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1.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234040, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32484826

RESUMO

During the past decade, Drosophila suzukii has established itself as a global invasive fruit pest, enabled by its ability to lay eggs into fresh, ripening fruit. In a previous study, we investigated the impact of different strawberry accessions on the development of D. suzukii eggs, in the search of natural resistance. We identified several accessions that significantly reduced adult fly emergence from infested fruit. In the present study, we aimed at understanding the chemical basis of this effect. We first noted that one of the more resistant accessions showed an unusual enrichment of methyl anthranilate within its fruit, prompting us to investigate this fruit compound as a possible cause limiting fly development. We found that methyl anthranilate alone triggers embryo lethality in a concentration-dependent manner, unlike another comparable organic fruit compound. We also showed that a chemical fraction of the resistant strawberry accession that contains methyl anthranilate carries some activity toward the egg hatching rate. Surprisingly, in spite of the lethal effect of this compound to their eggs, adult females are not only attracted to methyl anthranilate at certain concentrations, but they also display a concentration-dependent preference to lay on substrates enriched in methyl anthranilate. This study demonstrates that methyl anthranilate is a potent agonist molecule against D. suzukii egg development. Its elevated concentration in a specific strawberry accession proven to reduce the fly development may explain, at least in part the fruit resistance. It further illustrates how a single, natural compound, non-toxic to humans could be exploited for biological control of a pest species.


Assuntos
Drosophila/fisiologia , Fragaria/metabolismo , Frutas/metabolismo , ortoaminobenzoatos/metabolismo , Animais , Feminino , Fragaria/fisiologia , Frutas/fisiologia , Reprodução , Volatilização , ortoaminobenzoatos/química
2.
Food Chem ; 331: 127203, 2020 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32574943

RESUMO

Effects of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) (50, 100, 150, 200 and 250 MPa) pretreatment on water mobility and distribution, drying duration, microstructure, color, cell wall fraction and tissue structure of strawberry slices were investigated. HHP significantly increased water mobility of the strawberry slices, resulting in the reduction of drying duration by 9-24%. As the pretreatment pressure was increased, redness value and anthocyanin content continuously increased, soluble pectin (SBP) content increased and then decreased, while the contents of protopectin (PTP) and cellulose decreased. After the HHP pretreatment, chromoplasts and moisture was distributed more uniformly in the strawberry slices. Microscopy images showed the formation of microscopic holes or channels in the matrix and the breakdown of tissue structure by HHP. Results suggested HHP pretreatment disrupted the integrity of the fresh strawberry which enhanced the drying efficiency and migration of the chromoplasts during the vacuum-freeze drying process.


Assuntos
Fragaria/química , Liofilização , Antocianinas/química , Antocianinas/metabolismo , Celulose/química , Cor , Fragaria/metabolismo , Pressão Hidrostática , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Pectinas/química , Pectinas/metabolismo , Água/química
3.
Food Chem ; 329: 127213, 2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32516713

RESUMO

Chitosan and whey protein isolate (WPI) conjugate films were prepared as a novel matrix for encapsulating and extending the postharvest shelf life of strawberries. Film forming solutions of chitosan, WPI, and chitosan-WPI conjugate were mixed with glycerol, casted for films at 60 ± 2 °C and assessed for their colour, water vapour and oxygen transfer rate, textural, functional groups and secondary structure, thermal, crystallinity, and antioxidant properties. Chitosan-WPI conjugate films were applied as an edible coating on strawberries, and studied for storage stability at 5 °C and 20 °C by assessing physical and biochemical parameters. A considerable reduction in colour indices, weight loss, pH and titratable acidity, reducing sugars, ascorbic acid, total phenolics, DPPH and ABTS assay was noted in the coated strawberries over the control at both the studied temperatures. The control strawberries had a shelf life of 5 and 3 days, whereas coating enhanced the shelf life of strawberries to 8 and 5 days when stored at 5 °C and 20 °C, respectively.


