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1.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e246451, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34495152

RESUMO

Dipteryx alata Vogel is a tree species widely found in Cerrado, settling preferentially in well drained soils. Studies related to ecophysiology of D. alata may contribute to the decision making about using seedlings of this species in projects aimed at the recovery of degraded areas where seasonal flooding happens. This study aimed to assess the effects of flooding on photosynthetic and antioxidant metabolism and quality of D. alata seedlings cultivated or not under flooding during four assessment periods (0, 20, 40, and 60 days), followed by 100 days after the end of each assessment period (0+100, 20+100, 40+100, and 60+100 days), allowing verifying the potential for post-flooding recovery. Flooded plants showed lower photosynthetic efficiency than non-flooded plants, regardless of the periods of exposure. However, this efficiency was recovered in the post-flooding, with values similar to that of the non-flooded seedlings. Moreover, the damage to FV/FM was evidenced by an increase in the period of exposure to flooding, but recovery was also observed at this stage of the photosynthetic metabolism. Seedling quality decreased under flooding, not varying between periods of exposure, but remained lower although the increase observed in the post-flooding period, with no recovery after flooding. The occurrence of hypertrophied lenticels associated with physiological changes and an efficient antioxidant enzyme system might have contributed to the survival and recovery of these seedlings. Thus, this species is sensitive to flooding stress but capable of adjusting and recovering metabolic characteristics at 100 days after the suspension of the water stress, but with no recovery in seedling quality. Thus, we suggested plasticity under the cultivation condition and determined that the time of 100 days is not enough for the complete resumption of growth.


Assuntos
Dipteryx , Plântula , Antioxidantes , Inundações , Fotossíntese
2.
BMC Genomics ; 22(1): 687, 2021 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34551703

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Wucai (Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis var. rosularis Tsen) is a cold-tolerant plant that is vulnerable to high temperature. This study explored the response mechanism of wucai to low temperature. In this study, wucai seedlings were treated with different temperatures, including low temperature (LT), high temperature (HT), and a control. RESULTS: According to transcriptomics analysis, the number of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in HT and LT was 10,702 and 7267, respectively, compared with the control. The key genes associated with the physiological response of wucai to the treatments were analyzed. The Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes and Gene Ontology annotations indicated the importance of the photosynthesis and photosynthetic-antenna protein pathways. We found that a high-temperature environment greatly inhibited the expression of important genes in the photosynthetic pathway (BrLhc superfamily members, PsaD, PsaE, PsaD, PsaD, PsbO, PsbP, PsbQ, PsbR, PsbS, PsbW, PsbY, Psb27, and Psb28), whereas low temperature resulted in the expression of certain key genes (BrLhc superfamily members, Psa F, Psa H, Psb S, Psb H, Psb 28). In addition, the wucai seedlings exhibited better photosynthetic performance under low-temperature conditions than high-temperature conditions. CONCLUSIONS: Based on the above results, we speculate that upon exposure to low temperature, the plants developed higher cold tolerance by upregulating the expression of genes related to photosynthesis. Conversely, high-temperature stress inhibited the expression of pivotal genes and weakened the self-regulating ability of the plants.


Assuntos
Brassica , Brassica/genética , Brassica/metabolismo , Temperatura Baixa , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Fotossíntese/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Temperatura , Transcriptoma
3.
Planta ; 254(4): 76, 2021 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34533642

