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1.
Parasitol Res ; 120(9): 3173-3180, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34405279

RESUMO

Phototaxis is the common behavioral response exhibited by the oncomiracidia of various monogeneans. However, the changes in the oncomiracidial swimming behavior in response to light cues are not well understood. Here, we investigated the light responses of four monogeneans that are important pathogens in mariculture, namely Benedenia epinepheli, Benedenia seriolae, Neobenedenia girellae, and Heteraxine heterocerca. The swimming trajectory and speed of oncomiracidia of each species were assessed in a glass Petri dish with an LED light placed adjacent to it, based on three different light responses: LED light in the off position (normal swimming), LED light in the on position (phototactic behavior), and immediately (< 5 s) after switching the LED light off (photophobic behavior). The oncomiracidia of all four species exhibited positive phototactic and photophobic responses; however, the change in swimming speed between each response differed among the species. The oncomiracidia of three species (B. epinepheli, N. girellae, and H. heterocerca) exhibited high swimming speed, as a phototactic response; in contrast, the oncomiracidia of B. seriolae exhibited reduced swimming speed when moving toward the light source. Benedenia epinepheli and H. heterocerca exhibited the highest swimming speed during the phototaxis phase, whereas B. seriolae and N. girellae exhibited the highest swimming speed during the photophobic phase. These light responses are considered adaptive traits to increase the chance of encountering and infecting suitable hosts in nature, and such responses could potentially be applied to the control of parasite infections in aquaculture.


Assuntos
Fototaxia , Trematódeos , Animais , Aquicultura , Trematódeos/fisiologia
2.
Sheng Wu Yi Xue Gong Cheng Xue Za Zhi ; 38(4): 647-654, 2021 Aug 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34459163

RESUMO

In order to study the effect of light with different wavelengths on the motion behavior of carp robots, phototaxis experiment, anatomical experiment, light control experiment and speed measurement experiment were carried out in this study. Blue, green, yellow and red light with different wavelength were used to conduct phototaxis experiments on carp to observe their movement behavior. By dissecting the skull bones of the carp to determine the appropriate location to carry the light control device, we independently developed a light control carrying device which was suitable for any illumination intensity environment. The experiment of the light-controlled carp robots was carried out. The motion behavior of the carp robot was checked by using computer binocular stereo vision technology. The motion trajectory of the carp robot was tracked and obtained by applying kernel correlation filter (KCF) algorithm. The motion velocity of the carp robot at different wavelengths was calculated according to their motion trajectory. The results showed that carps' sensitivity to different light changed from strong to weak in the order of blue, red, yellow and green, so that using light with different wavelengths to control the speed of the carp robot has certain laws to follow. A new method to avoid brain damage in carp robots control can be provided in this study.


Assuntos
Carpas , Robótica , Algoritmos , Animais , Movimento (Física) , Fototaxia
3.
Cells ; 10(8)2021 07 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34440642

RESUMO

Mitochondrial dysfunction has been implicated in the pathology of Parkinson's disease (PD). In Dictyostelium discoideum, strains with mitochondrial dysfunction present consistent, AMPK-dependent phenotypes. This provides an opportunity to investigate if the loss of function of specific PD-associated genes produces cellular pathology by causing mitochondrial dysfunction with AMPK-mediated consequences. DJ-1 is a PD-associated, cytosolic protein with a conserved oxidizable cysteine residue that is important for the protein's ability to protect cells from the pathological consequences of oxidative stress. Dictyostelium DJ-1 (encoded by the gene deeJ) is located in the cytosol from where it indirectly inhibits mitochondrial respiration and also exerts a positive, nonmitochondrial role in endocytosis (particularly phagocytosis). Its loss in unstressed cells impairs endocytosis and causes correspondingly slower growth, while also stimulating mitochondrial respiration. We report here that oxidative stress in Dictyostelium cells inhibits mitochondrial respiration and impairs phagocytosis in an AMPK-dependent manner. This adds to the separate impairment of phagocytosis caused by DJ-1 knockdown. Oxidative stress also combines with DJ-1 loss in an AMPK-dependent manner to impair or exacerbate defects in phototaxis, morphogenesis and growth. It thereby phenocopies mitochondrial dysfunction. These results support a model in which the oxidized but not the reduced form of DJ-1 inhibits AMPK in the cytosol, thereby protecting cells from the adverse consequences of oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction and the resulting AMPK hyperactivity.


