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1.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4509, 2020 09 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32908151

RESUMO

Glycolysis is one of the primordial pathways of metabolism, playing a pivotal role in energy metabolism and biosynthesis. Glycolytic enzymes are known to form transient multi-enzyme assemblies. Here we examine the wider protein-protein interactions of plant glycolytic enzymes and reveal a moonlighting role for specific glycolytic enzymes in mediating the co-localization of mitochondria and chloroplasts. Knockout mutation of phosphoglycerate mutase or enolase resulted in a significantly reduced association of the two organelles. We provide evidence that phosphoglycerate mutase and enolase form a substrate-channelling metabolon which is part of a larger complex of proteins including pyruvate kinase. These results alongside a range of genetic complementation experiments are discussed in the context of our current understanding of chloroplast-mitochondrial interactions within photosynthetic eukaryotes.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/fisiologia , Cloroplastos/enzimologia , Glicólise/fisiologia , Mitocôndrias/enzimologia , Arabidopsis/citologia , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Metabolismo Energético/fisiologia , Mutação , Fosfoglicerato Mutase/genética , Fosfoglicerato Mutase/metabolismo , Fosfopiruvato Hidratase/genética , Fosfopiruvato Hidratase/metabolismo , Fotossíntese/fisiologia , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Mapeamento de Interação de Proteínas , Mapas de Interação de Proteínas/fisiologia , Piruvato Quinase/genética , Piruvato Quinase/metabolismo
2.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 205: 111350, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32961487

RESUMO

Atmospheric nitrogen dioxide (NO2) negatively affects plant (crop) growth and development, as well the yield and quality in some regions or environments. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (AMF)-mediated amelioration of NO2-induced plant damage has been reported, but the underlying mechanisms remained unclear. This study explored the beneficial effect of AMF symbiosis on tomato plant responses to NO2 at physiology, biochemistry, and gene expression, with an emphasis on nitrate metabolism, antioxidative defense, and photosynthetic performance. Pot-grown plants were used in the experiments, which were performed in laboratory from February to November 2019. NO2 fumigation with a dose of 10 ± 1 ppm was carried out after 50 d of plant growth, and data were collected following 8 h of fumigation. NO2 fumigation (+NO2) and AMF inoculation (+AMF), alone and especially in combination (NO2 + AMF), increased the gene expression of nitrate- and nitrite reductase, and their enzymatic activity in leaves, such as by 61%, 27%, and 126% for the activity of nitrate reductase, and by 95%, 37%, and 188% for nitrite reductase, respectively, in +NO2, +AMF, and AMF + NO2 plants relative the control (-NO2, -AMF) levels. Following NO2 exposure, +AMF leaves displayed stronger activities of superoxide dismutase, peroxidase and catalase, and higher content of glutathione and ratio of its reduced form to oxidized form, as compared with -AMF ones. Correspondingly, lesser oxidative damage was detected in +AMF than in -AMF plants, as indicated by the contents of H2O2 and malondialdehyde, electrolyte leakage, also by in situ visualization for the formation of H2O2, superoxide anion, and dead cells. The increased antioxidative capacity in +AMF plants was correlated with enhanced expression of antioxidation-related genes. Exposure to NO2 substantially impaired photosynthetic processes in both + AMF and -AMF plants, but an obvious mitigation was observed in the former than in the latter. For example, the total chlorophyll, net photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, and ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase activity were 18%, 27%, 26%, and 40% higher, respectively, in +AMF than in -AMF plants under NO2 stress. The differential photosynthetic performance was also revealed by chlorophyll fluorescence imaging. We analyzed the expression patterns of some genes related to photosynthesis and carbon metabolisms, and found that all of them exclusively presented a higher expression level in +AMF plants relative to -AMF ones under NO2 stress. Taken together, this study provided evidence that AMF symbiosis played a positively regulatory role in host plant responses to NO2, probably by increasing leaf nitrate metabolism and antioxidative defense, and maintaining the photosynthetic efficiency to some extent, wherein the transcription regulation might be a main target.


