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1.
Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop ; 158(2): 286-299, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32746977

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Although stereophotogrammetry is increasingly popular for 3-dimensional face scanning, commercial solutions remain quite expensive, limiting its accessibility. We propose a more affordable, custom-built photogrammetry setup (Stereo-Face 3D, SF3D) and evaluate its variability within and between systems. METHODS: Twenty-nine subjects and a mannequin head were imaged 3 times using SF3D and a commercially available system. An anthropometric mask was mapped viscoelastically onto the reconstructed meshes using MeshMonk (https://github.com/TheWebMonks/meshmonk). Within systems, shape variability was determined by calculating the root-mean-square error (RMSE) of the Procrustes distance between each of the subject's 3 scans and the subject's ground truth (calculated by averaging the mappings after a nonscaled generalized Procrustes superimposition). Intersystem variability was determined by similarly comparing the ground truth mappings of both systems. Two-factor Procrustes analysis of variance was used to partition the intersystem shape variability to understand the source of the discrepancies between the facial shapes acquired by both systems. RESULTS: The RMSEs of the within-system shape variability for 3dMDFace and SF3D were 0.52 ± 0.07 mm and 0.44 ± 0.16 mm, respectively. The corresponding values for the mannequin head were 0.42 ± 0.02 mm and 0.29 ± 0.03 mm, respectively. The between-systems RMSE was 1.6 ± 0.34 mm for the study group and 1.38 mm for the mannequin head. A 2-factor analysis indicated that variability attributable to the system was expressed mainly at the upper eyelids, nasal tip and alae, and chin areas. CONCLUSIONS: The variability values of the custom-built setup presented here were competitive to a state-of-the-art commercial system at a more affordable level of investment.


Assuntos
Fotogrametria , Implantes Dentários , Face , Imageamento Tridimensional
2.
J Craniomaxillofac Surg ; 48(8): 792-799, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32711960

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Hump nose in Asians should be managed differently in consideration of the lateral profile and the balance between the dorsal height and nasal tip projection. We suggest an alternative approach comprising mild rasping and nasal tip projection using a septal extension graft. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In this retrospective study, patients who underwent hump nose correction with rhinoplasty between March 2012 and July 2015 were recruited. Instead of applying conventional dorsal augmentation after humpectomy, our approach involved only smooth dorsal contouring in limited cases. 15 patients were evaluated, with surgical outcomes demonstrated using three-dimensional photogrammetry. RESULTS: Over the postoperative period, hump height decreased (pre 2.77 ± 2.07, post 0.31 ± 0.55, p = 0.001). Regarding the efficacy of tip projection, both nasal tip protrusion (pre 17.64 ± 4.82, post 20.46 ± 4.05, p = 0.001) and tip projection (pre 19.75 ± 4.26, post 21.83 ± 4.17, p = 0.023) were increased. The hump nose reduction ratio was 84.94% after 6 months and 76.47% after 1 year, whereas increases in nasal tip projection and dorsal augmentation were minimal, with ratios of 14.75% and 12.76%, respectively, after 6 months). CONCLUSION: Therefore, creating a balance between the nasal tip and nasal dorsum in hump nose correction is more important than dorsal augmentation after hump resection in Asians.


Assuntos
Rinoplastia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Humanos , Septo Nasal/cirurgia , Nariz/cirurgia , Fotogrametria , Estudos Retrospectivos
3.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1262: 1-18, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32613577

RESUMO

Digitisation has become a common practice in the preservation of museum collections. Recent development of photogrammetry techniques allows for more accessible acquisition of three-dimensional (3D) models that serve as accurate representations of their originals. One of the potential applications of this is presenting digital collections as virtual museums to engage the public. Medical museums, particularly, would benefit from digitisation of their collections as many of them are closed to the public.The aim of this project was to design and create an interactive virtual museum which would represent the Anatomy Museum at the University of Glasgow with key specimens digitised using photogrammetry techniques. Members of the general public (25 participants) were asked to evaluate the usability and effectiveness of the interactive application by completing questionnaires.A process to digitise anatomical specimens using photogrammetry and convert them into game-ready 3D models was developed. The results demonstrated successful generation of 3D models of specimens preserved using different techniques, including specimens preserved in fluid and glass jars. User tests and evaluation of the application by members of the general public were positive, with participants agreeing that they would now consider visiting the real museum after using the virtual version.