Assuntos
Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP/metabolismo , Dictyostelium/enzimologia , Mitocôndrias/enzimologia , Estresse Oxidativo , Proteína Desglicase DJ-1/metabolismo , Proteínas de Protozoários/metabolismo , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP/genética , Respiração Celular , Dictyostelium/genética , Mitocôndrias/genética , Fagocitose , Fenótipo , Fototaxia , Proteína Desglicase DJ-1/genética , Proteínas de Protozoários/genética , Transdução de Sinais
4.
Small ; 17(31): e2101388, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34173337

RESUMO

Light-driven micromotors have stimulated considerate interests due to their potentials in biomedicine, environmental remediation, or serving as the model system for non-equilibrium physics of active matter. Simultaneous control over the motion direction and speed of micro/nanomotors is crucial for their functionality but still difficult since Brownian motion always randomizes the orientations. Here, a highly efficient light-driven ZnO/Pt Janus micromotor capable of aligning itself to illumination direction and exhibiting negative phototaxis at high speeds (up to 32 µm s-1 ) without the addition of any chemical fuels is developed. A light-triggered self-built electric field parallel to the light illumination exists due to asymmetrical surface chemical reactions induced by the limited penetration depth of light along the illumination. The phototactic motion of the motor is achieved through electrophoretic rotation induced by the asymmetrical distribution of zeta potential on the two hemispheres of the Janus micromotor, into alignment with the electric field. Notably, similar phototactic propulsion is also achieved on TiO2 /Pt and CdS/Pt micromotors, which presents explicit proof of extending the mechanism of dipole-moment induced phototactic propulsion in other light-driven Janus micromotors. Finally, active transportation of yeast cells are achieved by the motor, proving its capability in performing complex tasks.


Assuntos
Recuperação e Remediação Ambiental , Óxido de Zinco , Fototaxia
5.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 12770, 2021 06 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34140606

RESUMO

Certain fungus gnats, like Lycoriella ingenua are notorious pests in agriculture, especially in mushroom production. While larvae cause mainly direct crop damage, adults are vectors of several dangerous fungal pathogens. To promote the development of pesticide-free management methods, such as light trapping, we measured the spectral sensitivity of L. ingenua compound eyes with electroretinography and performed two different behavioural experiments to reveal the wavelength dependence of phototaxis in this species. The spectral sensitivity of the compound eyes is bimodal with peaks at 370 nm (UV) and 526 nm (green). Behavioural experiments showed that attraction to light as a function of wavelength depends on light intensity. In our first experiment, where the minimal photon flux (105-109 photons/cm2/s) needed for eliciting a phototactic response was determined wavelength by wavelength, phototaxis was strongest in the green spectral range (~526 nm). In the other behavioural experiment, where wavelength preference was tested under a higher but constant light intensity (~1013 photons/cm2/s), the highest attraction was elicited by UV wavelengths (398 nm). Our results suggest that both UV and green are important spectral regions for L. ingenua thus we recommend to use both UV (~370-398 nm) and green (~526 nm) for trapping these insects.


Assuntos
Agaricales/fisiologia , Dípteros/efeitos da radiação , Controle de Insetos , Luz , Animais , Comportamento Animal/efeitos da radiação , Eletrorretinografia , Estimulação Luminosa , Fototaxia/efeitos da radiação
6.
J Exp Biol ; 224(11)2021 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34115116

RESUMO

Navigating across light gradients is essential for survival for many animals. However, we still have a poor understanding of the algorithms that underlie such behaviors. Here, we developed a novel closed-loop phototaxis assay for Drosophila larvae in which light intensity is always spatially uniform but updates depending on the location of the animal in the arena. Even though larvae can only rely on temporal cues during runs, we find that they are capable of finding preferred areas of low light intensity. Further detailed analysis of their behavior reveals that larvae turn more frequently and that heading angle changes increase when they experience brightness increments over extended periods of time. We suggest that temporal integration of brightness change during runs is an important - and so far largely unexplored - element of phototaxis.


