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1.
Physiol Plant ; 167(1): 2-4, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31268563

RESUMO

Generating salt-tolerant plants that can cope with increasing soil salinity is a major goal of crop-breeding programs worldwide. Together with genetic approaches, research efforts are focusing on finding chemical modulators of salt tolerance. The exogenous application of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) has been shown to improve salt tolerance in diverse crop species, but its mechanism of action is not properly understood. Wu et al. (2019) report that ALA treatment enhances reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in the roots of salt-stressed strawberry plants. Activation of several key ion transporters downstream to the ROS signal helps to sequester the toxic Na+ ions in the roots and protects the shoots against salt stress.


Assuntos
Ácido Aminolevulínico/metabolismo , Fragaria/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Fragaria/efeitos dos fármacos , Raízes de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Tolerância ao Sal , Plantas Tolerantes a Sal/efeitos dos fármacos , Plantas Tolerantes a Sal/metabolismo , Cloreto de Sódio/farmacologia
2.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(33): 9265-9276, 2019 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31361479

RESUMO

Fungal infections significantly alter the emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) by plants, but the mechanisms for VOCs affecting fungal infections of plants remain largely unknown. Here, we found that infection by Botrytis cinerea upregulated linalool production by strawberries and fumigation with linalool was able to inhibit the infection of fruits by the fungus. Linalool treatment downregulated the expression of rate-limiting enzymes in the ergosterol biosynthesis pathway, and this reduced the ergosterol content in the fungi cell membrane and impaired membrane integrity. Linalool treatment also caused damage to mitochondrial membranes by collapsing mitochondrial membrane potential and also downregulated genes involved in adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production, resulting in a significant decrease in the ATP content. Linalool treatment increased the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), in response to which the treated fungal cells produced more of the ROS scavenger pyruvate. RNA-Seq and proteomic analysis data showed that linalool treatment slowed the rates of transcription and translation.


Assuntos
Botrytis/efeitos dos fármacos , Fragaria/metabolismo , Frutas/microbiologia , Monoterpenos/metabolismo , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/metabolismo , Trifosfato de Adenosina/metabolismo , Botrytis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fragaria/química , Fragaria/microbiologia , Frutas/química , Frutas/metabolismo , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Membranas Mitocondriais/efeitos dos fármacos , Membranas Mitocondriais/metabolismo , Monoterpenos/farmacologia , Doenças das Plantas/prevenção & controle , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Proteômica , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/farmacologia
3.
Food Chem ; 296: 109-115, 2019 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31202294

RESUMO

The structure of the ellagitannin (ET) with a molecular weight (MW) of 2038 isolated from strawberry fruit was elucidated on the basis of mass spectrometry data and nuclear magnetic resonance studies, with the newly determined compound being named fragariin A. Similarly to the main strawberry ET, agrimoniin (MW 1870), fragariin A was shown to contain a bis-HHDP-glucose moiety (MW 784). It exhibited the same three fragmentation ions with m/z 1567, 1265 and 633, arising from the detachment of consecutive hexahydroxydiphenoyl (HHDP) units from the structure with MW 1870. Based on spectroscopic studies, it was found that, in the tested ET (MW 2038), a free gallic acid is connected by a DOG-type bond to the 4,6-HHDP unit of the second glucose moiety of agrimoniin.


Assuntos
Fragaria/química , Taninos Hidrolisáveis/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Fragaria/metabolismo , Frutas/química , Frutas/metabolismo , Taninos Hidrolisáveis/isolamento & purificação , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Espectrometria de Massas , Conformação Molecular , Peso Molecular , Extratos Vegetais/química
4.
J Sci Food Agric ; 99(12): 5341-5349, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31058322

