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1.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 21449, 2021 11 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34728650

RESUMO

The World Health Organisation has called for a 40% increase in personal protective equipment manufacturing worldwide, recognising that frontline workers need effective protection during the COVID-19 pandemic. Current devices suffer from high fit-failure rates leaving significant proportions of users exposed to risk of viral infection. Driven by non-contact, portable, and widely available 3D scanning technologies, a workflow is presented whereby a user's face is rapidly categorised using relevant facial parameters. Device design is then directed down either a semi-customised or fully-customised route. Semi-customised designs use the extracted eye-to-chin distance to categorise users in to pre-determined size brackets established via a cohort of 200 participants encompassing 87.5% of the cohort. The user's nasal profile is approximated to a Gaussian curve to further refine the selection in to one of three subsets. Flexible silicone provides the facial interface accommodating minor mismatches between true nasal profile and the approximation, maintaining a good seal in this challenging region. Critically, users with outlying facial parameters are flagged for the fully-customised route whereby the silicone interface is mapped to 3D scan data. These two approaches allow for large scale manufacture of a limited number of design variations, currently nine through the semi-customised approach, whilst ensuring effective device fit. Furthermore, labour-intensive fully-customised designs are targeted as those users who will most greatly benefit. By encompassing both approaches, the presented workflow balances manufacturing scale-up feasibility with the diverse range of users to provide well-fitting devices as widely as possible. Novel flow visualisation on a model face is presented alongside qualitative fit-testing of prototype devices to support the workflow methodology.


Assuntos
Face/fisiologia , Equipamento de Proteção Individual , Fotogrametria/métodos , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , COVID-19/virologia , Desenho Assistido por Computador , Desenho de Equipamento , Face/anatomia & histologia , Humanos , Impressão Tridimensional , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação
2.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(21)2021 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34770298

RESUMO

Tufa barrages play an important role in fluviatile tufa ecosystems and sedimentary records. Quantifying the height of tufa barrage is significant for understanding the evolution and development of the Holocene tufa barrage systems. However, for submerged tufa barrages, there is no low-cost non-contact method to retrieve barrage height. Generally, it is difficult to recognize small tufa barrages by means of remotely sensed satellite data, but the combination of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) and Structure-from-Motion (SfM) photogrammetry makes it possible. In this study, we used a fixed-wing UAV and a consumer-grade camera to acquire images of the submerged tufa barrage in Lying Dragon Lake, Jiuzhaigou National Nature Reserve, China, and estimated the height of the tufa barrage through UAV-based photogrammetric bathymetry. On this foundation, the relationship between barrage height and its spectrum was established through band ratio analysis using UAV-derived geometric bathymetry and digital orthoimages, which provided an alternative strategy to characterize the height of submerged tufa barrages. However, the spectral characteristics of submerged tufa barrages will oscillate with changes in the environmental conditions. In future research, we will consider using a dedicated aquatic multispectral camera to improve the experimentation.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Tecnologia de Sensoriamento Remoto , Lagos , Movimento (Física) , Fotogrametria
3.
Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop ; 160(6): 862-871, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34814981