Assuntos
Drosophila , Fototaxia , Animais , Comportamento Animal , Sinais (Psicologia) , Drosophila melanogaster , Larva , Luz
7.
Integr Comp Biol ; 61(3): 1182-1190, 2021 10 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34180520

RESUMO

The use of artificial light at night (ALAN) is increasing exponentially worldwide and there is growing evidence that ALAN contributes to the decline of insect populations. One of the most conspicuous ecological effects is the strong attraction of ALAN to flying insects. In several studies, light sources with strong short-wavelength emissions have been shown to attract the highest numbers of flying insects. Furthermore, flying stages of aquatic insects are reported to be more vulnerable to ALAN than flying stages of terrestrial insects. This is concerning because freshwater habitats are likely affected by ALAN that originates from human activity centers, which are typically close to sources of freshwater. However, the effects of ALAN on aquatic insects, which spend their larval phase (amphibiotic insects) or their whole life cycle (fully aquatic insects) in freshwaters, are entirely understudied. Here, we investigated the phototaxis of aquatic insects to ALAN at different wavelengths and intensities. We used floating light traps and compared four, near-monochromatic, lights (blue, green, red, and yellow) at two different photopic light intensities in a ditch system, which was not exposed to ALAN previously. Similar to flying stages of (aquatic and terrestrial) insects, we found a strong positive phototaxis of aquatic life stages. However, in contrast to the flying stages, there is no clear preference for short-wavelength light. Overall, responsivity to wavelengths in the center of the visible range (green, yellow; 500-600 nm) was significant for all orders of aquatic insects studied, and the nymphs of Ephemeroptera did not respond to blue light at all. This is likely an adaption to how light is attenuated in freshwater systems, where not only the water itself but also a variety of optical constituents act as a color filter, often like in our case filtering out short-wavelength light. Therefore, insects living in freshwater bodies often live in longer wavelength-dominated environments and might therefore be especially sensitive to green/yellow light. In conclusion, the different spectral sensitivities of both aquatic and flying insects should be taken into account when planning lighting near freshwater.


Assuntos
Poluição Ambiental , Insetos , Luz , Fototaxia , Animais , Ecossistema
8.
PLoS One ; 16(6): e0252514, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34061893

RESUMO

Most corals acquire symbiodiniacean symbionts from the surrounding environment to initiate symbiosis. The cell densities of Symbiodiniaceae in the environment are usually low, and mechanisms may exist by which new coral generations attract suitable endosymbionts. Phototaxis of suitable symbiodiniacean cells toward green fluorescence in corals has been proposed as one such mechanism. In the present study, we observed the phototaxis action wavelength of various strains of Symbiodiniaceae and the fluorescence spectra of aposymbiotic Acropora tenuis larvae at the time of endosymbiont uptake. The phototaxis patterns varied among the Symbiodiniaceae species and "native" endosymbionts-commonly found in Acropora juveniles present in natural environments; that is, Symbiodinium microadriaticum was attracted to blue light rather than to green light. Another native endosymbiont, Durusdinium trenchii, showed no phototaxis specific to any wavelength. Although the larvae exhibited green and broad orange fluorescence under blue-violet excitation light, the maximum green fluorescence peak did not coincide with that of the phototaxis action spectrum of S. microadriaticum. Rather, around the peak wavelength of larval green fluorescence, this native endosymbiont showed slightly negative phototaxis, suggesting that the green fluorescence of A. tenuis larvae may not play a role in the initial attraction of native endosymbionts. Conversely, broad blue larval fluorescence under UV-A excitation covered the maximum phototaxis action wavelength of S. microadriaticum. We also conducted infection tests using native endosymbionts and aposymbiotic larvae under red LED light that does not excite visible larval fluorescence. Almost all larvae failed to acquire S. microadriaticum cells, whereas D. trenchii cells were acquired by larvae even under red illumination. Thus, attraction mechanisms other than visible fluorescence might exist, at least in the case of D. trenchii. Our results suggest that further investigation and discussion, not limited to green fluorescence, would be required to elucidate the initial attraction mechanisms.


Assuntos
Alveolados/fisiologia , Antozoários/fisiologia , Fluorescência , Larva/fisiologia , Simbiose/fisiologia , Animais , Recifes de Corais , Dinoflagelados/fisiologia , Fototaxia/fisiologia , Raios Ultravioleta
9.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 220: 112334, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34020284

