Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 362
Filtrar
1.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237466, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32790762

RESUMO

In the past decade, two leptospirosis outbreaks occurred among strawberry harvesters in Germany, with 13, and 45 reported cases respectively. In both outbreaks, common voles (Microtus arvalis) infected with Leptospira kischneri serovar Grippotyphosa were identified as the most likely outbreak source. In an univariate analysis, eating unwashed strawberries was identified as one of the risk factors associated with Leptospira infection. The aim of this study was to evaluate the survival time of L. kirschneri serovar Grippotyphosa on strawberries under varying conditions. Strawberries were spiked with 5x109 of both a laboratory reference strain (strain Moskva V) and an outbreak field strain (94-6/2007) of L. kirschneri serovar Grippotyphosa sequence type 110. Survival times were investigated in a fully crossed design with three incubation times (2h, 4h, 6h and 8h) and three temperatures (15°C, 21°C and 25°C) with three replicated for each condition. A wash protocol was developed and recovered Leptospira were determined by qPCR, dark field microscopy and culturing. Viable L. kirschneri of both the reference strain and the field strain were identified in all samples at 25°C and an incubation time of 2h, but only 1/9 (11%) and 4/9 (44%) of the samples incubated at 15°C were positive, respectively. Both reference and field strain were viable only in 2/9 (22%) at 25° after 6h. After an 8h incubation, viable Leptospira could not be identified on the surface of the strawberries or within the fruit for any of the tested conditions. Based on these results, the exposure risk of consumers to viable Leptospira spp. through the consumption of strawberries bought at the retail level is most likely very low. However, there is a potential risk of Leptospira infection by consumption of strawberries on pick-your-own farms.


Assuntos
Fragaria/microbiologia , Leptospira/fisiologia , DNA Bacteriano/metabolismo , Frutas/microbiologia , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Leptospira/genética , Leptospirose/epidemiologia , Leptospirose/patologia , Microscopia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Sorogrupo , Temperatura , Fatores de Tempo
2.
Arch Virol ; 165(6): 1481-1484, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32246284

RESUMO

Xanthomonas phage RiverRider is a novel N4-like bacteriophage and the first phage isolated from the plant pathogen Xanthomonas fragariae. Electron microscopy revealed a Podoviridae morphology consisting of isometric heads and short noncontractile tails. The complete genome of RiverRider is 76,355 bp in length, with 90 open reading frames and seven tRNAs. The genome is characteristic of N4-like bacteriophages in both content and organization, having predicted proteins characterized into the functional groups of transcription, DNA metabolism, DNA replication, lysis, lysis inhibition, structure and DNA packaging. Amino acid sequence comparisons for proteins in these categories showed highest similarities to well-characterized N4-like bacteriophages isolated from Achromobacter xylosoxidans and Erwinia amylovora. However, the tail fiber proteins of RiverRider are clearly distinct from those of other N4-like phages. RiverRider was able to infect seven different strains of X. fragariae and none of the other species of Xanthomonas tested.


Assuntos
Fragaria/microbiologia , Genoma Viral , Podoviridae/classificação , Xanthomonas/virologia , Achromobacter denitrificans/virologia , DNA Viral/genética , Erwinia amylovora/virologia , Microscopia Eletrônica , Fases de Leitura Aberta , Filogenia , Podoviridae/isolamento & purificação , Podoviridae/ultraestrutura , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
3.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 325: 108629, 2020 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32325344

RESUMO

High pressure processing is a mild preservation process that inactivates pathogenic and spoilage micro-organisms in food products, but preserves the fresh characteristics of a product. Compared to untreated product, an enhanced shelf life is obtained during refrigerated storage. Knowledge on the use of high pressure pasteurisation aimed for ambient storage is limited. The aim of this research was to investigate if a combination of high pressure and moderate heat could be used to produce a shelf-stable high-acid fruit product. Ascospores of the heat resistant fungi Talaromyces macrosporus and Aspergillus fischeri were added to fresh strawberry puree that served as a model system. The effect of the processing steps and storage at ambient temperature for 2 weeks was studied on viability of the ascospores. A preheating step at 69 °C/2 min resulted in full or partial activation of A. fischeri and T. macrosporus spores, respectively. The pressure build-up by the process without any holding time resulted in additional activation of spores. A combination of moderate heat (maximum 85-90 °C) and high pressure (500-700 MPa) for holding times up to 13 min inactivated these highly resistant spores much faster than a heat treatment alone. At Tmax = 85 °C and 600 MPa the spores of T. macrosporus and A. fischeri were inactivated by 5.0 and 5.5 log10 after 13 and 7 min, respectively. At Tmax = 85 °C the heat treatment alone did not reduce the viability of these spores up to 60 min of treatment. At Tmax = 90 °C the holding time of the combined pressure-heat treatment could be reduced to obtain the same degree of inactivation of the heat resistant fungi. In addition, treated and untreated ascospores in strawberry puree were stored for 14 days at room temperature to evaluate delayed outgrowth of spores. Untreated ascospores of A. fischeri were activated by storage in the puree. However, at conditions combining high pressure ≥ 600 MPa with Tmax ≥ 85 °C for 13 min, heat resistant fungi were successfully inactivated. This research showed that a combination of moderate heat and pressure can drastically improve the effectiveness to inactivate heat-resistant ascospores in a high-acid fruit product compared to a heat treatment, potentially resulting in a better product quality.