Assuntos
Quitosana/química , Conservação de Alimentos/métodos , Proteínas do Soro do Leite/química , Antioxidantes/química , Ácido Ascórbico/análise , Varredura Diferencial de Calorimetria , Cor , Fragaria/química , Fragaria/metabolismo , Frutas/química , Frutas/metabolismo , Glicerol/química , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Fenóis/análise , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Temperatura
4.
Food Chem ; 321: 126747, 2020 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32276147

RESUMO

The strawberry fruit is perishable due to its high water content and soft texture, yet exhibits pleasant organoleptic and nutritional profile. Here we conducted a metabolomics-driven analysis followed by linear modelling to dissect the molecular processes in strawberry postharvest. Fruits from five cultivars were harvested and refrigerated during a ten-day period under three different atmospheres: ambient, CO2-enriched and O3-enriched. These analyses revealed that metabolites involved in, (i) organoleptic and nutritional properties; (ii) stress tolerance displayed duration and postharvest treatment-dependent levels. Ozone-enriched atmosphere appears to counteract postharvest negative effects, with fruits exhibiting lower levels of fermentative metabolites when compared to fruits kept in an ambient atmosphere. Furthermore, metabolic reconfiguration towards the synthesis of protective metabolites of those fruits can possibly confer enhanced tolerance to postharvest abiotic stresses. Finally, results from the linear modelling identified metabolites which could be used as biomarkers to assess strawberry quality during its postharvest shelf life.


Assuntos
Armazenamento de Alimentos/métodos , Fragaria/metabolismo , Frutas/metabolismo , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Dióxido de Carbono/farmacologia , Fragaria/química , Fragaria/efeitos dos fármacos , Frutas/química , Frutas/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos Lineares , Ozônio/farmacologia , Estresse Fisiológico
5.
J Oleo Sci ; 69(4): 377-390, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32249265

RESUMO

Colletotrichum nymphaeae is the causal agent of strawberry anthracnose, which is one of the most important disease affecting strawberry plant in Iran. This research aimed to apply the selected plant essential oils (EOs) such as Achillea millefolium, Mentha longifolia, and Ferula kuma to the management of strawberry anthracnose disease under in vitro, in vivo, and greenhouse conditions. In vitro tests indicated that all the EOs and fungicide were able to inhibit mycelial growth and conidial germination of the pathogen. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed that EOs significantly suppressed the mycelia growth and caused a change in morphology of fungal mycelia. The severity of strawberry anthracnose disease was significantly (p ≤ 0.05) reduced by all EOs under in vivo and greenhouse conditions. Results of all experiments showed that M. longifolia EO was the best EO to control C. nymphaeae. Also, EOs almost reduced weight loss and preserved firmness, ascorbic acid, total phenol, antioxidant activity (DPPH), and enzyme peroxidase activity in treated fruit. Moreover, EOs preserved the sensory quality of strawberry fruit during the storage period so that there were no significant differences between treatments (EOs) in their appearance, flavor, odor attributes, and overall evaluation compared to the control. Our results indicate that EOs are excellent bio-fungicides for the management of strawberry anthracnose.


Assuntos
Qualidade dos Alimentos , Fragaria/microbiologia , Fungicidas Industriais , Mentha/química , Óleos Voláteis , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Doenças das Plantas/prevenção & controle , Óleos Vegetais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Ácido Ascórbico/metabolismo , Colletotrichum/patogenicidade , Fragaria/metabolismo , Peroxidase/metabolismo , Fenóis/metabolismo
6.
Food Chem ; 315: 126215, 2020 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32014664

RESUMO

The accumulation and transformation of arsenic species have been studied in the context of hydroponic cultivation of strawberry plants. Cultivation experiments have been performed by adding inorganic arsenic at concentrations of 10, 100 and 1000 µg L-1 via root irrigation. The total arsenic content was determined by Hydride Generation-Atomic Fluorescence Spectrometry (HG-AFS). The accumulation was dependent on the concentration of arsenic added to the irrigation and the arsenic species. Arsenic (III) accumulated at higher rates than arsenic (V). A greater accumulation of arsenic was found in roots (0.44-4.10 mg kg-1) than in stems (0.43-1.27 mg kg-1) and fruits (0.22-0.30 mg kg-1). The speciation results obtained by HPLC-HG-AFS analysis indicated that the addition of As(III) resulted in a partial methylation producing monomethyl arsenic (MMA) and dimethyl arsenic (DMA). After As(V) addition, only MMA was observed and this was accompanied with a notable reduction in the ratio of As(V) to As(III).


