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1.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4955, 2020 10 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33009385

RESUMO

The light-harvesting-reaction center complex (LH1-RC) from the purple phototrophic bacterium Thiorhodovibrio strain 970 exhibits an LH1 absorption maximum at 960 nm, the most red-shifted absorption for any bacteriochlorophyll (BChl) a-containing species. Here we present a cryo-EM structure of the strain 970 LH1-RC complex at 2.82 Å resolution. The LH1 forms a closed ring structure composed of sixteen pairs of the αß-polypeptides. Sixteen Ca ions are present in the LH1 C-terminal domain and are coordinated by residues from the αß-polypeptides that are hydrogen-bonded to BChl a. The Ca2+-facilitated hydrogen-bonding network forms the structural basis of the unusual LH1 redshift. The structure also revealed the arrangement of multiple forms of α- and ß-polypeptides in an individual LH1 ring. Such organization indicates a mechanism of interplay between the expression and assembly of the LH1 complex that is regulated through interactions with the RC subunits inside.


Assuntos
Cálcio/metabolismo , Microscopia Crioeletrônica , Complexos de Proteínas Captadores de Luz/ultraestrutura , Peptídeos/metabolismo , Fotossíntese , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Bacterioclorofila A/metabolismo , Sítios de Ligação , Chromatiaceae/metabolismo , Detergentes/química , Dimerização , Complexos de Proteínas Captadores de Luz/química , Complexos de Proteínas Captadores de Luz/metabolismo , Lipídeos/química , Peptídeos/química , Quinonas/química
2.
Water Sci Technol ; 82(6): 1092-1101, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33055399

RESUMO

With its advantages of ecological safety, environmental affinity, and high selectivity, allelopathic technology has been widely developed for algae inhibition. However, obtaining effective allelochemicals and realizing their mechanism are difficult. In this paper, a Chinese herbal medicine, namely, Rheum palmatum L. (Chinese rhubarb), was utilized as a source of allelopathic substances for the first time. Four units of rhubarb organic extracts were collected to study the inhibition of growth, photosynthesis, proteins, and algal toxin of Microcystis aeruginosa. Results showed that the ethyl acetate, n-butanol, and aqueous phases of the rhubarb extracts have notable inhibitory effects. After a 16-day treatment, the four extracts reduced M. aeruginosa by 64.1%, 59.3%, 61.9%, and 7.2% with disruption of algal photosynthesis and protein synthesis and reduction of algal toxin.


Assuntos
Microcystis , Rheum , Feromônios , Fotossíntese , Extratos Vegetais
3.
Water Sci Technol ; 82(6): 1102-1110, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33055400

RESUMO

The cyanobacteria Microcystis flos-aquae can cause harmful algal blooms in waterbodies, which threaten the normal functioning of aquatic ecosystems and human health. Some plant extracts are considered as promising algaecides. In this study, the effects of ten plant extracts (Cinnamomum camphora, Ginkgo biloba, Firmiana platanifolia, Salix babylonica, Euphorbia humifusa, Erigeron annuus, Solidago canadensis, Alternanthera philoxeroides, Thalia dealbata and Eichhornia crassipes) against M. flos-aquae were investigated. The results showed that all ten plant extracts had a significant inhibitory effect on M. flos-aquae growth after 96 h (P < 0.01). The inhibition rates of S. babylonica, E. humifusa, S. canadensis and A. philoxeroides were over 70.00%. Furthermore, the E. humifusa extract had the best inhibitory effect on the photosynthesis of M. flos-aquae, with the effective quantum yield of photosystem II and maximal relative electron transport rate decreasing by 97.50% and 97.00%, respectively, after 96 h. Additionally, the E. humifusa extract was found to be non-toxic to non-target organisms such as Brachydanio rerio and Vallisneria spiralis within 96 h. This study contributes to the existing knowledge and data of freshwater cyanobacteria blooms, and provides insights for their control and the restoration of freshwater systems affected by cyanobacteria blooms.