RESUMO

MAIN CONCLUSION: A new molecular mechanism of tetrahydrofolate deformylase involved in the salt response presumably affects mitochondrial and chloroplast function by regulating energy metabolism and accumulation of reactive oxygen species. High salinity severely restrains plant growth and development, consequently leading to a reduction in grain yield. It is therefore critical to identify the components involved in plant salt resistance. In our previous study, we identified a rice leaf early-senescence mutant hpa1, which encodes a formyl tetrahydrofolate deformylase (Xiong et al. in Sci China Life Sci 64(5):720-738, 2021). Here, we report that HPA1 also plays a role in the salt response. To explore the molecular mechanism of HPA1 in salt resistance, we attempted to identify the differentially expressed proteins between wild type and hpa1 mutant for salinity treatment using an iTRAQ-based comparative protein quantification approach. A total of 4598 proteins were identified, of which 279 were significantly altered, including 177 up- and 102 down-regulated proteins. A functional analysis suggested that the 279 differentially expressed proteins are involved mainly in the regulation of oxidative phosphorylation, phenylpropanoid biosynthesis, photosynthesis, posttranslational modifications, protein turnover and energy metabolism. Moreover, a deficiency in HPA1 impaired chlorophyll metabolism and photosynthesis in chloroplasts and affected the electron flow of the electron transport chain in mitochondria. These changes led to abnormal energy metabolism and accumulation of reactive oxygen species, which may affect the permeability and integrity of cell membranes, leading to cell death. In addition, the results were verified by transcriptional or physiological experiments. Our results provide an insight into a new molecular mechanism of the tetrahydrofolate cycle protein formyl tetrahydrofolate deformylase, which is involved in the salt response, presumably by affecting mitochondrial and chloroplast function regulating energy metabolism and accumulation of reactive oxygen species under salt stress.


Assuntos
Oryza , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Oryza/genética , Oryza/metabolismo , Fotossíntese , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Proteômica , Tetra-Hidrofolatos
4.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 406, 2021 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34488627

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Plant mitochondrial transcription termination factor (mTERF) family members play important roles in development and stress tolerance through regulation of organellar gene expression. However, their molecular functions have yet to be clearly defined. RESULTS: Here an mTERF gene V14 was identified by fine mapping using a conditional albino mutant v14 that displayed albinism only in the first two true leaves, which was confirmed by transgenic complementation tests. Subcellular localization and real-time PCR analyses indicated that V14 encodes a chloroplastic protein ubiquitously expressed in leaves while spiking in the second true leaf. Chloroplastic gene expression profiling in the pale leaves of v14 through real-time PCR and Northern blotting analyses showed abnormal accumulation of the unprocessed transcripts covering the rpoB-rpoC1 and/or rpoC1-rpoC2 intercistronic regions accompanied by reduced abundance of the mature rpoC1 and rpoC2 transcripts, which encode two core subunits of the plastid-encoded plastid RNA polymerase (PEP). Subsequent immunoblotting analyses confirmed the reduced accumulation of RpoC1 and RpoC2. A light-inducible photosynthetic gene psbD was also found down-regulated at both the mRNA and protein levels. Interestingly, such stage-specific aberrant posttranscriptional regulation and psbD expression can be reversed by high temperatures (30 ~ 35 °C), although V14 expression lacks thermo-sensitivity. Meanwhile, three V14 homologous genes were found heat-inducible with similar temporal expression patterns, implicating their possible functional redundancy to V14. CONCLUSIONS: These data revealed a critical role of V14 in chloroplast development, which impacts, in a stage-specific and thermo-sensitive way, the appropriate processing of rpoB-rpoC1-rpoC2 precursors and the expression of certain photosynthetic proteins. Our findings thus expand the knowledge of the molecular functions of rice mTERFs and suggest the contributions of plant mTERFs to photosynthesis establishment and temperature acclimation.


Assuntos
Oryza/metabolismo , Fotossíntese/fisiologia , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plântula/fisiologia , Aclimatação , Cloroplastos/fisiologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Oryza/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Temperatura
5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360809

RESUMO

To investigate the importance of light on healing and acclimatization, in the present study, grafted watermelon seedlings were exposed to darkness (D) or light, provided by blue (B), red (R), a mixture of R (68%) and B (RB), or white (W; 35% B, 49% intermediate spectra, 16% R) LEDs for 12 days. Survival ratio, root and shoot growth, soluble carbohydrate content, photosynthetic pigments content, and photosynthetic performance were evaluated. Seedling survival was not only strongly limited in D but the survived seedlings had an inferior shoot and root development, reduced chlorophyll content, and attenuated photosynthetic efficiency. RB-exposed seedlings had a less-developed root system. R-exposed seedlings showed leaf epinasty, and had the smallest leaf area, reduced chlorophyll content, and suppressed photosynthetic apparatus performance. The R-exposed seedlings contained the highest amount of soluble carbohydrate and together with D-exposed seedlings the lowest amount of chlorophyll in their scions. B-exposed seedlings showed the highest chlorophyll content and improved overall PSII photosynthetic functioning. W-exposed seedling had the largest leaf area, and closely resembled the photosynthetic properties of RB-exposed seedlings. We assume that, during healing of grafted seedlings monochromatic R light should be avoided. Instead, W and monochromatic B light may be willingly adopted due to their promoting effect on shoot, pigments content, and photosynthetic efficiency.