Assuntos
Lycopersicon esculentum/fisiologia , Micorrizas/fisiologia , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/toxicidade , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Clorofila/metabolismo , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Lycopersicon esculentum/metabolismo , Lycopersicon esculentum/microbiologia , Micorrizas/metabolismo , Oxirredução , Fotossíntese/fisiologia , Desenvolvimento Vegetal , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo
3.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 204: 111136, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32798755

RESUMO

High temperature can lead to increased production of excess light energy, thus reducing photosynthetic capacity in plants. Photosynthetic cyclic electron flow (CEF) in photosystem I (PSI) can effectively protect photosystems, but its physiological mechanism under high temperature is poorly understood. In this study, antimycin A (AA) and thenoyltrifluoroacetone (TTFA) were used to inhibit PGR5-and NDH-dependent CEF pathways, respectively, to reveal the photoprotective functions of CEF for PSII in tobacco leaves under high temperature stress (37 °C, HT). High temperatures caused decreases in maximal photochemistry efficiency (Fv/Fm) and damaged photosystem II (PSII) in tobacco leaves. Under AA inhibition of PGR5-dependent CEF, high temperature increased the fluorescence intensity of point O (Fo) in OJIP curves, i.e., the energy absorption per active reaction center (ABS/RC), the trapping rate of the reaction center (TRo/RC), and the electron transport efficiency per reaction center (ETo/RC) in tobacco leaves. High temperature induced an increase in the hydrogen peroxide content and a decrease in pigment content in tobacco leaves. Under the high temperature treatment, inhibition of PGR5-dependent CEF reduced the activities of the PSII reaction center significantly, destroyed the oxygen-evolving complex (OEC), and impeded photosynthetic electron transfer from PSII to the plastoquinone (PQ) pool in tobacco leaves. The TTFA treatment inhibited the NDH-dependent pathway under high temperature conditions, with the relative fluorescence intensity of point I (VI) decreased significantly, and the content of hydrogen peroxide and superoxide anion increased significantly. Additionally, Fo and the redox degree of the PSII donor side (Wk) increased, and pigment content decreased compared to the control, but with little change compared to high temperature treatment, indicating that the inhibition of the NDH-dependent pathway directly weakened the capacity of the PQ pool to lead to the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in tobacco leaves. In conclusion, CEF alleviated damage to the photosynthetic apparatus in tobacco leaves by increasing PSII heat dissipation, reducing ROS production, and maintaining the stability of the PQ pool to accommodate photosynthetic electron flow.


Assuntos
Temperatura Alta , Fotossíntese/fisiologia , Complexo de Proteína do Fotossistema I/metabolismo , Tabaco/metabolismo , Clorofila/metabolismo , Transporte de Elétrons , Elétrons , Fluorescência , Oxirredução , Complexo de Proteína do Fotossistema II/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Temperatura , Tabaco/fisiologia
4.
Aquat Toxicol ; 224: 105513, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32504860

RESUMO

Ulva prolifera is a macroalgae that forms massive blooms, negatively impacting natural communities, aquaculture operations and recreation. The effects of the natural products, eugenol, ß-myrcene, citral and nonanoic acid on the growth rate, antioxidative defense system and photosynthesis of Ulva prolifera were investigated as a possible control strategy for this harmful taxon. Negative effects on growth were observed with all four chemicals, due to the excessive production of reactive oxygen species and oxidative damage to the thalli. However, the response of U. prolifera under the four chemicals stress was different at the cellular level. ß-myrcene, the most effective compound in terms of growth inhibition, induced oxidative stress as shown by the damage of total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) and the downregulation of the glutathione-ascorbate (GSH-ASA) cycle which inhibited the antioxidative system. This chemical also inhibited photosynthesis and photoprotection mechanisms in U. prolifera, resulting in growth limitation. In contrast, U. prolifera was less affected by the second tested chemical, eugenol, and showed no significant change on photosynthetic efficiency in the presence of the chemical. The inhibition effects of the third and fourth tested chemicals, nonanoic acid and citralon, on growth and on the antioxidant defense system in U. prolifera were inferior. These results provide a potential avenue for controlling green tides in the future.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Feromônios/toxicidade , Fotossíntese/efeitos dos fármacos , Alga Marinha/efeitos dos fármacos , Ulva/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Fotossíntese/fisiologia , Alga Marinha/metabolismo , Alga Marinha/fisiologia , Ulva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ulva/metabolismo
5.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0233120, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32421736