Assuntos
Microcystis , Ecossistema , Fluorescência , Fotossíntese , Extratos Vegetais
4.
Am J Bot ; 107(8): 1165-1176, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32864740

RESUMO

PREMISE: Within closed-canopy forests, vertical gradients of light and atmospheric CO2 drive variations in leaf carbon isotope ratios, leaf mass per area (LMA), and the micromorphology of leaf epidermal cells. Variations in traits observed in preserved or fossilized leaves could enable inferences of past forest canopy closure and leaf function and thereby habitat of individual taxa. However, as yet no calibration study has examined how isotopic, micro- and macromorphological traits, in combination, reflect position within a modern closed-canopy forest or how these could be applied to the fossil record. METHODS: Leaves were sampled from throughout the vertical profile of the tropical forest canopy using the 48.5 m crane at the Daintree Rainforest Observatory, Queensland, Australia. Carbon isotope ratios, LMA, petiole metric (i.e., petiole-width2 /leaf area, a proposed proxy for LMA that can be measured from fossil leaves), and leaf micromorphology (i.e., undulation index and cell area) were compared within species across a range of canopy positions, as quantified by leaf area index (LAI). RESULTS: Individually, cell area, δ13 C, and petiole metric all correlated with both LAI and LMA, but the use of a combined model provided significantly greater predictive power. CONCLUSIONS: Using the observed relationships with leaf carbon isotope ratio and morphology to estimate the range of LAI in fossil floras can provide a measure of canopy closure in ancient forests. Similarly, estimates of LAI and LMA for individual taxa can provide comparative measures of light environment and growth strategy of fossil taxa from within a flora.


Assuntos
Floresta Úmida , Árvores , Austrália , Calibragem , Fósseis , Fotossíntese , Folhas de Planta , Queensland
5.
Am J Bot ; 107(8): 1136-1147, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32864741

RESUMO

PREMISE: Mortality events involving drought and pathogens in natural plant systems are on the rise due to global climate change. In Santa Barbara, California, United States, big berry manzanita (Arctostaphylos glauca) has experienced canopy dieback related to a multi-year drought and infection from fungal pathogens in the Botryosphaeriaceae family. A greenhouse experiment was conducted using Neofusicoccum australe to test the specific influences of drought and fungal infection on A. glauca. METHODS: A full factorial design was used to compare four treatment groups (drought + inoculation; drought - inoculation; watering + inoculation; and control: watering - inoculation). Data were collected for 10 weeks on stress symptoms, changes in leaf fluorescence and photosynthesis, and mortality. RESULTS: Results indicated significant effects of watering and inoculation treatments on net photosynthesis, dark-adapted fluorescence, and disease symptom severity (P < 0.05), and a strong correlation was found between physiological decline and visible stress (P < 0.0001). Mortality differed between treatments, with all groups except for the control experiencing mortality (43% mortality in drought - inoculation, 83% in watering - inoculation, and 100% in drought + inoculation). A Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed drought + inoculation to have the least estimated survivorship compared to all other treatment groups. CONCLUSIONS: In addition to a possible synergistic interaction between drought and fungal infection in disease onset and mortality rates in A. glauca, these results indicate that young, non-drought-stressed plants are susceptible to mortality from N. australe infection, with important implications for the future of wildland shrub communities.


Assuntos
Arctostaphylos , Ascomicetos , Secas , Fotossíntese , Folhas de Planta
6.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 203: 111025, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32888593

RESUMO

We investigated individual and combined effects of environmentally representative concentrations of amoxicillin (AMX; 2 µg l-1), enrofloxacin (ENR; 2 µg l-1), and oxytetracycline (OXY; 1 µg l-1) on the aquatic macrophyte Lemna minor. While the concentrations of AMX and ENR tested were not toxic, OXY decreased plant growth and cell division. OXY induced hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) accumulation and related oxidative stress through its interference with the activities of mitochondria electron transport chain enzymes, although those deleterious effects could be ameliorated by the presence of AMX and/or ENR, which prevented the overaccumulation of ROS by increasing catalase enzyme activity. L. minor plants accumulated significant quantities of AMX, ENR and OXY from the media, although competitive uptakes were observed when plants were submitted to binary or tertiary mixtures of those antibiotics. Our results therefore indicate L. minor as a candidate for phytoremediation of service waters contaminated by AMX, ENR, and/or OXY.