Assuntos
Citrullus , Luz , Fotossíntese , Plântula , Aclimatação , Citrullus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Citrullus/metabolismo , Escuridão , Folhas de Planta , Plântula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plântula/metabolismo
6.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4866, 2021 08 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34381045

RESUMO

Plants invest a considerable amount of leaf nitrogen in the photosynthetic enzyme ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase-oxygenase (RuBisCO), forming a strong coupling of nitrogen and photosynthetic capacity. Variability in the nitrogen-photosynthesis relationship indicates different nitrogen use strategies of plants (i.e., the fraction nitrogen allocated to RuBisCO; fLNR), however, the reason for this remains unclear as widely different nitrogen use strategies are adopted in photosynthesis models. Here, we use a comprehensive database of in situ observations, a remote sensing product of leaf chlorophyll and ancillary climate and soil data, to examine the global distribution in fLNR using a random forest model. We find global fLNR is 18.2 ± 6.2%, with its variation largely driven by negative dependence on leaf mass per area and positive dependence on leaf phosphorus. Some climate and soil factors (i.e., light, atmospheric dryness, soil pH, and sand) have considerable positive influences on fLNR regionally. This study provides insight into the nitrogen-photosynthesis relationship of plants globally and an improved understanding of the global distribution of photosynthetic potential.


Assuntos
Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Fotossíntese , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Clorofila/metabolismo , Clima , Ecossistema , Internacionalidade , Modelos Teóricos , Fósforo/metabolismo , Ribulose-Bifosfato Carboxilase/metabolismo , Solo/química
7.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 368, 2021 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34384391

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Melatonin is considered a potential plant growth regulator to enhance the growth of plants and increase tolerance to various abiotic stresses. Nevertheless, melatonin's role in mediating stress response in different plant species and growth cycles still needs to be explored. This study was conducted to understand the impact of different melatonin concentrations (0, 50, 100, and 150 µM) applied as a soil drench to maize seedling under drought stress conditions. A decreased irrigation approach based on watering was exposed to maize seedling after drought stress was applied at 40-45% of field capacity. RESULTS: The results showed that drought stress negatively affected the growth behavior of maize seedlings, such as reduced biomass accumulation, decreased photosynthetic pigments, and enhanced the malondialdehyde and reactive oxygen species (ROS). However, melatonin application enhanced plant growth; alleviated ROS-induced oxidative damages by increasing the photosynthetic pigments, antioxidant enzyme activities, relative water content, and osmo-protectants of maize seedlings. CONCLUSIONS: Melatonin treatment also enhanced the stomatal traits, such as stomatal length, width, area, and the number of pores under drought stress conditions. Our data suggested that 100 µM melatonin application as soil drenching could provide a valuable foundation for improving plant tolerance to drought stress conditions.


Assuntos
Melatonina/farmacologia , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/farmacologia , Zea mays/efeitos dos fármacos , Zea mays/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Biomassa , Clorofila/metabolismo , Secas , Estresse Oxidativo , Fotossíntese/efeitos dos fármacos , Folhas de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Folhas de Planta/ultraestrutura , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Estômatos de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Estômatos de Plantas/ultraestrutura , Prolina/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio , Plântula/efeitos dos fármacos , Plântula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Açúcares/metabolismo , Zea mays/enzimologia , Zea mays/fisiologia
9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445505