Assuntos
Anatomia , Museus , Fotogrametria , Realidade Virtual , Anatomia/métodos , Anatomia/tendências , Humanos , Museus/tendências , Inquéritos e Questionários
4.
Facial Plast Surg ; 36(3): 255-262, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32512604

RESUMO

In lip reconstructive surgery, knowledge of orolabial dimensions and position according to ethnicity, age, and gender are important to obtain satisfactory results. Unfortunately, there is a dearth of information related to these values in South Indians. The objective of the present study was to quantify the orolabial dimensions and position in South Indians. Evaluation of orolabial features was performed on standardized frontal and lateral of 400 South Indian subjects (200 males and 200 females), aged 18 to 30 years. The measured parameters were evaluated by an independent t-test. Significant sexual dimorphism was found in 12 of 13 measurements. Except upper lip reference to E plane, all other linear measurements such as mouth width, philtrum width, lower lip reference to E plane, upper lip height, cutaneous upper lip, upper and lower vermilion height, cutaneous lower lip height, lower lip height, and labiotragial distance were significantly greater in males than females. Angular measurements, interlabial angle, and labiomental angle were significantly greater in females. Clinically significant sexual dimorphism existed for mouth width, labiotragial distance, interlabial angle, and labiomental angle (mean difference > 3 mm). Out of the four orolabial indices, only intercanthal/mouth width indices showed a significant sexual difference. In both sexes, the triangular shape of philtral column was most common. Comparative analysis between South Indians and North American whites revealed significant differences in all measurements and some resemblance to the Han Chinese. The knowledge of the obtained mean values might be useful in the maintenance of the functional and aesthetic quality of this region during surgical planning.


Assuntos
Fotogrametria , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Reconstrutivos , Adolescente , Adulto , Cefalometria , Face , Feminino , Humanos , Lábio/anatomia & histologia , Masculino , Caracteres Sexuais , Adulto Jovem
5.
Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop ; 157(6): 773-782, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32487307

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Patients seeking orthodontic treatment often have esthetic concerns (ie, they want a better smile). Patients with increased vertical facial dimensions have different smile traits than other patients. This study aimed to compare the smile characteristics of subjects with different vertical facial dimensions and to use stereophotogrammetry to evaluate the changes in facial animation upon smiling. METHODS: One hundred twenty adolescents and young adults (aged 15-25 years) who were referred for orthodontic treatment were divided into 2 groups according to their vertical facial height: increased (n = 30) and normal (n = 30). Three-dimensional stereophotogrammetric images were obtained from the patients during rest and smile. The images were superimposed, and the displacements of specific landmarks were recorded. Linear, angular, and proportional measurements were recorded on the smile and rest images. RESULTS: When smiling, horizontal movement of commissures was less (right, P = 0.038; left, P = 0.009), upper lip elevation was higher (P = 0.014), and the upper lip was shorter (P = 0.014) in the vertical group than in the normal group. In the vertical group, the interlabial gap was increased both at rest and when smiling (P <0.001). Statistically significant differences were found in smile index (P = 0.001), nasolabial fold displacement (P = 0.018), and lip angles (both P = 0.001) between groups. CONCLUSIONS: Group and sex differences were observed when smiling. Careful consideration of these differences will help clinicians in proper diagnosis and treatment planning.


Assuntos
Estética Dentária , Sorriso , Adolescente , Adulto , Face , Feminino , Humanos , Lábio , Masculino , Fotogrametria , Dimensão Vertical , Adulto Jovem
6.
J Oral Rehabil ; 47(9): 1095-1102, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32535931