Assuntos
Amoxicilina/toxicidade , Araceae/efeitos dos fármacos , Enrofloxacina/toxicidade , Oxitetraciclina/toxicidade , Fotossíntese/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Amoxicilina/análise , Amoxicilina/metabolismo , Araceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Araceae/metabolismo , Biodegradação Ambiental , Catalase/metabolismo , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Interações Medicamentosas , Enrofloxacina/análise , Enrofloxacina/metabolismo , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Oxitetraciclina/análise , Oxitetraciclina/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
7.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 203: 111019, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32888606

RESUMO

Sulfur dioxide (SO2) is one of the most common and harmful air pollutants. High concentrations of SO2 can induce a series of defensive responses in Arabidopsis plants. However, the role of photosynthesis in the plant response to SO2 stress is not clear. Here, we report the photosynthetic responses of Arabidopsis plants to SO2 stress. Exposure to 30 mg/m3 SO2 decreased stomatal conductance (Gs) and transpiration rate (Tr) but increased photosynthetic pigments and net photosynthetic rate (Pn). The contents of carbohydrates and sucrose were not altered. The transcript levels of most genes related to photosystem II (PSII), cytochrome b6/f (Cytb6f), photosystem I (PSI) and carbon fixation were upregulated, revealing one important regulatory circuit for the maintenance of chloroplast homeostasis under SO2 stress. Exposure to SO2 triggered reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, accompanied by increases in superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and the contents of cysteine (Cys), glutathione (GSH) and non-protein thiol (NPT), which maintained cellular redox homeostasis. Together, our results indicated that chloroplast photosynthesis was involved in the plant response to SO2 stress. The photosynthetic responses were related to photosynthetic pigments, photosynthesis gene expression and redox regulation.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Arabidopsis/efeitos dos fármacos , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Fotossíntese/efeitos dos fármacos , Pigmentos Biológicos/metabolismo , Dióxido de Enxofre/toxicidade , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Cloroplastos/metabolismo , Regulação para Baixo , Fotossíntese/genética , Complexo de Proteína do Fotossistema I/metabolismo , Complexo de Proteína do Fotossistema II/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Regulação para Cima
8.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 205: 111350, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32961487

RESUMO

Atmospheric nitrogen dioxide (NO2) negatively affects plant (crop) growth and development, as well the yield and quality in some regions or environments. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (AMF)-mediated amelioration of NO2-induced plant damage has been reported, but the underlying mechanisms remained unclear. This study explored the beneficial effect of AMF symbiosis on tomato plant responses to NO2 at physiology, biochemistry, and gene expression, with an emphasis on nitrate metabolism, antioxidative defense, and photosynthetic performance. Pot-grown plants were used in the experiments, which were performed in laboratory from February to November 2019. NO2 fumigation with a dose of 10 ± 1 ppm was carried out after 50 d of plant growth, and data were collected following 8 h of fumigation. NO2 fumigation (+NO2) and AMF inoculation (+AMF), alone and especially in combination (NO2 + AMF), increased the gene expression of nitrate- and nitrite reductase, and their enzymatic activity in leaves, such as by 61%, 27%, and 126% for the activity of nitrate reductase, and by 95%, 37%, and 188% for nitrite reductase, respectively, in +NO2, +AMF, and AMF + NO2 plants relative the control (-NO2, -AMF) levels. Following NO2 exposure, +AMF leaves displayed stronger activities of superoxide dismutase, peroxidase and catalase, and higher content of glutathione and ratio of its reduced form to oxidized form, as compared with -AMF ones. Correspondingly, lesser oxidative damage was detected in +AMF than in -AMF plants, as indicated by the contents of H2O2 and malondialdehyde, electrolyte leakage, also by in situ visualization for the formation of H2O2, superoxide anion, and dead cells. The increased antioxidative capacity in +AMF plants was correlated with enhanced expression of antioxidation-related genes. Exposure to NO2 substantially impaired photosynthetic processes in both + AMF and -AMF plants, but an obvious mitigation was observed in the former than in the latter. For example, the total chlorophyll, net photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, and ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase activity were 18%, 27%, 26%, and 40% higher, respectively, in +AMF than in -AMF plants under NO2 stress. The differential photosynthetic performance was also revealed by chlorophyll fluorescence imaging. We analyzed the expression patterns of some genes related to photosynthesis and carbon metabolisms, and found that all of them exclusively presented a higher expression level in +AMF plants relative to -AMF ones under NO2 stress. Taken together, this study provided evidence that AMF symbiosis played a positively regulatory role in host plant responses to NO2, probably by increasing leaf nitrate metabolism and antioxidative defense, and maintaining the photosynthetic efficiency to some extent, wherein the transcription regulation might be a main target.