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa Duch.) is, among small fruits, the most cultivated and commercialized in Portugal. Recent studies have evidenced the positive effect of plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) inoculation on strawberry production and, at the same time, provided an alternative strategy to reduce the use of fertilizers. In this study the effects of root inoculation with three PGPB strains (Pedobacter sp. CC1, Bacillus safensis B106 and Bacillus subtilis B167A) on the physiology, growth, fruit production and quality of strawberry cv. Camarosa are presented. RESULTS: PGPB inoculation significantly accelerated crop maturation, with inoculated plants fruiting about 2 weeks earlier than non-inoculated plants. Inoculated plants with Pedobacter sp. CC1 and Bacillus safensis B106 influenced the gas exchange parameters of strawberry plants. The contents of total phenolics and flavonoids in strawberry leaves were found to be greater with Pedobacter sp. CC1, when compared with non-inoculated plants. Furthermore, plants inoculated with the same bacterial strain showed enhancement in the dimensions of fruits, especially fruit length, and shape as well as in the total soluble solids content (°Brix). CONCLUSIONS: The results showed that the PGPB Pedobacter sp. CC1 improved performance of strawberry plants, suggesting that it could be a potential biofertilizer for strawberry plant nutrition. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Inoculantes Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bacillus/fisiologia , Fragaria/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fragaria/microbiologia , Frutas/química , Pedobacter/fisiologia , Fertilizantes/análise , Flavonoides/análise , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Fragaria/química , Fragaria/metabolismo , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Frutas/metabolismo , Fenóis/análise , Fenóis/metabolismo , Portugal
5.
Food Chem ; 291: 30-37, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31006468

RESUMO

The formation of toxic disinfection by-products (DBPs) is among the main concerns in the use of chlorine sanitizers for washing fresh and fresh-cut produce to minimize microbial cross-contamination. Even so, robust analytical methods for measuring various DBPs in produce have been lacking. This study has established two liquid-liquid extraction methods, followed by gas chromatography with electron capture detection, to measure 32 conventional and emerging DBPs in different produce types including lettuce, cabbage and strawberry. Good recoveries (50-130%) were achieved for most DBPs in the different produce. The method detection limits were in the range of 0.3-10 ng/g for trihalomethanes, haloacetic acids, nitrogenous DBPs, and other carbonaceous DBPs. Preliminary screening analysis indicated one-third of the target DBPs were found in unwashed produce, and washing with chlorine significantly promoted DBPs' formation and concentrations in the produce. The developed analytical methods will be useful tools for future research on food DBPs.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Gasosa , Desinfetantes/química , Trialometanos/análise , Brassica/química , Brassica/metabolismo , Cloro/química , Fragaria/química , Fragaria/metabolismo , Halogenação , Alface/química , Alface/metabolismo , Limite de Detecção , Extração Líquido-Líquido , Trialometanos/isolamento & purificação , Purificação da Água
6.
Food Chem ; 289: 112-120, 2019 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30955592

RESUMO

Sucrose acts as a vital signal that modulates fruit ripening. In current study, 50 mM sucrose was applied in strawberry fruit to investigate the regulation of sucrose in anthocyanin synthesis after harvest. The results showed that sucrose treatment increased the contents of glucose, fructose and sucrose, which were 19.76%, 15.83% and 16.50% higher, respectively, compared with control at the end of storage. The increase of glucose and fructose contents resulted from the activation of acid invertase by sucrose treatment. In addition, sucrose treatment specifically increased four pelargonidin derivatives, pelargonidin 3-glucoside, pelargonidin 3-rutinoside, pelargonidin 3-malonylglucoside and pelargonidin 3-methylmalonyglucoside, during the storage. Further, transcriptional profiles and enzyme activities analysis revealed that the accumulation of pelargonidin derivatives was related to the activation of the pentose phosphate pathway, shikimate pathway, phenylpropanoid pathway, and flavonoid pathway. These results provided new insights into the regulation of sucrose on the accumulation of individual anthocyanins.


Assuntos
Antocianinas/biossíntese , Fragaria/metabolismo , Antocianinas/análise , Antocianinas/metabolismo , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Fragaria/química , Frutas/química , Frutas/metabolismo , Glucose/análise , Glucosefosfato Desidrogenase/genética , Glucosefosfato Desidrogenase/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas , Via de Pentose Fosfato/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenilalanina Amônia-Liase/metabolismo , Sacarose/farmacologia , Transcinamato 4-Mono-Oxigenase/metabolismo
7.
Food Chem ; 290: 178-186, 2019 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31000035

