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1.
Science ; 365(6457): 978-979, 2019 09 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31488671
2.
Microb Cell Fact ; 18(1): 161, 2019 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31547820

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Numerous studies have shown that stress induction and genetic engineering can effectively increase lipid accumulation, but lead to a decrease of growth in the majority of microalgae. We previously found that elevated CO2 concentration increased lipid productivity as well as growth in Phaeodactylum tricornutum, along with an enhancement of the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway (OPPP) activity. The purpose of this work directed toward the verification of the critical role of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH), the rate-limiting enzyme in the OPPP, in lipid accumulation in P. tricornutum and its simultaneous rapid growth rate under high-CO2 (0.15%) cultivation. RESULTS: In this study, G6PDH was identified as a target for algal strain improvement, wherein G6PDH gene was successfully overexpressed and antisense knockdown in P. tricornutum, and systematic comparisons of the photosynthesis performance, algal growth, lipid content, fatty acid profiles, NADPH production, G6PDH activity and transcriptional abundance were performed. The results showed that, due to the enhanced G6PDH activity, transcriptional abundance and NAPDH production, overexpression of G6PDH accompanied by high-CO2 cultivation resulted in a much higher of both lipid content and growth in P. tricornutum, while knockdown of G6PDH greatly decreased algal growth as well as lipid accumulation. In addition, the total proportions of saturated and unsaturated fatty acid, especially the polyunsaturated fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; C20:5, n-3), were highly increased in high-CO2 cultivated G6PDH overexpressed strains. CONCLUSIONS: The successful of overexpression and antisense knockdown of G6PDH well demonstrated the positive influence of G6PDH on algal growth and lipid accumulation in P. tricornutum. The improvement of algal growth, lipid content as well as polyunsaturated fatty acids in high-CO2 cultivated G6PDH overexpressed P. tricornutum suggested this G6PDH overexpression-high CO2 cultivation pattern provides an efficient and economical route for algal strain improvement to develop algal-based biodiesel production.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono/metabolismo , Diatomáceas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Diatomáceas/genética , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Glucosefosfato Desidrogenase/genética , Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Diatomáceas/metabolismo , Engenharia Genética , Glucosefosfato Desidrogenase/metabolismo , Microalgas/genética , Microalgas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Microalgas/metabolismo , NADP/metabolismo , Via de Pentose Fosfato , Fotossíntese
3.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 30(9): 2941-2948, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31529868

RESUMO

To explore the photosynthetic adaptation of Phoebe bournei to different light conditions, two-year-old P. bournei seedlings were grown under three light regimes (full light, shading rate 50% and 78% of full light). The chlorophyll contents, leaf gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence of P. bournei were measured after six-month treatment. The results showed that the contents of chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, chlorophyll (a+b) and carotenoids in leaves were in a descending order of shading rate 78% > shading rate 50% > full light. There was no significant difference of chlorophyll a/b between natural and shade treatments. The shading treatment reduced light compensation point (LCP), but increased light saturation point (LSP) and apparent quantum yield (AQY), suggesting that plants could utilize both the weak light and the high light. Maximum net photosynthetic rate (Pn max), dark respiration rate (Rd), and maximum electron transfer rate (Jmax) increased under the shading treatment. There was significant difference between natural and shade treatment in net photosynthetic rate (Pn), stomatal conductance to CO2(gsc), intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci), and mesophyll conductance (gm). Pn and gm of different light regimes were sorted from the highest to the lowest as shading rate 78% > shading rate 50% > full light. gsc under shading rate 78% was higher than that under full light. Ci under shading rate 50% and 78% were lower than that under full light. Actual photochemical efficiency of PS2 (Fv'/Fm'), quantum yields of PS2 (ΦPS2), and electron transport rate (J) of P. bournei leaves were significantly higher under shading rate 78% than those under shading rate 50% and full light. In conclusion, P. bournei could increase Pn by increasing chlorophyll content, AQY, J, gsc, and gm under shade condition.