Assuntos
Lycopersicon esculentum/fisiologia , Micorrizas/fisiologia , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/toxicidade , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Clorofila/metabolismo , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Lycopersicon esculentum/metabolismo , Lycopersicon esculentum/microbiologia , Micorrizas/metabolismo , Oxirredução , Fotossíntese/fisiologia , Desenvolvimento Vegetal , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo
9.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 205: 111359, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32961490

RESUMO

As one of the most commonly used and frequently detected herbicides in the coastal seawater, the ecotoxicity of atrazine to phytoplankton has been well demonstrated. However, little attention has been paid to the ecotoxicity of its two major hydrolysates (desisopropylatrazine (DIA) and desethylatrazine (DEA)), which are also widely distributed in natural seawater. Here we present a comprehensive analysis of the photosynthetic physiology and chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) characteristics of the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum Pt-1 (CCMP 2561) under atrazine, DIA and DEA stress, respectively. The results showed that both atrazine and the two derivatives had significant negative effects on the concentration of chlorophyll a, maximum quantum efficiency (Fv/Fm) and relative electron transport rates (rETR) of P. tricornutum Pt-1. Furthermore, the CDOM pattern released by P. tricornutum Pt-1 cells also changed significantly after 7-day exposure. Compared with the control group, the fluorescence intensity (3D-EEM spectra) of protein-like components was obviously lower, while that of the humic acid-like components was higher. The findings of this study indicate that the ecotoxicity of atrazine might have been underestimated in previous investigations: both atrazine and its two major derivatives are not only phototoxic to microalgae but also influence the carbon sequestration potential in the coastal seawater.


Assuntos
Atrazina/toxicidade , Sequestro de Carbono , Diatomáceas/fisiologia , Fotossíntese/efeitos dos fármacos , Clorofila A , Diatomáceas/efeitos dos fármacos , Transporte de Elétrons , Fluorescência , Herbicidas/toxicidade , Microalgas , Fitoplâncton/efeitos dos fármacos , Água do Mar
10.
Chemosphere ; 258: 127337, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32947656

RESUMO

The experiment was designed to evaluate the roles of Rhizophagus irregularis on chlorophyll fluorescence and chromium bioaccumulation in a grass species (Brachiaria mutica) by supplementing Cr+6 at different concentrations. Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi (AMF) association facilitated lessening of chromium level in contaminated soil and enhanced chromium bioavailability in Brachiaria mutica. The mycorrhizal inoculated increased the chlorophyll (0.925 mg/g), carotenoid (0.127 mg/g), protein (2.883 mg/g), proline (0.889 mg/g) contents and activities of antioxidant enzymes like catalase, ascorbate peroxidase and glutathione peroxidase. The mycorrhizal inoculated plants also showed enhanced overall photosynthetic performance (PIϕ = 2.473) and enhanced PS-II to PS-I electron transport as evident from yield parameter (0.712) and TR0/RC (2.419) for 60 mg/kg Cr+6 treatment. The observations suggest that AMF association could defend the plants from chromium stress by elevating the number of antioxidants in plants. Rhizophagus irregularis was found to maintain a successful symbiotic relationship with Brachiaria mutica in chromium contaminated soil. The observations recommended that Rhizophagus irregularis in association with Brachiaria mutica would be an innovative approach for decontamination of Cr+6.


