisiologia , Estimulação Luminosa/métodos , Fotografação/métodos , Competência Profissional , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
17.
World Neurosurg ; 128: 259-267, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31078804

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To present an adaptation of the anaglyph photography technique to be used with radiological images from computed tomography angiograms, enabling stereoscopic visualization of a patient's individual abnormal vascular anatomy for teaching, case discussion, or surgical planning purposes. METHODS: Traditional anaglyph procedures with actual objects yield 2 independent photographs, simulating the image perceived by each eye. Production of anaglyphs from angiograms involve 3 basic procedures: volume rendering, image capture, and image fusion. Volume renderings were reconstructed using a free, open-source DICOM (Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine) reader. Subsequently, the virtual object was positioned to mimic the operator's angle of view, and different perspectives of the reconstructed volume could be obtained through exclusively horizontal rotation. The 2 images were then fused after their color composition was modified so that each eye would perceive only 1 image when using anaglyph glasses. RESULTS: Forty-three angiograms were reviewed for the purpose of this study and a total of 6 examinations were selected for illustration of the technique. Stereoscopic display was possible for all of them and in the 3 types of support tested: computer monitor, tablet, and smartphone screens. CONCLUSIONS: Anaglyph display of computed tomography angiograms is an effective and low-cost alternative for the stereoscopic visualization of a patient's individual intracranial vascular anatomy.


Assuntos
Angiografia Cerebral , Angiografia por Tomografia Computadorizada , Imagem Tridimensional/métodos , Fotografação/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
18.
Neural Netw ; 116: 150-165, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31063925

RESUMO

This article presents a steganographic method StegoNN based on neural networks. The method is able to identify a photomontage from presented signed images. Unlike other academic approaches using neural networks primarily as classifiers, the StegoNN method uses the characteristics of neural networks to create suitable attributes which are then necessary for subsequent detection of modified photographs. This also results in a fact that if an image is signed by this technique, the detection of modifications does not need any external data (database of non-modified originals) and the quality of the signature in various parts of the image also serves to identify modified (corrupted) parts of the image. The experimental study was performed on photographs from CoMoFoD Database and its results were compared with other approaches using this database based on standard metrics. The performed study showed the ability of the StegoNN method to detect corrupted parts of an image and to mark places which have been most probably image-manipulated. The usage of this method is suitable for reportage photography, but in general, for all cases where verification (provability) of authenticity and veracity of the presented image are required.


Assuntos
Reconhecimento Automatizado de Padrão/métodos , Fotografação/métodos , Bases de Dados Factuais/normas , Humanos , Reconhecimento Automatizado de Padrão/normas , Fotografação/normas , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
19.
Ophthalmic Res ; 62(4): 218-224, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31132764

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The aim of this article was to describe recent advances in the use of new technology in diabetic retinopathy screening by looking at studies that assessed the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of these technologies. METHODS: The author conducts an ongoing search for articles relating to screening or management of diabetic retinopathy utilising Zetoc with keywords and contents page lists from relevant journals. RESULTS: The areas discussed in this article are reference standards, alternatives to digital photography, area of retina covered by the screening method, size of the device and hand-held cameras, mydriasis versus non-mydriasis or a combination, measurement of distance visual acuity, grading of images, use of automated grading analysis and cost-effectiveness of the new technologies. CONCLUSIONS: There have been many recent advances in technology that may be adopted in the future by screening programmes for sight-threatening diabetic retinopathy but each device will need to demonstrate effectiveness and cost-effectiveness before more widespread adoption.


Assuntos
Retinopatia Diabética/diagnóstico , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Retina/diagnóstico por imagem , Retinopatia Diabética/epidemiologia , Saúde Global , Humanos , Incidência , Fotografação/métodos , Acuidade Visual
20.
Klin Monbl Augenheilkd ; 236(4): 391-397, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30999325

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It was the aim of this study to analyse the refractive outcome of toric intraocular lens (t-IOL) implantation guided by a newly developed method of photographic alignment. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Fourteen eyes of 10 patients (6 females, 4 males, age 63.4 ± 6.7 (40.6 - 68.0) years [mean ± 1 SD (range)]) were included in this retrospective study. All eyes received an Oculentis Tplus LS-313 (Oculentis, Berlin, Germany) t-IOL after standard phacoemusification (n = 4) or femtocataract laser-assisted surgery (n = 10). Image-guided t-IOL alignment included: (1) calculation of t-IOL parameters (combination of different biometric methods) and plotting a layout drawing of the target lens position, (2) capture of an anterior segment slit lamp photograph in the upright position, (3)  superposition of the photographs by the t-IOL target plot and a gradual scale, (4) drawing of marker lines on the photograph and removal of the IOL target coordinates, (5) transfer of the final image to a tablet PC, and (6) marking of the target axis at the corneal limbus with an ink pen in the surgical room. RESULTS: Preoperative corneal astigmatism was 2.50 ± 0.97 (1.38 - 4.34) diopters (D) (mean ± 1 SD, range). In all eyes, intraoperative alignment could easily be performed using the photographic target layout. Surgical interventions and postoperative follow-up were without complications in all cases. Residual postoperative astigmatism was 0.16 ± 0.24 (0.00 - 0.75) D (p < 0.001 compared to preoperative astigmatism). In 64% of patients, residual subjective astigmatism was zero, in 93% ≤ 0.5 D, and in 100% ≤ 0.75 D. Postoperative uncorrected logMAR visual acuity (0.05 ± 0.07, range 0.00 - 0.20) and best-corrected visual acuity (0.03 ± 0.05, 0.00 - 0.10) were significantly better (each p < 0.001) than best-corrected preoperative visual acuity (0.21 ± 0.14, 0.00 - 0.49). CONCLUSIONS: Results of this clinical series clearly indicate that the newly developed photographically guided technique of toric lens alignment leads to highly accurate postoperative results for astigmatic correction.


Assuntos
Astigmatismo , Implante de Lente Intraocular , Lentes Intraoculares , Facoemulsificação , Fotografação , Feminino , Alemanha , Humanos , Masculino , Fotografação/métodos , Estudos Prospectivos , Refração Ocular , Estudos Retrospectivos
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