Assuntos
Arseniatos/administração & dosagem , Arsênico/metabolismo , Arsenitos/administração & dosagem , Fragaria/metabolismo , Irrigação Agrícola , Arsênico/análise , Arsenicais , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Frutas/metabolismo , Hidroponia , Metilação , Especificidade de Órgãos , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Caules de Planta/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Fluorescência
7.
BMC Plant Biol ; 20(1): 13, 2020 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31914938

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pectin methylesterase (PME) is a hydrolytic enzyme that catalyzes the demethylesterification of homogalacturonans and controls pectin reconstruction, being essential in regulation of cell wall modification. During fruit ripening stage, PME-mediated cell wall remodeling is an important process to determine fruit firmness and softening. Strawberry fruit is a soft fruit with a short postharvest life, due to a rapid loss of firm texture. Hence, preharvest improvement of strawberry fruit rigidity is a prerequisite for extension of fruit refreshing time. Although PME has been well characterized in model plants, knowledge regarding the functionality and evolutionary property of PME gene family in strawberry remain limited. RESULTS: A total of 54 PME genes (FvPMEs) were identified in woodland strawberry (Fragaria vesca 'Hawaii 4'). Phylogeny and gene structure analysis divided these FvPME genes into four groups (Group 1-4). Duplicate events analysis suggested that tandem and dispersed duplications effectively contributed to the expansion of the PME family in strawberry. Through transcriptome analysis, we identified FvPME38 and FvPME39 as the most abundant-expressed PMEs at fruit ripening stages, and they were positively regulated by abscisic acid. Genetic manipulation of FvPME38 and FvPME39 by overexpression and RNAi-silencing significantly influences the fruit firmness, pectin content and cell wall structure, indicating a requirement of PME for strawberry fruit softening. CONCLUSION: Our study globally analyzed strawberry pectin methylesterases by the approaches of phylogenetics, evolutionary prediction and genetic analysis. We verified the essential role of FvPME38 and FvPME39 in regulation of strawberry fruit softening process, which provided a guide for improving strawberry fruit firmness by modifying PME level.


Assuntos
Hidrolases de Éster Carboxílico/genética , Fragaria , Frutas/metabolismo , Pectinas/metabolismo , Ácido Abscísico/metabolismo , Hidrolases de Éster Carboxílico/metabolismo , Parede Celular/metabolismo , Fragaria/genética , Fragaria/metabolismo , Frutas/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Genes de Plantas , Filogenia , Interferência de RNA
8.
Mol Genet Genomics ; 295(2): 421-438, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31807909

RESUMO

Abscisic acid (ABA) and sucrose play an important role in strawberry fruit ripening, but how ABA and sucrose co-regulate this ripening progress remains unclear. The intention of this study was to examine the effect of ABA and sucrose on strawberry fruit ripening and to evaluate the ABA/sucrose interaction mechanism on the strawberry fruit ripening process. Here, we report that there is an acute synergistic effect between ABA and sucrose in accelerating strawberry fruit ripening. The time frame of fruit development and ripening was shortened after the application of ABA, sucrose, and ABA + sucrose, but most of the major quality parameters in treated-ripe fruit, including fruit weight, total soluble solids, anthocyanin, ascorbic acid, the total phenolic content, lightness (L*), chroma (C*), and hue angle (h°) values were not affected. Meanwhile, the endogenous ABA and sucrose levels, and the expression of ABA and sucrose signaling genes and ripening-related genes, such as NCED1, NCED2, SnRK2.2, SuSy, MYB5, CEL1, and CEL2, was all significantly enhanced by ABA or sucrose treatment alone, but in particular, by the ABA + sucrose treatment. Therefore, improving the ripening regulation efficiency is one synergetic action of ABA/sucrose. Another synergetic action of ABA/sucrose shows that a short inhibition of glycolysis occurs during accelerated strawberry ripening. ABA and sucrose can induce higher accumulation of H2O2, leading to a transient decrease in glycolysis. Conversely, lower endogenous H2O2 levels caused by reduced glutathione (GSH) treatment resulted in a transient increase in glycolysis while delaying strawberry fruit ripening. Collectively, this study demonstrates that the ABA/sucrose interaction affects the ripening regulation efficiency and shows inhibition of glycolysis.