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Residual ridge resorption impairs patients' satisfaction with complete denture (CD) treatment, but influence of bone resorption on the aesthetic rehabilitation of edentulous patients still remains unclear due to insufficient quantitative investigations. OBJECTIVES: To quantitatively evaluate the effects of residual ridge resorption on facial aesthetic reconstruction in elderly edentulous patients. METHODS: According to radiological examination, a total of 19 edentulous subjects were categorised into two groups, atrophic patients (APs) and non-atrophic patients (NAPs). Before CD treatment and 3 months after treatment, patients were asked to complete the Orofacial Esthetic Scale (OES). The changes in facial appearance were measured by 3D stereophotogrammetry, and the facial parameters of two groups were compared. RESULTS: The patient's subjective satisfaction of oro-facial aesthetics and 3D objective assessment of facial appearance improved after CD treatment. Subnasale-gnathion (Sn-Gn) significantly increased from 60.13 ± 3.91 mm to 62.27 ± 3.82 mm. After rehabilitation, glabella-subnasale (G-Sn)/Sn-Gn, nasolabial (Cm-Sn-Ls) and mentolabial (Li-Sm-Pg) significantly decreased and were closer to normal values. Moreover, the subtraction value between G-Sn/Sn-Gn and normal value before treatment of APs and NAPs was 14.47 ± 8.04% and 6.94 ± 3.69%, respectively (P = .026), while after treatment, the values decreased to 10.61 ± 6.33% and 3.86 ± 2.31% (P = .013), respectively. CONCLUSION: The increased volume of lips and cheeks played an important role in the facial aesthetic reconstruction of edentulous patients. NAPs tended to have more attractive faces after CD treatment, as their facial profile parameters (G-Sn/Sn-Gn and Cm-Sn-Ls) were closer to normal Chinese with well-balanced faces.


Assuntos
Boca Edêntula , Dente , Idoso , Prótese Total , Estética Dentária , Humanos , Fotogrametria
7.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0235169, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32579596

RESUMO

A country's cultural landscapes are an important part of its heritage. The growing need to identify, catalogue and preserve these resources has led to a rapid change in the management and inventorying of heritage in general and of cultural landscapes in particular. The main aim of this work is to develop and apply an updated and integrated methodology for capturing and processing geo-information for the digital documentation of cultural heritage. The proposed case study is the atomic garden in the Finca El Encín (Madrid), a singular space with unique biogeographical features created over 60 years ago. The results of the case study validate the method, consisting of an unmanned aerial platform equipped with sensors to obtain point clouds and aerial images in conjunction with point clouds and images captured with a terrestrial laser scanner.


Assuntos
Antropologia Cultural/métodos , Jardinagem/métodos , Jardins , Imageamento Tridimensional/métodos , Fotogrametria/métodos , Geografia , Humanos , Imageamento Tridimensional/instrumentação , Fotogrametria/instrumentação , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Espanha
8.
Fa Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 36(2): 204-209, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês, Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32530168

RESUMO

Abstract: Objective To assess the accuracy and reliability of the two 3D measuring methods, structured-light scanning and single-camera photogrammetry in forensic body surface damage and scar measurement. Methods The measuring results of 86 injuries by the ruler method, structured-light scanning and single-camera photogrammetry were compared and evaluated. The area measuring results of 13 simulated scars by the structured-light scanning, single-camera photogrammetry, Photoshop lasso pixel method and PDF reading software were compared and evaluated. The time consumed was recorded. The known specification information of the stickers was used as the standard value to compare the measuring accuracy of the ruler method, structural-light scanning and single-camera photogrammetry, and to calculate the root mean square error (RMSE). The consistency evaluation of intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) for the repeatability of 3 measuring results obtained by different operators and the same operator. Results The differences in results of the two 3D measuring methods and the ruler method had no statistical significance; the differences between measuring results made by the structured-light scanning, single-camera photogrammetry and PDF reading software and that of the Photoshop lasso pixel method had no statistical significance. The post-processing of the single-camera photogrammetry consumed more time than that of other methods. When the long-distance group (10-40 cm) was measured, the results obtained by the ruler method were shorter than the standard value. The RMSE value results were structured-light scanning < single-camera photogrammetry < ruler method. The ICC value intragroup and intergroup were greater than 0.99. Conclusion Both structured-light scanning and single-camera photogrammetry can be applied in recording and measuring forensic body surface damage. The former has better performance in measurement accuracy and stability, while the latter has better color performance but longer post-processing time.