Assuntos
Clorofila/metabolismo , Lauraceae/fisiologia , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Clorofila/análise , Clorofila A , Fotossíntese/fisiologia , Folhas de Planta/química , Plântula , Luz Solar
4.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 30(9): 3019-3027, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31529877

RESUMO

We examined the role of photosynthesis in regulating soil CO2 emission under nitrogen enrichment in Keerqin sandy grassland. Results showed that nitrogen (N) application could affect soil respiration rate by altering the allocation of photosynthetic products to the belowground. Gross ecosystem photosynthesis rate (GEP) was positively correlated with soil respiration rate (Rs). Nitrogen application reduced slope of the fitting function from 0.236 to 0.161, with the equation intercept difference (0.51 µmol·m-2·s-1) being similar to the nighttime soil respiration rate increment (0.52 µmol·m-2·s-1). From May to October, the difference of photosynthetic rate (differential ratio) caused by nitrogen application was significantly correlated with that of soil respiration (differential ratio). Results from partial correlation confirmed the essential role of photosynthetic rate difference (ΔGEP) in driving soil respiration rate difference (ΔRs) caused by nitrogen application. In the nighttime, soil respiration rate was affected by the aboveground vegetation activities in daytime. The daily mean GEP was an important factor affecting the nighttime soil respiration rate difference (ΔRs) (P<0.01). Photosynthesis, rather than soil temperature, was the main factor affecting soil respiration rate difference (ΔRs) under nitrogen application. Thus, the role of photosynthetic assimilation-regulating may provide a novel supplement for elucidating the responses of soil respiration to nitrogen enrichment.


Assuntos
Pradaria , Nitrogênio , Fotossíntese , Solo/química , Dióxido de Carbono , Ecossistema , Estações do Ano
5.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 30(9): 3137-3144, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31529889

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects and underlying physiological mecha-nisms of partial root zone irrigation (PRI) and rational close planting, as well as their interaction on yield and water productivity (WP) of cotton and to explore new alternatives of water-saving irrigation in dry land areas. A factorial field experiment with irrigation mode (normal irrigation, partial root-zone irrigation and deficient irrigation) and plant population density (135000, 180000 and 225000 plants·hm-2) was conducted in the west of Inner Mongolia to examine their effects on cotton growth, yield, water productivity and related physiological characters. The results showed that the irrigation mode and plant density as well as their interaction significantly affected the biomass, yield, yield components and harvest index. Under normal irrigation, the biomass and the number of bolls per unit area increased with the increasing of plant density, but the harvest index and boll weight significantly reduced. The yield of high plant density was comparable to that of medium plant density, both of which were increased significantly compared with that of low plant density. The content of abscisic acid (ABA) significantly increased and that of auxin (IAA) significantly reduced in cotton leaves under partial root-zone irrigation, which significantly increased the harvest index by improving the partitioning of assimilates to reproductive organs under partial root-zone irrigation. The number of bolls per unit area increased and boll mass remained unchanged with the increasing of density under partial root-zone irrigation. The yield of high density increased by 6.7% and 11.5% compared with that of medium and low density under partial root zone irrigation. The pre-frost seed cotton increased by 22.5%, the amount of irrigation reduced by 30%, and water productivity increased by 49.3% under partial root zone irrigation compared with that under normal irrigation at high plant density. Plant density did not affect photosynthetic rate (Pn) of functional leaves, but irrigation mode significantly affected Pn. Deficient irrigation significantly reduced the Pn of the main-stem functional leaves, but the Pn under partial root-zone irrigation was comparable to that of normal irrigation. The jasmonate (JA) content and the expression level of plasma membrane intrinsic protein (PIP) gene were significantly increased in the hydrated root under partial root-zone irrigation compared with those under normal irrigation. The results suggested that the increased JA content, as a signal molecule, up-regulated the expression level of PIP gene in dehydrated root and increased water uptake capacity of roots and guaranteed water balance of leaves, and then contributed to a relatively high Pn. Partial root-zone irrigation combined with relatively high plant density (225000 plants·hm-2) is an important agronomic alternative for water saving in cotton plantation in the dry land areas.