RESUMO

Eukaryotic organisms such as plants are unable to utilise nitrogen gas (N2) directly as a source of this essential element and are dependent either on its biological conversion to ammonium by diazotrophic prokaryotes, or its supply as chemically synthesised nitrate fertiliser. The idea of genetically engineering crops with the capacity to fix N2 by introduction of the bacterial nitrogenase enzyme has long been discussed. However, the expression of an active nitrogenase must overcome several major challenges: the coordinated expression of multiple genes to assemble an enzyme complex containing several different metal cluster co-factors; the supply of sufficient ATP and reductant to the enzyme; the enzyme's sensitivity to oxygen; and the intracellular accumulation of ammonium. The chloroplast of plant cells represents an attractive location for nitrogenase expression, but engineering the organelle's genome is not yet feasible in most crop species. However, the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii represents a simple model for photosynthetic eukaryotes with a genetically tractable chloroplast. In this review, we discuss the main advantages, and limitations, of this microalga as a testbed for producing such a complex multi-subunit enzyme. Furthermore, we suggest that a minimal set of six transgenes are necessary for chloroplast-localised synthesis of an 'Fe-only' nitrogenase, and from this set we demonstrate the stable expression and accumulation of the homocitrate synthase, NifV, under aerobic conditions. Arguably, further studies in C. reinhardtii aimed at testing expression and function of the full gene set would provide the groundwork for a concerted future effort to create nitrogen-fixing crops.


Assuntos
Chlamydomonas reinhardtii/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cloroplastos/metabolismo , Engenharia Genética/métodos , Nitrogenase/genética , Chlamydomonas reinhardtii/genética , Cloroplastos/genética , Genoma de Cloroplastos , Fixação de Nitrogênio , Nitrogenase/metabolismo , Fotossíntese , Biologia Sintética
10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445571

RESUMO

Photosynthesis is a universal process for plant survival, and immune defense is also a key process in adapting to the growth environment. Various studies have indicated that these two processes are interconnected in a complex network. Photosynthesis can influence signaling pathways and provide both materials and energy for immune defense, while the immune defense process can also have feedback effects on photosynthesis. Pathogen infection inevitably leads to changes in photosynthesis parameters, including Pn, Gs, and Ci; biochemical materials such as SOD and CAT; signaling molecules such as H2O2 and hormones; and the expression of genes involved in photosynthesis. Some researchers have found that changes in photosynthesis activity are related to the resistance level of the host, the duration after infection, and the infection position (photosynthetic source or sink). Interactions between wheat and the main fungal pathogens, such as Puccinia striiformis, Blumeria graminis, and Fusarium graminearum, constitute an ideal study system to elucidate the relationship between changes in host photosynthesis and resistance levels, based on the accessibility of methods for artificially controlling infection and detecting changes in photosynthesis, the presence of multiple pathogens infecting different positions, and the abundance of host materials with various resistance levels. This review is written only from the perspective of plant pathologists, and after providing an overview of the available data, we generally found that changes in photosynthesis in the early stage of pathogen infection could be a causal factor influencing acquired resistance, while those in the late stage could be the result of resistance formation.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos/fisiologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Fotossíntese , Doenças das Plantas/imunologia , Triticum/imunologia , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Triticum/metabolismo , Triticum/microbiologia
11.
Environ Pollut ; 287: 117644, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34426391