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The objective of this study was to compare the accuracy of 3-dimensional (3D) digital facial photographs taken by the Bellus3D Face Camera Pro (Bellus3D) (Bellus3D Inc, Los Gatos, Calif) and the 3dMDface system (3dMD) (3dMD Inc, Atlanta, Ga) with one another and with direct anthropometry (DA). METHODS: A mannequin head was selected as the research object. Twenty facial landmarks were labeled on the basis of the 8 interlandmark distances and 5 angles that were defined. A 150-mm digital Vernier caliper (Mitutoyo Inc, Tokyo, Japan) with an accuracy of 0.02 mm was applied to directly measure the interlandmark distances, and the angles were calculated according to the law of cosines. All the measurements were conducted 3 times by each operator under identical conditions. Then, each scanner was used to acquire 3D photographs 5 times, generating 10 digital stereophotographs. Linear distances and angles were measured on the 3D facial photographs reconstructed with open-source MeshLab software (ISTI [Italian National Research Council], Rome, Italy). Each linear distance and angle were measured 3 times by 1 operator, and 3 examiners conducted the measurements independently. To obtain the trueness, equivalence tests were applied to compare the measurements of the 2 scanners and DA. In addition, the average absolute deviations were calculated to directly compare the trueness of 3 methods (Bellus3D vs 3dMD vs DA). Finally, the intraclass correlation coefficient was used to assess the interobserver agreement and the precision of 2 scanners. RESULTS: As for the trueness, 7 out of 8 of the linear distance measurements (N-Pn, Sn-Pog, ORE-IRE, OLE-ILE, RLC-RMC, LLC-LMC, and CR-CL) and 3 out of 5 of the angular measurements (MLA, NFA, and INI) obtained by 3dMD were equivalent to those obtained by DA. Five out of 8 measurements (N-Pn, Sn-Pog, RLC-RMC, LLC-LMC, and CR-CL) and 1 out of 5 of the angular measurements (MLA) obtained by Bellus3D were equivalent to the measurements obtained with DA. All but 3 of the measurements (ORE-IRE, NFA, and INI) obtained with Bellus3D were equivalent to 3dMD. The mean absolute difference between 3dMD and DA was 0.36 ± 0.20 mm and 0.45° ± 0.56°; the deviation between Bellus3D and DA was 0.61 ± 0.47 mm and 0.99° ± 0.61°; and the deviation between Bellus3D and 3dMD was 0.38 ± 0.37 mm and 0.62° ± 0.39°. Regarding the precision of the 2 scanners, the intraclass correlation coefficient value of 3dMD was approximately 1.00, and that of Bellus3D was 0.99. The interobserver agreement for each linear and angular measurement was 0.99. CONCLUSIONS: The trueness of each scanner was clinically acceptable for diagnosis and treatment planning. The precision of 3D photographs obtained by 3dMD and Bellus3D showed good scanning repeatability. The interobserver agreement between the 3 operators was rated as excellent (0.99).


Assuntos
Imageamento Tridimensional , Fotogrametria , Antropometria , Face/anatomia & histologia , Face/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
4.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(19)2021 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34641003

RESUMO

The maintenance of port infrastructures presents difficulties due to their location: an aggressive environment or the variability of the waves can cause progressive deterioration. Maritime conditions make inspections difficult and, added to the lack of use of efficient tools for the management of assets, planning maintenance, important to ensure operability throughout the life cycle of port infrastructures, is generally not a priority. In view of these challenges, this research proposes a methodology for the creation of a port infrastructure asset management tool, generated based on the Design Science Research Method (DSRM), in line with Building Information Modeling (BIM) and digitization trends in the infrastructure sector. The proposal provides workflows and recommendations for the survey of port infrastructures from UAVs, the reconstruction of digital models by photogrammetry (due to scarce technical documentation), and the reconstruction of BIM models. Along with this, the bidirectional linking of traditional asset management spreadsheets with BIM models is proposed, by visual programming, allowing easy visualization of the status and maintenance requirements. This methodology was applied to a port infrastructure, where the methodology demonstrated the correct functionality of the asset management tool, which allows a constant up-dating of information regarding the structural state of the elements and the necessary maintenance activities.