Assuntos
Aspergillus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Pasteurização/métodos , Esporos Bacterianos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Esporos Fúngicos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Talaromyces/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Fragaria/microbiologia , Frutas/microbiologia , Temperatura Alta
4.
J Oleo Sci ; 69(4): 377-390, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32249265

RESUMO

Colletotrichum nymphaeae is the causal agent of strawberry anthracnose, which is one of the most important disease affecting strawberry plant in Iran. This research aimed to apply the selected plant essential oils (EOs) such as Achillea millefolium, Mentha longifolia, and Ferula kuma to the management of strawberry anthracnose disease under in vitro, in vivo, and greenhouse conditions. In vitro tests indicated that all the EOs and fungicide were able to inhibit mycelial growth and conidial germination of the pathogen. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed that EOs significantly suppressed the mycelia growth and caused a change in morphology of fungal mycelia. The severity of strawberry anthracnose disease was significantly (p ≤ 0.05) reduced by all EOs under in vivo and greenhouse conditions. Results of all experiments showed that M. longifolia EO was the best EO to control C. nymphaeae. Also, EOs almost reduced weight loss and preserved firmness, ascorbic acid, total phenol, antioxidant activity (DPPH), and enzyme peroxidase activity in treated fruit. Moreover, EOs preserved the sensory quality of strawberry fruit during the storage period so that there were no significant differences between treatments (EOs) in their appearance, flavor, odor attributes, and overall evaluation compared to the control. Our results indicate that EOs are excellent bio-fungicides for the management of strawberry anthracnose.


Assuntos
Qualidade dos Alimentos , Fragaria/microbiologia , Fungicidas Industriais , Mentha/química , Óleos Voláteis , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Doenças das Plantas/prevenção & controle , Óleos Vegetais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Ácido Ascórbico/metabolismo , Colletotrichum/patogenicidade , Fragaria/metabolismo , Peroxidase/metabolismo , Fenóis/metabolismo
5.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0226448, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32214345

RESUMO

Rapid Alkalinization Factors (RALFs) are cysteine-rich peptides ubiquitous within plant kingdom. They play multiple roles as hormonal signals in diverse processes, including root elongation, cell growth, pollen tube development, and fertilization. Their involvement in host-pathogen crosstalk as negative regulators of immunity in Arabidopsis has also been recognized. In addition, peptides homologous to RALF are secreted by different fungal pathogens as effectors during early stages of infection. Previous studies have identified nine RALF genes in the diploid strawberry (Fragaria vesca) genome. This work describes the genomic organization of the RALF gene families in commercial octoploid strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) and the re-annotated genome of F. vesca, and then compares findings with orthologs in Arabidopsis thaliana. We reveal the presence of 15 RALF genes in F. vesca genotype Hawaii 4 and 50 in Fragaria x ananassa cv. Camarosa, showing a non-homogenous localization of genes among the different Fragaria x ananassa subgenomes. Expression analysis of Fragaria x ananassa RALF genes upon infection with Colletotrichum acutatum or Botrytis cinerea showed that FanRALF3-1 was the only fruit RALF gene upregulated after fungal infection. In silico analysis was used to identify distinct pathogen inducible elements upstream of the FanRALF3-1 gene. Agroinfiltration of strawberry fruit with deletion constructs of the FanRALF3-1 promoter identified a 5' region required for FanRALF3-1 expression in fruit, but failed to identify a region responsible for fungal induced expression.