RESUMO

Day length is a determinant of flowering time in rice. Phytochromes participate in flowering regulation by measuring the number of daylight hours to which the plant is exposed. Here we describe G123, a rice mutant generated by irradiation, which displays insensitivity to the photoperiod and early flowering under both long day and short day conditions. To detect the mutation responsible for the early flowering phenotype exhibited by G123, we generated an F2 population, derived from crossing with the wild-type, and used a pipeline to detect genomic structural variation, initially developed for human genomes. We detected a deletion in the G123 genome that affects the PHOTOPERIOD SENSITIVITY13 (SE13) gene, which encodes a phytochromobilin synthase, an enzyme implicated in phytochrome chromophore biosynthesis. The transcriptomic analysis, performed by RNA-seq, in the G123 plants indicated an alteration in photosynthesis and other processes related to response to light. The expression patterns of the main flowering regulatory genes, such as Ghd7, Ghd8 and PRR37, were altered in the plants grown under both long day and short day conditions. These findings indicate that phytochromes are also involved in the regulation of these genes under short day conditions, and extend the role of phytochromes in flowering regulation in rice.


Assuntos
Flores/metabolismo , Flores/fisiologia , Oryza/genética , Oryza/fisiologia , Fotossíntese/fisiologia , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Flores/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/fisiologia , Oryza/metabolismo , Fotossíntese/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética
6.
Aquat Toxicol ; 223: 105492, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32361487

RESUMO

In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that high salinity acclimatization can mitigate cadmium (Cd) toxicity in the microalga Dunaliella salina. To this end, microalgal cells were subjected to high salinity (60 g/L) for 12 weeks until the growth rate remained stable between generations and were then exposed to 2.5 mg/L of Cd for 4 days. Acute Cd toxicity impaired cell growth by increasing Cd bioaccumulation and lipid peroxidation, which reduced cellular pigment, total protein, and glutathione content. It also significantly weakened photosynthetic efficiency and total antioxidant capacity. However, acclimatization to high salinity alleviated these negative effects under Cd stress. To understand the potential mechanisms behind this phenomenon, 12 cDNA libraries from control, Cd-exposed (Cd), high salinity-acclimated (Salinity), and high salinity-acclimated with Cd exposure (Salinity + Cd) cells were derived using RNA sequencing. A total of 2019, 1799, 2150 and 1256 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified from sample groups Salinity / Control, Cd / Control, Salinity + Cd / Control, and Salinity + Cd / Cd, respectively. Some of these DEGs were significantly enriched in ribosome, photosynthesis, stress defense, and photosynthesis-antenna proteins. Among these genes, 82 ribosomal genes were up-regulated in Salinity / Control (corrected P = 3.8 × 10-28), while 81 were down-regulated in Cd / Control (corrected P = 1.1 × 10-24). Moreover, high salinity acclimatization up-regulated 8 photosynthesis genes and 18 stress defense genes compared with the control. Additionally, 3 photosynthesis genes, 11 stress defense genes and 11 genes encoding light harvesting proteins were up-regulated by high salinity acclimatization under Cd exposure. Overall, high salinity acclimatization mitigated Cd toxicity, possibly by up-regulating the transcription of photosynthesis, stress defense, and ribosomal genes. These results provide new insights on cross-tolerance in microalgae.


Assuntos
Aclimatação/efeitos dos fármacos , Cádmio/toxicidade , Microalgas/efeitos dos fármacos , Salinidade , Transcriptoma/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Aclimatação/genética , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Glutationa/metabolismo , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Microalgas/metabolismo , Fotossíntese/fisiologia , Estresse Fisiológico/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Fisiológico/genética
7.
Plant Mol Biol ; 103(6): 653-667, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32468353

RESUMO

ABSTARCT: KEY MESSAGE: The timing and transcriptomic changes during the C3 to CAM transition of common ice plant support the notion that guard cells themselves can shift from C3 to CAM. Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) is a specialized type of photosynthesis: stomata close during the day, enhancing water conservation, and open at night, allowing CO2 uptake. Mesembryanthemum crystallinum (common ice plant) is a facultative CAM species that can shift from C3 photosynthesis to CAM under salt or drought stresses. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the stress induced transition from C3 to CAM remain unknown. Here we determined the transition time from C3 to CAM in M. crystallinum under salt stress. In parallel, single-cell-type transcriptomic profiling by 3'-mRNA sequencing was conducted in isolated stomatal guard cells to determine the molecular changes in this key cell type during the transition. In total, 495 transcripts showed differential expression between control and salt-treated samples during the transition, including 285 known guard cell genes, seven CAM-related genes, 18 transcription factors, and 185 other genes previously not found to be expressed in guard cells. PEPC1 and PPCK1, which encode key enzymes of CAM photosynthesis, were up-regulated in guard cells after seven days of salt treatment, indicating that guard cells themselves can shift from C3 to CAM. This study provides important information towards introducing CAM stomatal behavior into C3 crops to enhance water use efficiency.