Assuntos
Fotogrametria
5.
J Clin Pediatr Dent ; 45(4): 284-290, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34534300

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate nostril morphology post-cheiloplasty after patients with unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP) use of the nasal creator device. STUDY DESIGN: This is a prospective study. Sixteen patients with nonsyndromic UCLP treated at Khon Kaen University underwent cheiloplasty and then wear the nasal creator device for 6 months. Three-dimensional images were taken, from which 5 lines and 8 landmark points were evaluated prior to (T0) and 1 day (T1), 1 month (T2), 3 months (T3), and 6 months (T4) after cheiloplasty. A Repeated Measure ANOVA was used to evaluate nostril changes between time periods and a paired t-test was used to compare values between the affected and non-affected side at T4 (P < .05). RESULTS: On the affected side, the nostril height significantly increased from T0 (2.46±0.89 mm) to T4 (4.22±1.03 mm), and the nostril width significantly decreased from T0 (9.46±2.57 mm) to T4 (7.34±1.41 mm). On the non-affected side, the nostril height significantly increased from T0 (3.39±0.78 mm) to T4 (4.65±1.07 mm), and the nostril width was not significantly different from T0 (6.00±1.25 mm) to T4 (6.59±0.95 mm). The alar base width was not significantly different between T0 (30.18±2.72 mm) and T4 (29.82±1.69 mm). Nostril height and width were not significantly different by T4 when comparing the affected and non-affected sides. CONCLUSION: Using nasal creator device for 6 months significantly increased the nostril height and decreased nostril width and alar base width after cheiloplasty.


Assuntos
Fenda Labial , Fissura Palatina , Fenda Labial/cirurgia , Fissura Palatina/diagnóstico por imagem , Fissura Palatina/cirurgia , Humanos , Nariz/cirurgia , Fotogrametria , Estudos Prospectivos , Tailândia , Resultado do Tratamento
6.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(18)2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34577396

RESUMO

Classification is a fundamental task for airborne laser scanning (ALS) point cloud processing and applications. This task is challenging due to outdoor scenes with high complexity and point clouds with irregular distribution. Many existing methods based on deep learning techniques have drawbacks, such as complex pre/post-processing steps, an expensive sampling cost, and a limited receptive field size. In this paper, we propose a graph attention feature fusion network (GAFFNet) that can achieve a satisfactory classification performance by capturing wider contextual information of the ALS point cloud. Based on the graph attention mechanism, we first design a neighborhood feature fusion unit and an extended neighborhood feature fusion block, which effectively increases the receptive field for each point. On this basis, we further design a neural network based on encoder-decoder architecture to obtain the semantic features of point clouds at different levels, allowing us to achieve a more accurate classification. We evaluate the performance of our method on a publicly available ALS point cloud dataset provided by the International Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing (ISPRS). The experimental results show that our method can effectively distinguish nine types of ground objects. We achieve more satisfactory results on different evaluation metrics when compared with the results obtained via other approaches.


Assuntos
Redes Neurais de Computação , Fotogrametria , Lasers , Cintilografia , Semântica
7.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(18)2021 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34577472

RESUMO

High industrial chimney inclination monitoring and analysis is crucial from a stability point of view because, if not maintained, it can pose a great potential hazard for its surroundings. Various modern approaches of chimneys' geometrical parameters determination have been proposed and are actively in use. However, little research regarding the applicability of the unmanned aerial system (UAS)-based photogrammetric approach of chimney structural monitoring has been conducted and a comprehensive analysis with validated methods is lacking. Therefore, this research is focused on the determination of geometrical structural parameters of a masonry chimney whereby two independent methods have been applied. Reference values of the chimney geometrical parameters have been determined by precise total station (TS) measurements and, in relation to them, the applicability of the UAS-based photogrammetric approach is evaluated. Methodologically, the reference and validation values of the chimney geometrical parameters have been determined based on double modeling of the chimney structure. Firstly, cross-sectional elliptical regression has been applied to determine the geometrical values of the chimney at predefined above-ground levels (AGLs). Secondly, the spatial chimney axis has been derived by polynomial regression to determine the inclination of the full chimney structure. Lastly, the structural stability of the chimney is validated based on its axis inclination whereby permitted deviations are determined according to the European Standard EN 1996-1-1:2005. Experimental results of our research show that consistently better results are gained by TS-based surveys and, although the determination of the chimney's geometrical values by the UAS-based approach is certainly possible, great attention must be given to the accuracy of the UAS-generated point cloud (PC) if high accuracy results are needed.