Assuntos
Cicatriz , Imageamento Tridimensional , Humanos , Fotogrametria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Software
9.
Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop ; 157(5): 619-630, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32354435

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: This study aimed to examine the role of dentofacial morphology in discriminating semi-isolated indigenous groups. These populations present a similar pattern of dietary habits. Studies in human genetics have reported a large intertribal genetic distance and low intratribal variation. METHODS: This study was conducted following the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology guidelines. Face dimensions were measured through facial photogrammetry, and dental arches and tooth size were evaluated using plaster models. A total of 98 subjects in the permanent dentition and belonging to 4 indigenous groups were analyzed: Arara-Iriri (n = 20), Arara-Laranjal (n = 33), Assurini (n = 25), and Xicrin-Kayapó (n = 20). The random and systematic errors were verified using the Dahlberg formula and the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), respectively. In order to evaluate the discrimination of the variables to identify the indigenous groups, a discriminant analysis was performed (P <0.05). RESULTS: A small causal error (Dahlberg, 0.13-1.81) and excellent replicability (ICC, 0.75-0.99) for face dimensions as well as for models (Dahlberg, 0.10-0.68; ICC, 0.94-0.99) were observed. The discriminant analysis allowed the identification of 4 populations by facial and dental arch dimensions and tooth size. Dentofacial biometry revealed an accuracy of 98% for females and 100% for males, which confirms a high intragroup homogeneity and considerable intergroup heterogeneity for dentofacial features. CONCLUSIONS: Biometric measurements of the human face added with tooth size and dental arch dimensions are very useful to identify remote indigenous populations with high accuracy. Supported by previous studies in human genetics, these findings reinforce the role of genetic variation in the determination of dentofacial features.


Assuntos
Biometria , Grupos Populacionais , Arco Dental/anatomia & histologia , Face/anatomia & histologia , Feminino , Humanos , Índios Sul-Americanos , Masculino , Fotogrametria
10.
Plast Reconstr Surg ; 145(5): 1223-1236, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32332542

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Primary rhinoplasty has not been universally adopted because the potential for nasal growth impairment remains an unsolved issue in cleft care. This study's purpose was to assess the long-term effects of primary rhinoplasty performed by a single surgeon in a cohort of patients with a unilateral cleft lip nose deformity. METHODS: Three-dimensional nasal morphometric measurements (linear, angular, proportional, surface area, and volume) were collected from consecutive patients (cleft group, n = 52; mean age, 19 ± 1 year) who had undergone primary rhinoplasty with the use of the Noordhoff approach between 1995 and 2002 and reached skeletal maturity. Normal age-, sex-, and ethnicity-matched subjects (control group, n = 52) were identified for comparative analyses. RESULTS: No significant differences (all p > 0.05) were observed for most measures, including nasal height, alar width, nasal dorsum angle, columellar angle, columellar-labial angle, nasal tip/height ratio, nasal index, alar width/intercanthal distance ratio, nasal surface area, and nasal volume. The cleft group displayed significantly (all p < 0.05) lower nasal bridge length and nasal tip projection, and greater nasal protrusion, tip/midline deviation, nasal tip angle, nasal tip protrusion width index, and alar width/mouth ratio values than the control group. CONCLUSIONS: Primary rhinoplasty does not interfere with nasal growth as measured by three-dimensional photogrammetric analysis. Further imaging studies are required for the assessment of development in other anatomical nasal structures. CLINICAL QUESTION/LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Therapeutic, IV.


Assuntos
Fenda Labial/cirurgia , Imageamento Tridimensional , Nariz/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fotogrametria , Rinoplastia/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Seguimentos , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Masculino , Nariz/anormalidades , Nariz/diagnóstico por imagem , Nariz/cirurgia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Rinoplastia/métodos , Software , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
11.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0232193, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32348334