Assuntos
Mesembryanthemum/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Malato Desidrogenase/genética , Malato Desidrogenase/metabolismo , Mesembryanthemum/fisiologia , Fotossíntese/genética , Fotossíntese/fisiologia , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
8.
BMC Evol Biol ; 20(1): 50, 2020 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32357841

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Photosymbiotic associations between metazoan hosts and photosynthetic dinoflagellates are crucial to the trophic and structural integrity of many marine ecosystems, including coral reefs. Although extensive efforts have been devoted to study the short-term ecological interactions between coral hosts and their symbionts, long-term evolutionary dynamics of photosymbiosis in many marine animals are not well understood. Within Bivalvia, the second largest class of mollusks, obligate photosymbiosis is found in two marine lineages: the giant clams (subfamily Tridacninae) and the heart cockles (subfamily Fraginae), both in the family Cardiidae. Morphologically, giant clams show relatively conservative shell forms whereas photosymbiotic fragines exhibit a diverse suite of anatomical adaptations including flattened shells, leafy mantle extensions, and lens-like microstructural structures. To date, the phylogenetic relationships between these two subfamilies remain poorly resolved, and it is unclear whether photosymbiosis in cardiids originated once or twice. RESULTS: In this study, we establish a backbone phylogeny for Cardiidae utilizing RNASeq-based transcriptomic data from Tridacninae, Fraginae and other cardiids. A variety of phylogenomic approaches were used to infer the relationship between the two groups. Our analyses found conflicting gene signals and potential rapid divergence among the lineages. Overall, results support a sister group relationship between Tridacninae and Fraginae, which diverged during the Cretaceous. Although a sister group relationship is recovered, ancestral state reconstruction using maximum likelihood-based methods reveals two independent origins of photosymbiosis, one at the base of Tridacninae and the other within a symbiotic Fraginae clade. CONCLUSIONS: The newly revealed common ancestry between Tridacninae and Fraginae brings a possibility that certain genetic, metabolic, and/or anatomical exaptations existed in their last common ancestor, which promoted both lineages to independently establish photosymbiosis, possibly in response to the modern expansion of reef habitats.


Assuntos
Organismos Aquáticos/genética , Organismos Aquáticos/efeitos da radiação , Bivalves/genética , Bivalves/efeitos da radiação , Luz , Filogenia , Simbiose/genética , Transcriptoma/genética , Animais , Calibragem , Evolução Molecular , Fósseis , Funções Verossimilhança , Fotossíntese/fisiologia
9.
Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao ; 36(4): 652-665, 2020 Apr 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32347060

RESUMO

Co-culture systems consisted of photosynthetic microorganisms and others heterotrophic microbes have attracted great attention in recent years. These systems show many advantages when compared with single culture grown under autotrophic conditions, such as less vulnerable to pollution and more stability, thus have been applied to wastewater treatment, soil remediation, biodegradable harmful substances, and production of high value-added products. In order to explore basic theory and further applications, we summarize here recent progresses in artificial co-culture systems of using photosynthetic microorganisms, to provide a current scientific understanding for the rational design of the co-culture system based on photosynthetic microorganisms using synthetic biology.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Cocultura , Microbiota , Fotossíntese , Biologia Sintética , Processos Heterotróficos , Técnicas Microbiológicas/tendências , Microbiota/fisiologia , Fotossíntese/fisiologia , Biologia Sintética/tendências
10.
Plant Mol Biol ; 103(4-5): 527-543, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32323129