Assuntos
Ácido Abscísico/metabolismo , Fragaria/genética , Frutas/genética , Sacarose/metabolismo , Antocianinas/metabolismo , Fragaria/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fragaria/metabolismo , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Frutas/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Glutationa/metabolismo , Glicólise/genética , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Transdução de Sinais/genética
9.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(1): 941-953, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31820241

RESUMO

Although thiamine (THI) and hydrogen sulphide (H2S) both have widely been tested in the plant under stress conditions, cross talk between THI and H2S in the acquisition of cadmium (Cd) stress tolerance needs to be studied. So, an experiment was designed to study the participation of endogenous H2S in THI-induced tolerance to Cd stress in strawberry plants. A foliar spray solution containing THI (50 mg L-1) was sprayed once a week for 4 weeks to the foliage of strawberry plants under Cd stress (1.0 mM CdCl2). The plant dry weight, total chlorophyll, maximum efficiency of PSII (Fv/Fm), leaf potassium (K+) and calcium (Ca2+) as well as leaf water potential were significantly reduced, but the proline, ascorbate (AsA), glutathione (GSH), malondialdehyde (MDA), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), electron leakage (EL) and leaf Cd as well as endogenous H2S and NO were increased by Cd stress. Application of THI alleviated the oxidative damage due to Cd stress and caused a further elevation in endogenous H2S and NO contents. Remarkably, THI-induced Cd stress tolerance was further improved by addition of sodium hydrosulfide (0.2 mM NaHS), a H2S donor. To get an insight whether or not H2S involved in THI-improved tolerance to Cd toxicity in strawberry plants, an H2S scavenger, hypotaurine (HT 0.1 mM), was supplied along with the THI and NaHS treatments. THI-improved tolerance to Cd stress was partly reversed by HT by reducing leaf H2S and NO to the level and above of these under Cd toxicity alone, respectively. The findings evidently showed that leaf H2S and NO together involved in induced tolerance to Cd toxicity by THI. This evidence was also proved by the partly increases in MDA and H2O2 and decreases in antioxidant defence enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, catalase and peroxidase as well as the plant biomass and partly enhanced leaf Cd content by exogenous applied HT along with THI.


Assuntos
Cádmio/toxicidade , Fragaria/efeitos dos fármacos , Sulfeto de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Tiamina/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Ácido Ascórbico , Catalase/metabolismo , Clorofila/metabolismo , Fragaria/metabolismo , Glutationa/metabolismo , Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Malondialdeído , Oxirredução , Peroxidases , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Sulfetos , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
10.
Food Chem ; 306: 125611, 2020 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31606631

RESUMO

Aromatic secondary metabolites are closely related to quality attributes of postharvest fruit. In the present study, 20% CO2 was applied to strawberry fruit to investigate the regulation of elevated CO2 on aromatic secondary metabolites. The results showed that elevated CO2 delayed accumulations of anthocyanins, eugenol and lignin. Phenylalanine and tyrosine, the precursors of the above secondary metabolites, were 18.90% and 35.61%, respectively, lower in CO2-treated fruit compared with the control on day 6. Furthermore, enzyme activities and transcriptional profiles analysis showed pentose phosphate pathway and glycolysis were activated by elevated CO2 whereas the aromatic amino acids (AAAs) pathway was inhibited. These results indicated that elevated CO2 restricted carbon flux into aromatic secondary metabolism by inhibiting the AAAs pathway, leading to the decrease of phenylalanine and tyrosine, and thus, delayed the accumulation of aromatic secondary metabolites. In addition, the effect of elevated CO2 was eliminated after transferred CO2-treated fruit to air.