Assuntos
Botrytis , Colletotrichum , Cruzamentos Genéticos , Fragaria , Frutas , Família Multigênica , Proteínas de Neoplasias , Doenças das Plantas , Proteínas de Plantas , Fragaria/genética , Fragaria/microbiologia , Frutas/genética , Frutas/microbiologia , Proteínas de Neoplasias/genética , Proteínas de Neoplasias/metabolismo , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo
6.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 320: 108489, 2020 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31954976

RESUMO

The microbial interaction between Salmonella enterica and the main postharvest fungal pathogens of strawberries was evaluated. Inoculation of fungal suspension was done 2 (D2) and 1 (D1) day(s) before and at the same time (D0) as S. enterica. Fruits were stored at 20 °C and 4 °C. At both temperatures, Botrytis cinerea and Rhizopus stolonifer caused a decrease in S. enterica population. Treatments where the mould was inoculated (D2, D1 and D0) achieved a significant logarithmic reduction (P < 0.05) of S. enterica populations after 48 h (20 °C) and 14 days (4 °C) compared to fungal-uninoculated fruits (CK). Regarding temperature, average reductions were significantly higher at 4 °C (3.38 log10 CFU/wound) than at 20 °C (1.16 log10 CFU/wound) (P < 0.05). Average reductions comprising all treatments were 1.91 and 0.41 log10 CFU/wound for B. cinerea and R. stolonifer at 20 °C, and 3.39 and 3.37 log10 CFU/wound for B. cinerea and R. stolonifer at 4 °C. A linear log10 model was fitted in order to predict the inactivation rate (kmax, log10 CFU/h) of S. enterica. Inactivation rates were higher at 20 °C for D2 treatments than at 4 °C throughout the running time. The main inactivation rate was obtained for B. cinerea at 20 °C (0.160 ±â€¯0.027/h), which was found to have stronger inhibitory activity against S. enterica than R. stolonifer. Univariate analysis ANOVA was carried out to evaluate the effect of different external variables on the inhibition of S. enterica. Results found that single effects were significant (P < 0.05) except for the pH. The inhibitory effect caused by the action of moulds in conjunction with some environmental factors could indicate the potential interactions between strawberry fungal pathogens and S. enterica.


Assuntos
Botrytis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fragaria/microbiologia , Rhizopus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Salmonella enterica/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Frutas/microbiologia , Interações Microbianas , Temperatura
7.
Prep Biochem Biotechnol ; 50(2): 204-214, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31935152

RESUMO

Biotechnology through plant cell cultures in bioreactors is a tool that allows increasing the production of secondary metabolites of commercial interest. The hydrodynamic characterization, in addition to the transfer (OTR) and uptake (OUR) of oxygen through the dynamic method with different aeration rate, were used to see their influence on the production of biomass and saponins. The culture poisoning technique was used to determine the antifungal activity of the SC-2 and SC-3 saponins in vitro. Likewise, the shear or hydrodynamic stress of 273.6 mN/m2 were calculated based on the Reynolds Number. The oxygen supply (OTR) was always greater than the demand (OUR) for all the aeration rate evaluated. Dry weight values of 8.6 gDW/L and a concentration of 2.7 mg/L and 187.3 mg/L of the saponins SC-2 and SC-3 respectively were obtained with an air flow of 0.1 vvm. In addition, it was possible to inhibit the growth of phytopathogenic fungi in vitro by up to 93%, while in vivo it was possible to reduce the infections of strawberry seeds inoculated with phytopathogens, obtaining up to 94% of germinated seeds. This information will facilitate the rational operation of the bioreactor culture system that produces secondary metabolites.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/síntese química , Reatores Biológicos , Fragaria/microbiologia , Saponinas/síntese química , Saponinas/farmacologia , Solanum/química , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Transformada
8.
Food Microbiol ; 88: 103406, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31997762

RESUMO

This study aims to assess, by means of a full factorial design, the effect of storage temperature (10-30 °C), water activity (aw, 0.87-0.89), headspace oxygen (O2) level (0.15-0.80%) and pasteurization intensity (95 °C-105 °C/15sec) on the time to visible growth (tv, days) of Aspergillus fischerianus on acidified Potato Dextrose Agar (aPDA, pH 3.6) for up to 90 days. Moreover, in order to validate the results obtained on aPDA, 12 conditions were selected and assessed in concentrate strawberry-puree based medium. Overall, storage temperature had the greatest effect on the tv of A. fischerianus on the evaluated conditions. At 10 °C, no visible growth was observed over the 90 day incubation period, whilst visible mycelia (diameter ≥ 2 mm) were present in 37% and 89% of the conditions at 22 °C and 30 °C, respectively. Pasteurization intensity had only a minor effect on the outgrowth of A. fischerianus. Growth inhibition was observed when aw was reduced to 0.870 ± 0.005 in combination with very low headspace O2 levels (0.15% ± 0.10) in both, aPDA and concentrate strawberry-based media, regardless of the incubation temperature and heat pasteurization intensity. Overall, longer tv's were required when incubation was done at 22 °C compared to 30 °C. Ultimately, the effect of O2 (0.05 and 1%) and pasteurization intensity (95 °C and 105 °C/15sec) were evaluated on totally 22 fruit purees (un-concentrates and concentrates) over a 60 day storage period. None of the concentrates purees (aw ≤0.860) evaluated in this study supported the growth of A. fischerianus. On the other hand, A. fischerianus growth inhibition was only observed when the O2 levels were ≤0.05% on un-concentrates fruit purees (aw ≥ 0.980) stored at ambient temperature (22 °C). Combination of multiple stress factors effectively inhibited growth of A. fischerianus. In general, storage of fruit purees at low temperatures (<10 °C) or distribution in the form of concentrates can be considered as important strategies to prevent the growth of spoilage associated heat-resistant moulds.