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: Two homologous, chloroplast located CAAX proteases were identified to be functional redundancy in determining soybean leaf color, and they probably play essential roles in regulating light harvesting and absorption during photosynthesis process. Leaf color mutants are ideal materials for studying photosynthesis and chlorophyll metabolism. The soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] yellowing leaf (yl) variation is a recombinant mutant characterized by yellow foliage, which derived from the specific cross between green seed-coated and yellow seed-coated soybean varieties. Molecular cloning and subsequent gene silencing revealed that the yellow leaf trait of yl was controlled by two recessive nuclear genes, glyma11g04660 and glyma01g40650, named as YL1 and YL2 respectively, and the latter was confirmed to be same as the earlier reported green seed-coat gene G. Both YL1 and YL2 belonged to chloroplast-located proteases possessing Abi domain, and these genes were expressed in various tissues, especially in young leaves. In yl, the expression of YL1 and YL2 were suppressed in most tissues, and the young leaf of yl presented an increased maximal photochemical efficiency (Fv/Fm) as well as enhanced net photosynthesis activity (Pn), indicating that YL1 and YL2 are involved in light absorption regulation during photosynthesis process. Collectively, the identification and description of YL1 and YL2 in our study provides insights for the regulatory mechanism of photosynthesis process, and these findings will further assist to clarify the close relationship between photosynthesis and chlorophyll metabolism.


Assuntos
Genes de Plantas/genética , Mutação , Fenótipo , Folhas de Planta/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Soja/genética , Alelos , Sequência de Bases , Clorofila/genética , Clorofila/metabolismo , Clonagem Molecular , Cor , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Inativação Gênica , Fotossíntese/genética , Fotossíntese/fisiologia , Pigmentos Biológicos/análise , Folhas de Planta/citologia , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Sementes/citologia , Alinhamento de Sequência , Análise de Sequência de Proteína
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32234662

RESUMO

Developing the new crop varieties with high productivity under low nitrogen (N) input is an important access to facilitate modern agricultural sustainability. In the present study, 20 broomcorn millet (Panicum miliaceum L.) varieties were characterized for their morphological and nutrient parameters to different low N levels in seedling. The results showed that 0.25 mM NH4NO3 was the standard concentration for the evaluation and identification of low-N tolerance. Through pearson's correlation analysis, principal component analysis, and subordinate function analysis, the tolerance of 20 varieties under N stress was evaluated and plant height, root length, shoot biomass, and shoot and root N content were considered as the evaluation system of low-N tolerance. Although leaves photosynthetic capacities and activities of N metabolism related enzymes showed the decreasing tendency to N stress, low-N tolerant varieties had higher activities in both leaves and roots as compared to low-N sensitive varieties. The work provides a reliable and comprehensive method for evaluating low-N tolerance in broomcorn millet and our data elucidate possible physiological adaptive mechanisms by which broomcorn millet tolerates N stress.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica , Nitrogênio , Panicum , Plântula , Estresse Fisiológico , Nitrogênio/deficiência , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Panicum/fisiologia , Fotossíntese/fisiologia , Folhas de Planta/fisiologia , Plântula/fisiologia
12.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(17): 9216-9222, 2020 04 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32284402

RESUMO

Terrestrial photosynthesis is regulated by plant phenology and environmental conditions, both of which experienced substantial changes in recent decades. Unlike early-season photosynthesis, which is mostly driven by temperature or wet-season onset, late-season photosynthesis can be limited by several factors and the underlying mechanisms are less understood. Here, we analyze the temperature and water limitations on the ending date of photosynthesis (EOP), using data from both remote-sensing and flux tower-based measurements. We find a contrasting spatial pattern of temperature and water limitations on EOP. The threshold separating these is determined by the balance between energy availability and soil water supply. This coordinated temperature and moisture regulation can be explained by "law of minimum," i.e., as temperature limitation diminishes, higher soil water is needed to support increased vegetation activity, especially during the late growing season. Models project future warming and drying, especially during late season, both of which should further expand the water-limited regions, causing large variations and potential decreases in photosynthesis.


Assuntos
Clorofila/análise , Fotossíntese/fisiologia , Água/metabolismo , Ciclo do Carbono/fisiologia , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Florestas , Plantas/metabolismo , Imagens de Satélites , Estações do Ano , Solo/química , Luz Solar , Temperatura
13.
Nat Microbiol ; 5(5): 757-767, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32203409

RESUMO

Photosynthetic organisms regulate their responses to many diverse stimuli in an effort to balance light harvesting with utilizable light energy for carbon fixation and growth (source-sink regulation). This balance is critical to prevent the formation of reactive oxygen species that can lead to cell death. However, investigating the molecular mechanisms that underlie the regulation of photosynthesis in cyanobacteria using ensemble-based measurements remains a challenge due to population heterogeneity. Here, to address this problem, we used long-term quantitative time-lapse fluorescence microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, mathematical modelling and genetic manipulation to visualize and analyse the growth and subcellular dynamics of individual wild-type and mutant cyanobacterial cells over multiple generations. We reveal that mechanical confinement of actively growing Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002 cells leads to the physical disassociation of phycobilisomes and energetic decoupling from the photosynthetic reaction centres. We suggest that the mechanical regulation of photosynthesis is a critical failsafe that prevents cell expansion when light and nutrients are plentiful, but when space is limiting. These results imply that cyanobacteria must convert a fraction of the available light energy into mechanical energy to overcome frictional forces in the environment, providing insight into the regulation of photosynthesis and how microorganisms navigate their physical environment.