Assuntos
Fragaria/metabolismo , Antocianinas/análise , Antocianinas/metabolismo , Dióxido de Carbono/química , Eugenol/análise , Eugenol/metabolismo , Fragaria/química , Frutas/química , Frutas/metabolismo , Lignina/análise , Lignina/metabolismo
11.
Food Chem ; 307: 125550, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31639575

RESUMO

Modified atmosphere has widely been evident to contribute to fruit quality maintenance, however the correlation among these quality traits was less known. To explore main factors of elevated atmosphere and reduce the detection indexes, we exposed strawberry to either high O2 (80% O2 + 20% N2) or CO2 (20% CO2 + 20% O2 + 60% N2) atmosphere and compared quality characteristics. It was demonstrated that both atmospheres well maintained the fruit firmness, alleviated weight loss and decay rate. Elevated O2 maintained the polyphenolic contents and cell integrity by significantly decreasing superoxide and hydrogen peroxide levels. PCA analysis implied that HO treatment mainly affected oxygen metabolism while HCO affected carbon metabolism more. Significantly positive correlation was observed between weight loss, anthocyanin content and decay rate in elevated O2 and control groups. This study provided new insights into correlation and difference between impact of elevated O2 and CO2 to postharvest preservation.


Assuntos
Armazenamento de Alimentos , Fragaria/química , Oxigênio/química , Antocianinas/metabolismo , Dióxido de Carbono/química , Fragaria/metabolismo , Frutas/química , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Superóxidos/metabolismo
12.
Food Chem ; 309: 125662, 2020 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31704072

RESUMO

Strawberry cultivar "San Andreas" was grown under ambient (400 ppm CO2, 25 °C) and elevated (950 ppm CO2, 30 °C) growth conditions. The strawberries were subjected to in vitro gastrointestinal digestion and colonic fermentation to examine the accessibility of polyphenols, vitamin C and folates in fresh and frozen fruits using HPLC-UV analyses. Results revealed that elevated CO2 and higher temperature enhanced the amounts of accessible bioactive compounds in strawberries. Bioaccessibility of pelargonidin-3-glucoside increased from 67% to 88% in strawberries grown under elevated growth. Fresh strawberries grown under ambient growth contained 93.09 ±â€¯6.2 µg/100 g folates and 18.55 ±â€¯0.5 mg/100 g vitamin C as bioaccessible fractions under fed state while, elevated growth enhanced soluble folates and vitamin C up to 188.63 ±â€¯7.5 µg/100 g and 30.48 ±â€¯0.3 mg/100 g, respectively. Fresh strawberries contained higher amounts of accessible micronutrients than frozen strawberries, while increased bile contents in intestinal fluid (fed state) facilitated the release of bioactive compounds to gastrointestinal fluid.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Fragaria/metabolismo , Micronutrientes/análise , Antocianinas/metabolismo , Ácido Ascórbico/análise , Dióxido de Carbono/metabolismo , Ácido Fólico/análise , Fragaria/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Congelamento , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Frutas/metabolismo , Polifenóis/análise , Temperatura
13.
Chemosphere ; 238: 124651, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31472346

RESUMO

A harbour sediment, previously remediated, was tested for soilless strawberry cultivation (Camarosa and Monterey cultivars), as an innovative, cost-effective and environment-friendly approach of sediment management. Sediments were tested as such (TS100) and mixed 1/1 (v/v) with a peat-based commercial substrate (TS50), using the peat-based medium as control (TS0). Substrates were characterized for some physicochemical properties (e.g. density, porosity and water capacity). Minerals (P, Ca, K, Na and Fe), heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Mn, Ni, Cr, Pb and Cd), aliphatic hydrocarbons (C > 12), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans were analysed in substrates and fruits. Sugars and organic acids, including the ascorbic, were also determined in fruits, as quality indicators. Notwithstanding remediation, sediments showed concentrations of Zn (206 mg kg-1), C > 12 (86 mg kg-1) and PAHs (47 mg kg-1) exceeding the limits established by the Italian L.D. 152/2006, regulating the contamination of soil in green areas, thus making its relocation in the environment not permitted as such. No evidence of fruit contamination by Cr, Pb and Cd was highlighted. Moreover, Cu, Zn and Ni fruit concentrations were comparable among treatments. Conversely, Mn showed statistically higher concentrations in TS0 fruits (56-57 mg kg-1) compared to those grown in sediment-based substrates (8-20 mg kg-1). Among organic contaminants, only dioxin-like PCBs were determined in fruits, at toxic equivalent concentrations fourfold lower than the limit established by the European Union. TS100 fruits showed a yield reduction from 40 to 70% for Camarosa and Monterey, but higher sugar and ascorbic acid contents.