Assuntos
Aspergillus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Conservação de Alimentos/métodos , Temperatura Alta , Oxigênio/metabolismo , Pasteurização , Água , Aspergillus/metabolismo , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Microbiologia de Alimentos/métodos , Armazenamento de Alimentos/métodos , Fragaria/microbiologia , Frutas/microbiologia , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Neosartorya/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Esporos Fúngicos/crescimento & desenvolvimento
9.
Environ Pollut ; 256: 113415, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31672346

RESUMO

Biofumigation is an effective, non-chemical method to control soil-borne pests and diseases and to maximize crop yield. We studied the responses of soil bacterial and fungal communities, the soil's nutritional state and strawberry yield, when the soil was biofumigated each year for five consecutive years using fresh chicken manure (BioFum). BioFum significantly increased the soil's NH4+-N, NO3--N, available P and K and organic matter. Fusarium spp. and Phytophthora spp. which are known to cause plant disease, were significantly decreased after BioFum. In addition, Biofum increased the soil's temperature, enhanced chlorophyll levels in the leaves of strawberry plants, and the soluble sugar and ascorbic acid content in strawberry fruit. We used high-throughput gene sequencing to monitor changes in the soil's bacterial and fungal communities. Although BioFum significantly decreased the diversity of these communities, it increased the relative abundance of some biological control agents in the phylum Actinobacteria and the genera Pseudomonas, Bacillus and Chaetomium. An increase in these biological control agents would reduce the incidence of soil-borne pathogens and plant disease. Although strawberry marketable yield using BioFum was higher in the first three years, the decline in the final two years could be due to the accumulation of P and K which may have delayed flowering and fruiting. Methods to overcome yield losses using BioFum need to be developed in the future. Our research, however, showed that BioFum enhanced soil fertility, reduced the presence of soil pathogens, increased the relative abundance of beneficial bacteria and fungi and improved strawberry quality. Unlike chemical soil treatments that can cause pest and disease resistance when used continuously over many years, our multi-year research program on BioFum showed that this treatment provided significant benefits to the soil, plant and strawberry fruit.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Agentes de Controle Biológico , Fragaria/microbiologia , Microbiologia do Solo , Bactérias/genética , Fungos/genética , Fusarium , Esterco , Micobioma , Phytophthora , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Solo
10.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 314: 108392, 2020 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31698282

RESUMO

Strawberry production and exports have been increasing in Spain in recent decades. However, little information is available about their microbiological quality. Due to the growing concern about the microbial safety of these fruits, the objective of this investigation was to study the microbiological quality and the prevalence of the main foodborne pathogens on strawberries sold in Spain. Fresh (n = 152) and frozen (n = 31) samples were obtained from marketplaces and fields in 2017 and 2018. The samples were assayed for total aerobic mesophilic microorganisms (TAM), moulds and yeasts (M&Y), total coliforms (TC), Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes as well as Norovirus (NoV) GI and GII. The microbiological counts ranged from <1.70 (detection limit, dl) - 5.89 log10 CFU/g (mean 3.78 log10 CFU/g) for TAM; 2.10-5.86 log10 CFU/g (mean 3.80 log10 CFU/g) for M&Y; and <0.70 (dl) - 4.91 log10 CFU/g (mean 2.15 log10 CFU/g) for TC in fresh strawberries. In frozen strawberries, the counts were <1.70 (dl) - 3.66 log10 CFU/g (mean 2.30 log10 CFU/g) for TAM; <1.70 (dl) - 2.76 log10 CFU/g (mean 1.82 log10 CFU/g) for M&Y; and <0.70(dl) - 1.74 log10 CFU/g (mean 0.77 log10 CFU/g) for TC. All the samples in this study tested negative for Salmonella spp., L. monocytogenes. E. coli and NoV GI and GII genome. A global overview of all the data was executed using Principal Component Analysis (PCA), and the results showed that the scores and loadings according to principal components 1 (PC1) and 2 (PC2) accounted for 75.9% of the total variance, allowing a distinction between fresh and frozen samples. The presence of moulds was significantly higher in the supermarket samples whereas the presence of total coliforms was significantly higher in the field samples (p < 0.05). Although pathogenic microorganisms were not found, preventative measures and prerequisites in the strawberry production chain must be considered in order to avoid possible foodborne diseases related to the microbiological quality of the fruit.