Assuntos
Cianobactérias/fisiologia , Fotossíntese/fisiologia , Cianobactérias/citologia , Cianobactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fluorescência , Luz , Modelos Teóricos , Ficobilissomas/fisiologia , Synechococcus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Synechococcus/fisiologia
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32142986

RESUMO

The response of Damask rose to drought and the underlying mechanisms involved are not known. In this study, vegetative, propagated rose plants were grown under control and water-deficit conditions in a greenhouse at Taïf University, south-west of Saudi Arabia. Control plants were irrigated to field capacity (FC), while water-stressed plants were irrigated to either 50% FC (mild stress) or 25% FC (severe stress). After 60 days, leaf, stem and root fresh and dry weights (g plant-1), photosynthetic activity, leaf water potential (Ψw), leaf water content (WC), apoplastic water fraction (AWF), osmotic potential at full turgor (Ψs100) and turgor loss point (Ψs0), cell wall elasticity, osmotic adjustment (OA), and some solutes (K+, Ca2+, Cl-, proline and soluble carbohydrates) were evaluated. Water stress significantly decreased fresh and dry weights of R. damascena and all photosynthetic parameters, apart from leaf temperature, which increased. Severe water stress (25% FC) resulted in more negative Ψs100 and Ψs0 values than the mild water stress and control. The AWF did not significantly change in response to water stress. The leaf bulk modulus of elasticity (ε) increased from 2.5 MPa under well-watered conditions to 2.82 and 3.5 MPa under mild and severe water stress, respectively. R. damascena experienced OA in response to water stress, which was due to the active accumulation of soluble carbohydrates and, to a lesser degree, proline under mild stress, along with tissue dehydration (passive OA) under severe stress. Overall, we identified two important mechanisms of drought tolerance in R. damascena-osmotic and elastic adjustment-but they could not offer resistance to water stress beyond 25% FC.


Assuntos
Secas , Pressão Osmótica , Fotossíntese , Rosa , Parede Celular/fisiologia , Elasticidade , Pressão Osmótica/fisiologia , Fotossíntese/fisiologia , Folhas de Planta/fisiologia , Rosa/fisiologia , Água/metabolismo
15.
Biochem J ; 477(6): 1149-1158, 2020 03 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32150261

RESUMO

Searching for compounds that inhibit the growth of photosynthetic organisms highlighted a prominent effect at micromolar concentrations of the nitroheteroaromatic thioether, 2-nitrothiophene, applied in the light. Since similar effects were reminiscent to those obtained also by radicals produced under excessive illumination or by herbicides, and in light of its redox potential, we suspected that 2-nitrothiophene was reduced by ferredoxin, a major reducing compound in the light. In silico examination using docking and tunneling computing algorithms of the putative interaction between 2-nitrothiophene and cyanobacterial ferredoxin has suggested a site of interaction enabling robust electron transfer from the iron-sulfur cluster of ferredoxin to the nitro group of 2-nitrothiophene. ESR and oximetry analyses of cyanobacterial cells (Anabaena PCC7120) treated with 50 µM 2-nitrothiophene under illumination revealed accumulation of oxygen radicals and peroxides. Gas chromatography mass spectrometry analysis of 2-nitrothiophene-treated cells identified cytotoxic nitroso and non-toxic amino derivatives. These products of the degradation pathway of 2-nitrohiophene, which initializes with a single electron transfer that forms a short-live anion radical, are then decomposed to nitrate and thiophene, and may be further reduced to a nitroso hydroxylamine and amino derivatives. This mechanism of toxicity is similar to that of nitroimidazoles (e.g. ornidazole and metronidazole) reduced by ferredoxin in anaerobic bacteria and protozoa, but differs from that of ornidazole in planta.