Assuntos
Irrigação Agrícola/métodos , Gossypium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Água , Biomassa , China , Fotossíntese
6.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 30(9): 3175-3182, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31529893

RESUMO

The effects of red/blue=3/1 [R/B=3/1(9/3), as control, CK1], white light (W, as control, CK2), and combined light of red, blue and white [R/B/W=3/1/1 (9/3/3), T1; R/B/W=9/3/8, T2; R/B/W=3/1/6 (9/3/18), T3; R/B/W=3/1/16 (9/3/48), T4] on the growth, root development, quality and yield of eggplants were examined to provide theoretical and technical support for intensive and high-efficient light supplement and eggplant seedlings cultivation, using LED to accurately regulate light environment and 'Gailiangdalong' eggplant, based on the previous findings of the benefits of R/B=3/1 to the cultivation of eggplant seedlings. The results showed that R/B/W=9/3/8 treatment significantly increased plant height, stem diameter, seedling index, shoot dry weight, root dry weight, root development, anthocyanins and flavonoids content in eggplant peels and early yield. Root/shoot, total phenolic content in eggplant peels and soluble sugar content in pulps under R/B/W=3/1/1 treatment were significantly higher than those of other treatments. Total leaf area and free amino acid content in pulps were higher under R/B/W=3/1/6 treatment. The soluble protein content in pulps was higher under R/B/W=3/1/16 treatment. In summary, combined LED light of red, blue and white could improve the quality of eggplant seedlings and the yield and quality of eggplant fruits, with R/B/W=9/3/8 treatment being the best one in our study.


Assuntos
Luz , Solanum melongena/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Frutas , Fotossíntese , Plântula
7.
BMC Plant Biol ; 19(1): 335, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31370805

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Drought is a serious causal factor of reduced crop yields than any other abiotic stresses. As one of the most widely distributed crops, maize plants frequently suffer from drought stress, which causes great losses in the final kernel yield. Drought stress response in plants showed tissue- and developmental stage-specific characteristics. RESULTS: In this study, the ears at the V9 stage, kernels and ear leaf at the 5DAP (days after pollination) stage of maize were used for morphological, physiological and comparative transcriptomics analysis to understand the different features of "sink" or "source" organs and the effects on kernel yield under drought stress conditions. The ABA-, NAC-mediate signaling pathway, osmotic protective substance synthesis and protein folding response were identified as common drought stress response in the three organs. Tissue-specific drought stress responses and the regulators were identified, they were highly correlated with growth, physiological adaptation and yield loss under drought stress. For ears, drought stress inhibited ear elongation, led to the abnormal differentiation of the paired spikelet, and auxin signaling involved in the regulation of cell division and growth and primordium development changes. In the kernels, reduced kernel size caused by drought stress was observed, and the obvious differences of auxin, BR and cytokine signaling transduction appeared, which indicated the modification in carbohydrate metabolism, cell differentiation and growth retardation. For the ear leaf, dramatically and synergistically reduced the expression of photosynthesis genes were observed when suffered from drought stress, the ABA- and NAC- mediate signaling pathway played important roles in the regulation of photosynthesis. CONCLUSIONS: Transcriptomic changes caused by drought were highly correlated with developmental and physiological adaptation, which was closely related to the final yield of maize, and a sketch of tissue- and developmental stage-specific responses to drought stress in maize was drafted.


Assuntos
Zea mays/fisiologia , Produção Agrícola , Desidratação , Grão Comestível/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Grão Comestível/fisiologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/fisiologia , Fotossíntese , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Folhas de Planta/fisiologia , Zea mays/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Zea mays/metabolismo
8.
Bioresour Technol ; 291: 121879, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31377048

RESUMO

Along with the increase in global awareness of rising CO2 levels, microalgae have attracted considerable interest as a promising CO2 reduction platforms since they exhibit outstanding biomass productivity and are capable of producing numerous valuable products. At this moment, however, two major barriers, relatively low photosynthetic CO2 fixation efficiency and necessity of carbon-intensive microalgal process, obstruct them to be practically utilized. This review suggests effective approaches to improve life-cycle CO2 reduction of microalgal biorefinery. In order to enhance photosynthetic CO2 fixation, strategies to augment carbon content and to increase biomass productivity should be considered. For reducing CO2 emissions associated with the process operations, introduction of efficient process elements, designing of energy-saving process routes, reuse of waste resources and utilization of process integration can be noteworthy options. These comprehensive strategies will provide guidance for microalgal biorefineries to become a practical CO2 reduction technology in near future.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono/metabolismo , Microalgas/metabolismo , Biomassa , Carbono/metabolismo , Fotossíntese
9.
Dokl Biochem Biophys ; 486(1): 216-219, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31367825