RESUMO

Artificial light at night (ALAN) is a widespread environmental pollutant and stressor. Many nocturnal insects have been shown to experience ALAN stress. However, few studies have been conducted to uncover the mechanism by which nocturnal insects respond to ALAN stress. Previous studies suggest that lysine succinylation (Ksuc) is a potential mechanism that coordinates energy metabolism and antioxidant activity under stressful conditions. Mythimna separata (Walker) (M. separata) is a nocturnal insect that has been stressed by ALAN. In this study, we quantified the relative proteomic Ksuc levels in ALAN-stressed M. separata. Of the 466 identified Ksuc-modified proteins, 103 were hypersuccinylated/desuccinylated in ALAN-stressed moths. The hypersuccinylated/desuccinylated proteins were shown to be involved in various biological processes. In particular, they were enriched in metabolic processes, reactive oxygen species (ROS) homeostasis and the neuromuscular system. Furthermore, we demonstrated that Ksuc might affect moth locomotion by intervening with and coordinating these systems under ALAN stress. These findings suggest that Ksuc plays a vital role in the moth response to ALAN stress and moth locomotion behavior and provide a new perspective on the impact of ALAN on nocturnal insect populations and species communities.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Insetos/química , Luz , Iluminação , Lisina/química , Mariposas/fisiologia , Fototaxia , Proteoma/química , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Metabolismo Energético , Estresse Fisiológico
10.
J Exp Biol ; 224(10)2021 05 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34027982

RESUMO

To thrive, organisms must maintain physiological and environmental variables in suitable ranges. Given that these variables undergo constant fluctuations over varying time scales, how do biological control systems maintain control over these values? We explored this question in the context of phototactic behavior in larval zebrafish. We demonstrate that larval zebrafish use phototaxis to maintain environmental luminance at a set point, that the value of this set point fluctuates on a time scale of seconds when environmental luminance changes, and that it is determined by calculating the mean input across both sides of the visual field. These results expand on previous studies of flexible phototaxis in larval zebrafish; they suggest that larval zebrafish exert homeostatic control over the luminance of their surroundings, and that feedback from the surroundings drives allostatic changes to the luminance set point. As such, we describe a novel behavioral algorithm with which larval zebrafish exert control over a sensory variable.


Assuntos
Fototaxia , Peixe-Zebra , Algoritmos , Animais , Larva , Visão Ocular
11.
Pest Manag Sci ; 77(7): 3519-3528, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33837633

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Opsins are crucial for animal vision. The identity and function of opsins in Plutella xylostella remain unknown. The aim of the research is to confirm which opsin gene(s) contribute to phototaxis of P. xylostella. RESULTS: LW-opsin, BL-opsin and UV-opsin, were identified in the P. xylostella genome. LW-opsin was more highly expressed than the other two opsin genes, and all three genes were specifically expressed in the head. Three P. xylostella strains, LW-13 with a 13-bp deletion in LW-opsin, BL + 2 with a 2-bp insertion in BL-opsin, and UV-29 with a 5-bp insertion and a 34-bp deletion in UV-opsin, were established from the strain G88 using the CRISPR/Cas9 system. Among the three opsin-knockout strains, only male and female LW-13 exhibited weaker phototaxis to lights of different wavelengths and white light than G88 at 2.5 lx due to defective locomotion, and LW-13 was defective to sense white, green and infrared lights. The locomotion of LW-13 was reduced compared with G88 at 2.5, 10, 20, 60, 80, 100, and 200 lx under the green light, but the locomotion of LW-13 female was recovered at 80, 100 and 200 lx. The defective phototaxis to the green light of male LW-13 was not affected by light intensity, while the defective phototaxis to the green light of female LW-13 was recovered at 10, 20, 60, 80, 100, and 200 lx. CONCLUSION: LW-opsin is involved in light sensing and locomotion of P. xylostella, providing a potential target gene for controlling the pest. © 2021 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Mariposas , Opsinas , Fototaxia , Animais , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Repetições Palindrômicas Curtas Agrupadas e Regularmente Espaçadas , Feminino , Técnicas de Inativação de Genes , Masculino , Mariposas/genética , Opsinas/genética
12.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(12)2021 03 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33723073