RESUMO

Water eutrophication caused by harmful algal blooms (HABs) occurs worldwide. It causes huge economic losses and has serious and potentially life-threatening effects on human health. In this study, the bacterium Raoultella sp. S1 with high algicidal efficiency against the harmful algae Microcystis aeruginosa was isolated from eutrophic water. The results showed that Raoultella sp. S1 initially flocculated the algae, causing the cells to sediment within 180 min and then secreted soluble algicidal substances that killed the algal cells completely within 72 h. The algicidal activity was stable across the temperature range -85.0 to 85.0 °C and across the pH range 3.00-11.00. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed the crumpling and fragmentation of cells algal cells during the flocculation and lysis stages. The antioxidant system was activated under conditions of oxidative stress, causing the increased antioxidant enzymes activities. Meanwhile, the oxidative stress response triggered by the algicidal substances markedly increased the malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione (GSH) content. We investigated the content of Chl-a and the relative expression levels of genes related to photosynthesis, verifying that the algicidal compounds attack the photosynthetic system by degrading the photosynthetic pigment and inhibiting the expression of key genes. Also, the results of photosynthetic efficiency and relative electric transport rate confirmed that the photosynthetic system in algal cells was severely damaged within 24 h. The algicidal effect of Raoultella sp. S1 against Microcystis aeruginosa was evaluated by analyzing the physiological response and photosynthetic system impairment of the algal cells. The concentration of microcystin-LR (MC-LR) slightly increased during the process of algal cells ruptured, and then decreased below its initial level due to the biodegradation of Raoultella sp. S1. To further investigate the algicidal mechanism of Raoultella sp. S1, the main components in the cell-free supernatant was analyzed by UHPLC-TOF-MS. Several low-molecular-weight organic acids might be responsible for the algicidal activity of Raoultella sp. S1. It is concluded that Raoultella sp. S1 has the potential to control Microcystis aeruginosa blooms.


Assuntos
Microcystis , Antioxidantes , Enterobacteriaceae , Proliferação Nociva de Algas , Humanos , Microcistinas/toxicidade , Fotossíntese
12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360890

RESUMO

The thylakoid lumen houses proteins that are vital for photosynthetic electron transport, including water-splitting at photosystem (PS) II and shuttling of electrons from cytochrome b6f to PSI. Other lumen proteins maintain photosynthetic activity through biogenesis and turnover of PSII complexes. Although all lumen proteins are soluble, these known details have highlighted interactions of some lumen proteins with thylakoid membranes or thylakoid-intrinsic proteins. Meanwhile, the functional details of most lumen proteins, as well as their distribution between the soluble and membrane-associated lumen fractions, remain unknown. The current study isolated the soluble free lumen (FL) and membrane-associated lumen (MAL) fractions from Arabidopsis thaliana, and used gel- and mass spectrometry-based proteomics methods to analyze the contents of each proteome. These results identified 60 lumenal proteins, and clearly distinguished the difference between the FL and MAL proteomes. The most abundant proteins in the FL fraction were involved in PSII assembly and repair, while the MAL proteome was enriched in proteins that support the oxygen-evolving complex (OEC). Novel proteins, including a new PsbP domain-containing isoform, as well as several novel post-translational modifications and N-termini, are reported, and bi-dimensional separation of the lumen proteome identified several protein oligomers in the thylakoid lumen.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis/química , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Membranas Intracelulares/metabolismo , Complexo de Proteína do Fotossistema II/química , Complexo de Proteína do Fotossistema II/metabolismo , Proteoma , Tilacoides/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Eletroforese em Gel Bidimensional/métodos , Eletroforese em Gel de Poliacrilamida/métodos , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Fotossíntese/fisiologia , Complexo de Proteína do Fotossistema II/genética , Filogenia , Processamento de Proteína Pós-Traducional , Proteômica/métodos
13.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445127

RESUMO

The common ice plant (Mesembryanthemum crystallinum L.) is a facultative crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) plant, and its ability to recover from stress-induced CAM has been confirmed. We analysed the photosynthetic metabolism of this plant during the 72-h response period following salinity stress removal from three perspectives. In plants under salinity stress (CAM) we found a decline of the quantum efficiencies of PSII (Y(II)) and PSI (Y(I)) by 17% and 15%, respectively, and an increase in nonphotochemical quenching (NPQ) by almost 25% in comparison to untreated control. However, 48 h after salinity stress removal, the PSII and PSI efficiencies, specifically Y(II) and Y(I), elevated nonphotochemical quenching (NPQ) and donor side limitation of PSI (YND), were restored to the level observed in control (C3 plants). Swelling of the thylakoid membranes, as well as changes in starch grain quantity and size, have been found to be components of the salinity stress response in CAM plants. Salinity stress induced an over 3-fold increase in average starch area and over 50% decline of average seed number in comparison to untreated control. However, in plants withdrawn from salinity stress, during the first 24 h of recovery, we observed chloroplast ultrastructures closely resembling those found in intact (control) ice plants. Rapid changes in photosystem functionality and chloroplast ultrastructure were accompanied by the induction of the expression (within 24 h) of structural genes related to the PSI and PSII reaction centres, including PSAA, PSAB, PSBA (D1), PSBD (D2) and cp43. Our findings describe one of the most flexible photosynthetic metabolic pathways among facultative CAM plants and reveal the extent of the plasticity of the photosynthetic metabolism and related structures in the common ice plant.