RESUMO

The determination of cochineal (E-120) in strawberry jam was carried out in the presence of carmoisine (E-122) using the four-way PARAFAC decomposition and excitation-emission fluorescence matrices. In the measured conditions, there was no fluorescence signal for carmoisine due to a strong quenching effect and this colorant also led to a decrease of the fluorescence signal of cochineal. The European Union has fixed a maximum residue level, MRL, for cochineal in jam (100 mg kg-1). Therefore, the addition of other food colorant (carmoisine) in the jam could lead to false compliant decisions. The four-way PARAFAC decomposition avoided false compliant decisions caused by the quenching effect. Cochineal was unequivocally identified. Detection capability (CCß) was 0.72 mg L-1 for probabilities of false positive and false negative fixed at 0.05. Cochineal was detected in the jam (104.63 mg kg-1) above the MRL. This amount was compared with the one obtained using a HPLC/DAD method.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Carmim/análise , Fragaria/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Fragaria/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Fluorescência/métodos
8.
BMC Plant Biol ; 19(1): 128, 2019 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30953454

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The soil-borne vascular pathogen Verticillium dahliae causes severe wilt symptoms in a wide range of plants including strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa). To enhance our understanding of the effects of V. dahliae on the growth and development of F. × ananassa, the expression patterns of 21 PR-10 genes were investigated by qPCR analysis and metabolite changes were determined by LC-MS in in vitro F. × ananassa plants upon pathogen infection. RESULTS: The expression patterns of the 21 isoforms showed a wide range of responses. Four PR-10 genes were highly induced in leaves upon pathogen infection while eight members were significantly up-regulated in roots. A simultaneously induced expression in leaves and roots was detected for five PR-10 genes. Interestingly, two isoforms were expressed upon infection in all three tissues (leaves, roots and stems) while no induction was detected for two other members. Accumulation of antifungal catechin and epicatechin was detected upon pathogen infection in roots and stems at late stages, while caffeic acid and citric acid were observed only in infected roots. Production of abscisic acid, salicylic acid, jasmonic acid (JA), gibberellic acid and indole acetic acid (IAA) was induced in infected leaves and stems at early stages. IAA and JA were the sole hormones to be ascertained in infected roots at late stages. CONCLUSIONS: The induction of several PR-10 genes upon infection of strawberry plants with V. dahliae suggest a role of PR-10 genes in the defense response against this pathogen. Production of phytohormones in the early stages of infection and antifungal metabolites in late stages suppose that they are implicated in this response. The results may possibly improve the control measures of the pathogen.


Assuntos
Fragaria/genética , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Doenças das Plantas/imunologia , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Verticillium/fisiologia , Ácido Abscísico/metabolismo , Ciclopentanos/metabolismo , Fragaria/imunologia , Fragaria/metabolismo , Fragaria/microbiologia , Oxilipinas/metabolismo , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Folhas de Planta/genética , Folhas de Planta/imunologia , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia , Ácido Salicílico/metabolismo
9.
Physiol Plant ; 167(1): 5-20, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30891756

RESUMO

To explore the mechanisms of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA)-improved plant salt tolerance, strawberries (Fragaria × ananassa Duch. cv. 'Benihoppe') were treated with 10 mg l-1 ALA under 100 mmol l-1 NaCl stress. We found that the amount of Na+ increased in the roots but decreased in the leaves. Laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM) observations showed that ALA-induced roots had more Na+ accumulation than NaCl alone. Measurement of the xylem sap revealed that ALA repressed Na+ concentrations to a large extent. The electron microprobe X-ray assay also confirmed ALA-induced Na+ retention in roots. qRT-PCR showed that ALA upregulated the gene expressions of SOS1 (encoding a plasma membrane Na+ /H+ antiporter), NHX1 (encoding a vacuolar Na+ /H+ antiporter) and HKT1 (encoding a protein of high-affinity K+ uptake), which are associated with Na+ exclusion in the roots, Na+ sequestration in vacuoles and Na+ unloading from the xylem vessels to the parenchyma cells, respectively. Furthermore, we found that ALA treatment reduced the H2 O2 content in the leaves but increased it in the roots. The exogenous H2 O2 promoted plant growth, increased root Na+ retention and stimulated the gene expressions of NHX1, SOS1 and HKT1. Diphenyleneiodonium (DPI), an inhibitor of H2 O2 generation, suppressed the effects of ALA or H2 O2 on Na+ retention, gene expressions and salt tolerance. Therefore, we propose that ALA induces H2 O2 accumulation in roots, which mediates Na+ transporter gene expression and more Na+ retention in roots, thereby improving plant salt tolerance.