RESUMO

The direct action of singlet oxygen on the bacteriochlorophyll (BChl) of light-harvesting complexes in the membranes of four species of purple non-sulfur and sulfur photosynthesizing bacteria with and without carotenoids was studied. It was found that BChl in carotenoidless samples is generally more resistant to the action of singlet oxygen compared to the control. It is assumed that carotenoids are not required to protect BChl of bacterial light-harvesting complexes from singlet oxygen, and in the classic work by Griffith et al. [1] the apoptosis process in carotenoidless mutant cells, which involves the destruction of complexes, the appearance of monomeric BChl, and the generation of singlet oxygen caused by BChl, followed by BChl oxidation, was mistakenly attributed to the protective function of carotenoids.


Assuntos
Bactérias/citologia , Bactérias/metabolismo , Bacterioclorofilas/metabolismo , Carotenoides/metabolismo , Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Fotossíntese , Oxigênio Singlete/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo
10.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 30(8): 2600-2606, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31418183

RESUMO

A greenhouse experiment was conducted to examine the photosynthetic and physiological responses of two-year-old cuttings of Hibiscus hamabo to the drought stress (20 days) and subsequent rewatering (21 days). The results showed that after 20-day drought, all individuals were survived in spite of the 5.9% soil water content. Drought stress drastically reduced net photosynthetic rate of H. hamabo, with the highest value only being 1.1 µmol·m-2·s-1. Drought stress declined the maximum photochemical efficiency to 84.3% compared with the control plants. Under drought stress, H. hamabo could stabilize cell osmotic potential and eliminate the drought-caused lipid peroxidation by coordinating the accumulation of soluble protein and antioxidant enzymes. After rewatering for seven days, net photosynthetic rate of treated H. hamabo recovered to 57.3% of that under control treatment. Meanwhile, the activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase decreased with the decline of malondialdehyde content. After rewatering for 21 days, no significant differences in the activities of antioxidant enzymes, soluble protein and relative water were found between the treated and control treatment. At harvest, the total biomass of treated H. hamabo decreased, while the root-shoot ratio remarkably increased when compared with control plants. In short, our results indicated strong drought tolerance of H. hamabo, which could play important roles in landscape improvement and greening in coastal areas.


Assuntos
Secas , Hibiscus/fisiologia , Estresse Fisiológico , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Fotossíntese , Água
11.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 30(8): 2707-2716, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31418196

RESUMO

To improve light environment, photosynthetic capacity, and thus the yield of maize, the effects of directional planting on light distribution in canopy and photosynthetic characteristics of ear leaves, as well as the performance of PSII that closely related with photosynthetic characteristics and reflected by the rapid chlorophyll fluorescence kinetic curves were examined in Zhengdan 958 maize variety. The results showed that the orientation of leaves remarkably affected photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) interception of ear leaves, with PAR interception of ear leaves in southward treatment being 271.8% higher than that under northward treatment. The orientation of leaves affec-ted photosynthetic light use efficiency of ear leaves under high and low light conditions. The southward treatment increased net photosynthetic rate (Pn) under saturated light in ear leaves, indicating that the use efficiency to high light was enhanced in leaves of southward treatment. In contrast, the northward treatment increased the apparent quantum yield (α) of ear leaves, indicating leaves in southward treatment adapted the light-limited environment. During the early stage after anthesis, the performance of PSII electron donor side and electron acceptor side was significantly improved, and thus enhanced the performance of PSII reaction center (PIABS) and fluorescence photochemical quenching coefficient (Ψo) in ear leaves of southward treatment. The increase of quantum yield of electron transfer (φEo) indicated the enhancement of transfer performance of electrons from photosystem 2 (PSII) to photosystem 1 (PSI) in leaves of southward treatment. The photosynthetic performance of ear leaves showed a trend of southward > eastward > westward > northward during the early stage after anthesis. Forty days after anthesis, the use efficiency to high light decreased in ear leaves of southward treatment, but the ear leaves of southward treatment showed high use efficiency to low light, which changed the trend of photosynthetic performance of ear leaves to northward > westward > eastward > southward. In summary, northward and eastward treatments improved the light distribution in canopy, the PAR interception of ear leaves, the capacity of photosynthesis and dry matter production, and consequently increased the yield of summer maize.