Assuntos
Microbiologia de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Fragaria/microbiologia , Fragaria/virologia , Alimentos Congelados , Frutas , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Alimentos Congelados/microbiologia , Alimentos Congelados/virologia , Frutas/microbiologia , Frutas/virologia , Fungos/isolamento & purificação , Norovirus/genética , Norovirus/isolamento & purificação , Espanha
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31817316

RESUMO

This study quantified the association of rodent fruit damage and the microbiological quality of irrigation water on the risk of microbiological contamination of strawberries collected from 18 U-pick farms across five different districts in the Guangzhou metropolitan region of southern China. Fifty-four composite strawberries samples, with or without evidence of rodent or avian foraging damage (i.e., bitten), along with 16 irrigation water samples, were collected during the spring of 2014 and winter of 2015 from our cohort of 18 farms. Composite strawberry samples and irrigation water were analyzed for total coliforms, E. coli, Salmonella, E. coli O157, Giardia, and Cryptosporidium. Total coliforms and E. coli were detected in 100% and ~90% of irrigation water samples, respectively. In contrast, Cryptosporidium was detected in only two water samples, while Salmonella, E. coli O157, and Giardia were not detected in any water samples. Strawberries with signs of being bitten by wildlife had significantly higher concentrations of total coliforms and E. coli, compared to strawberries with no physical evidence of rodent damage (p < 0.001). Similarly, Cryptosporidium was detected in 7/18 (39%) of bitten, 4/18 (22%) of edge, and 5/18 (28%) of central strawberry samples, respectively. Concentration of E. coli on strawberries (p < 0.001), air temperature (p = 0.025), and presence of Cryptosporidium in irrigation water (p < 0.001) were all associated with the risk of Cryptosporidium contamination on strawberries. Salmonella and Giardia were detected in <4% strawberry samples and E. coli O157 was not detected in any samples. These results indicate the potential food safety and public health risks of consuming unwashed strawberries from U-pick farms, and the need for improved rodent biosecurity of U-pick strawberry fields and enhanced microbiological quality of irrigation water used at these facilities.


Assuntos
Irrigação Agrícola/normas , Fazendas , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Fragaria/microbiologia , Abastecimento de Água/normas , Animais , Aves , China , Cryptosporidium/isolamento & purificação , Enterobacteriaceae/isolamento & purificação , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Giardia/isolamento & purificação , Roedores
12.
Food Funct ; 10(12): 7767-7781, 2019 Dec 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31750489

RESUMO

Strawberries are vulnerable to physical injuries and microbial invasion. To explore if beneficial lactic acid bacteria can improve the shelf life and edible quality of postharvest strawberry fruits, the effects of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus (ital.) F17 (F17) and Leuconostoc lactis (ital.) H52 (H52) inoculation on the strawberry microbial community structure and saleable characteristics were examined by bacterial 16S rRNA and fungal ITS sequencing techniques. Lactobacillus (ital.) F17 and Leuconostoc lactis (ital.) H52 isolated from the traditional fermented yak milk in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau were used as the potential probiotic inocula. Samples from treated strawberries stored at 25 °C for 0, 12, 24, 48, and 72 hours were analyzed for their pH, weight loss percentage, decay percentage, total soluble solid content (SSC) and microbial counts, and for microbiome community diversity and canonical correspondence analysis. The results showed that F17 and H52 did not only significantly reduce the weight loss and decay percentage of strawberry fruits, but also delayed the decrease of the total SSC and pH (P < 0.05). In addition, F17 and H52 significantly inhibited the growth and colonization of aerobic mesophilic bacteria, yeast, mold and coliform bacteria. In particular, by comparing the microbiota composition of the samples, F17 significantly inhibited Pantoea, Mycospherella, unclassified_Pleosporales, Aureobasidium and Phoma at the genus level, whereas H52 inhibited Bacillus, Streptophyta, Mycospherella, Aureobasidium and Phoma. Moreover, analysis of alpha and beta diversity revealed that F17 and H52 had a significantly greater inhibitory effect on bacterial species compared to fungi. The results of canonical correspondence analysis revealed that the total SSC and pH were positively correlated with bacteria, whereas the decay percentage, weight loss percentage and total SSC were positively associated with fungi. Additionally, Podosphaera, Hanseniaspora, Botrytis and unclassified_Pleosporales were positively correlated with strawberry fruit decay and weight loss percentage. As a general result, Lactobacillus F17 and Leuconostoc lactis H52 have the potential to promote biological preservation, which is economically important to reduce the loss due to strawberry spoilage.