Assuntos
Indústrias , Fotogrametria , Algoritmos , Estudos Transversais
8.
Forensic Sci Med Pathol ; 17(3): 422-430, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34406614

RESUMO

Evidence acquisition, interpretation and preservation are essential parts of forensic case work that make a standardized documentation process fundamental. The most commonly used method for the documentation and interpretation of superficial wounds is a combination of two modalities: two-dimensional (2D) photography for evidence preservation and real-life examination for wound analysis. As technologies continue to develop, 2D photography is being enhanced with three-dimensional (3D) documentation technology. In our study, we compared the real-life examination of superficial wounds using four different technical documentation and visualization methods.To test the different methods, a mannequin was equipped with several injury stickers, and then the different methods were applied. A total of 42 artificial injury stickers were documented in regard to orientation, form, color, size, wound borders, wound corners and suspected mechanism of injury for the injury mechanism. As the gold standard, superficial wounds were visually examined by two board-certified forensic pathologists directly on the mannequin. These results were compared to an examination using standard 2D forensic photography; 2D photography using the multicamera system Botscan©, which included predefined viewing positions all around the body; and 3D photogrammetric reconstruction based on images visualized both on screen and in a virtual reality (VR) using a head-mounted display (HMD).The results of the gold standard examination showed that the two forensic pathologists had an inter-reader agreement ranging from 69% for the orientation and 11% for the size of the wounds. A substantial portion of the direct visual documentation showed only a partial overlap, especially for the items of size and color, thereby prohibiting the statistical comparison of these two items. A forest plot analysis of the remaining six items showed no significant difference between the methods. We found that among the forensic pathologists, there was high variability regarding the vocabulary used for the description of wound morphology, which complicated the exact comparison of the two documentations of the same wound.There were no significant differences for any of the four methods compared to the gold standard, thereby challenging the role of real-life examination and 2D photography as the most reliable documentation approaches. Further studies with real injuries are necessary to support our evaluation that technical examination methods involving multicamera systems and 3D visualization for whole-body examination might be a valid alternative in future forensic documentation.


Assuntos
Realidade Virtual , Documentação , Humanos , Imageamento Tridimensional , Fotogrametria , Fotografação
9.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(14)2021 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34300393

RESUMO

The accuracy of photogrammetric reconstruction depends largely on the acquisition conditions and on the quality of input photographs. This paper proposes methods of improving raster images that increase photogrammetric reconstruction accuracy. These methods are based on modifying color image histograms. Special emphasis was placed on the selection of channels of the RGB and CIE L*a*b* color models for further improvement of the reconstruction process. A methodology was proposed for assessing the quality of reconstruction based on premade reference models using positional statistics. The analysis of the influence of image enhancement on reconstruction was carried out for various types of objects. The proposed methods can significantly improve the quality of reconstruction. The superiority of methods based on the luminance channel of the L*a*b* model was demonstrated. Our studies indicated high efficiency of the histogram equalization method (HE), although these results were not highly distinctive for all performed tests.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Fotogrametria , Aumento da Imagem
10.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(12)2021 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34200918

RESUMO

This research employs displacement fields photogrammetrically captured on the surface of a solid or structure to estimate real-time stress distributions it undergoes during a given loading period. The displacement fields are determined based on a series of images taken from the solid surface while it experiences deformation. Image displacements are used to estimate the deformations in the plane of the beam surface, and Poisson's Method is subsequently applied to reconstruct these surfaces, at a given time, by extracting triangular meshes from the corresponding points clouds. With the aid of the measured displacement fields, the Boundary Element Method (BEM) is considered to evaluate stress values throughout the solid. Herein, the unknown boundary forces must be additionally calculated. As the photogrammetrically reconstructed deformed surfaces may be defined by several million points, the boundary displacement values of boundary-element models having a convenient number of nodes are determined based on an optimized displacement surface that best fits the real measured data. The results showed the effectiveness and potential application of the proposed methodology in several tasks to determine real-time stress distributions in structures.