RESUMO

Motility is ubiquitous in prokaryotic organisms including the photosynthetic cyanobacteria where surface motility powered by type 4 pili (T4P) is common and facilitates phototaxis to seek out favorable light environments. In cyanobacteria, chemotaxis-like systems are known to regulate motility and phototaxis. The characterized phototaxis systems rely on methyl-accepting chemotaxis proteins containing bilin-binding GAF domains capable of directly sensing light, and the mechanism by which they regulate the T4P is largely undefined. In this study we demonstrate that cyanobacteria possess a second, GAF-independent, means of sensing light to regulate motility and provide insight into how a chemotaxis-like system regulates the T4P motors. A combination of genetic, cytological, and protein-protein interaction analyses, along with experiments using the proton ionophore carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenyl hydrazine, indicate that the Hmp chemotaxis-like system of the model filamentous cyanobacterium Nostoc punctiforme is capable of sensing light indirectly, possibly via alterations in proton motive force, and modulates direct interaction between the cyanobacterial taxis protein HmpF, and Hfq, PilT1, and PilT2 to regulate the T4P motors. Given that the Hmp system is widely conserved in cyanobacteria, and the finding from this study that orthologs of HmpF and T4P proteins from the distantly related model unicellular cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. strain PCC6803 interact in a similar manner to their N. punctiforme counterparts, it is likely that this represents a ubiquitous means of regulating motility in response to light in cyanobacteria.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Cianobactérias/fisiologia , Cianobactérias/efeitos da radiação , Fímbrias Bacterianas/fisiologia , Luz , Fototaxia , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica/efeitos da radiação , Nostoc/fisiologia
13.
Integr Comp Biol ; 61(3): 1122-1133, 2021 10 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33724371

RESUMO

Artificial light at night (ALAN) functions as a novel environmental stimulus that has the potential to disrupt interactions among species. Despite recent efforts to explain nocturnal pollinators' responses to this stimulus, the likelihood and associated mechanisms of attraction toward artificial light and potential consequences on fitness for diurnal pollinators are still largely unclear. Here, we took advantage of the obligate mutualism between yucca moths (Tegeticula maculata maculata) and yucca plants (Hesperoyucca whipplei) to understand how direct light exposure and skyglow can influence a pairwise plant-pollinator interaction. To surmise whether adult moths exhibit positive phototaxis, we deployed a set of field-placed light towers during the peak of yucca flowering and compared the number of moths caught in traps between dark-controlled and light-treated trials. Adult moth abundance was much higher when light was present, which suggests that ALAN may alter this diurnal moth's activity patterns to expand their temporal niche into the night. To evaluate ALAN effects on yucca fruit set and moth larva recruitment, we measured skyglow exposure above yucca plants and direct light intensity from a second set of light towers. Both larva and fruit recruitment increased with skyglow, and fruit set also increased with direct lighting, but the relationship was weaker. Contrarily, larva recruitment did not change when exposed to a gradient of direct light, which may instead reflect effects of ALAN on moth physiology, such as disrupted female oviposition, or misdirecting behaviors essential to oviposition activity. Our results suggest that ALAN can positively influence the fitness of both plants and moths in this tightly co-evolved mutualism, but the benefits to each species may depend on whether night lighting is direct or indirect. Whether such effects and mechanisms could relate to susceptibility to the presence of ALAN on this or other plant-pollinator relationships will remain an important focus of future research.


Assuntos
Poluição Ambiental , Luz , Mariposas , Yucca , Animais , Frutas , Mariposas/efeitos da radiação , Fototaxia , Polinização , Simbiose , Yucca/efeitos da radiação
14.
J Exp Biol ; 224(Pt 5)2021 03 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33536305

RESUMO

Controlling the octopus's flexible hyper-redundant body is a challenging task. It is assumed that the octopus has poor proprioception which has driven the development of unique mechanisms for efficient body control. Here we report on such a mechanism: a phototactic response of extraocular photoreception. Extraocular photoreception has been observed in many and diverse species. Previous research on cephalopods revealed that increased illumination on their skin evokes chromatophore expansion. Recently, the mechanism was investigated and has been termed 'light-activated chromatophore expansion' (LACE). In this work we show that in response to illumination, the arm tip reacts in a reflex-like manner, folding in and moving away from the light beam. We performed a set of behavioral experiments and surgical manipulations to elucidate and characterize this phototactic response. We found that in contrast to the local activation and control of LACE, the phototactic response is mediated by the brain, although it is expressed in a reflex-like pattern. Our research results and observations led us to propose that the phototaxis is a means for protecting the arms in an instinctive manner from potential daytime predators such as fish and crabs, that could identify the worm-like tips as food. Indeed, observations of the octopuses revealed that their arm tips are folded in during the daytime, whereas at night they are extended. Thus, the phototactic response might compensate for the octopus's poor proprioception by keeping their arms folded in illuminated areas, without the need to be aware of their state.