RESUMO

Insect wings are highly evolved structures with aerodynamic and structural properties that are not fully understood or systematically modeled. Most species in the insect order Odonata have permanently deployed high aspect ratio wings. Odonata have been documented to exhibit extraordinary flight performance and a wide range of interesting flight behaviors that rely on agility and efficiency. The characteristic three-dimensional corrugated structures of these wings have been observed and modeled for a small number of species, with studies showing that corrugations can provide significant aerodynamic and structural advantages. Comprehensive museum collections are the most practical source of Odonata wing, despite the risk of adverse effects caused by dehydration and preservation of specimens. Museum specimens are not to be handled or damaged and are best left undisturbed in their display enclosures. We have undertaken a systematic process of scanning, modeling, and post-processing the wings of over 80 Odonata species using a novel and accurate method and apparatus we developed for this purpose. The method allows the samples to stay inside their glass cases if necessary and is non-destructive. The measurements taken have been validated against micro-computed tomography scanning and against similar-sized objects with measured dimensions. The resulting publicly available dataset will allow aeronautical analysis of Odonata aerodynamics and structures, the study of the evolution of functional structures, and research into insect ecology. The technique is useable for other orders of insects and other fragile samples.


Assuntos
Odonatos/anatomia & histologia , Asas de Animais/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Bases de Dados Factuais , Voo Animal/fisiologia , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Imageamento Tridimensional/instrumentação , Imageamento Tridimensional/métodos , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Modelos Anatômicos , Museus , Odonatos/classificação , Odonatos/fisiologia , Fotogrametria/instrumentação , Austrália do Sul , Asas de Animais/fisiologia , Asas de Animais/ultraestrutura , Microtomografia por Raio-X
12.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0230948, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32240219

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ultra close-range digital photogrammetry (UCR-DP) is emerging as a robust technique for 3D model generation and represents a convenient and low-cost solution for rapid data acquisition in virtual anthropology. OBJECTIVES: This systematic review aims to analyse applications, technical implementation, and performance of UCR-DP in skeletal anthropology. METHODS: The PRISMA guidelines were applied to the study. The bibliographic search was performed on March 1st, 2019 using Scopus and MEDLINE databases to retrieve peer-reviewed studies accessible in English full-text. The authors worked independently to select the articles meeting inclusion criteria, upon discussion. Studies underwent to quantitative and qualitative syntheses. RESULTS: Twenty-six studies were selected. The majority appeared in 2016 or after and were focused on methodological aspects; the applications mainly dealt with the documentation of skeletal findings and the identification or comparison of anatomical features and trauma. Most authors used commercial software packages, and an offline approach. Research is still quite heterogeneous concerning methods, terminology and quality of results, and proper validation is still lacking. CONCLUSIONS: UCR-DP has great potential in skeletal anthropology, with many significant advantages: versatility in terms of application range and technical implementation, scalability, and photorealistic restitution. Validation of the technique, and the application of the cloud-based approach, with its reduced requirements relating to hardware, labour, time, and cost, could further facilitate the sharing of large collections for research and communication purposes.


Assuntos
Antropologia/métodos , Osso e Ossos/diagnóstico por imagem , Fotogrametria/métodos , Coleta de Dados/métodos , Bases de Dados Factuais , Humanos , MEDLINE
13.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(2): 348-355, abr. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056446

RESUMO

SUMMARY: Photogrammetry is becoming increasingly popular in morphological research and teaching due to its portability, ability to reliably render 3D models, and quality-to-price relationship relative to some popular surface scanners. Compared to surface scanners, however, the learning process in photogrammetry can be very time consuming. Here we describe common mistakes of photo capture in close-range photogrammetry that greatly affect 3D output and tips to improve them. Problems were identified after the 3D model construction of 780 hand bones of chimpanzees and gorillas from museum collections. Their hands are composed of 27 bones which vary in length and complexity. We show how lighting, object position and orientation, camera angle, and background affect the 3D output. By taking these factors into account, time and error rates for beginners can be greatly reduced and 3D model quality can be considerably improved.