Assuntos
Ácido Aminolevulínico/farmacologia , Fragaria/efeitos dos fármacos , Fragaria/metabolismo , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Sódio/farmacologia , Tolerância ao Sal , Plantas Tolerantes a Sal/efeitos dos fármacos , Plantas Tolerantes a Sal/metabolismo
10.
Plant Sci ; 281: 9-18, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30824065

RESUMO

Arabinogalactan proteins as cell wall structural proteins are involved in fundamental processes during plant development and growth. The aim of this study was to evaluate AGP function in the distribution of pectin, cellulose and callose along Fragaria x ananassa pollen tube and to associate the cell wall structure with local mechanical properties. We used Yariv reagent which interacts with AGPs and allows the observation of the assembly of cell walls without AGPs performing their function. Cytochemical, immunofluorescence labelling and atomic force microscope have been used to characterize the changes in cell wall structure and stiffness. It was shown that disordering of the structure of AGP present in cell walls affects the localization of cellulose, pectins and the secretion of callose. Changes in cell wall assembly are relevant to pollen tube mechanical properties. The stiffness gradient lengthwise through the axis of the pollen tube has demonstrated a significantly higher Young's modulus of the shank region than the growth zone. It has been revealed that the apex of the pollen tube cultured in the presence of Yariv reagent is stiffer (1.68 MPa) than the corresponding region of the pollen tube grown under control conditions (0.13-0.27 MPa). AGP affects the structure of the cell wall by changing the distribution of other components and the modification of their localization, and hence it plays a significant role in the mechanical properties of the cell wall.


Assuntos
Parede Celular/metabolismo , Fragaria/metabolismo , Tubo Polínico/metabolismo , Celulose/metabolismo , Fragaria/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Glucanos/metabolismo , Mucoproteínas/metabolismo , Pectinas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Tubo Polínico/crescimento & desenvolvimento
11.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(14): 4043-4053, 2019 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30883111

RESUMO

Cold plasma technology offers new opportunities to the decontamination and preservation of fruits and vegetables. In the present research, strawberries were cut into four wedges and then treated with dielectric barrier discharge plasma at 45 kV for 1 min and stored for 1 week (4 °C). Metabolomic analysis suggested that plasma treatment improved the biosynthesis of the metabolites in the "flavones and flavonol biosynthesis" pathway and "biosynthesis of phenylpropanoids" pathway in fresh-cut strawberries. Physiological assay demonstrated that plasma treatment maintained the texture properties and inhibited microbial growth of fresh-cut strawberries. In addition, plasma treatment also promoted the accumulation of total phenolics, total flavonoid, and anthocyanin by enhancing the critical enzyme activities and activating related gene expression in phenylpropanoid as well as reactive oxygen species metabolism, which contributed greatly to the enhancement of antioxidant capacity of strawberry wedges. Our investigation provided a new perspective of the effect of plasma treatment on the safety and quality of strawberry wedges and suggested that cold plasma treatment holds promise as an emerging processing technology for improving the quality and antioxidant activity of postharvest fruits and vegetables.


Assuntos
Conservação de Alimentos/métodos , Fragaria/química , Frutas/efeitos dos fármacos , Gases em Plasma/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Bactérias Aeróbias/genética , Bactérias Aeróbias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bactérias Aeróbias/isolamento & purificação , Fragaria/efeitos dos fármacos , Fragaria/metabolismo , Fragaria/microbiologia , Frutas/química , Frutas/metabolismo , Frutas/microbiologia , Metabolômica , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
12.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(33): 9168-9177, 2019 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30810035

RESUMO

Strawberry (Fragaria chiloensis) is a major edible berry with various potential health benefits. This study determined the protective effects of whole strawberry (WS) against dextran-sulfate-sodium-induced colitis in mice. In colitic mice, dietary WS reduced the disease activity index, prevented the colon shortening and spleen enlargement, and alleviated the colonic tissue damages. The abundance of proinflammatory immune cells was reduced by dietary WS in the colonic mucosa, which was accompanied by the suppression of overproduction of proinflammatory cytokines. Western blotting and immunohistochemical analysis revealed that dietary WS decreased the expression of proinflammatory proteins in the colonic mucosa. Moreover, dietary WS partially reversed the alteration of gut microbiota in the colitic mice by increasing the abundance of potential beneficial bacteria, e.g., Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus, and decreasing the abundance of potential harmful bacteria, e.g., Dorea and Bilophila. Dietary WS also restored the decreased production of short-chain fatty acids in the cecum of the colitic mice. The results revealed the anti-inflammatory effects and mechanisms of dietary WS in the colon, which is critical for the rational utilization of strawberry for the prevention of inflammation-driven diseases.