Assuntos
Anabaena/metabolismo , Ferredoxinas/metabolismo , Herbicidas/metabolismo , Fotossíntese/fisiologia , Tiofenos/metabolismo , Anabaena/efeitos dos fármacos , Ferredoxinas/farmacologia , Herbicidas/farmacologia , Fotossíntese/efeitos dos fármacos , Estrutura Terciária de Proteína , Tiofenos/química
16.
Isotopes Environ Health Stud ; 56(1): 36-50, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32067470

RESUMO

A scarce natural snow cover forces an increasing use of artificial snow on ski slopes and returns a small amount of snowmelt water available to plants outside the pistes at the beginning of the growing season. We tested if the use of artificial snow on the ski slopes and the decreased natural snow cover outside the ski slopes lead to changes in the leaf ecophysiology of dominant species in a ski area located in Northern Italy. Using carbon (13C/12C) and oxygen (18O/16O) stable isotope ratios in plant leaves, we estimated the intrinsic water use efficiency (iWUE) and we speculated about changes in photosynthesis and stomatal conductance. Furthermore, carbon and nitrogen concentration, pigments and dry matter content, and the specific area of leaves were measured. We found a higher iWUE of the plants on the ski slopes than outside, probably because the plants on the ski piste are exposed to a condition close to waterlogging that can lead them to regulate their stomata differently than the plants outside the pistes. This behaviour was observed particularly in Ranunculus acris and in Tussilago farfara, for these species the water surplus on the piste may have affected the plants' gas exchanges.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Água Doce/análise , Pradaria , Folhas de Planta/química , Esqui/normas , Neve/química , Altitude , Isótopos de Carbono/análise , Itália , Isótopos de Oxigênio/análise , Fotossíntese/fisiologia , Folhas de Planta/fisiologia , Estações do Ano
17.
mBio ; 11(1)2020 02 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32098824

RESUMO

Eutrophication and deoxygenation possibly occur in coastal waters due to excessive nutrients from agricultural and aquacultural activities, leading to sulfide accumulation. Cyanobacteria, as photosynthetic prokaryotes, play significant roles in carbon fixation in the ocean. Although some cyanobacteria can use sulfide as the electron donor for photosynthesis under anaerobic conditions, little is known on how they interact with sulfide under aerobic conditions. In this study, we report that Synechococcus sp. strain PCC7002 (PCC7002), harboring an sqr gene encoding sulfide:quinone oxidoreductase (SQR), oxidized self-produced sulfide to S0, present as persulfide and polysulfide in the cell. The Δsqr mutant contained less cellular S0 and had increased expression of key genes involved in photosynthesis, but it was less competitive than the wild type in cocultures. Further, PCC7002 with SQR and persulfide dioxygenase (PDO) oxidized exogenous sulfide to tolerate high sulfide levels. Thus, SQR offers some benefits to cyanobacteria even under aerobic conditions, explaining the common presence of SQR in cyanobacteria.IMPORTANCE Cyanobacteria are a major force for primary production via oxygenic photosynthesis in the ocean. A marine cyanobacterium, PCC7002, is actively involved in sulfide metabolism. It uses SQR to detoxify exogenous sulfide, enabling it to survive better than its Δsqr mutant in sulfide-rich environments. PCC7002 also uses SQR to oxidize endogenously generated sulfide to S0, which is required for the proper expression of key genes involved in photosynthesis. Thus, SQR has at least two physiological functions in PCC7002. The observation provides a new perspective for the interplays of C and S cycles.


Assuntos
Quinona Redutases/metabolismo , Quinonas/metabolismo , Sulfetos/metabolismo , Enxofre/metabolismo , Synechococcus/enzimologia , Synechococcus/metabolismo , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Clorofila , Dioxigenases , Escherichia coli/genética , Sulfeto de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Oxirredução , Fotossíntese/fisiologia , Quinona Redutases/genética , Synechococcus/genética , Transcriptoma
18.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0227921, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31971962