Assuntos
Fotogrametria , Imagens de Fantasmas , Estresse Mecânico
11.
J Prosthodont ; 30(8): 651-655, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34296484

RESUMO

The objective of the present report is to illustrate a proof-of-concept protocol for CAD/CAM fabrication of milled verification jigs during full-arch implant rehabilitation using photogrammetry for data acquisition. The present report aims to bridge the gap between analog and digital workflows by introducing a CAD/CAM technique to intraorally verify digitally acquired information without the use of the technique-sensitive and labor-intensive conventional resin verification jig. One patient was treated with a digital prosthodontic protocol where a digitally designed CAD/CAM milled verification jig (generated from intraoral digital scans) was used to confirm implant 3D positioning prior to the fabrication of double full-arch monolithic definitive zirconia prostheses. The procedures are presented step-by-step after clinical and radiographic observation.


Assuntos
Implantes Dentários , Planejamento de Prótese Dentária , Desenho Assistido por Computador , Prótese Dentária Fixada por Implante , Humanos , Fotogrametria
12.
Int J Legal Med ; 135(6): 2501-2507, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34241673

RESUMO

Personal identification of the living from video surveillance systems usually involves 2D images. However, the potentiality of three-dimensional facial models in gaining personal identification through 3D-3D comparison still needs to be verified. This study aims at testing the reliability of a protocol for 3D-3D registration of facial models, potentially useful for personal identification. Fifty male subjects aged between 18 and 45 years were randomly chosen from a database of 3D facial models acquired through stereophotogrammetry. For each subject, two acquisitions were available; the 3D models of faces were then registered onto other models belonging to the same and different individuals according to the least point-to-point distance on the entire facial surface, for a total of 50 matches and 50 mismatches. RMS value (root mean square) of point-to-point distance between the two models was then calculated through the VAM® software. Intra- and inter-observer errors were assessed through calculation of relative technical error of measurement (rTEM). Possible statistically significant differences between matches and mismatches were assessed through Mann-Whitney test (p < 0.05). Both for intra- and inter-observer repeatability rTEM was between 2.2 and 5.2%. Average RMS point-to-point distance was 0.50 ± 0.28 mm in matches, 2.62 ± 0.56 mm in mismatches (p < 0.01). An RMS threshold of 1.50 mm could distinguish matches and mismatches in 100% of cases. This study provides an improvement to existing 3D-3D superimposition methods and confirms the great advantages which may derive to personal identification of the living from 3D facial analysis.


Assuntos
Identificação Biométrica , Face/anatomia & histologia , Reconhecimento de Identidade , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Imageamento Tridimensional/métodos , Adulto , Humanos , Masculino , Fotogrametria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Software , Gravação em Vídeo
13.
Orthod Craniofac Res ; 24(3): 438-448, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34105880

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effects of tooth-borne and tooth-bone-borne rapid maxillary expansion (RME) on soft tissue with stereophotogrammetry. SETTING AND SAMPLE POPULATION: Thirty two patients (15 males and 17 females) who met inclusion criteria were divided into two groups. In the first group, tooth-borne RME appliance (hyrax) was applied to 16 patients (9 males and 7 females mean age 13.4 ± 1.3 years), and in the second group, tooth-bone-borne RME appliance (hybrid hyrax) was applied to 16 patients (6 males and 10 females, mean age 13.05 ± 1.24 years). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Changes in soft tissues before RME (T0) and post-retention (T1) period were evaluated by stereophotogrammetry. Linear and angular measurements were performed. Independent- and dependent-sample t tests were used to compare intra- and inter-group differences at P < .05 significance level. RESULTS: The data revealed statistically significant changes in nasal width, mid-face width, upper lip vermillion length/lower lip vermillion length ratio and upper lip angle in hyrax group. (P < .05) Also nasal width, lower lip length, lower lip vermillion length, anterior face height, lower face height, convexity angle and mandibular angle showed statistically significant changes in hybrid hyrax group. (P < .05) In the inter-group evaluation, no significant differences were found except upper lip and mandible angle. (P < .05). CONCLUSION: Both hyrax and hybrid hyrax expanders had effects on soft tissue profile. Anterior face height and lower face height increased in both groups. Upper lip length increased by 0.36 mm in the hybrid group and 0.10 mm in the hyrax group. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This trial was registered at Clinicaltrials.gov (Identifier: NCT04828213).