Assuntos
Fotossíntese , Folhas de Planta/fisiologia , Zea mays/fisiologia , Clorofila , Luz , Complexo de Proteína do Fotossistema I , Complexo de Proteína do Fotossistema II
12.
Bioresour Technol ; 292: 121952, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31404751

RESUMO

Aiming to evaluate the capability for CO2 capture and valuable biomass production potential from a novel alkalophilic Trebouxiophyte domesticated by sodium bicarbonate gradients, the strain was cultivated in a 2 L flat plate photobioreactor with high bicarbonate medium and controlled pH by CO2 supplementation. The results indicated that the strain had a higher maximum quantum efficiency (Fv/Fm, 0.71) and biomass yield (1.42 g L-1) at pH 8.3 under 25.2 g L-1 NaHCO3 compared to pH 7.3 or 9.3. Higher contents of fatty acids (21.72%) and carbohydrates (20.85%) were attained at pH 8.3, while a higher protein content (ca. 46%) was attained at pH 7.3 and 9.3. The results demonstrated that this strain, with a high growth rate and high biomass yield, has great potential to extend to the application for CO2 capture and utilization through highly efficient photosynthesis in alkaline environments.


Assuntos
Bicarbonatos , Dióxido de Carbono , Biomassa , Fotobiorreatores , Fotossíntese
13.
Bioresour Technol ; 292: 121945, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31404753

RESUMO

Static magnetic fields (SMF) influence the metabolism of microorganisms, however, there is no knowledge explaining how SMF act in cells. This study aimed at evaluating the SMF (30 mT) effect on photosynthetic performance, growth and biomass composition of the cyanobacterium Arthrospira platensis SAG 21.99. A. platensis was cultivated under 30 mT applied for 1 h d-1 and 24 h for 10 d in glass bottles. SMF in both conditions increased cellular growth, achieving a 30% higher biomass concentration. SMF applied for 1 h d-1 increased the pigments and carbohydrate content. The quantum yield was used as an indicator of the photosystem II (PSII) activity and was shown to have been positively affected. SMF for 1 h d-1 had a significant effect on the OJIP curves. This is the first study that evaluated the photosynthetic activity in cyanobacteria cultures under SMF action.


Assuntos
Spirulina , Biomassa , Campos Magnéticos , Fotossíntese , Complexo de Proteína do Fotossistema II
14.
Bioresour Technol ; 292: 121972, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31444119

RESUMO

Recently, ensuring energy security is a key challenge to political and economic strength in the world. Bio-hydrogen production from microalgae is the promising alternative source for potential renewable and self-sustainability energy but still in the initial phase of development. Practically and sustainability of microalgae hydrogen production is still debatable. The genetic engineering and metabolic pathway engineering of hydrogenase and nitrogenase play a key role to enhance hydrogen production. Microalgae have photosynthetic efficiency and synthesize huge carbohydrate biomass, used as 4th generation feedstock to generate bio-hydrogen. Recent genetically modified strains of microalgae are the attractive source for enhancing bio-hydrogen production in the future. The potential of hydrogen production from microRNAs are gaining great interest of researcher. The main objective of this review is attentive discussed recent approaches on new molecular genetics engineering and metabolic pathway developments, modern photo-bioreactors efficiency, economic assessment, limitations and knowledge gap of bio-hydrogen production from microalgae.


Assuntos
Hidrogenase , Microalgas , Biocombustíveis , Biomassa , Hidrogênio , Fotossíntese
15.
Science ; 365(6452): 447-448, 2019 08 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31371601
16.
Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao ; 35(8): 1411-1423, 2019 Aug 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31441612

RESUMO

Biorefinery technologies provide promising solutions to achieve sustainable development facing energy and environment crisis, while abundant sugar feedstock is an essential basis for biorefinery industries. Photosynthetic production of sucrose with cyanobacteria is an alternative sugar feedstock supply route with great potentials. Driven by solar energy, cyanobacteria photosynthetic cell factory could directly convert carbon dioxide and water into sucrose, and such a process could simultaneously reduce carbon emissions and supply sugar feedstocks. Here we introduced the history and updated the state-of-the-art on development of cyanobacteria cell factories for photosynthetic production of sucrose, summarized the progress and problems on mechanisms of sucrose synthesis, metabolic engineering strategies and technology expansions, and finally forecasted the future development direction in this area.