Assuntos
Metabolismo Ácido das Crassuláceas/genética , Mesembryanthemum/genética , Fotossíntese/genética , Estresse Salino/genética , Cloroplastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Cloroplastos/genética , Metabolismo Ácido das Crassuláceas/efeitos dos fármacos , Mesembryanthemum/efeitos dos fármacos , Fotossíntese/efeitos dos fármacos , Plastídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Plastídeos/genética , Salinidade , Estresse Salino/efeitos dos fármacos , Cloreto de Sódio/farmacologia , Amido/genética , Tilacoides/efeitos dos fármacos , Tilacoides/genética
14.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445145

RESUMO

The main goal of growing plants under various photoperiods is to optimize photosynthesis for using the effect of day length that often acts on plants in combination with biotic and/or abiotic stresses. In this study, Brassica juncea plants were grown under four different day-length regimes, namely., 8 h day/16 h night, 12 h day/12 h night, 16 h day/8 h night, and continuous light, and were infected with a necrotrophic fungus Alternaria brassicicola. The development of necroses on B. juncea leaves was strongly influenced by leaf position and day length. The largest necroses were formed on plants grown under a 16 h day/8 h night photoperiod at 72 h post-inoculation (hpi). The implemented day-length regimes had a great impact on leaf morphology in response to A. brassicicola infection. They also influenced the chlorophyll and carotenoid contents and photosynthesis efficiency. Both the 1st (the oldest) and 3rd infected leaves showed significantly higher minimal fluorescence (F0) compared to the control leaves. Significantly lower values of other investigated chlorophyll a fluorescence parameters, e.g., maximum quantum yield of photosystem II (Fv/Fm) and non-photochemical quenching (NPQ), were observed in both infected leaves compared to the control, especially at 72 hpi. The oldest infected leaf, of approximately 30% of the B. juncea plants, grown under long-day and continuous light conditions showed a 'green island' phenotype in the form of a green ring surrounding an area of necrosis at 48 hpi. This phenomenon was also reflected in changes in the chloroplast's ultrastructure and accelerated senescence (yellowing) in the form of expanding chlorosis. Further research should investigate the mechanism and physiological aspects of 'green islands' formation in this pathosystem.


Assuntos
Alternaria/patogenicidade , Mostardeira/microbiologia , Mostardeira/fisiologia , Necrose/microbiologia , Necrose/patologia , Fotossíntese/fisiologia , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Carotenoides/metabolismo , Clorofila/metabolismo , Clorofila A/metabolismo , Fluorescência , Mostardeira/metabolismo , Necrose/metabolismo , Fotoperíodo , Complexo de Proteína do Fotossistema II/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/microbiologia
15.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445148

RESUMO

The gram-positive pathogenic bacterium Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis (Cmm) causes bacterial canker disease in tomato, affecting crop yield and fruit quality. To understand how tomato plants respond, the dynamic expression profile of host genes was analyzed upon Cmm infection. Symptoms of bacterial canker became evident from the third day. As the disease progressed, the bacterial population increased in planta, reaching the highest level at six days and remained constant till the twelfth day post inoculation. These two time points were selected for transcriptomics. A progressive down-regulation of key genes encoding for components of the photosynthetic apparatus was observed. Two temporally separated defense responses were observed, which were to an extent interdependent. During the primary response, genes of the phenylpropanoid pathway were diverted towards the synthesis of monolignols away from S-lignin. In dicots, lignin polymers mainly consist of G- and S-units, playing an important role in defense. The twist towards G-lignin enrichment is consistent with previous findings, highlighting a response to generate an early protective barrier and to achieve a tight interplay between lignin recomposition and the primary defense response mechanism. Upon progression of Cmm infection, the temporal deactivation of phenylpropanoids coincided with the upregulation of genes that belong in a secondary response mechanism, supporting an elegant reprogramming of the host transcriptome to establish a robust defense apparatus and suppress pathogen invasion. This high-throughput analysis reveals a dynamic reorganization of plant defense mechanisms upon bacterial infection to implement an array of barriers preventing pathogen invasion and spread.