Assuntos
Biodegradação Ambiental , Brachiaria/metabolismo , Cromo/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Bioacumulação , Clorofila/metabolismo , Cromo/análise , Glomeromycota/metabolismo , Micorrizas/metabolismo , Fotossíntese , Plantas/metabolismo , Poaceae/metabolismo , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Simbiose
11.
Am J Bot ; 107(9): 1238-1252, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32931042

RESUMO

PREMISE: The impact of elevated CO2 concentration ([CO2 ]) and climate warming on plant productivity in dryland ecosystems is influenced strongly by soil moisture availability. We predicted that the influence of warming on the stimulation of photosynthesis by elevated [CO2 ] in prairie plants would operate primarily through direct and indirect effects on soil water. METHODS: We measured light-saturated photosynthesis (Anet ), stomatal conductance (gs ), maximum Rubisco carboxylation rate (Vcmax ), maximum electron transport capacity (Jmax ) and related variables in four C3 plant species in the Prairie Heating and CO2 Enrichment (PHACE) experiment in southeastern Wyoming. Measurements were conducted over two growing seasons that differed in the amount of precipitation and soil moisture content. RESULTS: Anet in the C3 subshrub Artemisia frigida and the C3 forb Sphaeralcea coccinea was stimulated by elevated [CO2 ] under ambient and warmed temperature treatments. Warming by itself reduced Anet in all species during the dry year, but stimulated photosynthesis in S. coccinea in the wet year. In contrast, Anet in the C3 grass Pascopyrum smithii was not stimulated by elevated [CO2 ] or warming under wet or dry conditions. Photosynthetic downregulation under elevated [CO2 ] in this species countered the potential stimulatory effect under improved water relations. Warming also reduced the magnitude of CO2 -induced down-regulation in this grass, possibly by sustaining high levels of carbon utilization. CONCLUSIONS: Direct and indirect effects of elevated [CO2 ] and warming on soil water was an overriding factor influencing patterns of Anet in this semi-arid temperate grassland, emphasizing the important role of water relations in driving grassland responses to global change.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono , Fotossíntese , Clima , Mudança Climática , Ecossistema , Pradaria , Solo
12.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 203: 111007, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32888586

RESUMO

Soil acidification is one of the crucial global environmental problems, affecting sustainable land use, crop yield, and ecosystem stability. Previous research reported the tolerance of crops to acid soil stress. However, the molecular response of woody plant to acid conditions remains largely unclear. Rhododendron L. is a widely distributed woody plant genus and prefers to grow in acidic soils. Herein, weighted gene coexpression network analysis was performed on R. protistum var. giganteum seedlings subjected to five pH treatments (3.5, 4.5, 5.5, 6.0, 7.0), and their ecophysiological characteristics were determined for the identification of their molecular responses to acidic environments. Through pairwise comparison, 855 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) associated with photosynthesis, cell wall, and phenylpropanoid metabolism were identified. Most of the DEGs related to photosynthesis and cell wall were up-regulated after pH 4.5 treatment. Results implied that the species improves its photosynthetic abilities and changes its cell wall characteristics to adapt to acidic conditions. Weighted gene co-expression network analyses showed that most of the hub genes were annotated to the biosynthetic pathways of ribosomal proteins and photosynthesis. Expression pattern analysis showed that genes encoding subunit ribosomal proteins decreased at pH 7.0 treatment, suggesting that pH 7.0 treatment led to cell injury in the seedlings. The species regulates protein synthesis in response to high pH stress (pH 7.0). The present study revealed the molecular response mechanism of woody plant R. protistum var. giganteum to acid environments. These findings can be useful in enriching current knowledge of how woody species adapt to soil acidification under global environmental changes.