Assuntos
Cianobactérias , Sacarose , Dióxido de Carbono , Engenharia Metabólica , Fotossíntese
17.
Biol Res ; 52(1): 46, 2019 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31434576

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: One of the most extreme environments on our planet is the Maritime Antarctic territory, due to its low-water availability, which restricts the development of plants. Sanionia uncinata Hedw. (Amblystegiaceae), the main colonizer of the Maritime Antarctic, has effective mechanisms to tolerate this environment. It has been described that the tolerance to desiccation is mediated by the hormone abscisic acid (ABA), antioxidants systems, accumulation of compatible solutes and proteins of the late embryogenesis abundant (LEA). However, to date, these mechanisms have not been described in S. uncinata. Therefore, in this work, we postulate that the tolerance to desiccation in the Antarctic moss S. uncinata is mediated by the accumulation of ABA, the osmolytes proline and glycine betaine, and dehydrins (an LEA class 11 proteins). To demonstrate our hypothesis, S. uncinata was subjected to desiccation for 24 h (loss in 95% of water content), and the effects on its physiological, photosynthetic, antioxidant and biochemical parameters were determined. RESULTS: Our results showed an accumulation of ABA in response to water loss, and the activation of protective responses that involves an increment in levels of proline and glycine betaine, an increment in the activity of antioxidant enzymes such as SOD, CAT, APX and POD, and the accumulation of dehydrins proteins. CONCLUSION: The results showed, suggest that S. uncinata is a  desiccation-tolerant moss, property mediated by high cellular plasticity regulated by ABA.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/análise , Bryopsida/fisiologia , Dessecação , Fotossíntese/fisiologia , Adaptação Fisiológica , Regiões Antárticas , Bryopsida/química , Bryopsida/classificação , Fatores de Tempo
18.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 158: 135-142, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31378349

RESUMO

Triflumizole is one of imidazole fungicides that works by inhibiting ergosterol biosynthesis, and is widely used for the control of powdery mildew and scabs on various fruits and crops. Triflumizole residue has been frequently detected in soil and aquatic ecosystems. While many studies have focused on its toxic effect on terrestrial and aquatic animals, little attention has been paid to aquatic algae, the primary producers of aquatic environments. Therefore, we evaluated the acute (96 h) toxicity effects of triflumizole on the freshwater algae Chlorella vulgaris, by examining growth, cell morphology, photosynthesis, and oxidative stress. The results showed that the 96 h median inhibition concentration (96 h-EC50) was 0.82 mg/L (95% confidential interval 0.70-0.98 mg/L).The growth of algal cells was conspicuously inhibited by triflumizole exposure, and the cell surfaces appeared to be shrunkThe chlorophyll content (including Chl-a, Chl-b and T-Chl) dramatically decreased at triflumizole concentrations of 0.2 and 1.0 mg/L. In addition, the transcript abundance of photosynthesis-related genes (psaB, psbC and rbcL) showed obvious decreases in above treatments after 96 h of exposure to triflumizole. Moreover, the algal growth inhibition was accompanied by an increase in intracellular reactive oxygen species and malondialdehyde content, as well as increased activity of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase and peroxidase, indicating oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation. Our findings reveal that triflumizole has potential toxicity to the primary producers (freshwater algae) in aquatic ecosystems.