Assuntos
Produtos Agrícolas/normas , Monitoramento Ambiental , Fragaria/metabolismo , Frutas/química , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Produtos Agrícolas/química , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fragaria/química , Itália , Metais Pesados/análise , Minerais/análise , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Poluentes do Solo/química
14.
Food Chem ; 309: 125694, 2020 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31706673

RESUMO

Despite the numerous studies that have shown a wide range of biological activities to berry fruits, scientific data focusing on modern, rapid and simple extraction methods followed by a clean-up step is still lacking. Therefore, the present work was aimed at investigating the use of a fast one-step solid-liquid extraction procedure followed by a dispersive solid-phase extraction (d-SPE) clean-up step to evaluate the phenolic composition, antioxidant and antiproliferative activities from three of the principal berries found in Brazil, pomegranate (Punica granatum L.), blackberry (Rubus ulmifolius Schott.), and strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa Duch.). Under the optimized extraction conditions, sixteen phenolic compounds were determined by UHPLC-MS/MS analysis and all berry extracts showed antioxidant activity and antiproliferative effects on cervical (HeLa) and colon (HT-29) cancer cells. Overall, these results highlight the importance of the clean-up step for more reliable data in studies of health-promoting proprieties from berry fruits.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/química , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenóis/análise , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Rosaceae/química , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Fragaria/química , Fragaria/metabolismo , Frutas/química , Frutas/metabolismo , Humanos , Fenóis/química , Fenóis/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/química , Romã (Fruta)/química , Romã (Fruta)/metabolismo , Rosaceae/metabolismo , Rubus/química , Rubus/metabolismo , Extração em Fase Sólida , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
15.
Genes (Basel) ; 11(1)2019 12 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31877734

RESUMO

Strawberry (Fragaria) and raspberry (Rubus) are very popular crops, and improving their nutritional quality and disease resistance are important tasks in their breeding programs that are becoming increasingly based on use of functional DNA markers. We identified 118 microsatellite (simple sequence repeat-SSR) loci in the nucleotide sequences of flavonoid biosynthesis and pathogenesis-related genes and developed 24 SSR markers representing some of these structural and regulatory genes. These markers were used to assess the genetic diversity of 48 Fragaria and Rubus specimens, including wild species and rare cultivars, which differ in berry color, ploidy, and origin. We have demonstrated that a high proportion of the developed markers are transferable within and between Fragaria and Rubus genera and are polymorphic. Transferability and polymorphism of the SSR markers depended on location of their polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primer annealing sites and microsatellite loci in genes, respectively. High polymorphism of the SSR markers in regulatory flavonoid biosynthesis genes suggests their allelic variability that can be potentially associated with differences in flavonoid accumulation and composition. This set of SSR markers may be a useful molecular tool in strawberry and raspberry breeding programs for improvement anthocyanin related traits.


Assuntos
Flavonoides/biossíntese , Fragaria/genética , Repetições de Microssatélites , Rubus/genética , Vias Biossintéticas , Fragaria/classificação , Fragaria/metabolismo , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Rubus/classificação , Rubus/metabolismo , Especificidade da Espécie
16.
Food Funct ; 10(12): 7707-7713, 2019 Dec 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31746877

RESUMO

Berry fruits contain a variety of bioactive polyphenolic compounds that exhibit potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. We have shown that consumption of freeze-dried whole berry powder, equivalent to 1 cup per day of blueberry (BB) or 2 cups per day of strawberry (SB), can differentially improve some aspects of cognition in healthy, older adults, compared to placebo-supplemented controls. We investigated whether fasting and postprandial serum from BB- or SB-supplemented older adults (60-75 years), taken at baseline or after 45 or 90 days of supplementation, would reduce the production of inflammatory and oxidative stress markers compared to serum from a placebo group, in LPS-stressed HAPI rat microglial cells, in vitro. Serum from both BB- and SB-supplemented participants reduced nitrite production, iNOS and COX-2 expression, and TNF-alpha release relative to serum from placebo controls (p < 0.05). Protection was greatest with serum from the 90-day time-point, suggesting that ongoing supplementation may provide the most health benefits. Serum was protective in both fasted and postprandial conditions, indicating that the effects are not only acute and that the meal did not challenge subjects' ability to regulate oxidative and inflammatory stress. These results suggest that berry metabolites, present in the circulating blood following ingestion, may be mediating the anti-inflammatory effects of dietary berry fruit.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/sangue , Mirtilos Azuis (Planta)/metabolismo , Fragaria/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Idoso , Envelhecimento/imunologia , Animais , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Frutas/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Microglia/imunologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Óxido Nítrico/sangue , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/sangue , Período Pós-Prandial , Ratos , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/sangue
17.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(22)2019 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31744249

RESUMO

ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters constitute a large, diverse, and ubiquitous superfamily that is involved in a broad range of processes. The completion of genome sequencing provides an opportunity to understand the phylogenetic history of the ABC transporter superfamily among Rosaceae species. This study identified a total of 1323 ABC transporter genes from nine Rosaceae genomes: 191 from Malus domestica, 174 from Pyrus communis, 138 from Prunus persica, 118 from Prunus avium, 141 from Prunus dulcis, 122 from Fragaria vesca, 98 from Rubus occidentalis, 162 from Prunus mume, and 179 from Rosa chinensis. Their chemical characterization, phylogenetic analysis, chromosomal localization, gene structure, gene duplication, and tissue-specific expression were studied. Their subcellular localization, transmembrane structures, and protein motifs were predicted. All the ABC transporter genes were grouped into eight subfamilies on the basis of their phylogenetic relationships and structural features. Furthermore, cis-element and expression analysis of 10 potential phytohormone transporters in MdABCG subfamily genes were also performed. Loss of the W-box in the promoter region of MdABCG28 was found to reduce the gene expression level and was linked to the dwarfing phenotype in apple rootstocks. MdABCG28 overexpression promoted shoot growth of atabcg14 mutants in Arabidopsis.


Assuntos
Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/metabolismo , Citocininas/metabolismo , Genoma de Planta/genética , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta/metabolismo , Rosaceae/genética , Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/genética , Motivos de Aminoácidos , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Fragaria/genética , Fragaria/metabolismo , Duplicação Gênica , Malus/genética , Malus/metabolismo , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Prunus/genética , Prunus/metabolismo , Pyrus/genética , Pyrus/metabolismo , Rosaceae/metabolismo
18.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 145: 95-106, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31675527

RESUMO

In order to improve the understanding of plant water relations under drought stress, the water use behavior of two Fragaria x ananassa Duch. cultivars, contrasting in their drought stress phenotype, is identified. Under drought, stomatal closure is gradual in Figaro. Based on this, we associate Figaro with conservative water use behavior. Contrarily, drought stress causes a sudden and steep decrease in stomatal conductance in Flair, leading to the identification of Flair as a prodigal water use behavior cultivar. Responses to progressive drought on the one hand and an osmotic shock on the other hand are compared between these two cultivars. Tonoplast intrinsic protein mRNA levels are shown to be upregulated under progressive drought in the roots of Figaro only. Otherwise, aquaporin expression upon drought or osmotic stress is similar between both cultivars, i.e. plasma membrane intrinsic proteins are downregulated under progressive drought in leaves and under short term osmotic shock in roots. In response to osmotic shock, root hydraulic conductivity did not change significantly and stomatal closure is equal in both cultivars. De novo abscisic acid biosynthesis is upregulated in the roots of both cultivars under progressive drought.