Assuntos
Ácidos/farmacologia , Parede Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Fotossíntese/efeitos dos fármacos , Madeira/efeitos dos fármacos , Parede Celular/genética , Parede Celular/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Redes Reguladoras de Genes/efeitos dos fármacos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Fotossíntese/genética , Plântula/efeitos dos fármacos , Plântula/metabolismo , Solo/química , Estresse Fisiológico/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Madeira/genética , Madeira/metabolismo
13.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 203: 111016, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32888590

RESUMO

Selenium (Se) is considered a beneficial element to higher plants based on its regulation of antioxidative system under abiotic or biotic stresses. However, the limit of beneficial and toxic physiological effects of Se is very narrow. In the present study, the antioxidant performance, nutritional composition, long-distance transport of Se, photosynthetic pigments, and growth of Coffea arabica genotypes in response to Se concentration in solution were evaluated. Five Coffea arabica genotypes (Obatã, IPR99, IAC125, IPR100 and Catucaí) were used, which were grown in the absence and presence of Se (0 and 1.0 mmol L-1) in nutrient solution. The application of 1 mmol L-1 Se promoted root browning in all genotypes. There were no visual symptoms of leaf toxicity, but there was a reduction in the concentration of phosphorus and sulfur in the shoots of plants exposed to high Se concentration. Except for genotype Obatã, the coffee seedlings presented strategies for regulating Se uptake by reducing long-distance transport of Se from roots to shoots. The concentrations of total chlorophyll, total pheophytin, and carotenoids were negatively affected in genotypes Obatã, IPR99, and IAC125 upon exposure to Se at 1 mmol L-1. H2O2 production was reduced in genotypes IPR99, IPR100, and IAC125 upon exposure to Se, resulting in lower activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT). These results suggest that antioxidant metabolism was effective in regulating oxidative stress in plants treated with Se. The increase in sucrose, and decrease in SOD, CAT and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activities, as well as Se compartmentalization in the roots, were the main biochemical and physiological modulatory effects of coffee seedlings under stress conditions due to excess of Se.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Coffea/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Selênio/farmacologia , Coffea/genética , Coffea/metabolismo , Coffea/fisiologia , Genótipo , Oxirredução , Fotossíntese/efeitos dos fármacos , Raízes de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Plântula/efeitos dos fármacos , Plântula/genética , Plântula/metabolismo , Plântula/fisiologia , Selênio/análise , Selênio/metabolismo , Especificidade da Espécie
15.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4519, 2020 09 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32908150

RESUMO

The leaf economics spectrum (LES) describes consistent correlations among a variety of leaf traits that reflect a gradient from conservative to acquisitive plant strategies. So far, whether the LES holds in wetland plants at a global scale has been unclear. Using data on 365 wetland species from 151 studies, we find that wetland plants in general show a shift within trait space along the same common slope as observed in non-wetland plants, with lower leaf mass per area, higher leaf nitrogen and phosphorus, faster photosynthetic rates, and shorter leaf life span compared to non-wetland plants. We conclude that wetland plants tend to cluster at the acquisitive end of the LES. The presented global quantifications of the LES in wetland plants enhance our understanding of wetland plant strategies in terms of resources acquisition and allocation, and provide a stepping-stone to developing trait-based approaches for wetland ecology.


Assuntos
Fotossíntese/genética , Folhas de Planta/genética , Plantas/genética , Áreas Alagadas , Nitrogênio/análise , Fósforo/análise , Folhas de Planta/anatomia & histologia , Folhas de Planta/química , Plantas/anatomia & histologia , Plantas/metabolismo
16.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4509, 2020 09 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32908151

RESUMO

Glycolysis is one of the primordial pathways of metabolism, playing a pivotal role in energy metabolism and biosynthesis. Glycolytic enzymes are known to form transient multi-enzyme assemblies. Here we examine the wider protein-protein interactions of plant glycolytic enzymes and reveal a moonlighting role for specific glycolytic enzymes in mediating the co-localization of mitochondria and chloroplasts. Knockout mutation of phosphoglycerate mutase or enolase resulted in a significantly reduced association of the two organelles. We provide evidence that phosphoglycerate mutase and enolase form a substrate-channelling metabolon which is part of a larger complex of proteins including pyruvate kinase. These results alongside a range of genetic complementation experiments are discussed in the context of our current understanding of chloroplast-mitochondrial interactions within photosynthetic eukaryotes.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/fisiologia , Cloroplastos/enzimologia , Glicólise/fisiologia , Mitocôndrias/enzimologia , Arabidopsis/citologia , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Metabolismo Energético/fisiologia , Mutação , Fosfoglicerato Mutase/genética , Fosfoglicerato Mutase/metabolismo , Fosfopiruvato Hidratase/genética , Fosfopiruvato Hidratase/metabolismo , Fotossíntese/fisiologia , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Mapeamento de Interação de Proteínas , Mapas de Interação de Proteínas/fisiologia , Piruvato Quinase/genética , Piruvato Quinase/metabolismo
17.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0237952, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32970685