RESUMO

Low temperature induces changes in plants at physiological and molecular levels, thus affecting growth and development. The Lanzhou lily (Lilium davidii, var. unicolor) is an important medicinal plant with high economic value. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying its photosynthetic and antioxidation responses to low temperature still remain poorly understood. This study subjected the Lanzhou lily to the two temperatures of 20°C (control) and 4°C (low temperature) for 24 h. Physiological parameters related to membrane integrity, photosynthesis, antioxidant system, and differentially expressed genes were investigated. Compared with control, low temperature increased the relative electrical conductivity by 43.2%, while it decreased net photosynthesis rate, ratio of variable to maximal fluorescence, and catalase activity by 47.3%, 10.1%, and 11.1%, respectively. In addition, low temperature significantly increased the content of soluble protein, soluble sugar, and proline, as well as the activity of superoxide dismutase and peroxidase. Comparative transcriptome profiling showed that a total of 238,109 differentially expressed genes were detected. Among these, 3,566 were significantly upregulated while 2,982 were significantly downregulated in response to low temperature. Gene Ontology enrichment analysis indicated that in response to low temperature, the mostly significantly enriched differentially expressed genes were mainly involved in phosphorylation, membrane and protein kinase activity, as well as photosynthesis, light harvesting, light reaction, and alpha,alpha-trehalose-phosphate synthase activity. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes enrichment analysis also indicated that the most significantly enriched pathways involved ribosome biogenesis in eukaryotes, phenylalanine metabolism, circadian rhythm, porphyrin and chlorophyll metabolism, photosynthesis of antenna proteins, photosynthesis, and carbon fixation in photosynthetic organisms. Moreover, the expression patterns of 10 randomly selected differentially expressed genes confirmed the RNA-Seq results. These results expand the understanding of the physiological and molecular mechanisms underlying the response of the Lanzhou lily to low temperature stress.


Assuntos
Lilium/genética , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Plantas Medicinais/genética , Transcriptoma/genética , Temperatura Baixa/efeitos adversos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Ontologia Genética , Lilium/fisiologia , Fotossíntese/genética , Fotossíntese/fisiologia , Plantas Medicinais/fisiologia , RNA-Seq , Estresse Fisiológico/genética
19.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 340, 2020 01 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31953413

RESUMO

Mikania micrantha is one of the top 100 worst invasive species that can cause serious damage to natural ecosystems and substantial economic losses. Here, we present its 1.79 Gb chromosome-scale reference genome. Half of the genome is composed of long terminal repeat retrotransposons, 80% of which have been derived from a significant expansion in the past one million years. We identify a whole genome duplication event and recent segmental duplications, which may be responsible for its rapid environmental adaptation. Additionally, we show that M. micrantha achieves higher photosynthetic capacity by CO2 absorption at night to supplement the carbon fixation during the day, as well as enhanced stem photosynthesis efficiency. Furthermore, the metabolites of M. micrantha can increase the availability of nitrogen by enriching the microbes that participate in nitrogen cycling pathways. These findings collectively provide insights into the rapid growth and invasive adaptation.


Assuntos
Genoma de Planta , Mikania/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Mikania/genética , Mikania/fisiologia , Vias Biossintéticas/genética , Vias Biossintéticas/fisiologia , Ciclo do Carbono , Dióxido de Carbono/metabolismo , Cromossomos de Plantas , Ecologia , Ecossistema , Evolução Molecular , Genômica , Espécies Introduzidas , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Ciclo do Nitrogênio , Fotossíntese/fisiologia , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Transcriptoma
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31931392

RESUMO

Climate change would increase frequency and intensity of extreme events as heat and cold waves. There is a lack of studies that consider the co-occurrence of these waves with other abiotic factors relevant on a climate change scenario as salinity. Therefore, it could be interesting to improve our knowledge about the effects that this co-occurrence could have in different species due to the species specific effect of the photosynthesis tolerance to extreme temperatures. A controlled condition experiment was performed using the salt marsh species Sarcocornia perrnis with eight experimental blocks combining temperature ranges (40-28/22-15/13-5 °C) and salinity concentration on the growth solution (171/1050 mM NaCl). After 3 days of treatment, gas exchange, chlorophyll a fluorescence, pigment profile and water state measurement were applied. Photosynthetic machinery function of this perennial species decreased on for both high and low temperature range. Nevertheless, at 13-5 °C the effect of the salinity was mainly due to diffusion limitations more than to damage on the photosystems. At 40-28 °C, in presence of optimal salinity S. fruticosa was not altered overall. However, high temperatures in combination with high salinity reduced the photosynthetic capacity mainly by reducing the efficiency of the electron transport chain.


Assuntos
Chenopodiaceae , Fotossíntese , Salinidade , Temperatura , Chenopodiaceae/efeitos dos fármacos , Chenopodiaceae/fisiologia , Clorofila A/metabolismo , Fotossíntese/efeitos dos fármacos , Fotossíntese/fisiologia , Cloreto de Sódio/farmacologia
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