Assuntos
Conservação de Alimentos/métodos , Fragaria/microbiologia , Frutas/microbiologia , Lactobacillus delbrueckii/fisiologia , Leuconostoc/fisiologia , Microbiota , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Bovinos , Armazenamento de Alimentos , Fragaria/química , Fragaria/efeitos dos fármacos , Frutas/química , Frutas/efeitos dos fármacos , Fungos/classificação , Fungos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fungos/genética , Fungos/isolamento & purificação , Leite/microbiologia , Probióticos/farmacologia
13.
BMC Genomics ; 20(1): 802, 2019 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31684862

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Macrophomina phaseolina is a fungal plant pathogen with a broad host range, but one genotype was shown to exhibit host preference/specificity on strawberry. This pathogen lacked a high-quality genome assembly and annotation, and little was known about genomic differences among isolates from different hosts. RESULTS: We used PacBio sequencing and Hi-C scaffolding to provide nearly complete genome assemblies for M. phaseolina isolates representing the strawberry-specific genotype and another genotype recovered from alfalfa. The strawberry isolate had 59 contigs/scaffolds with an N50 of 4.3 Mb. The isolate from alfalfa had an N50 of 5.0 Mb and 14 nuclear contigs with half including telomeres. Both genomes were annotated with MAKER using transcript evidence generated in this study with over 13,000 protein-coding genes predicted. Unique groups of genes for each isolate were identified when compared to closely related fungal species. Structural comparisons between the isolates reveal large-scale rearrangements including chromosomal inversions and translocations. To include isolates representing a range of pathogen genotypes, an additional 30 isolates were sequenced with Illumina, assembled, and compared to the strawberry genotype assembly. Within the limits of comparing Illumina and PacBio assemblies, no conserved structural rearrangements were identified among the isolates from the strawberry genotype compared to those from other hosts, but some candidate genes were identified that were largely present in isolates of the strawberry genotype and absent in other genotypes. CONCLUSIONS: High-quality reference genomes of M. phaseolina have allowed for the identification of structural changes associated with a genotype that has a host preference toward strawberry and will enable future comparative genomics studies. Having more complete assemblies allows for structural rearrangements to be more fully assessed and ensures a greater representation of all the genes. Work with Illumina data from additional isolates suggests that some genes are predominately present in isolates of the strawberry genotype, but additional work is needed to confirm the role of these genes in pathogenesis. Additional work is also needed to complete the scaffolding of smaller contigs identified in the strawberry genotype assembly and to determine if unique genes in the strawberry genotype play a role in pathogenicity.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos/genética , Ascomicetos/fisiologia , Fragaria/microbiologia , Genômica , Especificidade de Hospedeiro/genética , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Animais , Ascomicetos/isolamento & purificação , Rearranjo Gênico , Camundongos , Família Multigênica/genética
14.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4802, 2019 10 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31641114

RESUMO

Microbes can establish mutualistic interactions with plants and insects. Here we track the movement of an endophytic strain of Streptomyces bacteria throughout a managed strawberry ecosystem. We show that a Streptomyces isolate found in the rhizosphere and on flowers protects both the plant and pollinating honeybees from pathogens (phytopathogenic fungus Botrytis cinerea and pathogenic bacteria, respectively). The pollinators can transfer the Streptomyces bacteria among flowers and plants, and Streptomyces can move into the plant vascular bundle from the flowers and from the rhizosphere. Our results present a tripartite mutualism between Streptomyces, plant and pollinator partners.


Assuntos
Abelhas/fisiologia , Fragaria/fisiologia , Streptomyces/fisiologia , Animais , Botrytis/patogenicidade , Flores , Fragaria/microbiologia , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Pólen , Polinização , RNA Ribossômico 16S , República da Coreia , Esporos Fúngicos , Streptomyces/genética , Simbiose
15.
Environ Microbiol ; 21(12): 4808-4821, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31608584

RESUMO

The host plant is often the main variable explaining population structure in fungal plant pathogens, because specialization contributes to reduce gene flow between populations associated with different hosts. Previous population genetic analysis revealed that French populations of the grey mould pathogen Botrytis cinerea were structured by hosts tomato and grapevine, suggesting host specialization in this highly polyphagous pathogen. However, these findings raised questions about the magnitude of this specialization and the possibility of specialization to other hosts. Here we report specialization of B. cinerea populations to tomato and grapevine hosts but not to other tested plants. Population genetic analysis revealed two pathogen clusters associated with tomato and grapevine, while the other clusters co-occurred on hydrangea, strawberry and bramble. Measurements of quantitative pathogenicity were consistent with host specialization of populations found on tomato, and to a lesser extent, populations found on grapevine. Pathogen populations from hydrangea and strawberry appeared to be generalist, while populations from bramble may be weakly specialized. Our results suggest that the polyphagous B. cinerea is more accurately described as a collection of generalist and specialist individuals in populations. This work opens new perspectives for grey mould management, while suggesting spatial optimization of crop organization within agricultural landscapes.