RESUMO

Asarum heterotropoides Fr. var. mandshuricum (Maxim) Kitag (Chinese wild ginger) is an important medicinal herb. Essential oil extracted from its roots is the key ingredient and is mainly composed of phenylpropanoid compounds. As a skiophyte plant, light is a crucial factor for A. heterotropoides var. mandshuricum growth and metabolism. To investigate the effects of light irradiation on the essential oil biosynthesis in A. heterotropoides var. mandshuricum, the plants were cultivated in four light irradiation treatments (100, 50, 24 and 12% full sunlight). The photosynthetic capacity, essential oil content and composition, activities of several enzymes and levels of some secondary metabolites involved in the shikimic acid and cinnamic acid pathways were analyzed. The leaf mass per area, average diurnal net photosynthetic rate, and the essential oil content increased significantly with increasing light intensity. Phenylalanine, cinnamic acid, and p-coumaric acid in the cinnamic acid pathway were at their highest levels in plants cultivated in 100% full sunlight. The highest content of shikimic acid in the shikimic acid pathway was obtained in plants grown in 50% sunlight transmittance. The activity of the enzymes 3-Deoxy-D-arabino-heptulosonate-7-phosphate synthase, phenylalanine ammonia lyase, cinnamate-4-hydroxylase and 4-coumarate:CoA ligase increased proportionally with light intensity. Overall, we conclude that high light irradiation promotes high net photosynthetic rate, high activity of enzymes and high amounts of phenylpropanoid precursor metabolites leading to significant biosynthesis of essential oil in A. heterotropoides var. mandshuricum.


Assuntos
Asarum/metabolismo , Óleos Voláteis/metabolismo , Fotossíntese , Óleos Vegetais/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Luz Solar , Asarum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Asarum/efeitos da radiação , Óleos Voláteis/efeitos da radiação , Óleos Vegetais/efeitos da radiação , Raízes de Plantas/classificação , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raízes de Plantas/efeitos da radiação
18.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(37): 23158-23164, 2020 09 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32868421

RESUMO

The recently discovered, chlorophyll-f-containing, far-red photosystem II (FR-PSII) supports far-red light photosynthesis. Participation and kinetics of spectrally shifted far-red pigments are directly observable and separated from that of bulk chlorophyll-a We present an ultrafast transient absorption study of FR-PSII, investigating energy transfer and charge separation processes. Results show a rapid subpicosecond energy transfer from chlorophyll-a to the long-wavelength chlorophylls-f/d The data demonstrate the decay of an ∼720-nm negative feature on the picosecond-to-nanosecond timescales, coinciding with charge separation, secondary electron transfer, and stimulated emission decay. An ∼675-nm bleach attributed to the loss of chl-a absorption due to the formation of a cation radical, PD1 +•, is only fully developed in the nanosecond spectra, indicating an unusually delayed formation. A major spectral feature on the nanosecond timescale at 725 nm is attributed to an electrochromic blue shift of a FR-chlorophyll among the reaction center pigments. These time-resolved observations provide direct experimental support for the model of Nürnberg et al. [D. J. Nürnberg et al., Science 360, 1210-1213 (2018)], in which the primary electron donor is a FR-chlorophyll and the secondary donor is chlorophyll-a (PD1 of the central chlorophyll pair). Efficient charge separation also occurs using selective excitation of long-wavelength chlorophylls-f/d, and the localization of the excited state on P720* points to a smaller (entropic) energy loss compared to conventional PSII, where the excited state is shared over all of the chlorin pigments. This has important repercussions on understanding the overall energetics of excitation energy transfer and charge separation reactions in FR-PSII.