Assuntos
Tomografia Computadorizada de Feixe Cônico , Dente , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Maxila , Técnica de Expansão Palatina , Fotogrametria
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34138711

RESUMO

This study investigates the possibility of estimating lower-limb joint kinematics and meaningful performance indexes for physiotherapists, during gait on a treadmill based on data collected from a sparse placement of new Visual Inertial Measurement Units (VIMU) and the use of an Extended Kalman Filter (EKF). The proposed EKF takes advantage of the biomechanics of the human body and of the investigated task to reduce sensor inaccuracies. Two state-vector formulations, one based on the use of constant acceleration model and one based on Fourier series, and the tuning of their corresponding parameters were analyzed. The constant acceleration model, due to its inherent inconsistency for human motion, required a cumbersome optimisation process and needed the a-priori knowledge of reference joint trajectories for EKF parameters tuning. On the other hand, the Fourier series formulation could be used without a specific parameters tuning process. In both cases, the average root mean square difference and correlation coefficient between the estimated joint angles and those reconstructed with a reference stereophotogrammetric system was 3.5deg and 0.70, respectively. Moreover, the stride lengths were estimated with a normalized root mean square difference inferior to 2% when using the forward kinematics model receiving as input the estimated joint angles. The popular gait deviation index was also estimated and showed similar results very close to 100, using both the proposed method and the reference stereophotogrammetric system. Such consistency was obtained using only three wireless and affordable VIMU located at the pelvis and both heels and tracked using two affordable RGB cameras. Being further easy-to-use and suitable for applications taking place outside of the laboratory, the proposed method thus represents a good compromise between accurate reference stereophotogrammetric systems and markerless ones for which accuracy is still under debate.


Assuntos
Aceleração , Marcha , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Humanos , Movimento (Física) , Fotogrametria
15.
J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg ; 74(11): 3066-3072, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34088646

RESUMO

Three-dimensional (3D) scanning technologies, such as medical imaging and surface scanning, have important applications for capturing patient anatomy to create personalised prosthetics. Digital approaches for capturing anatomical detail as opposed to traditional, invasive impression techniques significantly reduces turnaround times and lower production costs while still maintaining the high aesthetic quality of the end product. While previous case studies utilise expensive 3D scanning and modelling frameworks, their clinical translation is limited due to high equipment costs. In this study, we develop and validate a low-cost framework for clinical 3D scanning of the external ear using photogrammetry and a smartphone camera. We recruited five novice operators who watched an instructional video before scanning 20 healthy adult participant ears who did not have microtia. Our results show that the smartphone-based photogrammetry methodology produces 3D scans of the external ear that were accurate to (1.5 ± 0.4) mm and were (71 ± 14) % complete compared with those from a gold standard reference scanner, with no significant difference observed between operators. A moderate to strong interrater reliability was determined for all novice operators, suggesting that all novice operators were able to capture repeatable scans. The development of this smartphone photogrammetry approach has the potential to provide a non-invasive, inexpensive and accessible means to capture patient morphology for use in clinical assessment and personalised device manufacture, specifically for ear prostheses. We also demonstrate that inexperienced operators can rapidly learn and apply smartphone photogrammetry for accurate and reliable scans of the external ear with important applications for future clinical translation.