RESUMEN: La fotogrametría está siendo cada vez más popular en la investigación y enseñanza morfológica. Esto debido a su portabilidad, confiabilidad de los modelos 3D y buena relación calidadprecio. Comparada con los escáneres de superficie, sin embargo, el proceso de aprendizaje de la fotogrametría puede llevar mucho tiempo. Aquí se describen errores comunes en la toma de fotos para fotogrametería que afectan de manera importante la creación de los modelos 3D, así como consejos para superarlos. Los problemas descritos fueron identificados luego de la construcción de 780 modelos 3D de huesos de la mano de chimpancés y gorillas depositados en distintas colecciones de museos. Las manos de estas especies están compuestas por 27 huesos que varían en tamaño y complejidad. En este artículo mostramos como la luz, la posición y orientación del objeto, el ángulo de la cámara y el fondo de la imagen afectan el resultado en 3D. Considerando estos factores, personas que están aprendiendo esta técnica pueden reducir de manera importante el tiempo y la probabilidad de error, y mejorar considerablemente la calidad de los modelos 3D.


Assuntos
Animais , Osso e Ossos/diagnóstico por imagem , Fotogrametria/métodos , Mãos/diagnóstico por imagem , Osso e Ossos/anatomia & histologia , Pan troglodytes , Imageamento Tridimensional , Gorilla gorilla , Mãos/anatomia & histologia
14.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0230082, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32155218

RESUMO

Annual trunk increments are essential for short-term analyses of the response of trees to various factors. For instance, based on annual trunk increments, it is possible to develop and calibrate forest growth models. We investigated the possibility of estimating annual trunk increments from the terrestrial structure from motion (SfM) photogrammetry. Obtaining the annual trunk increments of mature trees is challenging due to the relatively small growth of trunks within one year. In our experiment, annual trunk increments were obtained by two conventional methods: measuring tape (perimeter increment) at heights of 0.8, 1.3, and 1.8 m on the trunk and increment borer (diameter increment) at a height of 1.3 m on the trunk. The following tree species were investigated: Fagus sylvatica L. (beech), Quercus petraea (Matt.) Liebl. (oak), Picea abies (L.) H. Karst (spruce), and Abies alba Mill (fir). The annual trunk increments ranged from 0.9 cm to 2.4 cm (tape/perimeter) and from 0.7 mm to 3.1 mm (borer/diameter). The data were collected before- and after-vegetation season, besides the data collection increment borer. When the estimated perimeters from the terrestrial SfM photogrammetry were compared to those obtained using the measuring tape, the root mean square error (RMSE) was 0.25-1.33 cm. The relative RMSE did not exceed 1% for all tree species. No statistically significant differences were found between the annual trunk increments obtained using the measuring tape and terrestrial SfM photogrammetry for beech, spruce, and fir. Only in the case of oak, the difference was statistically significant. Furthermore, the correlation coefficient between the annual trunk increments collected using the increment borer and those derived from terrestrial SfM photogrammetry was positive and equal to 0.6501. Terrestrial SfM photogrammetry is a hardware low-demanding technique that provides accurate three-dimensional data that can, based on our results, even detect small temporal tree trunk changes.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Fotogrametria , Árvores/crescimento & desenvolvimento
15.
World Neurosurg ; 137: e189-e193, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32001399

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acquisition of neurosurgical anatomy knowledge requires the progressive construction of a 3-dimensional (3D) mental image from the study of 2-dimensional pictures. Tridimensional neuroimaging modeling and 3D pictures and videos have facilitated a better understanding of intricate brain anatomy. One of the main limitations of these methods however is that the user is unable to freely change his or her own point of view of the observed structures. The objective of this paper was to develop a 3D reconstruction method to facilitate learning and teaching of neurosurgery. METHODS: We developed a 3D reconstruction method by using 3D photogrammetry to convert intraoperative images into a fully explorable 3D textured model. We also developed a mobile application to navigate the virtual scenario by using the gyroscopic technology of mobile devices to simulate the different movements of the surgical microscope. We named this process 3D virtual intraoperative reconstruction (VIR). RESULTS: We report the detailed methodology for picture acquisition, 3D reconstruction, and visualization with some surgical examples since the first applications in 2015. We also demonstrate how these navigable models can be used to buildup hybrid images derived by the fusion of 3D intraoperative scenarios with neuroimaging-derived 3D models. CONCLUSIONS: 3D VIR is a digital reconstruction method developed with the goal of facilitating the teaching and learning of neurosurgical anatomy by allowing the user to directly explore a surgical field and anatomic structures. The result is an interactive navigable 3D textured model for the analysis of the surgical approach and regional anatomy and for reconstruction of hybrid 3D scenarios.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Imageamento Tridimensional/métodos , Modelos Anatômicos , Neurocirurgia/educação , Fotogrametria/métodos , Craniotomia , Humanos , Período Intraoperatório , Neuroanatomia/educação , Interface Usuário-Computador
16.
Plast Reconstr Surg ; 145(3): 514e-523e, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32097302