Assuntos
Clorofila/metabolismo , Transferência de Energia/fisiologia , Fotossíntese/fisiologia , Complexo de Proteína do Fotossistema II/metabolismo , Transporte de Elétrons/fisiologia , Cinética , Luz , Análise Espectral/métodos
19.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(37): 23131-23139, 2020 09 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32868427

RESUMO

Lipid droplets (LDs) are intracellular organelles found in a wide range of organisms and play important roles in stress tolerance. During nitrogen (N) starvation, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii stores large amounts of triacylglycerols (TAGs) inside LDs. When N is resupplied, the LDs disappear and the TAGs are degraded, presumably providing carbon and energy for regrowth. The mechanism by which cells degrade LDs is poorly understood. Here, we isolated a mutant (dth1-1, Delayed in TAG Hydrolysis 1) in which TAG degradation during recovery from N starvation was compromised. Consequently, the dth1-1 mutant grew poorly compared to its parental line during N recovery. Two additional independent loss-of-function mutants (dth1-2 and dth1-3) also exhibited delayed TAG remobilization. DTH1 transcript levels increased sevenfold upon N resupply, and DTH1 protein was localized to LDs. DTH1 contains a putative lipid-binding domain (DTH1LBD) with alpha helices predicted to be structurally similar to those in apolipoproteins E and A-I. Recombinant DTH1LBD bound specifically to phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), a major phospholipid coating the LD surface. Overexpression of DTH1LBD in Chlamydomonas phenocopied the dth1 mutant's defective TAG degradation, suggesting that the function of DTH1 depends on its ability to bind PE. Together, our results demonstrate that the lipid-binding DTH1 plays an essential role in LD degradation and provide insight into the molecular mechanism of protein anchorage to LDs at the LD surface in photosynthetic cells.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Algas/metabolismo , Chlamydomonas reinhardtii/metabolismo , Gotículas Lipídicas/metabolismo , Proteína de Ligação a Fosfatidiletanolamina/metabolismo , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/fisiologia , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Fosfolipídeos/metabolismo , Fotossíntese/fisiologia , Triglicerídeos/metabolismo
20.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 202: 110955, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32800229

RESUMO

The effects of cadmium (Cd) have been investigated in an aquatic plant Ottelia alismoides grown under low CO2. Under low CO2, no Cd treated O. alismoides operated three carbon dioxide-concentrating mechanisms (CCMs) efficiently, including HCO3- acquisition, C4 and CAM photosynthesis. After 4 days of treatment with 200 µM and 2000 µM Cd, O. alismoides exhibited an elevated Cd accumulation along with the increasing Cd concentration. Both Cd treatments induced appreciable phytotoxicities in O. alismoides. The leaves showed chlorosis symptoms and the anatomy as well as chloroplast ultrastructure were obviously damaged. Significant decreases in the content of pigments, chlorophyll fluorescence (Fv/Fm and Yield of PS II) and carbon isotope ratio (δ13C) were measured in leaf extracts of O. alismoides grown with both concentrations of Cd. In addition, the pH-drift technique showed that both Cd-treated O. alismoides plants could not uptake HCO3-. The maximum and minimum acidity in Cd-exposed O. alismoides were greatly decreased and the diurnal change of acidity was absent in both Cd treated plants. Furthermore, significant decreases in ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco), pyruvate phosphate dikinase (PPDK) and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) activities were also found at Cd treated O. alismoides plants, indicating the disturbance within C4 cycle. The alterations in the functionality of CCMs in O. alismoides induced by Cd might be related with the inhibition of the enzymes such as carbonic anhydrase (CA) and PEPC involved in inorganic carbon fixation, and the destruction of chloroplasts, as well as the re-allocation of energy and nutrients involved in CCMs and Cd detoxification.


Assuntos
Organismos Aquáticos/efeitos dos fármacos , Cádmio/toxicidade , Dióxido de Carbono/metabolismo , Hydrocharitaceae/efeitos dos fármacos , Fotossíntese/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Organismos Aquáticos/metabolismo , Anidrases Carbônicas/metabolismo , Cloroplastos/metabolismo , Hydrocharitaceae/metabolismo , Ribulose-Bifosfato Carboxilase/metabolismo
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