Assuntos
Botrytis/fisiologia , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Botrytis/genética , Fragaria/microbiologia , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Lycopersicon esculentum/microbiologia , Vitis/microbiologia
16.
PLoS One ; 14(9): e0222829, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31536602

RESUMO

Strawberry powdery mildew (Podosphaera aphanis Wallr.) is a pathogen which infects the leaves, fruit, stolon and flowers of the cultivated strawberry (Fragaria ×ananassa), causing major yield losses, primarily through unmarketable fruit. The primary commercial control of the disease is the application of fungicidal sprays. However, as the use of key active ingredients of commercial fungicides is becoming increasingly restricted, interest in developing novel strawberry cultivars exhibiting resistance to the pathogen is growing rapidly. In this study, a mapping population derived from a cross between two commercial strawberry cultivars ('Sonata' and 'Babette') was genotyped with single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers from the Axiom iStraw90k genotyping array and phenotyped for powdery mildew susceptibility in both glasshouse and field environments. Three distinct, significant QTLs for powdery mildew resistance were identified across the two experiments. Through comparison with previous studies and scrutiny of the F. vesca genome sequence, candidate genes underlying the genetic control of this trait were identified.


Assuntos
Fragaria/genética , Frutas/genética , Genes de Plantas/genética , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Ascomicetos/fisiologia , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Cruzamentos Genéticos , Resistência à Doença/genética , Fragaria/classificação , Fragaria/microbiologia , Frutas/microbiologia , Genoma de Planta/genética , Genótipo , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Fenótipo , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Especificidade da Espécie
17.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 309: 108311, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31499266

RESUMO

Botrytis cinerea causes postharvest spoilage in important crops such as strawberry and other berries. Pulsed light (PL) treatment could be an environmentally friendly postharvest alternative to synthetic fungicides in berries. Cultivability, physiological state, ultrastructure of Botrytis cinerea suspended in peptone water and irradiated with PL (fluence = 1.2 to 47.8 J/cm2) were investigated by using conventional plate count technique, flow cytometry analysis (FCM) and transmission electron microscopy. In addition, PL effect on B. cinerea development in artificially contaminated strawberries throughout storage at (5 ±â€¯1) °C was evaluated. PL reduced fungus' ability to form colonies on agarized culture media. Survival curve fitted with the Weibullian model evidenced a wide distribution of conidia sensitivity to PL. FCM showed that most of irradiated conidia entered in a viable non-culturable state, although a subpopulation without esterase activity and compromised membranes and a subpopulation with active esterase and intact membranes were also detected. PL attacked multiple targets in B. cinerea. Ultrastructural changes varied with the dose and within the conidia population, supporting FCM results. Damage included plasmalemma detachment from cell wall, cytoplasm collapse, and vacuolization of cytoplasm, disruption of cell wall and plasmalemma with massive loss of cytoplasm and/or disruption of organelles. In strawberries artificially contaminated with B. cinerea, a 2-day delay on the onset of the infection and a lower incidence in PL-treated strawberries (11.9 and 23.9 J/cm2) compared to control (16-20%) up to 10 days of cold storage was observed. Results indicated that PL significantly reduces B. cinerea growth in peptone water and in inoculated strawberries. However, other preservation factor(s) in combination would be needed to increase PL action for a better control of this fungus.


Assuntos
Botrytis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Botrytis/efeitos da radiação , Fragaria/microbiologia , Luz , Doenças das Plantas/terapia , Frutas/microbiologia , Fungicidas Industriais/farmacologia , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Esporos Fúngicos/efeitos dos fármacos
18.
Microbiol Res ; 228: 126327, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31499402