Assuntos
Aquaporinas , Secas , Fragaria , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Pressão Osmótica , Estresse Fisiológico , Aquaporinas/genética , Fragaria/genética , Fragaria/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Água
19.
Food Funct ; 10(11): 6987-6998, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31637390

RESUMO

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the greatest cause of premature death and disability globally. Consequently, numerous therapeutic strategies have been developed in order to prevent the onset of adverse cardiovascular events including nutritional approaches. This includes strawberries as they have a high oxidant and micronutrient content, so we examined the extent to which dietary supplementation impacts on CVD risk factors. A comprehensive literature search without any limitation on language was conducted using the following bibliographical databases: ISI Web of Science, Scopus, PubMed and Cochrane Library. Search was conducted between 1985 and February 2019. The mean difference (MD) of the reported effects was calculated using a random effect model. A total of 20 groups from 14 clinical trials were included for final analysis. The pooled effect size showed that strawberry supplementation decreased circulating oxidized LDL (MD = -5.8 ng ml-1, p = 0.012), malondialdehyde (0.309 µmol L-1, p = 0.002), C-reactive protein (MD = -0.472 mg L-1, p = 0.003), total cholesterol (MD = -6.49 mg dL-1, p = 0.019), and diastolic blood pressure (MD = -2.220 mmHg, p = 0.033). It also demonstrated raised fasting blood sugar (MD = 2.083 mg dl-1; p = 0.040), but had no effect on other CVD risk factors examined. Dietary supplementation with strawberries improved specific CVD risk factors, suggesting that larger well-designed, adequately powered, and longer-term follow up studies should now be undertaken.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/dietoterapia , Fragaria/metabolismo , Adulto , Pressão Sanguínea , Doenças Cardiovasculares/genética , Doenças Cardiovasculares/metabolismo , Doenças Cardiovasculares/fisiopatologia , HDL-Colesterol/metabolismo , LDL-Colesterol/metabolismo , Feminino , Fragaria/química , Frutas/química , Frutas/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Adulto Jovem
20.
BMC Plant Biol ; 19(1): 423, 2019 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31610785

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pink-flowered strawberry is a promising new ornamental flower derived from intergeneric hybridization (Fragaria × Potentilla) with bright color, a prolonged flowering period and edible fruits. Its flower color ranges from light pink to red. Pigment compounds accumulated in its fruits were the same as in cultivated strawberry fruits, but different from that in its flowers. However, the transcriptional events underlying the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway have not been fully characterized in petal coloration. To gain insights into the regulatory networks related to anthocyanin biosynthesis and identify the key genes, we performed an integrated analysis of the transcriptome and metabolome in petals of pink-flowered strawberry. RESULTS: The main pigments of red and dark pink petals were anthocyanins, among which cyanidins were the main compound. There were no anthocyanins detected in the white-flowered hybrids. A total of 50,285 non-redundant unigenes were obtained from the transcriptome databases involved in red petals of pink-flowered strawberry cultivar Sijihong at three development stages. Amongst the unigenes found to show significant differential expression, 57 were associated with anthocyanin or other flavonoid biosynthesis, in which they were regulated by 241 differentially expressed members of transcription factor families, such as 40 MYBs, 47 bHLHs, and 41 NACs. Based on a comprehensive analysis relating pigment compounds to gene expression profiles, the mechanism of flower coloration was examined in pink-flowered strawberry. A new hypothesis was proposed to explain the lack of color phenotype of the white-flowered strawberry hybrids based on the transcriptome analysis. The expression patterns of FpDFR and FpANS genes corresponded to the accumulation patterns of cyanidin contents in pink-flowered strawberry hybrids with different shades of pink. Moreover, FpANS, FpBZ1 and FpUGT75C1 genes were the major factors that led to the absence of anthocyanins in the white petals of pink-flowered strawberry hybrids. Meanwhile, the competitive effect of FpFLS and FpDFR genes might further inhibit anthocyanin synthesis. CONCLUSIONS: The data presented herein are important for understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying the petal pigmentation and will be powerful for integrating novel potential target genes to breed valuable pink-flowered strawberry cultivars.


Assuntos
Antocianinas/metabolismo , Flores/metabolismo , Fragaria/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/fisiologia , Transcriptoma , Cor , Fragaria/metabolismo
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