Assuntos
Orelha Externa/anatomia & histologia , Imageamento Tridimensional , Fotogrametria/métodos , Smartphone , Microtia Congênita/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
16.
PLoS One ; 16(6): e0252593, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34170916

RESUMO

Since 2014, stony coral tissue loss disease (SCTLD) has contributed to substantial declines of reef-building corals in Florida. The emergence of this disease, which impacts over 20 scleractinian coral species, has generated a need for widespread reef monitoring and the implementation of novel survey and disease mitigation strategies. This study paired SCTLD prevalence assessments with colony-level monitoring to help improve understanding of disease dynamics on both individual coral colonies and at reef-wide scales. Benthic surveys were conducted throughout the northern Florida Reef Tract to monitor the presence/absence of disease, disease prevalence, and coral species affected by SCTLD. Observed SCTLD prevalence was lower in Jupiter and Palm Beach than in Lauderdale-by-the-Sea or St. Lucie Reef, but there were no significant changes in prevalence over time. To assess colony-level impacts of the disease, we optimized a low-cost, rapid 3D photogrammetry technique to fate-track infected Montastraea cavernosa coral colonies over four time points spanning nearly four months. Total colony area and healthy tissue area on fate-tracked colonies decreased significantly over time. However disease lesion area did not decrease over time and was not correlated with total colony area. Taken together these results suggest that targeted intervention efforts on larger colonies may maximize preservation of coral cover. Traditional coral surveys combined with 3D photogrammetry can provide greater insights into the spatiotemporal dynamics and impacts of coral diseases on individual colonies and coral communities than surveys or visual estimates of disease progression alone.


Assuntos
Antozoários/fisiologia , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Animais , Infecções Bacterianas/epidemiologia , Recifes de Corais , Florida , Fotogrametria , Dinâmica Populacional , Prevalência
17.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 12385, 2021 06 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34117340

RESUMO

Measuring outcomes from treatments to the skin is either reliant upon patient's subjective feedback or scale-based peer assessments. Three-Dimensional stereophotogrammetry intend to accurately quantify skin microtopography before and after treatments. The objective of this study is comparing the accuracy of stereophotogrammetry with a scale-based peer evaluation in assessing topographical changes to skin surface following laser treatment. A 3D stereophotogrammetry system photographed skin surface of 48 patients with facial wrinkles or scars before and three months after laser resurfacing, followed immediately by topical application of vitamin C. The software measured changes in skin roughness, wrinkle depth and scar volume. Images were presented to three observers, each independently scoring cutaneous improvement according to Investigator Global Aesthetic Improvement Scale (IGAIS). As for the results, a trend reflecting skin/scar improvement was reported by 3D SPM measurements and raters. The percentage of topographical change given by the raters matched 3D SPM findings. Agreement was highest when observers analysed 3D images. However, observers overestimated skin improvement in a nontreatment control whilst 3D SPM was precise in detecting absence of intervention. This study confirmed a direct correlation between the IGAIS clinical scale and 3D SPM and confirmed the efficacy and accuracy of the latter when assessing cutaneous microtopography alterations as a response to laser treatment.


Assuntos
Cicatriz/diagnóstico por imagem , Terapia a Laser/efeitos adversos , Fotogrametria/métodos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/diagnóstico por imagem , Pele/diagnóstico por imagem , Cirurgia Plástica/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Idoso , Cicatriz/etiologia , Cicatriz/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Imageamento Tridimensional/métodos , Imageamento Tridimensional/normas , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fotogrametria/normas , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/patologia , Pele/patologia
18.
J Vis Exp ; (170)2021 04 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33938881