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The three-dimensional surface imaging system is becoming more common in plastic surgeries. However, few studies have assessed three-dimensional periocular structures and surgical outcomes. This study aimed to propose a standardized three-dimensional anthropometric protocol for the periocular region, investigate its precision and accuracy, and determine the three-dimensional periocular anthropometric norms for young Caucasians. METHODS: Thirty-nine healthy young Caucasians (78 eyes) were enrolled. Three-dimensional facial images were obtained with a VECTRA M3 stereophotogrammetry device. Thirty-eight measurements in periocular regions were obtained from these images. Every subject underwent facial surface capture twice to evaluate its precision. A paper ruler was applied to assess its accuracy. RESULTS: Sixty-three percent of measurements in linear distances, curvatures, angles, and indices were found to reach a statistically significant difference between sexes (p ≤ 0.05, respectively). Across all measurements, the average mean absolute difference was 0.29 mm in linear dimensions, 0.56 mm in curvatures, 1.67 degrees in angles, and 0.02 in indices. In relative error of magnitude, 18 percent of the measurements were determined excellent, 51 percent very good, 31 percent good, and none moderate. The mean value of the paper-ruler scale was 10.01 ± 0.05 mm, the mean absolute difference value 0.02 mm, and the relative error of magnitude 0.17 percent. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study to propose a detailed and standardized three-dimensional anthropometric protocol for the periocular region and confirm its high precision and accuracy. The results provided novel metric data concerning young Caucasian periocular anthropometry and determined the variability between sexes.


Assuntos
Pontos de Referência Anatômicos/diagnóstico por imagem , Antropometria/métodos , Olho/diagnóstico por imagem , Imageamento Tridimensional/métodos , Fotogrametria/métodos , Adulto , Antropometria/instrumentação , Estética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Olho/anatomia & histologia , Feminino , Humanos , Imageamento Tridimensional/normas , Masculino , Fotogrametria/instrumentação , Fotogrametria/normas , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fatores Sexuais , Adulto Jovem
17.
J Craniofac Surg ; 31(3): e303-e306, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31977685

RESUMO

The characteristics of what is considered a beautiful face differ between Eastern and Western countries.The authors of this study analyzed beauty pageant contestants using a three-dimensional (3D) photogrammetric analysis tool. All of the 3D photographs were taken between October and November 2016 in Seoul, Korea. The participants were 43 Miss Korea contestants (Group I) and 22 Miss Paraguay contestants (Group II).In absolute length, those in Group I had longer upper and middle faces. In the proportions of volume and length, Group I had larger upper and middle faces than Group II. Widths of the lower face and entire face were also wider in Group I. The lower facial index was larger in Group I. Group I had longer noses and wider intercanthal distance, not only in absolute length but also in proportion to the face. Group II showed thicker lips, longer chins, and wider noses relative to the face. Group II had wide eyes, in the absolute measurement and in proportion to the face. Group I participants appeared to have an increased height of eyes and had wider angles in their faces as well as wider nasofrontal, labiomental, and nasomental angles.The authors objectively established reference data for faces that are considered attractive in the East and the West. The data are expected to contribute to the clinical practice of plastic surgeons.


Assuntos
Beleza , Face , Pesos e Medidas Corporais , Face/anatomia & histologia , Feminino , Humanos , Imageamento Tridimensional , Masculino , Doenças Nasais , Paraguai , Fotogrametria , República da Coreia
18.
Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg ; 49(4): 536-542, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31447219