Assuntos
Chlorella vulgaris/efeitos dos fármacos , Imidazóis/toxicidade , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Peroxidase/metabolismo , Fotossíntese/efeitos dos fármacos , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
19.
Microbiol Res ; 227: 126310, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31421714

RESUMO

Deployment of plant endophytes at field level is reported to make an impact on agricultural crop productivity; development and deployment of suitable crop specific plant probiotics in a suitable delivery matrix is a value-added task. In our study, we attempted to develop bioformulations of native, fungal endophytes of Coleus forskohlii to improve plant yield using two different carrier-based materials (talc and wheat bran). Initially, fungal endophytes (RF1, SF1, and SF2) were grown on sterilized wheat bran under solid state condition and their growth kinetics and pattern were analyzed by ergosterol content and scanning electron microscope, respectively. 10-day-grown fungal endophytic cultures were used for the development of two types of formulations (wheat bran and talc-based formulations) and tested for their efficacy on host plant, C. forskohlii under field conditions. Interestingly, application of wheat bran-based endophytic formulations significantly (p < 0.01) enhanced plant height (12-29%), number of branches (51-63%), root biomass (26-33%), photosynthetic pigments (32-101%), and forskolin content (35-56%) compared to talc-based formulations under field conditions. Shelf life of endophytes (RF1, SF1, and SF2) in both formulations revealed spore viability in wheat bran-based formulations for 6 months storage period as compared to talc-based formulations. Overall, the present investigation envisages developing plant probiotic bioformulations of functional endophytes of C. forskohlii to enhance root biomass and in planta forskolin content.


Assuntos
Endófitos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Endófitos/fisiologia , Desenvolvimento Vegetal , Plectranthus/microbiologia , Probióticos , Biomassa , Colforsina/metabolismo , Produtos Agrícolas , Fibras na Dieta/microbiologia , Ergosterol/metabolismo , Viabilidade Microbiana , Fotossíntese , Pigmentos Biológicos , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia , Probióticos/economia
20.
BMC Plant Biol ; 19(1): 352, 2019 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31412781

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rice plants show yellowing, stunting, withering, reduced tillering and utimately low productivity in susceptible varieties under low temperature stress. Comparative transcriptome analysis was performed to identify novel transcripts, gain new insights into different gene expression and pathways involved in cold tolerance in rice. RESULTS: Comparative transcriptome analyses of 5 treatments based on chilling stress exposure revealed more down regulated genes in susceptible and higher up regulated genes in tolerant genotypes. A total of 13930 and 10599 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were detected in cold susceptible variety (CSV) and cold tolerant variety (CTV), respectively. A continuous increase in DEGs at 6, 12, 24 and 48 h exposure of cold stress was detected in both the genotypes. Gene ontology (GO) analysis revealed 18 CSV and 28 CTV term significantly involved in molecular function, cellular component and biological process. GO classification showed a significant role of transcription regulation, oxygen, lipid binding, catalytic and hydrolase activity for tolerance response. Absence of photosynthesis related genes, storage products like starch and synthesis of other classes of molecules like fatty acids and terpenes during the stress were noticed in susceptible genotype. However, biological regulations, generation of precursor metabolites, signal transduction, photosynthesis, regulation of cellular process, energy and carbohydrate metabolism were seen in tolerant genotype during the stress. KEGG pathway annotation revealed more number of genes regulating different pathways resulting in more tolerant. During early response phase, 24 and 11 DEGs were enriched in CTV and CSV, respectively in energy metabolism pathways. Among the 1583 DEG transcription factors (TF) genes, 69 WRKY, 46 bZIP, 41 NAC, 40 ERF, 31/14 MYB/MYB-related, 22 bHLH, 17 Nin-like 7 HSF and 4C3H were involved during early response phase. Late response phase showed 30 bHLH, 65 NAC, 30 ERF, 26/20 MYB/MYB-related, 11 C3H, 12 HSF, 86 Nin-like, 41 AP2/ERF, 55 bZIP and 98 WRKY members TF genes. The recovery phase included 18 bHLH, 50 NAC, 31 ERF, 24/13 MYB/MYB-related, 4 C3H, 4 HSF, 14 Nin-like, 31 bZIP and 114 WRKY TF genes. CONCLUSIONS: Transcriptome analysis of contrasting genotypes for cold tolerance detected the genes, pathways and transcription factors involved in the stress tolerance.


Assuntos
Resposta ao Choque Frio/genética , Oryza/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/fisiologia , Fatores de Transcrição/fisiologia , Metabolismo Energético , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genótipo , Oryza/metabolismo , Oryza/fisiologia , Fotossíntese , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Transdução de Sinais , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
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