Assuntos
Colite/dietoterapia , Colo/imunologia , Disbiose/dietoterapia , Fragaria/metabolismo , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Bactérias/metabolismo , Colite/imunologia , Colite/metabolismo , Colite/microbiologia , Colo/microbiologia , Citocinas/imunologia , Sulfato de Dextrana/efeitos adversos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Disbiose/imunologia , Disbiose/metabolismo , Disbiose/microbiologia , Homeostase , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
13.
J Sci Food Agric ; 99(8): 4003-4010, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30723911

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fruit dips in calcium ions solutions have been shown as an effective treatment to extend strawberries (Fragaria × ananassa, Duch) quality during storage. In the present work, strawberry fruit were treated with 10 g L-1 calcium chloride solution and treatment effects on cell wall enzymes activities and the expression of encoding genes, as well as enzymes involved in fruit defense responses were investigated. RESULTS: Calcium treatment enhanced pectin methylesterase activity while inhibited those corresponding to pectin hydrolases as polygalacturonase and ß-galactosidase. The expression of key genes for strawberry pectin metabolism was up-regulated (for FaPME1) and down-regulated (for FaPG1, FaPLB, FaPLC, FaßGal1 and FaAra1) by calcium dips. In agreement, a higher firmness level and ionically-bound pectins (IBPs) amount were detected in calcium-treated fruit compared with controls. The in vitro and in vivo growth rate of fungal pathogen Botrytis cinerea was limited by calcium treatment. Moreover, the activities of polyphenol oxidases, chitinases, peroxidases and ß-1,3-glucanases were enhanced by calcium ion dips. CONCLUSION: News insights concerning the biochemical and molecular basis of cell wall preservation and resistance to fungal pathogens on calcium-treated strawberries are provided. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Cloreto de Cálcio/farmacologia , Parede Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Conservantes de Alimentos/farmacologia , Fragaria/efeitos dos fármacos , Parede Celular/enzimologia , Parede Celular/metabolismo , Fragaria/enzimologia , Fragaria/genética , Fragaria/metabolismo , Frutas/efeitos dos fármacos , Frutas/enzimologia , Frutas/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Pectinas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Poligalacturonase/genética , Poligalacturonase/metabolismo , beta-Galactosidase/genética , beta-Galactosidase/metabolismo
14.
BMC Plant Biol ; 19(1): 73, 2019 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30764758

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The development and ripening of fresh fruits is an important trait for agricultural production and fundamental research. Almost all plant hormones participate in this process. Strigolactones (SLs) are a new class of plant hormones that regulate plant organ development and stress tolerance, but little is known about their roles in fruit development. RESULTS: In this study, we identified SL biosynthetic and signaling genes in woodland strawberry, a typical non-climacteric fruit, and analyzed the expression patterns of these genes in different plant tissues and developing fruits. One D27, two MAX1, and one LBO gene were identified as involved in SL biosynthesis, and one D14, one D3, and two D53 genes as related to SL signaling. The proteins encoded by these genes had similar motifs as SL biosynthetic and signaling proteins in rice and Arabidopsis. The genes had different expression levels in the root, stem, leaf, and petiole of woodland strawberry. In addition, the expression of most SL biosynthetic genes was high in developing carpel, anther, and style, while that of SL signaling genes was high in carpel and style, but low in anther, suggesting active SL biosynthesis and signaling in the developing carpel and style. Notably, the expression of SL biosynthetic and signaling genes was significantly increased in the receptacle after pollination and decreased during receptacle development. Moreover, low or no expression of these genes was detected in ripening fruits. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that SLs play a role in the early stages of woodland strawberry fruit development. Our findings provide insight into the function of SLs and will facilitate further study of the regulation by SLs of fresh fruit development.