Assuntos
Octopodiformes , Animais , Braço , Emoções , Luz , Fototaxia , Reflexo
15.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(6)2021 02 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33547237

RESUMO

Living systems at all scales aggregate in large numbers for a variety of functions including mating, predation, and survival. The majority of such systems consist of unconnected individuals that collectively flock, school, or swarm. However, some aggregations involve physically entangled individuals, which can confer emergent mechanofunctional material properties to the collective. Here, we study in laboratory experiments and rationalize in theoretical and robophysical models the dynamics of physically entangled and motile self-assemblies of 1-cm-long California blackworms (Lumbriculus variegatus, Annelida: Clitellata: Lumbriculidae). Thousands of individual worms form braids with their long, slender, and flexible bodies to make a three-dimensional, soft, and shape-shifting "blob." The blob behaves as a living material capable of mitigating damage and assault from environmental stresses through dynamic shape transformations, including minimizing surface area for survival against desiccation and enabling transport (negative thermotaxis) from hazardous environments (like heat). We specifically focus on the locomotion of the blob to understand how an amorphous entangled ball of worms can break symmetry to move across a substrate. We hypothesize that the collective blob displays rudimentary differentiation of function across itself, which when combined with entanglement dynamics facilitates directed persistent blob locomotion. To test this, we develop a robophysical model of the worm blobs, which displays emergent locomotion in the collective without sophisticated control or programming of any individual robot. The emergent dynamics of the living functional blob and robophysical model can inform the design of additional classes of adaptive mechanofunctional living materials and emergent robotics.


Assuntos
Anelídeos/fisiologia , Robótica , Animais , Dessecação , Imageamento Tridimensional , Locomoção , Modelos Biológicos , Fototaxia/fisiologia , Estresse Fisiológico , Resposta Táctica/fisiologia , Temperatura , Volatilização , Água
16.
PLoS One ; 16(1): e0245990, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33507934

RESUMO

The Buridan's paradigm is a behavioral task designed for testing visuomotor responses or phototaxis in fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. In the task, a wing-shortened fruit fly freely moves on a round platform surrounded by a 360° white screen with two vertical black stripes placed at 0° and 180°. A normal fly will tend to approach the stripes one at a time and move back and forth between them. A variety of tasks developed based on the Buridan's paradigm were designed to test other cognitive functions such as visual spatial memory. Although the movement patterns and the behavioral preferences of the flies in the Buridan's or similar tasks have been extensively studies a few decades ago, the protocol and experimental settings are markedly different from what are used today. We revisited the Buridan's paradigm and systematically investigated the approach behavior of fruit flies under different stimulus settings. While early studies revealed an edge-fixation behavior for a wide stripe in the initial visuomotor responses, we did not discover such tendency in the Buridan's paradigm when observing a longer-term behavior up to minutes, a memory-task relevant time scale. Instead, we observed robust negative photoaxis in which the flies approached the central part of the dark stripes of all sizes. In addition, we found that stripes of 20°-30° width yielded the best performance of approach. We further varied the luminance of the stripes and the background screen, and discovered that the performance depended on the luminance ratio between the stripes and the screen. Our study provided useful information for designing and optimizing the Buridan's paradigm and other behavioral tasks that utilize the approach behavior.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Comportamento de Escolha/fisiologia , Drosophila melanogaster/fisiologia , Fototaxia/fisiologia , Visão Ocular/fisiologia , Animais , Memória Espacial/fisiologia
17.
Parasit Vectors ; 14(1): 28, 2021 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33413591

RESUMO

Light trapping is an important tool for monitoring insect populations. This is especially true for biting Diptera, where light traps play a crucial role in disease surveillance by tracking the presence and abundance of vector species. Physiological and behavioural data have been instrumental in identifying factors that influence dipteran phototaxis and have spurred the development of more effective light traps. However, the development of less attractive domestic lights has received comparatively little interest but could be important for reducing interactions between humans and vector insects, with consequences for reducing disease transmission. Here, we discuss how dipteran eyes respond to light and the factors influencing positive phototaxis, and conclude by identifying key areas for further research. In addition, we include a synthesis of attractive and unattractive wavelengths for a number of vector species. A more comprehensive understanding of how Diptera perceive and respond to light would allow for more efficient vector sampling as well as potentially limiting the risk posed by domestic lighting.