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to assess surgically restored facial mobility using an optical 3D instrument. Eleven patients (age range 42-76 years) with unilateral facial palsy, treated by triple innervation procedure (masseteric and partial hypoglossal reinnervation, plus double cross-face facial grafting), performed five facial animations: rest position, smiling by contracting the healthy side, clenching the teeth, and pushing the tongue against the lower incisors and Mona Lisa smiling. These were recorded by stereophotogrammetry. Sixty healthy subjects were also recorded. The 3D reconstruction of each facial expression was registered onto the rest position scan, and the root mean square (RMS) point-to-point distance between the two 3D surfaces was calculated automatically for the facial thirds. RMS values on the rehabilitated hemiface were 74.8% (upper third), 46.6% (middle third), and 54.1% (lower third) of those recorded in healthy subjects. RMS values were higher in the middle and lower thirds than in the upper third, and during smile provided by masseteric stimulus (P<0.05). The rehabilitated hemiface differed more from healthy subject values than the healthy hemiface did (P<0.05). On average, patients were more asymmetric than healthy subjects (P=0.004). The proposed method is non-invasive and non-contact, and it can quantify localized facial movements after surgical procedures.


Assuntos
Paralisia Facial , Sorriso , Adulto , Idoso , Face , Expressão Facial , Nervo Facial , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fotogrametria
19.
Forensic Sci Int ; 306: 110059, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31780351

RESUMO

In traffic accidents, the differentiation of run-over and other injuries is crucial because questions about the origin of fatal injuries often arise. It is sometimes difficult for forensic pathologists to answer them due to the superimposition of injuries or competing, potentially fatal findings. Therefore, using morphometric three-dimensional (3D) reconstructions offers new perspectives based on an interdisciplinary evaluation of all findings and traces. The morphometric 3D reconstruction includes the allocation of patterned injuries or transferred material, the determination of the origin of injuries as well as the reconstruction of the incident. The generated 3D models of persons, clothes, vehicles, incident sites and relevant objects resulting from forensic imaging, photogrammetry, 3D structured-light and laser scanning are included, as are all detected traces and damages. Three case studies are presented to illustrate the possibilities and results of morphometric 3D reconstruction. Run-over accidents have received less attention than the topic of pedestrian, bicycle and motorbike accident analysis for which there is a large body of literature. Our goal is to add to the understanding of run-over accidents using morphometric reconstruction in order to improve their analysis in the future. The possibilities of morphometric reconstructions by means of 3D techniques in run-over accidents are wide-ranging and can provide new, unexpected and significant insights.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito , Simulação por Computador , Medicina Legal/métodos , Imageamento Tridimensional , Pedestres , Humanos , Lasers , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Fotogrametria , Software , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Ferimentos e Lesões/patologia
20.
Forensic Sci Int ; 306: 110092, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31816484

RESUMO

Metric assessment of human crania can provide forensic practitioners and anthropological researchers with information on an individual's sex and biogeographical ancestry. However, metric methods rely on the ability of users to remain consistent with themselves and others, with any error in the data rendering conclusions invalid. Digital anthropology is a growing sub-field where human remains are digitised using a growing range of methods and technologies. These models have the potential to boost research collaboration and public engagement. However, not all of these digitisation methods have been examined critically to explore the veracity of their use within a research environment. There has also been limited research into the application of digital anthropology to craniometric analysis. This study examined the intra- and inter- observer variation of seven participants taking physical measurements from a human cranial cast with an associated set of reference values. The same measurements were also taken from three digital models of the cranial cast which were created using digital photogrammetry and laser scanning. This data was then compared to the reference values and the physical measurements taken by the lead author. This study found that there was excellent statistical agreement between the reference values and the measurements taken from the cranial cast, both physical and digital. However, the participants still exhibited variation within a range of -18mm and +30mm from the reference values. MANOVA tests showed between-subject effects on nine measurements across the participant data, and 12 measurements between the digital models. However, there is little consistency between this study and the anthropological literature as to which measurements are most prone to between-subject effects. Despite the excellent agreement shown between the reference values and the digital models this study raises a number of methodological questions regarding inter-observer error and the varying levels of data processing present in different digitisation methods.


Assuntos
Cefalometria/métodos , Simulação por Computador , Imageamento Tridimensional , Crânio/anatomia & histologia , Crânio/diagnóstico por imagem , Antropologia Forense , Humanos , Lasers , Masculino , Variações Dependentes do Observador , Fotogrametria , Valores de Referência
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