Assuntos
Fragaria/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Lactonas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Fragaria/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fragaria/metabolismo , Frutas/genética , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Frutas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética
15.
Food Chem ; 283: 665-674, 2019 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30722925

RESUMO

Abscisic acid (ABA) has been advocated to play substantial role on ripening of non-climacteric fruit. Here we report that alginate oligosaccharide (AOS) postharvest treatments delayed the accumulation of ABA and ABA-conjugates and restrained the expression of ABA signaling genes, resulting enlarged storage life of strawberry. In addition, AOS postharvest treatments also increased the quality and reduced the degradation of cell wall components and repressed the expression of cell wall degradation genes. AOS treated fruits exhibited significant delays of hardness, decay percentage, titratable acidity, pH, total soluble solids and vitamin C content compared to untreated fruits. Moreover, AOS had a positive effect on retaining higher amount of anthocyanin, total phenol and flavonoids contents. The finding of this study suggests that AOS postharvest treatments are very useful for preserving fruit quality and enhancing shelf life by delayed ABA accretion, restrained the gene expression related to ABA signaling and cell wall degeneration.


Assuntos
Ácido Abscísico/metabolismo , Alginatos/química , Fragaria/metabolismo , Oligossacarídeos/farmacologia , Ácido Abscísico/análise , Antocianinas/análise , Ácido Ascórbico/análise , Parede Celular/genética , Parede Celular/metabolismo , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Armazenamento de Alimentos , Fragaria/efeitos dos fármacos , Fragaria/genética , Frutas/química , Frutas/efeitos dos fármacos , Frutas/metabolismo , Dureza , Oligossacarídeos/química , Fenóis/análise , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray , Espectrofotometria
16.
Food Chem ; 285: 163-170, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30797331

RESUMO

Colour is an important quality attribute for the consumer's acceptability of fruit. Elevated CO2 was applied to strawberry fruit to explore its influence on chlorophyll catabolism and anthocyanin synthesis. The results showed that 20% CO2 delayed the changes of a* and b* values in strawberry fruit. The degradation of chlorophyll was delayed in CO2 treated fruit by inhibiting the activities of chlorophyllase and down-regulating the expression of FaChl b reductase, FaPAO and FaRCCR. In addition, lower concentration of anthocyanins and lower activity of PAL, C4H, 4CL and CHS were recorded under the effect of 20% CO2. Meanwhile, qRT-PCR analysis showed that 13 genes involved in the phenylpropanoid pathway and the flavonoid biosynthesis pathway were also down-regulated under CO2 stress. However, no residual effect on pigment metabolism was observed when elevated CO2 was removed. Our study provided new insights into the regulation of elevated CO2 in the role of pigment metabolism in postharvest.


Assuntos
Antocianinas/metabolismo , Dióxido de Carbono/química , Clorofila/metabolismo , Fragaria/química , Antocianinas/análise , Clorofila/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Regulação para Baixo , Fragaria/metabolismo , Frutas/química , Frutas/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Espectrometria de Massas , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo
17.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(4): 1292-1301, 2019 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30629884

RESUMO

1-Naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) has long been used to regulate strawberry growth. However, its regulatory mechanisms are unclear. Here, a nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabolomics approach was utilized to capture differential metabolites, then matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) and transcriptomics as assisted methods to validate the significant findings of metabolomics. The metabolomics results suggested that NAA regulated strawberry growth via multiple metabolic pathways, and different NAA application times also influenced these regulatory effects. We also found an interesting phenomenon that citric acid had completely opposite changes when NAA was sprayed at two different ripening stages of the strawberries. Furthermore, MALDI-TOF MS validated the changes of citric acid and transcriptomics identified the related genes. The study demonstrated that the novel strategy of "metabolomics capture-MALDI-TOF MS and transcriptomics assisted validation" could offer a fresh insight for understanding the mechanism of the plant growth regulator in strawberry maturation.