Assuntos
Regulação para Baixo/genética , Lycopersicon esculentum/genética , Lycopersicon esculentum/microbiologia , Fotossíntese/genética , Imunidade Vegetal/genética , Imunidade Vegetal/imunologia , Clavibacter/genética , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Positivas/genética , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Positivas/imunologia , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Positivas/microbiologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/genética , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/imunologia , Fotossíntese/imunologia , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Doenças das Plantas/imunologia , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Transcriptoma/genética , Regulação para Cima/genética
16.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5092, 2021 08 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34429430

RESUMO

Development of a versatile, sustainable and efficient photosynthesis system that integrates intricate catalytic networks and energy modules at the same location is of considerable future value to energy transformation. In the present study, we develop a coenzyme-mediated supramolecular host-guest semibiological system that combines artificial and enzymatic catalysis for photocatalytic hydrogen evolution from alcohol dehydrogenation. This approach involves modification of the microenvironment of a dithiolene-embedded metal-organic cage to trap an organic dye and NADH molecule simultaneously, serving as a hydrogenase analogue to induce effective proton reduction inside the artificial host. This abiotic photocatalytic system is further embedded into the pocket of the alcohol dehydrogenase to couple enzymatic alcohol dehydrogenation. This host-guest approach allows in situ regeneration of NAD+/NADH couple to transfer protons and electrons between the two catalytic cycles, thereby paving a unique avenue for a synergic combination of abiotic and biotic synthetic sequences for photocatalytic fuel and chemical transformation.


Assuntos
Etanol/química , Fotossíntese/fisiologia , Luz Solar , Catálise , Corantes , Elétrons , Hidrogênio/química , Hidrogenase/química , Cinética , Ligantes , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular
17.
Molecules ; 26(16)2021 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34443651

RESUMO

Caraway (Carum carvi L.) essential oil is a candidate for botanical herbicides. A hypothesis was formulated that the sand-applied maltodextrin-coated caraway oil (MCEO) does not affect the growth of maize (Zea mays L.). In the pot experiment, pre-emergence application of five doses of MCEO was tested on four maize cultivars up to the three-leaf growth stage. The morphological analyses were supported by the measurements of relative chlorophyll content (SPAD), two parameters of chlorophyll a fluorescence, e.g., Fv/Fm and Fv/F0, and fluorescence emission spectra. The analyzed MCEO contained 6.5% caraway EO with carvone and limonene as the main compounds, constituting 95% of the oil. The MCEO caused 7-day delays in maize emergence from the dose of 0.9 g per pot (equal to 96 g m-2). Maize development at the three-leaf growth stage, i.e., length of roots, length of leaves, and biomass of shoots and leaves, was significantly impaired already at the lowest dose of MCEO: 0.4 g per pot, equal to 44 g m-2. A significant drop of both chlorophyll a fluorescence parameters was noted, on average, from the dose of 0.7 g per pot, equal to 69 g m-2. Among the tested cultivars, cv. Rywal and Pomerania were less susceptible to the MCEO compared to the cv. Kurant and Podole. In summary, maize is susceptible to the pre-emergence, sand-applied MCEO from the dose of 44 g m-2.