Assuntos
Dípteros/fisiologia , Mordeduras e Picadas de Insetos , Controle de Insetos/métodos , Insetos Vetores/fisiologia , Luz , Animais , Controle de Insetos/instrumentação , Fototaxia
18.
J Gen Appl Microbiol ; 67(2): 54-58, 2021 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33342920

RESUMO

Phototaxis is a phenomenon where cyanobacteria move toward a light source. Previous studies have shown that the blue-light-using-flavin (BLUF)-type photoreceptor PixD and the response regulator-like protein PixE control the phototaxis in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. The pixD-null mutant moves away from light, whereas WT, pixE mutant, and pixD pixE double mutant move toward the light. This indicates that PixE functions downstream of PixD and influences the direction of movement. However, it is still unclear how the light signal received by PixD is transmitted to PixE, and then subsequently transmitted to the type IV pili motor mechanism. Here, we investigated intracellular localization and oligomerization of PixD and PixE to elucidate mechanisms of phototaxis regulation. Blue-native PAGE analysis, coupled with western blotting, indicated that most PixD exist as a dimer in soluble fractions, whereas PixE localized in ~250 kDa and ~450 kDa protein complexes in membrane fractions. When blue-native PAGE was performed after illuminating the membrane fractions with blue light, PixE levels in the ~250 kDa and ~450 kDa complexes were reduced and increased, respectively. These results suggest that PixE, localized in the ~450 kDa complex, controls activity of the motor ATPase PilB1 to regulate pilus motility.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Fotorreceptores Microbianos/metabolismo , Synechocystis/fisiologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/química , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Luz , Transdução de Sinal Luminoso , Modelos Biológicos , Mutação , Fotorreceptores Microbianos/química , Fotorreceptores Microbianos/genética , Fototaxia , Multimerização Proteica
19.
PLoS Genet ; 16(12): e1009257, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33301443

RESUMO

The eyeless C. elegans exhibits robust phototaxis behavior in response to short-wavelength light, particularly UV light. C. elegans senses light through LITE-1, a unique photoreceptor protein that belongs to the invertebrate taste receptor family. However, it remains unclear how LITE-1 is regulated. Here, we performed a forward genetic screen for genes that when mutated suppress LITE-1 function. One group of lite-1 suppressors are the genes required for producing the two primary antioxidants thioredoxin and glutathione, suggesting that oxidization of LITE-1 inhibits its function. Indeed, the oxidant hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) suppresses phototaxis behavior and inhibits the photoresponse in photoreceptor neurons, whereas other sensory behaviors are relatively less vulnerable to H2O2. Conversely, antioxidants can rescue the phenotype of lite-1 suppressor mutants and promote the photoresponse. As UV light illumination generates H2O2, we propose that upon light activation of LITE-1, light-produced H2O2 then deactivates LITE-1 to terminate the photoresponse, while antioxidants may promote LITE-1's recovery from its inactive state. Our studies provide a potential mechanism by which H2O2 and antioxidants act synergistically to regulate photosensation in C. elegans.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans/metabolismo , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/farmacologia , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Células Fotorreceptoras/metabolismo , Animais , Caenorhabditis elegans , Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Mutação , Células Fotorreceptoras/efeitos dos fármacos , Fototaxia , Supressão Genética
20.
Eur Biophys J ; 49(7): 633-642, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33094363

RESUMO

'Candidatus Magnetoglobus multicellularis' is a multicellular magnetotactic prokaryote found in the Araruama lagoon in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. This microorganism shows a photokinesis that depends on the incident light wavelength, but that dependence can be canceled by the presence of radio-frequency (RF) electromagnetic fields. The present manuscript has as its aim to study the effect of light wavelength and RF fields on the U-turn time of 'Candidatus Magnetoglobus multicellularis', a behavior more related to magnetotaxis. As the experiments were performed during the night, the microorganisms were greater in size than normal, indicating that they were in the process of division. Our results show that when normal in size, the microorganism's U-turn time is modified by the light wavelength (lower for blue light than for green and red light), but RF fields do not affect that U-turn time dependence on the light wavelength. For the microorganism in the process of division, we describe for the first time how the photokinesis and U-turn time dependence on the light wavelength disappear. It is proposed that methyl-accepting chemotaxis proteins are involved in that light wavelength dependence for the U-turn time, but still more studies are necessary to understand how RF fields cancel the photokinesis light wavelength dependence, but do not affect the dependence of the U-turn time.


Assuntos
Quimiotaxia , Deltaproteobacteria/fisiologia , Ondas de Rádio , Biofísica , Brasil , Luz , Campos Magnéticos , Fotoquímica , Fototaxia , Software
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