Assuntos
Fragaria/química , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Metabolômica/métodos , Ácidos Naftalenoacéticos/análise , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta/análise , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Fragaria/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fragaria/metabolismo , Frutas/química , Frutas/metabolismo , Redes e Vias Metabólicas , Ácidos Naftalenoacéticos/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz/métodos
18.
Food Chem ; 280: 310-320, 2019 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30642502

RESUMO

The interaction of strawberry cell wall with hydroxytyrosol (HT) and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylglycol (DHPG), two potent phenolic antioxidants naturally found in olive fruit with important biological properties, was investigated. The interaction occurred with drying and seemed to be more complex, strong and irreversible than a simple association. MALDI TOF-TOF analysis suggested covalent (ester bond) and non-covalent (strong hydrogen-bonding, mostly) interactions. The oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay confirmed that the phenols maintained partially their antioxidant activity after binding to the soluble dietary fraction. This soluble dietary fiber was obtained following digestion simulated in vitro with gastric and intestinal fluids. Although the antioxidant activity of HT and DHPG was affected by the dietary fiber interaction, this activity was restored when polysaccharide size was reduced by enzymatic treatment, suggesting that a similar process could occur in the colon. Thus, the use of this novel antioxidant-enriched soluble dietary fiber as a functional food ingredient could potentially promote intestinal health.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/química , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Fragaria/química , Olea/química , Fenóis/química , Polissacarídeos/química , Parede Celular/química , Parede Celular/metabolismo , Fragaria/metabolismo , Frutas/química , Frutas/metabolismo , Metoxi-Hidroxifenilglicol/análogos & derivados , Metoxi-Hidroxifenilglicol/química , Olea/metabolismo , Álcool Feniletílico/análogos & derivados , Álcool Feniletílico/química , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz
19.
J Plant Physiol ; 233: 1-11, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30572279

RESUMO

Abiotic and biotic stress situations cause the upregulation of the transcription of a number of plant defence genes. They code for so-called pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins such as PR proteins of class-10 (PR-10), whose biological functions are still unclear. PR10 proteins are members of the Bet v 1 (major birch pollen allergen) superfamily including related proteins from the cultivated strawberry Fragaria × ananassa (Fra a 1 proteins). Here, we analyzed the expression of 21 Fra a 1 genes in different tissues of the strawberry plant by quantitative real-time PCR. Thirteen members were mainly expressed in roots, three in stems, two in red fruits and leaves, and one in flowers. Five genes (Fra a 1.04-1.08) were selected based on their expression profiles, heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli, and their recombinant proteins functionally characterized. Ribonuclease activity, demonstrated by in-solution and in-gel RNA degradation assays, indicated complete hydrolysis of RNA only by Fra a 1.06. Moreover, phosphorylation assays showed that except for Fra a 1.06, the remaining four recombinant proteins were phosphorylated. Consequently, we investigated whether the phosphorylation status of the proteins affects their ribonuclease activity. Using an in-solution as well as an in-gel RNase activity assay, results demonstrated that the four recombinant proteins, dephosphorylated with phosphatases, exhibited ribonucleolytic activity against total RNA. Thus, the PR10 related proteins characterized in this study harbour a phosphorylation-dependent RNase activity. The results shed new light on the assumed function of PR10 proteins in plant defence.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Plantas/metabolismo , Ribonucleases/metabolismo , Antígenos de Plantas/genética , Escherichia coli , Flores/metabolismo , Fragaria/genética , Fragaria/metabolismo , Frutas/metabolismo , Genes de Plantas , Microrganismos Geneticamente Modificados , Fosforilação , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Caules de Planta/metabolismo , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Proteínas Recombinantes
20.
Food Chem ; 278: 653-658, 2019 Apr 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30583425

RESUMO

This paper focuses on the development of a simple, fast and reliable technique of sample preparation to be employed as part of potentiometric measurements of plant total antioxidant activity (AOA). Plant extracts and plant microsuspensions were analysed. The conditions for obtaining plant extracts were chosen: they exhibited the highest antioxidant activity at +80 °C and extraction time 20 min. A higher degree of dispersion of the analysed samples was accompanied by an increase in AOA of extracts and microsuspensions. The microsuspension enhanced effect results from the fact that antioxidants contained in both liquid and solid fractions are involved in the zone of a signal-generating reaction. The analysis of plant microsuspensions reduces the duration of AOA assessment. Comparison of the results of antioxidant activity of black and green tea microsuspensions with the results of the analysis of extracts prepared by a certified method showed no difference.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/química , Potenciometria , Suspensões/química , Fragaria/química , Fragaria/metabolismo , Frutas/química , Frutas/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Chá/química , Chá/metabolismo , Temperatura Ambiente
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