RESUMO

Structure-from-motion (SfM) photogrammetry is a technique used to generate three-dimensional (3D) reconstructions from a sequence of two-dimensional (2D) images. SfM methods are becoming increasingly popular as a noninvasive way to monitor many systems, including anthropogenic and natural landscapes, geologic structures, and both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Here, a detailed protocol is provided for collecting SfM imagery to generate 3D models of benthic habitats. Additionally, the cost, time efficiency, and output quality of employing a Digital Single Lens Reflex (DSLR) camera versus a less expensive action camera have been compared. A tradeoff between computational time and resolution was observed, with the DSLR camera producing models with more than twice the resolution, but taking approximately 1.4-times longer to produce than the action camera. This primer aims to provide a thorough description of the steps necessary to collect SfM data in benthic habitats for those who are unfamiliar with the technique as well as for those already using similar methods.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Imageamento Tridimensional/métodos , Fotogrametria
19.
Oecologia ; 196(1): 115-130, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33954804

RESUMO

The spatial structure of plant communities in semi-arid regions is mostly derived by plant-plant interactions and environmental heterogeneity. In this study, we investigated the intra- and interspecific interactions and their contribution to growth inhibition in the patches of Pistacia trees and Amygdalus shrubs in semi-arid woodland communities through the implementation of photogrammetric data provided by unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). This study was conducted in a part of Wild Pistachio Natural Reserve covered by Pistacia-Amygdalus stands in Zagros Mountains, western Iran. We used univariate and bivariate forms of pair- and mark correlation functions and Analytical Global Envelopes under inhomogeneous Poisson process which allow detection of the interactions of the species within the 45-ha study area. Our results indicated that the UAV-derived photogrammetric data proved to be efficient in identification of the plant individuals (F-score ≈ 0.92 for both species). Additionally, strong coefficients of determination (R2 = 0.98 and 0.94 for Pistacia and Amygdalus, respectively) supported prediction of crown area. We observed the aggregation of the species individuals in clusters of conspecifics and heterospecifics at small spatial scales, most likely as a result of aggregation in favourable parts of the study area. The aggregation of the species within patches had a marked effect on their size (i.e., crown area, height) inferred as growth inhibition, probably due to intra- and interspecific competition. Our findings demonstrated that promising UAV photogrammetric data can be effectively utilized by ecologists for investigation of plant associations, hence increasing the potentiality of remote sensing in spatial ecology of vegetation patches in semi-arid environments.


Assuntos
Florestas , Tecnologia de Sensoriamento Remoto , Ecologia , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico) , Fotogrametria
20.
Angle Orthod ; 91(5): 634-640, 2021 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33939817

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effects of rapid maxillary expansion (RME) and mandibular midline distraction osteogenesis (MMDO) on facial soft tissues using three-dimensional (3D) images. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 20 patients (average age 15.86 ± 2.17 years) were treated with RME and MMDO using tooth-borne distractors. Three-dimensional photographs of each patient were taken with a stereophotogrammetry system at baseline (T0), at the end of the distraction period (T1), and at the end of the consolidation period (T2). All data were analyzed using a dependent-samples t-test at a significance level of 5%. RESULTS: Total and lower face height increased after MMDO (P < .05). Nasal and mouth width increased after RME as compared with baseline (P < .05). The labiomental angle increased at T1 and decreased at T2 (P < .05). After MMDO, the convexity angle increased while the mandibular angle decreased (P < .05). Upper and lower lip angles increased after RME (P < .05). The distance from the lower lip to the E plane increased after MMDO and decreased after RME (P < .05). CONCLUSIONS: The MMDO and RME procedures provide an efficient nonextraction treatment alternative for transverse maxillomandibular deficiency. MMDO may improve the facial soft tissue profile in the transverse and vertical axis of the mandibular region.


Assuntos
Osteogênese por Distração , Técnica de Expansão Palatina , Adolescente , Cefalometria , Face/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Mandíbula/diagnóstico por imagem , Mandíbula/cirurgia , Fotogrametria
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