Assuntos
Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Óleos Vegetais/farmacologia , Zea mays/efeitos dos fármacos , Zea mays/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Biomassa , Carum/química , Clorofila A/metabolismo , Monoterpenos Cicloexânicos/química , Monoterpenos Cicloexânicos/farmacologia , Fluorescência , Herbicidas/farmacologia , Limoneno/química , Limoneno/farmacologia , Fotossíntese/efeitos dos fármacos , Folhas de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Zea mays/metabolismo
18.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445427

RESUMO

Carbonic anhydrases (CAs) are a family of ubiquitous enzymes that catalyze the interconversion of CO2 and HCO3-. The "iota" class (ι-CA) was first found in the marine diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana (tpι-CA) and is widespread among photosynthetic microalgae and prokaryotes. The ι-CA has a domain COG4875 (or COG4337) that can be repeated from one to several times and resembles a calcium-calmodulin protein kinase II association domain (CaMKII-AD). The crystal structure of this domain in the ι-CA from a cyanobacterium and a chlorarachniophyte has been recently determined. However, the three-dimensional organization of the four domain-containing tpι-CA is unknown. Using biophysical techniques and 3-D modeling, we show that the homotetrameric tpι-CA in solution has a flat "drone-like" shape with a core formed by the association of the first two domains of each monomer, and four protruding arms formed by domains 3 and 4. We also observe that the short linker between domains 3 and 4 in each monomer confers high flexibility, allowing for different conformations to be adopted. We propose the possible 3-D structure of a truncated tpι-CA containing fewer domain repeats using experimental data and discuss the implications of this atypical shape on the activity and metal coordination of the ι-CA.


Assuntos
Anidrases Carbônicas/química , Diatomáceas/enzimologia , Cristalografia por Raios X , Diatomáceas/química , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Modelos Moleculares , Fotossíntese , Domínios Proteicos , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray , Ultracentrifugação
19.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445664

RESUMO

The target of rapamycin (TOR) protein kinase is an atypical Ser/Thr protein kinase and evolutionally conserved among yeasts, plants, and mammals. TOR has been established as a central hub for integrating nutrient, energy, hormone, and environmental signals in all the eukaryotes. Despite the conserved functions across eukaryotes, recent research has shed light on the multifaceted roles of TOR signaling in plant-specific functional and mechanistic features. One of the most specific features is the involvement of TOR in plant photosynthesis. The recent development of tools for the functional analysis of plant TOR has helped to uncover the involvement of TOR signaling in several steps preceding photoautotrophy and maintenance of photosynthesis. Here, we present recent novel findings relating to TOR signaling and its roles in regulating plant photosynthesis, including carbon nutrient sense, light absorptions, and leaf and chloroplast development. We also provide some gaps in our understanding of TOR function in photosynthesis that need to be addressed in the future.


Assuntos
Fotossíntese/fisiologia , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo , Autofagia , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/fisiologia
20.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361067

RESUMO

Carotenoids and phenylpropanoids play a dual role of limiting and countering photooxidative stress. We hypothesize that their "antioxidant" function is prominent in plants exposed to summer drought, when climatic conditions exacerbate the light stress. To test this, we conducted a field study on Phillyrea latifolia, a Mediterranean evergreen shrub, carrying out daily physiological and biochemical analyses in spring and summer. We also investigated the functional role of the major phenylpropanoids in different leaf tissues. Summer leaves underwent the most severe drought stress concomitantly with a reduction in radiation use efficiency upon being exposed to intense photooxidative stress, particularly during the central hours of the day. In parallel, a significant daily variation in both carotenoids and phenylpropanoids was observed. Our data suggest that the morning-to-midday increase in zeaxanthin derived from the hydroxylation of ß-carotene to sustain non-photochemical quenching and limit lipid peroxidation in thylakoid membranes. We observed substantial spring-to-summer and morning-to-midday increases in quercetin and luteolin derivatives, mostly in the leaf mesophyll. These findings highlight their importance as antioxidants, countering the drought-induced photooxidative stress. We concluded that seasonal and daily changes in photosynthetic and non-photosynthetic pigments may allow P. latifolia leaves to avoid irreversible photodamage and to cope successfully with the Mediterranean harsh climate.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Oleaceae/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenilpropionatos/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Protetores contra Radiação/farmacologia , Estações do Ano , Estresse Fisiológico , Carotenoides/farmacologia , Secas , Luz , Peroxidação de Lipídeos , Oleaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Oleaceae/efeitos da radiação , Estresse Oxidativo , Fotossíntese , Pigmentação , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Folhas de Planta/efeitos da radiação
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