RESUMO

The aim of this work was to investigate the early detection of anthracnose and soft rot diseases in cold stored strawberry fruit by evaluating the CO2 and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) released by the fungi Colletotrichum fragariae and Rhizopus stolonifer. Strawberries were stored at 5, 10 and 21 °C (control group) and the VOCs and CO2 production of inoculated and non-inoculated strawberries were followed by gas chromatography. To evaluate and estimate the growth of both fungi, the CO2 data were fitted to the Gompertz model. Data of the VOCs released at the end of the fungal growth were analyzed using principal components analysis (PCA) to discriminate between infected and non-infected strawberries. The results showed that fungal growth was affected by temperature and C. fragariae had a maximum growth after 14.6 h at 5 °C and R. stolonifer at 21 °C after 45.2 h. On the other hand, through VOCs released by C. fragariae and R. stolonifer and PCA, four groups were obtained: a) strawberry infected with C. fragariae, stored at 10 °C, b) strawberry infected with R. stolonifer, stored at 21 °C, c) control group kept at 10 °C and, d) strawberry infected with C. fragariae and control group (5 and 21 °C), and strawberry infected with R. stolonifer at 5 and 10 °C. In conclusion, CO2 and VOCs released by C. fragariae and R. stolonifer on strawberries could infer the presence of anthracnose and soft rot during storage of the fruit at low temperature.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono/metabolismo , Temperatura Baixa , Colletotrichum/metabolismo , Fragaria/microbiologia , Frutas/microbiologia , Rhizopus/metabolismo , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/metabolismo , Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Armazenamento de Alimentos , Análise Multivariada , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Rhizopus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/antagonistas & inibidores
19.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 309: 108327, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31493567

RESUMO

The apparent international rise in foodborne virus outbreaks attributed to fresh produce and the increasing importance of fresh produce in the Australian diet has led to the requirement to gather information to inform the development of risk management strategies. A prevalence survey for norovirus (NoV) and hepatitis A virus (HAV) in fresh Australian produce (leafy greens, strawberries and blueberries) at retail was undertaken during 2013-2014 and data used to develop a risk profile. The prevalence of HAV in berries and leafy greens was estimated to be <2%, with no virus detected in produce during the yearlong survey. The prevalence of NoV in fresh strawberries and blueberries was also estimated to be <2% with no virus detected in berries, whilst for leafy greens the NoV prevalence was 2.2%. Prevalence of a bacterial hygiene indicator, Escherichia coli, was also investigated and found to range from <1% in berries to 10.7% in leafy greens. None of the NoV positive leafy green samples tested positive for E. coli, indicating it is a poor indicator for viral risk. The risk was evaluated using standard codex procedures and the Risk Ranger tool. Taking all data into account, including the hazard dose and severity, probability of exposure, probability of infective dose and available epidemiological data, the risk of HAV and NoV foodborne illness associated with fresh Australian berries (strawberries and blueberries) sold as packaged product was deemed to be low. The risk of foodborne illness from HAV associated with leafy greens was also deemed to be low, but higher than that for fresh berries, due mainly to the potential for recontamination post-processing if sold loose. The risk of foodborne illness from NoV associated with leafy greens was deemed to be low/moderate. Despite the prevalence of NoV in leafy greens being low and the inability to discriminate between infective and non-infective virus using PCR based methodologies, the fact that NoV was detected resulted in a higher risk associated with this pathogen-product pairing; compounded by the higher prevalence of NoV within the community compared to HAV, and the potential for leafy greens to become contaminated following processing if sold loose.


Assuntos
Mirtilos Azuis (Planta)/microbiologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/epidemiologia , Fragaria/microbiologia , Frutas/virologia , Vírus da Hepatite A/isolamento & purificação , Norovirus/isolamento & purificação , Austrália/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Escherichia coli/isolamento & purificação , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/microbiologia , Humanos , Folhas de Planta/microbiologia , Probabilidade
20.
Plant Dis ; 103(10): 2541-2547, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31432772

RESUMO

To prevent the spread of anthracnose in strawberry plants and characterize the metabolic changes occurring during plant-pathogen interactions, we developed a method for the early diagnosis of disease based on an analysis of the metabolome by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. An examination of the metabolic profile revealed 189 and 202 total ion chromatogram peaks for the control and inoculated plants, respectively. A partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) model was conducted for the reliable and accurate discrimination between healthy and diseased strawberry plants, even in the absence of disease symptoms (e.g., early stages of infection). ANOVA (analysis of variance) and orthogonal partial least squares analysis (OPLS) identified 20 metabolites as tentative biomarkers of Colletotrichum theobromicola infection (e.g., citric acid, d-xylose, erythrose, galactose, gallic acid, malic acid, methyl α-galactopyranoside, phosphate, and shikimic acid). At least some of these potential biomarkers may be applicable for the early diagnosis of anthracnose in strawberry plants. Moreover, these metabolites may be useful for characterizing pathogen infections and plant defense responses. This study confirms the utility of metabolomics research for developing diagnostic tools and clarifying the mechanism underlying plant-pathogen interactions. Furthermore, the data presented herein may be relevant for developing new methods for preventing anthracnose in strawberry seedlings cultivated under field conditions.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores , Colletotrichum , Fragaria , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Metabolômica , Biomarcadores/análise , Colletotrichum/fisiologia , Fragaria/microbiologia
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA